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There are different theories about the origin of life on the earth.

Theory of special creation

According to this theory, the life was created by super natural power of the god. This theory is based on religious faith. According to Hindu Mythology, the god of creation is Brahma. He created universe and human beings. According to Christian thought the god created universe, earth, plants, animals, and man within seven days.

Theory of spontaneous generation

According to this theory, the life originates spontaneously from the non-living things. or e!ample the frog, toad, sna"e originated from mud. The insects and flies originated from the fruit #uices and the microorganisms originated from air and water.

Theory of Biogenesis
According to this theory, the life originated from pree!isting life but not spontaneously. $edi and %ouis &asteur prove this rancis

Reddi's Experiment (1688 AD

He was an 'talian biologist. He "ept dead fish, sna"e, and meat in wide mouthed flas"s and left them opened. He again placed same things in other flas"s and sealed the mouth. He observed little white worms and larvae in opened flas"s but absent in sealed flas"s. He concluded that the life can arise from pre-e!isting life only, means some pree!isting life went in open-mouthed flas"s then worms and larvae were developed in open mouthed flas".

!ouis "asteur's Experiment (186# AD

He was rench microbiologist. He conducted an e!periment to prove theory of biogenesis. He poured nutrient solution into the flas". He bent the nec" of the flas" in the shape of ( using heat. The li)uid was boiled for several minutes so that the bacteria were either "illed or driven out of flas". The solution was then cooled. The dust particles remained trapped at the bend of the tube. The solution remained sterile for months. *hen the nec" was bro"en and flas" was tilted, li)uid came in contact with dust or microorganisms. Bacterial colonies or moulds appeared in the flas" within a few days.

Biochemical Theory ($odern Theory

The scientific theory proposed by A.I. Oparin in 1923 and J.B.S. Hal Dane in +,-. is called biochemical theory or modern theory or /parine and Haldane0s Theory. According to this theory, the life originated through a series of bio chemical reactions.

%rigin of earth
About 1233 million years ago, the earth originated. The earth was a molten fireball having temperature of about 1333 to .333 4C. The earth began to cool down and the volume decreased. 5uring the process, the heavier elements settled towards the centre forming the crust of the earth and the lighter elements remained on the outer surface-forming atmosphere. 'n the atmosphere, there were free atoms li"e C, H, /, 6 etc. The free atoms combined forming molecules li"e / -, 6-, and H-. /7/88.. /9 67688.. 69 H7H88... H-

%rigin of &norganic $olecules

Then these molecules started to combine to form inorganic molecules. H-7/-8888 H-/ H-76-8888 6H: C7/-8888.. C/9C/C7H-8888.. CH1

%rigin of 'imple %rganic $olecules

The inorganic molecules combined to form simple organic molecules. H-/ 7 CH188888. (ugar9 atty Acid9;lycerol

H-/76H:7CH1888. Amino Acid96itrogen Base

%rigin of (omplex %rganic $olecules

The organic molecules again combined together to form comple! molecules (ugar 7 (ugar8888888888888 (tarch9;lycogen9Cellulose etc. atty acid 7 ;lycerol8888888888 ats Amino Acid 7Amino Acid88888888 &rotein 6itrogen Base 7 (ugar 7 &hosphoric Acid88 6ucleotides0 6ucleotide 7 6ucleotide 888888888 6ucleic Acid <56A9$6A= /n further cooling water vapor condensed into rain and thunderstorm occurred. >? rays and electric discharge enhanced these reactions. The nucleic acid combined with protein and nucleoprotein particle Fig: Miller and Urey's Apparatus formed. 't was self-replicating particle and was first living particle 0the virus0.

%rigin of "rimiti)e (ell

The comple! organic molecules aggregated together forming colloidal mass called coacer)ate. The nucleic acid controlled the activities of coacervate and the fats formed a layer around it. This structure is called Eo*iont. 't was first cell li"e structure. The eobiont absorbed food materials from the surrounding. 't was heterotroph, pro"aryotic cell, and present day bacteria.

%rigin of +eterotrophs and Autotrophs

%ater on, some of the eobiont became able to ma"e food by using chemical energy. (o they became chemoautotroph. C/-7H-(888888.. C2H+-/2 7 H-/ 7 ( (ome other eobionts developed chlorophyll molecules, which trapped solar energy to manufacture food fromChlorophylls C/- and H-/. They became photoautotroph. C/-7H-(888888.. C2H+-/2 7 H-/ 7 /'n this way, photosynthetic organisms were originated on the earth. /n other hand the heterotrophs modified and different types of animals evolved. They started to consume autotrophs and used /- to brea" down food material to release energy.

$&!!ER A,D -RE.'' E/"ER&$E,T

To prove /parin and Haldance biochemical theory of origin of life Miller and >rey in +,@conducted an e!periment. They designed an apparatus containing glass tube, flas", and gas chamber. They "ept 6H:, CH1, H-, C/ in gas chamber and water is boiled in the flas" to produce water vapor. The energy was supplied by heating and by electric spar"s. The condenser was used to cool reaction. They run the e!periment for a wee". inally, they analyAed the products formed within the tube. They found different organic compounds li"e fatty acid, amino acid, sugar, glycerol etc in the tube. Then they proved /parin and Haldance0s theory of origin of life through a series of chemical reaction among the inorganic gases under the influence of temperature, electric discharges, and cooling.

The orderly and gradual change in ob#ect from one form to another form is called evolution. The orderly and gradual change in living things is organic evolution li"e plant evolution and animal evolution. The orderly and gradual change in non-living things is called inorganic evolution li"e the evolution of earth and stars.

Evolution of Man

E)olution of Early $ammal

About -+3 million years ago, the early mammal evolved from the reptiles. They were small rat li"e animals having long snout. The 5inosaurs were also evolved from it.
E)olution of "rimates

About 2@ million years ago, primates evolved from the early mammal. The primates have long snout long and busy tail. 't was insectivorous. 't was li"e present day tree shrew. At that, time dinosaurs were e!tinct.
E)olution of Anthropoid Ape

About :2 million years ago anthropoid ape evolved from primates. They were ancestors of mon"ey, ape, and man. rom the primates new world mon"ey diverged about @3 million years ago. The nose of the new world mon"ey0s nose was very flat, nostrils were directed upward, and tail is long and prehensile.
E)olution of +ominid

About -1 million years ago, the hominid evolved from anthropoid ape. The hominid was ancestors of man and ape. About -@ to :3 million years ago from the anthropoid ape old world mon"ey diverged. The old world mon"ey0s nose is raised, the nostrils directed downward and the tail is short and non-prehensile.
E)olution of Ramapithecus and 'i)apithecus (the earliest ancestor of man

About +3-+1 million years ago, $amapithacus and (ivapithecus evolved from the hominid. They were earliest ancestors of man. The $amapithecus was found in Asia and Africa. 'ts tooth was found in Butwal of 6epal. The (ivapithecus was found in Asia. About 1-+3 million years ago Apes diverged from the hominid. They include ChimpanAee, ;orilla, /rangutan, and ;ibbon.
E)olution of Australopithecus

About @ million years ago, the Australopithecus was evolved from the $amapithecus and (ivapithecus. They were first human li"e animal. Their brain capacity was 133 B 233 cc. 't could wal" upright and about : B @ ft tall and 13 B @3 Cg in weight. The Australopithecus has two species. They are A. Africans and A. robustus.
E)olution of Homo erectus

About +.D million years ago, Homo erectus evolved from A. africanus. The Homo erectus includes Eava man found in 5ubai and &ec"ing Man found in China. The Eava man0s cranial capacity was ,33 cc. 't was @ ft tall and used fire, tools. The locomotion was bipedal. The chin was absent. The &e"ing man0s cranial capacity was +3D@ cc. 't was supposed that Homo erectus was evolved from Homo habilis about - million years ago and the Homo habilis was evolved form A. Africanus. The Homo habilis cranial capacity was D33 cc. 't was about 1-@ feet tall, bipedal, the chin was absent.
E)olution of the (ro1$agnon man

About :133 years ago, the Cro-Magnon man evolved from Homo erectus. The Cro-Magnon man was li"e modern man. Their cranial capacity was +233 cc. They were @ ft tall, have prominent chin, broad or flat forehead, raised nose, superior intelligence. They made weapons, lived in caves and he was artist.
E)olution of ,eanderthal man

About D3-13 thousand years ago, The 6eanderthal man Homo sapiens neanderthalensis diverged from Homo erectus. Their cranial capacity was +1@3 cc. They resemble to modern man. They were @ ft tall, chin was absent, they used tools for hunting used animal hides as clothes, capable of communicating, and they made tradition to bury dead bodies.
E)olution of $odern man

The modern man <Homo sapiens= evolved about +3333 years ago from the Cro-Magnon man. The modern man has changed from cave dwelling hunting life to the crop raising life. 't started cultivated plants, domesticated animals, and brought about the Cultural $evolution with its superior intelligence.

Differences *et2een Ape and $an

Ape The apes have semi erect body The vertebral column is curved The bipedal locomotion need support of forelimb The fore limb is longer than hind limb The thumb does not e!tend up to the base of fore finger. They have flat nose Canine incisor teeth are longer and thic"er The chin is absent The eye brow ridges are heavy and prominent They have short nec" embedded in shoulder The body is covered with hairs +omology of $an (imilarities in chromosome number of apes and man is called homology. The chromosomes number of apes is 1.. The chromosome number of man is 12. (imilar amount of 56A. Banding pattern of chromosome is similar. Chromosome number :, 2 have similar banding pattern Banding pattern means arrangement of 56A in chromosome. T+E E0&DE,(E' %3 E0%!-T&%, $an The man has erect body ?ertebral column is straight The bipedal locomotion do not need support of fore limb The fore limb is shorter than the hind limb The thumb e!tends up to the base of fore finger They have raised nose The canine and incisor teeth are shorter The chin is prominent The Fye brow ridges are not so prominent They have long nec" ewer amounts of hairs are present on the body.

To convince about the truth of evolution there are several evidences, which support the validity of evolution (A 'TR-(T-RA! A,D A,AT%$&(A! E0&DE,(E' The types of organs li"e homologous organs, analogous organ and vestigial organs provide the evidences about structure. +omologous organ The organs, which are similar in structures and origin, called homologous organ. or e.g. human hand, Birds wing, bats wing, Horse0s front foot are homologous organ. Analogous %rgan The organs, which are not similar in structure and origin but function is same are called analogous organ. or e.g. Bird0s wing and insect0s wing, ishes eye and mollus"0s eye The analogous organs are developed due to similar habitat in evolutionary process. 0estigial %rgan The useless and reduced organ are called vestigial organs are called vestigial organ. 'n human body, there are about -33 types of vestigial organ. or eg. 6ictitating membrane, ?ermiform appendi!, Canine

teeth, Caudal ?ertebrae, (ome sna"es have vestige of limbs, ishes lived in dar" caves have reduced eyes. (B A,AT%$&(A! E0&DE,(E' The arrangement of different types of system li"e blood vessels, alimentary canal, s"eletal system, e!cretory system etc is similar in vertebrates. Thus, the anatomy suggests in favor of organic evolution showing that the anatomical similarities become more and more comple! progressively as one proceeds from lower animals to higher animals. All the varieties of animals have inherited the anatomical similarities from a common ancestor. (( "A!E%,T%!%4&(A! E0&DE,(E' The paleontology deals with the study of fossils thus pale ontological evidences are the evidences of evolution from the fossil record suggesting that the evolution occur from simple form to the comple! form. a) Archaeopteryx The most favorable evidence, which prove pale ontological evidence, is a "ind of fossil bird named Archaeopter !. This provides connecting lin" between reptiles and birds suggesting that the birds might have been evolved from reptiles. 't represented the characteristics of both a bird and the reptile. 't possessed following characters 't had a bea" li"e a bird but the bea" contained teeth li"e reptiles. 'ts forelimbs were modified into wings li"e birds but claws on its wing li"e reptiles. 't had feathers li"e birds but also had scales li"e reptiles. 't had feathery tail li"e birds but had vertebrae li"e reptiles. Therefore, it is proved that the birds were evolved from reptiles and therefore the birds are called glorified reptiles. * +orse's "hylogeny The evolutionary history of horse is termed as horse0s phylogeny. The first horse <Fohippus= was small. The food had four toes. The time passed on and the modern horse is evolved named "#uus having one toe and the siAe is large and high. The ma#or modifications occur in the course of evolution of modern horse are 'ncrease in the body siAe. 'ncrease of length and mobility of nec". $eduction in the number of toes from four to one. (pecialiAation of teeth for grinding grass. usion of metatarsals and metacarpals. (D "+.'&%!%&(A! A,D B&%(+E$&(A! E0&DE,(E'

(i 'imilarity in chemical composition

'n all the living forms four ma#or elements li"e C, H, /, 6 form organic compounds. 'n all the living organisms C, H, / combine to form carbohydrates and fats and with 6 to form proteins. The protoplasm in all living organism have the same composition. The basic unit of life is cell. Therefore, from above it can be concluded that living organisms might have evolved from a common ancestor.

(ii "recipitation test ('erological Test

The precipitations tests are used to determine and confirm the natural relationship due to the similarity of blood proteins. The degree of similarity between plasma proteins of various animals can be tested by the antigen-antibody techni)ue. *hen the blood of man is mi!ed with the blood of mon"ey cat and dog, it gives high precipitation and when it is mi!ed with blood of orangutan, it gives less precipitation. *hen the blood of dog and cat is mi!ed together, it gives less precipitation. 't proves that the cat and dog are closely related than the man and the man is closely related with the orangutan than cat and dog.

(iii En5ymes and hormones

'n large group of animals, there are similar types of enAymes and hormones are available. or e!ample, the hormone li"e insulin and Thyro!in are similar and produced by all the vertebrates. The enAymes li"e lipase, amylase, trypsin are similar and produced by all the vertebrates. 't suggests that they have common ancestry. (E 4E,ET&( E0&DE,(E' ;enetic deals with the heredity and variation of animals and plants. The 56A and $6A are called nucleic acids having genetic units found from virus to mammals with similar composition. The 56A has a double helical structure and is composed of similar type of nucleotides arranged in a linear fashion. (imilarly, $6A is single stranded. The principles of genetic and its application are also )uite similar in all organisms. The small segment of 56A represents gene in all the living life. This evidence also proves that the similarity among all the living organisms.