GEF/EEE 381B Lab 1: EM Polarization & Propagation

Aim The goal of this lab will be to s pple!ent the !aterial fro! "lass on ele"tro!agneti" wa#e propagation an$ fiel$ patterns% &$entifi"ation of linear' ellipti"al an$ "ir" lar polarization will be presente$ in the first portion of the lab% The se"on$ portion of the lab will be se$ to #is alize antenna propagation an$ fiel$ patterns of two "o!!on antenna t(pes: the thin $ipole an$ the heli"al antenna% Finall( sing the ele"tri"all( thin $ipole' linear antenna arra(s will be st $ie$% &nsight into the $esign "hara"teristi"s will be obtaine$ thro gh pert rbation of the )e( $esign #ariables an$ st $( of their effe"ts%

en"ies' an$ atten ation% *hereas water wa#es' li)e so n$' are "reate$ with the ph(si"al "o!pression of a !e$i !' ele"tro!agneti" wa#es are "reate$ with "hanging le#els of energ(% *e are fa!iliar with how to "reate these press re wa#es' b t how are energ( wa#es "reate$/ Definition: -n antenna is an( $e#i"e that "an "hange ele"tri"al signals into ele"tro!agneti" wa#es% +o the answer is an antenna% &n the late 18001s' a s"ientist b( the na!e of Ma2well' se$ fo r $ifferential e. others are absorbe$ b( o r s)in% -n ele"tro!agneti" wa#e is the trans!ission of energ( in a perio$i" "("le "alle$ a wa#e% These wa#es are "on"ept all( si!ilar to the wa#es we see in a pool' with a!plit $es' fre. ations states that' a "hange in " rrent will "reate an ele"tro!agneti" wa#e an$ #isa #ersa% Going ba") to the antenna' we )now that b( fee$ing an antenna alternating " rrent' s rfa"e " rrents are "reate$ on the antenna% These " rrents will in t rn generate an ele"tro!agneti" fiel$% +o there we ha#e it4 &t follows fro! this that an antenna "an a"t as both a re"ei#er an$ trans!itter of EM wa#es' a "on$ition "alle$ antenna re"ipro"it(% Losses seen in an antenna are $ire"tl( relate$ to the " rrent flow an$ propagation of the EM wa#e% +o if the s rfa"e on an antenna is ro gh' this will inhibit " rrent flow on the antenna an$ "reate losses% 5igh heat $istorts the " rrent on an antenna an$ too "reates losses% 6an (o thin) of other possible so r"es of losses/ 5ow abo t sharp "hanges to an antenna shape/ These "hanges "an also inhibit " rrent flow an$ $istort the signal% -nother i!portant "on"ept al $ifferen"e between the wa#es in a pool an$ EM wa#es is the abilit( for EM wa#es to ta)e a polarization% -s EM wa#es propagate thro gh three $i!ensional spa"e' the orientation at whi"h the( $o so is i!portant% 7sing the "on#entional 6artesian "oor$inate planes' 82' (' z9' "o!!onl( the z:a2is is reser#e$ for the $ire"tion of propagation% This lea#es a signal to os"illate in either the 2 or ( a2is' or both% -s EM wa#es are la n"he$ fro! the antenna into spa"e' the fiel$ the( ill !inate with energ( "an ta)e on !an( shapes or fiel$ patterns% These patterns are a pro$ "t of the antenna shape' size an$ !aterial' an$ help the antenna la n"h EM wa#es into a $esire$ $ire"tion% &t is often har$ to #is alize the 3. This is ill strate$ below' in Fig re 1% 1 . fiel$ pattern of an antenna' an$ so t(pi"all( the( are represente$ b( two planes: the azi! th plane an$ ele#ation plane% &n referen"e to spheri"al "oor$inates' the azi! th plane is where φ < =0º an$ the ele#ation plane is where θ < 0º. ations to $es"ribe the e2isten"e of ele"tro!agneti" wa#es% 3ne of these e.Background *e li#e in a bath of ele"tro!agneti" wa#es' the( are e#er(where% +o!e "an pass right thro gh s.

ownloa$ the M-TL-B files 8= in total' all whi"h are liste$ below9 fro! the "o rse website% +a#e the! to a lo"ation on (o r har$ $ri#e whi"h is easil( a""essible for wor)ing% 3% +tart M-TL-B an$ "hange the " rrent $ire"tor( to the lo"ation of the $ownloa$e$ M-TL-B files @% Ao are rea$( to begin4 List of M-TL-B files: "onst%! "?s%! linearBpolar%! elipBpolar%! thinB$ipole%! thinB$ipole?%! heli"al%! heli"al?%! arra(B$ipole%! 2 .r) φ r z (φ. estions to the lab' as tips are offere$ thro gho t the "o rse of the lab !an al% -lso re#iew the appen$i2 before sing ea"h M-TL-B ro tine' as the $etails of their operation are e2plaine$% ?% .z (φ.θ.r) φ r θ x θ x y y Fig re 1: Ele#ation plane 8left9 an$ azi! th plane 8right9 in spheri"al "oor$inates Preparation for the Lab 1% >ea$ ea"h se"tion in full before starting the "orrespon$ing se"tion% This will ai$ (o in answering the .θ.

en"e ill strating linear polarization% 3 . ire an$ what infor!ation that "an be "olle"te$% The si!plest for! of polarization is linear% *hen a fiel$ is polarize$ linearl( it propagates os"illating in onl( one a2is' s "h as the 2 or ( a2is 8as t(pi"all( the z a2is is reser#e$ for the $ire"tion of propagation9% To ill strate this' se linearBpolar%! to generate a ?%3G5z 2:polarize$ signal with 0 phase shift an$ an a!plit $e of 1% This "an be a""o!plishe$ b( t(ping into the M-TL-B "o!!an$ win$ow: linear_polar(2. 1. 0.fra!e fro! the ani!ate$ se. Please see the f n"tion $es"riptions in the appen$i2 for !ore infor!ation on how to se this an$ other ! file8s9% *hat will be generate$ is an ani!ate$ plot of the ele"tro!agneti" wa#e loo)ing li)e Fig re ?% The plot on the left ill strates the res ltant #e"tor of the propagating wa#e' shown in bl e' gi#en (o are staring $own the barrel of its propagation path% The win$ow on the right ill strates the sa!e wa#e b t fro! the si$e' gi#en in re$' as if wat"hing it tra#el a"ross the roo!% The $ashe$ green line is the plot of the instantaneo s power of the propagating signal' while the soli$ green line is the a#erage power% Fig re ?: . ‘x’).Part 1: Polarization .3e9.f n$a!ental aspe"t of ele"tro!agneti" propagation is polarization% The orientation of the EM fiel$ will $i"tate the t(pe of antenna (o re.

en"( fro! ?00 M5z to ?0 G5z% "hanging the E:fiel$ a!plit $e fro! 0%001 to 10% . 1. 1. al fiel$ !agnit $es% This is a""o!plishe$ b( entering in the "o!!an$ win$ow: elip_polar(2. Fig re 3 ill strates the plot generate$ fro! the elipBpolar ro tine% F7nfort natel( the graph pro$ "e$ b( M-TL-B is s)ewe$. estions li)e this' "hoose a few representati#e #al es fro! within the range%G "hanging the fre.3e9. en"(' energ( fe$ into the s(ste!' an$ the phase $ifferen"e between the E an$ 5 fiel$% 7sing the linearBpolar M-TL-B f n"tion' "o!!ent how a#erage power an$ pea) power are affe"te$ when: D1%? D1%3 D1%@ D1%H "hanging the phase angle fro! 0 to E % F&n . stret"h the graph horizontall( ntil the 2 an$ ( a2es are ro ghl( i$enti"al%G &n the left plot we "an see the res ltant fiel$ polarization an$ the right plot ill strating the propagation of the wa#e% The (:polarize$ fiel$ is $ispla(e$ in green' an$ 2:polarize$ in bl e% &t is ob#io s b( the path of the res ltant fiel$ wh( it is referre$ to as ellipti"al polarization% Two i!portant !eas res of ellipti"al polarization are the a2ial ratio an$ the $ire"tion of rotation% &n this e2a!ple the res ltant fiel$ "ir"les left' an$ hen"e is left han$ ellipti"all( polarize$% The a2ial ratio is the ratio of the !a2i! ! an$ !ini! ! !agnit $e points on the ellipse% &n this e2a!ple the ellipti"al polarization has an a2ial ratio of ?%@ at @Hº' gi#en b( the o tp t of the elipBpolar ro tine% The M-TL-B ro tine a""o!plishes this b( si!pl( fin$ing the point of !a2i! ! !agnit $e' where !agnit $e is "o!p te$ b(: r= x2 + y2 an$ $i#i$ing it b( the point of !ini! ! !agnit $e% To "o!p te the angle' se the geo!etri" relation on the 82'(9 "oor$inate of the !a2i! ! a!plit $e: y θ ax = arctan  x    7sing the elipBpolar f n"tion' generate a n !ber of plots for phase shift ranging fro! :?E to ?E% -s a !ini! ! tr( the following phases: :?E' :3 E /?' : E' :E /?' 0' E /?' E' 3 E /?' ?E% D1%I D1%J *hat phase shift is nee$e$ for a right han$ ellipti"all( polarize$ signal/ *hat happens with a phase shift of 0/ 4 .Cow generate the sa!e fiel$' b t in a (:polarization% D1%1 *hat is the wa#elength of the propagating signal/ *hat is the wa#e #elo"it(/ Power is also an i!portant !eas re of an EM wa#e an$ is $ire"tl( relate$ to the fre.oes polarization ha#e an effe"t on power/ -s we ha#e seen' linear polarization "an be oriente$ in two planes' the 2 an$ ( a2is% &f a signal "ontains power energ( in both a2is it is sai$ to be ellipti"all( polarize$% To ill strate ellipti"al polarization' se elipBpolar%! to generate a fiel$ at ?%3 G5z' with a E/@ phase $ifferen"e between the 2 an$ ( polarize$ E:fiel$s an$ e. pi/4).

8 *ith a E/I phase shift an$ an 2:a2is a!plit $e of 1' what (:a2is a!plit $es are nee$e$ to generate an ellipti"al polarization at appro2i!atel( 10º/ 80º/ >e"all the e. al a!plit $e an$ a E/? phase shift sing elipBpolar%!% Tip: Recall that the circle may look asymmetric.Fig re 3: E2a!ple of !eas ring the a2ial ratio for an ellipti"all( polarize$ signal sing the elipBpolar%! plotting ro tine% 7sing the elipBpolar ro tine' in#estigate the effe"ts of #ar(ing the a!plit $e of both the K2:a2is1 an$ K(:a2is1 signals% Q1. ation abo#e% . it should be circular. but check the axes (or stretch the graph). *hat is t(pe of polarization is a"hie#e$ if one of 2:a2is a!plit $e is 0/ *h( $oes phase no longer ha#e an( affe"t/ D1%= Part 2: Antenna Patterns *ith EM polarization "lassifie$' we "an begin the st $( of $ifferent antennas that "an la n"h these wa#es an$ their "hara"teristi"s% -ntenna la n"h EM wa#es into spa"e with a fiel$ pattern that is $epen$ent on !an( fa"tors' s "h as fre.spe"ial "ase of ellipti"al polarization is "ir" lar polarization% This is the spe"ial sit ation when the phase shift is e2a"tl( E/? an$ the signal a!plit $es are e. en"(' size' shape' an$ 5 . al% Plot a 1 G5z signal with e.

en"( "hanges the respe"ti#e size of the antenna relati#e to the wa#elength% Tra$itional tele#ision antennas are !a$e p of #ar(ing size $ipole antennas as the( ! st be "apable of re"ei#ing signals fro! the lower "hannels' appro2i!atel( @00 M5z to the higher "hannels' appro2i!atel( 800 M5z% Thin Dipole Antenna *e begin b( first loo)ing at the $ipole antenna% Generate the 3. ire a #er( narrow bea! so the( "an isolate a spe"ifi" "ar% This propert( of an antenna is referre$ to as the :3 $B bea!wi$th. -s this antenna is s(!!etri" abo t the azi! th plane' we will se the ele#ation plane plot to $efine the bea!wi$th% To !eas re the bea!wi$th of this antenna' "li") on the K. en"( of the in"o!ing or o tgoing signal "hanges so $oes the fiel$ pattern for the antenna% -ntennas are sensiti#e to the size in of the wa#elength of the signal' so "hanging the fre.o the sa!e for the right si$e of the lobe% For ea"h :3$B point 6 . respecti#ely. Ao "an !o#e the 3. fiel$ pattern to gain a better #iew b( sele"ting the K>otate 3. en"( ban$wi$th% -s the fre. all( in all $ire"tions9% The last i!portant "hara"teristi" is fre.1 b tton' whi"h loo)s li)e: Tip: % ou can force the !D field pattern to align to the a"imuth or ele#ation planes by right$clicking the plot and selecting %x$y #ie&' or %x$" #ie&'.!aterial "o!position% -s the appli"ations of antennas #ar(' so $oes the ne"essar( pattern shape% &n the "ase of weather ra$ar' a broa$ pattern is helpf l as it "an $ete"t $ist rban"es o#er large areas% 6on#ersel(' poli"e ra$ar g ns re. as the na!e i!plies' it refers to the wi$th 8in $egrees9 of the pri!ar( lobe fro! its half power points% To ga ge how ! "h power is in the pri!ar( lobe the $ire"ti#it( !eas res the pea) power $ensit( of the pri!ar( lobe in referen"e to the a#erage power seen b( an isotropi" antenna 8an antenna that ra$iates e.ata 6 rsor1 b tton' whi"h loo)s li)e: % 6li") on the lo"ation of the ele#ation plane " r#e with the largest fiel$ !agnit $e% &f (o !iss the e2a"t point' (o "an !o#e the $ata point with (o r left an$ right arrow )e(s% Coti"e that the $ata point gi#es (o the 82'(9 "oor$inate an$ not the !agnit $e% To "al" late the !agnit $e si!pl( se this for! la: r= x2 + y2 To fin$ the bea!wi$th we se the left an$ right arrow )e(s to !o#e ntil we fin$ the :3$B points% 7nfort natel( $ e to M-TL-B' the nits $ispla(e$ are linear whereas the pattern is in $e"ibels% This translates into fin$ing the point whi"h is L0%J F1:log80%H9G of the !a2i! ! $ire"ti#it(% 3n"e this lo"ation has been fo n$' !ar) its 6artesian "oor$inates 82'(9% . fiel$ pattern' E:plane an$ 5:plane fiel$ plots' sing the thinB$ipole%! file for a $ipole of length λ/?% To $o so' enter in the "o!!an$ win$ow: thin_dipole(1/2).

2 . en"( awa( fro! the resonant or "enter fre. en"(% The res ltant ban$wi$th sho l$ be appro2i!atel( ?00 M5z% Q2. en"ies o#er whi"h the antenna !aintains its perfor!an"e para!eters% 7sing the thinB$ipole? ro tine' $ispla( a λ/? length $ipole at ? G5z b( entering in the "o!!an$ line: thin_dipole2(0. 5 λ). en"(9% Fin$ the left an$ right fre. *hat is the general tren$ in $ire"ti#it( for #ar(ing lengths of $ipoles/ (elical Antenna *ith the $istin"t heli2 " rrent "oil' the heli"al antenna is easil( spotte$% 3peration of this "o!!on antenna is separate$ into two regi!es: nor!al an$ a2ial% &t is in the a2ial regi!e where the heli"al antenna is "apable of pro$ "ing "ir" larl( polarize$ signals% The signal is ra$iate$ a2iall(' along the barrel of the heli2% For a heli"al antenna to operate a2iall(' the "ir" !feren"e of the heli"al loops ! st be on the sa!e or$er as the operation wa#elength% This being sai$' α 6o rtes( of -!ate r >a$io 8http://www%. en"( Cλ ban$s fro! 30 M5z to ?00 G5z% 7 n= 1 n= 2 n= 3 n= 4 .1 Q2.e$ata%se/eBNsBpr:a!at%ht!9 these antennas are !ost "o!!onl( se$ for fre. 2e9). λ/10. en"ies s "h that the $ire"ti#it( at the same angle is appro2i!atel( 0%J of the original "enter fre. Recall that: λ = 3 ×10 f 8 This sho l$ ha#e the sa!e $ire"ti#it( fo n$ pre#io sl(% To fin$ the ban$wi$th' !eas re the $ire"ti#it( as (o "hange fre."al" late the angle' b t note that we "annot se the for! la presente$ before% *e ! st se: θ −3dB = arctan  x y    2 as that will gi#e the angle of $efle"tion fro! the "enter of the bea!% The :3$B bea!wi$th is $efine$ as wi$th of the bea!' in $egrees' at the :3$B points% -$$ing the angle of $efle"tion of the left an$ right :3$B points will gi#e the bea!wi$th% +in"e the plots gi#en in this se"tion are alrea$( nor!alize$' we "an o!it the a#erage power b( an isotropi" so r"e an$ "al" late the $ire"ti#it( of this antenna b( ta)ing the !a2i! ! a!plit $e of the fiel$ pattern% Pla"e a K. en"(% The ban$wi$th of an antenna is the range of fre. M ' @λ.eter!ine the bea!wi$th' $ire"ti#it( an$ ban$wi$th for a H0 M5z λ/? thin $ipole% 7sing the thinB$ipole ro tine' plot a range of $ipole lengths for a ? G5z antenna' fro! near 0! to Hλ (λ/100. en"( 8lea#ing length at the half wa#elength of the original "enter fre.075.ata 6 rsor1 at the ape2 of the !ain lobe' it sho l$ !eas re a $ire"ti#it( of 1% Fro! these two "hara"teristi"s we "an see that the $ipole antenna' for a length of λ/?' has a #er( goo$ bea!wi$th b t poor $ire"ti#it(% Cote that the pattern abo#e is in$epen$ent of fre.

Fre. +i!pl( s btra"t the theta #al es to obtain a θ bea!wi$th of @3º% This ! st be repeate$ b t in the φ $ire"tion' an$ res lts in a φ bea!wi$th of ?0º% 7sing the fre..The $esign feat res of the heli"al antenna are !ore "o!ple2 than the $ipole' b t lea$ to the sa!e fa!iliar "hara"terisation of bea!wi$th' $ire"ti#it( an$ ban$wi$th% *hereas the $ipole antenna has onl( the length' the heli"al antenna1s fiel$ pattern $epen$s on the n !ber of heli"al loops' $enote$ n' the pit"h of the loops' $enote$ α' an$ the "ir" !feren"e of the loop in wa#elengths' $enote$ 6λ% &t is apparent that opti!ization of the heli"al antenna is a $iffi" lt tas)% To #iew an e2a!ple of a heli"al antenna ra$iating in the a2ial !o$e' r n the #is alization $e!o for 6λ < 1%0J' α < 1?º' an$ n < I sing the heli"al%! file% helical(1. fiel$ pattern to "al" late the $ire"ti#it( an$ bea!wi$th% The pro"e$ re is the sa!e' sing the K. O st as before' this M-TL-B file will pro$ "e a 3. ). en"( ban$wi$th is "al" late$ b( tra")ing the !a2i! ! $ire"ti#it( lo"ation as the fre. en"( in$epen$ent heli"al plotting ro tine' heli"al%!' $es"ribe the effe"ts on the !ain lobe an$ si$e lobes when: Q2. fiel$ pattern plot where it appears to be the largest% Ce2t "al" late the !agnit $e of the fiel$ b(: r= x2 + y2 + z2 This sho l$ gi#e a $ire"ti#it( of ?%3H% To gi#e an e2a"t bea!wi$th' we ! st $efine it on spheri"al a2es' θ an$ φ% +o starting fro! the !a2i! ! $ire"ti#it( point' tra#erse in the θ $ire"tion ntil the !agnit $e $rops to the :3$B point% Mar) this 6artesian point% Then "ontin ing in the opposing $ire"tion' !ar) the other :3$B point on the θ plane% Tip: To sa#e time con#erting the )artesian points into spherical points you can use the c*s. en"(% To plot the fre.07.m file to achie#e this. but is struck out as you do not ha#e to complete it. en"( $epen$ent 8 . en"( $e#iates fro! the original "enter fre.3 D?%@ D?%H the heli"al loop pit"h 8α9 is #arie$ fro! :?HP':1HP' :HP' 0P' HP' 1HP' ?HP/ 8the pattern will be"o!e $istorte$ aro n$ 0P $ e to !o$eling9 the n !ber of heli"al loops is #arie$ fro! 1' H' 10' ?H to H0/ the "ir" !feren"e of the loops is #arie$ fro! 1' ?' 3' @' H/ +The section belo& is left for you to read for interest. 12. representation of the fiel$ pattern' along with the azi! th an$ ele#ation plane " ts% -s the bea! is not s(!!etri"' we ! st se the 3.ata 6 rsor1' "li") on the 3.

en"( ban$% For this reason' it is i!portant to alwa(s st $( the fiel$ pattern of an antenna o#er all its operational #ariables% &t is onl( then (o "an a"" ratel( $es"ribe the perfor!an"e of an antenna% 9 . .4e9).fiel$ pattern for 6 < 0%10J' α < 1?º' an$ n < I at J%@ G5z' t(pe into the "o!!an$ win$ow: helical2(0. &t be"o!es .12. i")l( apparent that the relations between the $esign para!eters for the heli"al antenna are not int iti#e% For this heli"al antenna' the :3$B points are at 3%I G5z an$ 10%3 G5z' res lting in a ban$wi$th of I%I G5z' or =0Q% 7sing the heli"al? ro tine' plot the fiel$ pattern at the :3$B points% *e "an see that $espite the benefi"ial large ban$wi$th of this antenna' large si$elobes are seen at the :3$B points% Perfor!an"e relies on !an( fa"tors for an antenna' an$ ban$wi$th "annot solel( $es"ribe the tr e operational fre.7.107.

ire$ for an antenna arra( 8of half:wa#elength ele!ents9 to a"hie#e a bea!wi$th of RHº while steering at @0º% The spa"ing between ele!ents is "riti"al to arra( perfor!an"e% Plot the sa!e H:ele!ent $ipole arra( for spa"ing ranging fro! 0%001 to 100% &t has been shown that λ/? spa"ing is i$eal for bea!steering an$ ban$wi$th% &t !a)es sense then for ele!ents spa"e$ #er( "lose that the( begin to ta)e the shape of a single ele!ent' an$ as the ele!ents are spa"e$ f rther an$ f rther apart the fiel$ pattern be"o!es $istorte$ hea#il( b( the interferen"e of o t of phase ele!ents% -rra(s offer !an( benefits for antenna an$ ra$ar s(ste!s% *e will "ontin e to st $( the! in the >a$ar Lab% 10 . ire$ for the !ain lobe to point at 30º/ F5int se in"re!ents of E /1? starting fro! 0%G 5ow is the bea!wi$th affe"te$ when steering/ .4 *hat phase shift is re. -otice ho& much easier this is &hen pre$programmed/ D3%1 *hat is the bea!wi$th of this arra(/ 5ow $oes it "o!pare with a single half wa#elength $ipole/ *hat abo t when the n !ber of arra( ele!ents is "hange$ to 1H/ 6hanging the phase progression is a powerf l benefit of arra(s% This feat re of arra(s allows for the antenna to "hange the $ire"tion of the !ain lobe% Th s the antenna "an s"an a region $igitall( ! "h faster than it "o l$ b( !e"hani"all( !o#ing the antenna% Plot the sa!e H:ele!ent $ipole arra( b t for $ifferent phase progressions% Q3.2 D3%3 Q3.º to be the primary lobe. The red line indicates the measured beam&idth of the plotted field pattern.Part 3: Linear Array Patterns -s we "an see there "an be signifi"ant $ifferen"es in the fiel$ patterns between antenna shapes% *hen antennas are arrange$ in "lose pro2i!it( the fiel$ pattern of ea"h antenna intera"ts' res lting in a new fiel$ pattern that is $epen$ent on the spa"ing' antenna t(pe an$ the relati#e phase $ifferen"e between ea"h ele!ent% -rra(s "an "o!e in !an( arrange!ents an$ $i!ensions' b t "o!p tation of the res ltant fiel$ is non:tri#ial for "o!ple2 arrange!ents s "h as "(lin$ri"al or ar" arra(s% &n this portion of the lab' a linear arra( of i$eal $ipole antennas will be st $ie$ $ e to its !athe!ati"all( si!ple $eri#ation% 7sing the arra(B$ipole%! file' generate the E:plane fiel$ pattern for a H ele!ent arra(' spa"e$ at λ/? with no phase shifting% To a"hie#e this enter in the "o!!an$ win$ow: arra!_dipole(5. 0). -ote: Take the lobe at . 1/2.ire"ti#it(/ 5ow !an( ele!ents are re.

i$ the lab s ""essf ll( ai$ (o in n$erstan$ing the !aterial/ *hat $i$ (o li)e/ *hat wo l$ (o "hange/ Lab "eport Please s b!it a t(pe$ for!al lab report answering ea"h of the . estions pose$ thro gh this !an al% *here pra"ti"al s bstantiate answers with n !eri"al res lts an$ in"l $e s"reen shots or $iagra!s% +ee lab te!plate pro#i$e$ on the "o rse website% 11 .Part 4: uestion !et These . estions are to be "o!plete$ an$ han$e$ in with the final report% +o!e !a( re. ire a little resear"h to answer' b t the &nternet sho l$ be s ffi"ient% D@%1 D@%? D@%3 5ow "an (o !a)e a "ir" larl( polarize$ signal sing two linearl( polarize$ antennas/ Be spe"ifi"% FM ra$io antennas broa$"ast signals sing "ir" lar polarize$ signals' b t the antennas se$ to re"ei#e the signal' at (o r "ar ra$io' are linearl( polarize$% *h( wo l$ the( $o that/ Please gi#e a brief assess!ent of the lab% *as the !an al "lear/ .

pha%e). ex_a"p." linear_polar. e!_a"p. 2. where: fre0 S n ! T5zU: spe"if( the fre. where: length S n ! Tin wa#elengthsU: the length of the $ipole spe"ifie$ in relation to wa#elengths% i%e% thin_dipole(1/2). where: axial S n ! TarbU: o tp t spe"ifies the a2ial ratio of the " rrent ellipti"al polarization% angle S n ! T$egU: o tp t spe"ifies the angle of the ellipti"al polarization% fre0 S n ! T5zU: spe"if( the fre. pha%e. 2. en"( of the propagating signals% ex1amp S n ! TarbU: spe"if( the a!plit $e of the 2:polarize$ E:fiel$% ey1amp S n ! TarbU: spe"if( the a!plit $e of the (:polarize$ E:fiel$% 2hase S n ! Tra$U: relati#e phase $ifferen"e between the 2:polarize$ E:fiel$ an$ the (:polarize$ E:fiel$ 8V#e i!plies the (:polarize$ fiel$ lea$s9% i%e% elip_polar(1.m # Linear Polarization $isualization linear_polar(#re$. This will gi#e a signal at 1%J M5z with e.Append ! A" #A$%A& '(de )e*erence dipole_arra!. en"( in 5z of propagation signal phase S n ! Tra$U: relati#e phase $ifferen"e between E:fiel$ an$ 5:fiel$ in ra$ians 8V#e : 5: fiel$ lea$s9 amplitude S n ! TarbU: spe"if( the a!plit $e of the E:fiel$ polari"ation S string TK21 or K(1U: spe"if( the polarization i%e% linear_polar(1e9. pi/2).7e . al a!plit $es of ? an$ a phase $ifferen"e of =0º' res lting in a left:han$ "ir" larl( polarize$ signal% thin_dipole. polari'ation). This will gi#e the fiel$ pattern for a λ/? $ipole% 12 . pi/2.m % 'ield $isualization of an &lectrically (hin )ipole thin_dipole(len)th). a"plit&de. 1. ‘!’).m % &lliptical Polarization $isualization (axial an)le* + elip_polar(#re$. This will gi#e a linearl( (:polarize$ 1 G5z signal with the 5:fiel$ lea$ing b( E/? an$ a!plit $e of 1% elip_polar.

" 13 .Append ! A" #A$%A& '(de )e*erence dipole_arra!.

m % 'ield $isualization of a . 12. where: length S n ! T!etersU: the length of the $ipole spe"ifie$ in relation to wa#elengths% fre0uency S n ! T5zU: spe"if( the fre. n). 12. where: ) S n ! T!U: the "ir" !feren"e of the heli"al antenna in !eters% alpha S n ! T$egU: the pit"h of the heli"al loops% n S n ! TWU: the n !ber of heli"al loops in the antenna% fre0 S n ! T5zU: the fre. #re$&enc!).Append ! A" #A$%A& '(de )e*erence dipole_arra!. en"( of the signal e2"iting the antenna% i%e% helical2(0. #re$). en"( of 3 G5z% 14 .-.m % 'ield $isualization of a .thin_dipole(len)th.07. en"( of the trans!itte$/re"ei#e$ signal% i%e% thin_dipole(0. .elical Antenna *'re+ )ep. 3e9). where: )λ S n ! TλU: the "ir" !feren"e of the heli"al antenna in wa#elengths% alpha S n ! T$egU: the pit"h of the heli"al loops% n S n ! TWU: the n !ber of heli"al loops in the antenna% i%e% helical(1. alpha. This will gi#e the fiel$ pattern for a $ipole 0%0H! in length e2"ite$ with a 3 G5z signal% This is essentiall( a λ/? $ipole% helical. This "reates the fiel$ pattern for heli"al antenna with a I heli"al loops at a pit"h of 1?º' a "ir" !feren"e of 0%10J!' an$ an e2"itation fre. This "reates the fiel$ pattern for heli"al antenna with a I heli"al loops at a pit"h of 1?º an$ a "ir" !feren"e of 1%0Jλ% helical.elical Antenna helical(.helical2(.-." thin_dipole2. alpha.05.107.m % 'ield $isualization of an &lectrically (hin )ipole *'re+ )ep. ). n. 3e9).

3 75). 0.').S n ! Tn/aU: C !ber of ele!ents in the arra(% distance S n ! TλU: +pa"ing of ele!ents in the arra( in relation to wa#elengths% phase S n ! Tra$U: Progressi#e phase shift a"ross the arra(% i%e% dipole_arra!(5.p.32.p.!.r* + c2%(2. di%tance. where: . 0. 0.m % /artesian to !pherical /oordinate /on0ersion (t..m % 'ield $isualization of a Linear )ipole Array arra!_dipole(.Append ! A" #A$%A& '(de )e*erence dipole_arra!. This will gi#e an arra( of H half wa#elength $ipoles separate$ b( λ/? with a progressi#e phase shift of E/?% c2s. pha%e). pi/2)." array_dipole.5. where: t S n ! T$egU: o tp t of theta angle% p S n ! T$egU: o tp t of phi angle% r S n ! TarbU: o tp t of !agnit $e or ra$i s% x S n ! TarbU: inp t of 2:"oor$% y S n ! TarbU: inp t of (:"oor$% " S n ! TarbU: inp t of z:"oor$% i%e% (t.r* + c2%(x. This will o tp t the spheri"al "oor$s for the 6artesian point 82' (' z9 < 8?%3?' 0' 0%3IJH9% 15 .

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