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THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar JAMYANG Khyentse Rinpoche

The Words of My Perfect Teacher (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) was composed by the great Nyingma master, Patrul Rinpoche. The work is an explanation of the Longchen Nyingtik ngndro, the preliminary practices from the Longchen Nyingtik cycle of teachings, discovered by Jikm Lingpa. This famous commentary is a completely faithful written record of the oral teachings Patrul Rinpoche received directly from

his teacher, Jikm Gyalw Nyugu. "I receive this teaching Kunzang Lame Shyalung, the transmissions and the teachings many, many times- probably over thirty times. This is something that is taught all the time. His Holiness, Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche, for me, for me, hes like a Buddha accomplished being. But I remember very well to the last days when he was alive; I remember very well that he always carry Kunzang Lame Shyalung , the book, Words of My Perfect Teacher, everywhere he goes, and every morning, after his practice, he would read a few pages"...quoted by Dzongsar Khyentse Rinpoche (Transcribed from official audio files purchased from Siddhartha's Intent) http://www.khyentserecordings.org/namo/Dzongsar_Khyentse_Rinpoche.html

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 1/31

Every word, every sentence, every phrase, we can discuss; for years we can get lot out of it. For those who are very serious to follow his path, my only mm, requirement, sort of, wish is for you to actually study (Kunzang Lame Shyalung) Words of My Perfect Teacher again and again. Because this is an endless subject; this is a, this is from now for those who are seeking enlightenment eh, this is from now till enlightenment. I, myself, Im happy to choose this subject because as - I dont know whether some of you remember; those who were here last year that Im a little bit tired with sort of weekend short teachings something to do with introduction to Buddhism or like that. Of course, lineage, there is all the usual compassion, bodhicitta, all of this, the usual stuff youll hear it again. I am not promising that you are going to hear something unusual things here okay. This is also probably the most extensive, most, the biggest, the largest explanation on the Longchen Nyingtik ngondro. Now, having said this is the Longchen Nyingtik ngondro, its does not mean that this is something that you cannot use for those who are practising the path of, path of, eh, of Marpa, or Virupas. Those who are doing Kagyu ngondro, those who are doing Sakyas, Virupas they can definitely use this book as a reference. For Sakyapas, this is, this is what the Sakyapas talk about; for

Sakyapas, mm, this is what they call the Triple Vision, or Path of Three Perceptions. And for those who are following Marpas lineage, then there is (Dakpo Targyen) or Jewel Ornament of Gampopa. Those who are following the tradition of Tsongkhapa, Lama Tsongkhapa - lamrin; and this is a similar subject, so one can definitely use it as a reference. Most of the subject is practical advice, pith instructions advices; although time to time, we will hear some fundamental, mm, sort of theoretical Buddhist teaching. So for those who are practicing ngondro, this is very essential. This evening, first I will start the text and then after that we will have a short break. And then those who are not really interested in practice, they can go home. But those who want to practise - maybe stay on; I would do, Ill read in Tibetan what we call lung, transmission, which is very necessary. I think, I am very, eh, right -wing conservative Buddhist. I think, yes, time is changing this, I know we need to apply different methods. This is something I also know but doesnt mean you people dont need lung. We cannot do without lung. We cannot practice without Initiation. All these are necessary; these are important. Now the dharma is flourishing quite rapidly in the West. I have seen people practising Vajrayana without transmissions, initiations; maybe initiations, but I think not many people think about lung, transmissions. This is not good. So for those who want to practice, or those who are practising, I will read the lung. Of course, I can only read few pages this time. Well have to continue, if we are still alive after tomorrow, then we will continue the lung. Anyway, this is a, as I said right at the beginning, this is a long one. We have to have patience, I have to have patience. Of all the people, I have to have the patience. And then you should have the patience okay. And lucky, we have Chokyi Nyima here today, so those who are, I mean when I have hard time trying to find the words, can you help me? Okay. (Response and laughter) okay. I receive this teaching Kunzang Lame Shyalung, the transmissions and the teachings many, many times- probably over thirty times. This is something that is taught all the time. His Holiness, Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche, for me, for me, hes like a Buddha accomplished being. But I remember very well to the last days when he was alive; I remember very well that he always carry Kunzang Lame Shyalung , the book, Words of My Perfect Teacher, everywhere he goes, and every morning, after his practice, he would read a few pages. I receive from His Holiness, Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche alone, probably more than ten times. Some, because he happened to teach a group of people and then I happened to be there. And about five times he taught me, especially just, you know, just because I requested it or he thinks that this is necessarily for me. He taught me probably more than five times. And then His Holiness Dudjom Rinpoche, I must have received this about three times, and from other lamas. And if my devotion is not limited, if my pure perception is still there, if I meet, if I encounter some masters whom I, whom my limited devotion can sort of flourish I have no hesitation but to receive this transmission or teaching again. And I will do this after thirty years, if I am still alive. So I hope some of you will also keep that kind of tradition, Patrul Rinpoches tradition. Keep this as your manual, manual of your life. Manifest your life based on this book.

I thought that it was cold. Since this is a tantric teaching, as, as in the tradition, Ill first do some supplication to all the guru lineage, so you can just watch or if you want to also supplicate you can do that. If you are new here, you just watch. Okay. We have to first build our ground foundation. Why this book? Why not something else? Why not a poetry? Why not Madhyamika, you know? Why not, eh, I dont know history? So for all these, we need to have some kind of answer, which is primarily, primarily to, primarily to build the foundation. To understand this book, we have to build the foundation, okay - especially for those who are new. To build this foundation, the first important thing is you have to understand the view, meditation and action (lta, sgom, spyod pa). This is very important. Now, although because this term view, meditation, action seems to have, seems to come from the Buddhist mouth, this view, meditation, and action is actually with us all the time. Every time we do something there is what we call view; there is what we call meditation, and action. We may not use the term view, meditation and action, theres always a view, theres always contemplation, theres always some kind of action. Everything that what we do; okay, beauty, ugly, all kinds of, all kinds of, every time we make judgement. Every time we think. Every time we do something, there is a view, meditation and action. So this view - first before we get into this book, the view is important to establish. Most of this view, if you ask why we create this view; most of this view we create because we want to be happy. We want to; happiness is maybe a very general word, but most of this view we create because we want to gain something. We want to achieve something. We want to, eh, get hold of something. We want to score something, if you want, if you like, yes. We want to have fun, for instance. Thats why we create the view. So, yah; just give you some vivid, maybe some simple example. See, we have socalled idea of beautiful, beauty, right? Then we read magazines like Vogue, and then we have certain idea what is perfect leg, or perfect breast, isnt it? So this years perfect breast is such and such. Thats the view. Thats the view; then thinking Do I have it? I dont have it. - All this, you understand? Going to the mirror and looking at it, and all of that. Thats meditation. (Laughter) And then finally decided Ah, now Ive to have this kind of breast; then going to whatwhat? (Audience response) Yes, plastic surgery, stuffing something inside what do you call it? (Laughter)This is what we call, and then; Im not being negative here, you understand? And then putting this inside and then showing off, I dont know, and then actually managing to, eh, do whatever you want to do. Thats what we call completion, (laughter) I mean, action action. Thats also bit like, the sense of scoring that goal is what we call nirvana you understand enlightenment. See, so the view, meditation, action this exists everywhere. You understand this is so important to know. And as I said earlier, basically we create this view because we want to be happy. We want to be content. We want to score something. We want to be, I dont know. We want to have that perfect, I dont know, whatever. This is why we have the view.

And then you dont know how to play with this view. This is where misunderstandings come, domestic sort of misunderstanding between family, friends, religion, political parties, vegetarian, non-vegetarian, isnt it? Macrobiotic food or things like that. All kinds of view; you know this. Every year, how many new views that American psychologist, therapists, and the scientists create. This is good for your body. This is, this has less fibre, or this, less what, eh, calories and things like that; medicine whatever - you know; so the view, meditation and action.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 2/31

Now, now we ask what is the Buddhists view? What we are trying to achieve here? What is the Buddhist view? The Buddhist view is something that we, we either dont have, or even if we do have, we do not use it. We do not contemplate on it. We do not act on this. Thats why we, from the Buddhist point of view, we are still in samsara. We are still deluded. We are still wandering. So, the Buddhist view; actually this is, this is quite important what Im going to tell you. If your, your nonBuddhist friend asks you what is the speciality thing about Buddhism then you can answer this. What Im, I will tell you this; what we call, this is what we call (Tibetan phrase). Sometimes we call it Four seals or; its almost like four pillars or like four indispensable views. If you have one of this missing, then you are not Buddhist, I mean maybe youre Buddhist, but you are not following the path of the Buddha. Theres four views, you understand, this four views. If you miss one of them, you are not following the path of the Buddha. You maybe still a Buddhist, you can think. Can you open those doors? You cannot. Yah, its very hot here. Can you open that door? You cannot? - Maybe some air yes, much better. Thats good, thank you. So the four views; they are first everything that is compounded, all compounded things are impermanent. Thats a very, very unique Buddhist view. Something, yah all compounded things are impermanent. That includes almost everything; even enlightenment, even what we call, what so-called nirvana, that we usually think. As long as a phenomena is bound by time, such as the beginning, middle and the end, as long as the phenomena has these three things, three characters beginning, middle and end and it has to have, otherwise if you dont have this three beginning, middle and end It is not a phenomena. You see, if you are looking at something, usually you look at something like a sun or a moon or a god, for instance and think Oh, He has always been there. Hes there. You can see. You know, from

the Buddhist point of view, it has to have - since it has a remaining, it has to have a beginning of the remaining and end of the remaining. So this; we can discuss about this as we go on. Because this four, so-called Four Seals or the Four Views is what; this four views is going to become like a pillar, the four pillars of this book. I am telling you this right in the beginning because once you have these four pillars erected in your head here, then you listen to this then it will make a different kind of sense, you understand. Until you dont have that in your head, none; I think its quite difficult to work. This is something that you have to really establish strongly in your head, okay All Compounded Things are Impermanent. Thats one. All emotions; (discussion in Tibetan with assistant) anything that; all defilements, all defilements, should I say? (Tibetan conversation) What is it? - Defilement? Defilement seems to be a bit limited dont you think? (Tibetan discussion) Yes, anything, anything that is subject to decay. And here on the second view, we are talking more about emotions, mind, anger, aggression, passion, jealousy, pride; this kind of emotions we are talking here. Theyre all pain. That is a Buddhist view. That is a very unique view. Again many, many philosophies, many, many religions might say Yes, yes, yes, aggression is painful, you know; passion is painful, but love is a wonderful thing. You know, they will always have something left, you understand, something sort of. Theres always something that they keep behind as something like a token, I dont know, tokenizing with it. They will always, because its a big sacrifice to give up everything, you understand. They will always like to keep; even in the impermanence part, the first view. Oh, yah, yah, everything. Many philosophies, many religions believe many, a lot of things are impermanent but something of a God, something like an atom - that has to be permanent. You understand. Likewise, and this as even though, as I talk, it sounds very philosophical, very academic; actually its something that happens all the time. For instance like the first view because, because we have a lack of understanding of this first view; now if all of us, we know that anything that is compounded, anything that is compounded is impermanent - more than half of our tension and anxiety will be disappeared. Cant you see? But because we dont have that understanding; we may have it intellectually but we cannot really practically accept it. Thats why we think that something is going to work. The guru is definitely going to give me blessing. And this blessing is going to heal me; things like that, you know the healing, healthy things that we are attached to, like diet, all kinds of things. This means, you know, like healthy food, things like this. This just show that you are, you like; you know, you think there are something that is permanent. Yes, yes, you know in your garden, the willow tree is impermanent. That you know but there are certain things that you thing is still permanent. That's why we have a problem. Okay, anyway lets go to the third, all the views. (Tibetan phrase) All phenomena have no (Tibetan phrase) self-nature, truly existing self- nature. Okay, that, thats a very, very unique Buddhist view. I don't think; you see these four views I m very generic, very generic. I think many philosophies such as Hinduism - they have the three views, but not the last one. Buddhism; what makes Buddhism special is

because of this four views, for instance, the last, last view, the fourth view is (Tibetan phrase) Nirvana is beyond extreme (Tibetan phrase) beyond extreme, beyond fabrication. I personally think that, that makes Buddhism more special. I mean, it, it separates from Hinduism. Otherwise Hinduism actually accepts everything compounded are impermanent too. You know things like that. But the last one thats a very special, special one; every, no, Nirvana is beyond fabrication.

But for many of us Nirvana is some kind of happy; everything functioning, you know sort of nice place, isnt it? Fabrication but according to Buddhism its beyond fabrication. Now this four views is something that you have to keep in your head while you listen to this. Okay, then all this will work. All of this will make sense. If you miss one of this, youll have a hard time. In fact, not only this book; when you approach Buddhism this four is something that you should, you should seek after. And this four is actually a big subject. You can really spend your whole life studying this four, but this four is really, really necessary. Okay, and time to time, I will bring these four pillars just to remind you.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 3/31

So let's start the book. So now we all wish to destroy this net of delusion. (Pause) We all wish to realize the truth. Not understanding the truth, by not understanding the truth, it leads us deeper and deeper into ignorance. And then we dwell into this delusion endlessly. This is why we, this time we ...like to cut this net of delusion; this, this continual delusion we want to discontinue with this. To do this we have to find, we have to first find the right view. Until for instance, until today we dont know that every compounded thing is impermanent. We may realize some things are impermanent, but we still crave or hope or expect that certain things such as nirvana, such as realization of your self - they are permanent. Happiness, life, I don't know, whatever, heaven. So in order to do this, we are going to study and practice the profound Mahayana, Hinayana and Vajrayana path. Since this is a Mahayana path, in fact Vajrayana path; first the most important is to tune or to concentrate on your attitude, on your motivation. Why youre studying this? Why you are practicing this? Your motivation your attitude - because whatever you practice it depends so much on the motivation. If you have strong motivation, clear motivation, first of all in the beginning, this motivation will always lead you to the path again and again and again. That's one great thing about tuning the motivation or the

attitude. And then while you practice, while you are on the path, if you have the right attitude or the right motivation, you will have the courage and the confidence. Now this I think, the first one is for many of us easy to understand - having a right attitude, right motivation to get into the path. This I have seen a lot of people got into the path. I can see but the second one, after becoming Buddhists for five years and then seeing all sorts of ugly side of Buddhist; then they begin to lose faith in lamas, teachers and the path, the colleagues, dharma students, whatever. Then they begin to lose their inspiration. This is because right from the beginning you didnt really think about your attitude. You didn't really boost that motivation. So motivation is so important not only in the beginning but in the middle. Because this motivation is going to always hold you together while you are going through this endless journey, spiritual journey. It is kind of endless, you know. After twenty years of becoming Buddhist and practitioner, you still, you still see the same old aggression and passion. You still seem to make, you still seem to make same old mistakes. You still seem to be the same old vulnerable and sort of fragile person. So what is it, you know, difference - that kind of thing, you understand? Tuning the motivation is, I think, quite important. At the end, not only the attitude important in the beginning, in the middle but even towards the end; its so important because if you have the right, right attitude then youll have, youll know how to h ave right aspiration. You will then know how to dedicate. You will then know how to utilize your action which is accompanied by particular attitude. So this is why Patrul Rinpoche; he emphasized right in the beginning to have the motivation. Motivation is something that we should watch, because motivation or attitude I guess. Like in the East, like in Asian countries, people practice dharma for longevity, for good harvest, for good business, I dont know. And you practice dharma like you do, for instance wealth deities or something, I don't know. And if it works its good but for how long its going to work? We dont know. It may work once, twice, three times, and by the time you merit is exhausted, your path, whatever this special mantra, whatever youre doing, might not work. And when one day that doesnt work then you will think, Ah, dharma is not working anymore. This is not giving me anything that I want. This happens a lot in Asia. Now in the West you have also similar problem. Most of you, your attitude or your motivation is not really to reach enlightenment but reach Nirvana. Its different, that I think. You know that Sixties concept of nirvana, that kind of thing. Your attitude is to make, I dont know, to, to reach a certain stage where you can hug everyone with a light, I dont know. Like where you can multiply your orgasm; something like this. I've a feeling that you have this kind of attitude, some of you. Or some of you have this, Oh, Im depressed, I'm feeling guilty, Im feeling, you know, Im feeling depressed so you practice the dharma to get out from the depression. That is really, really bad according to Patrul Rinpoche. I'm sorry to say this but this is the truth. You do not practice dharma to get out from depression. You, for that you go for the what, therapist or you go whatever you want to do twelve steps, sixteen steps, all of this, you can do that. You practise the dharma to get enlightenment. Depression or no depression doesnt matter, who cares. You know but enlightenment, thats what we need. So this attitude is so important.

Because many of you come to the dharma, go to a certain master with certain expectations, with certain attitude, motivation that this is going to fix, fix my life. This is going to fix certain things; and if that attitude is; with this kind of attitude youll be all be disappointed one after another. Then very unfairly you will blame Buddhism and sometimes fairly you will blame Buddhists like masters. Thats okay; sometimes its kind of true. You understand but blaming Buddhism, the path, the teaching of the Buddha all compounded things are impermanent; all decaying things are suffering, pain; all phenomena doesnt have self, truly existing self -nature; nirvana or the enlightenment is beyond extreme or beyond, beyond fabrication. These four you shouldnt blame. This has taken no responsibility, didnt promise anything you understand so you cant blame this. There's no promise made here. Yah, so motivation is something important. Then Patrul Rinpoche goes to explain two kinds of eh, two kinds of methods, (pause) two kinds of attitude, I dont know whether attitude is theyah. The vast infinite attitude of the bodhisattva, a Mahayanist attitude, and the vast skill, infinite skill of the Vajrayana; both are sort of attitudes - one is more like a skill, okay. The Mahayanist; when we talk about Mahayana, the Mahayana bodhicitta or intention, we are talking more about the attitude or intention. And with this intention as we practice the dharma or as we go, walk along this path, we use the skill, the endless skills and gadgets and methods of Vajrayana. Yah, this is important okay. Its. This path is actually very beautifully constructed yah. First we build the four pillars, four views. This four views is what we need to realize. For that you need two things a vast attitude of a bodhisattva path because if you don't have this vast attitude or the vast big mind of the bodhisattva, then we have no courage to understand, no courage to face that every compounded thing is impermanent. Can you understand this? There are certain things that I understand that are impermanent; ah, but certain things, especially your loved ones - when you have to face that that is impermanent oh, its going to have difficulty. So in order to learn this four views, one is the vast attitude, big mind, courageous mind - thats something that you have to have. Because this is a big task; I mean when you see like, maybe for us like when we hear every compounded thing is impermanent that sort of, what do you call it chewable, sort of understandable. But when we say all emotions, yah, like all emotions are pain thats slightly not chewable. There are certain emotions that we like to have. Its a pain, but so what? That kind of attitude, you know. Its not a, you know; to having the fun, theres no problem. I think between Buddha and you, theres no disagreement. Buddha very much wants you to have fun as much as you want to have fun for yourself. The whole teaching, the whole Tripitakas, the whole 84000 teachings of the Buddha is actually to have the fun. Its true, but the disagreement between you and the Buddha, between us and the Buddha is how to have that fun. Because we have, we accumulated certain cause to have fun and Buddha thinks now, That is going to lead you to suffering, not fun. This is the problem here you understand. Anyway, and then words like enlightenment is beyond fabrication, enlightenment is beyond samsara and nirvana, enlightenment has no emotions, once you reach enlightenment, you cannot watch soap operas things like that.

Once, once you reach enlightenment, you cannot have this guess job? Is it, guess job what do you call it? Guessing something and then; what do you call it? - Like you try to guess something. Yah, when you reach enlightenment, there are certain things, there are lots of things you cant do. You cant do guess work. You cant bet, bet; the betting, the pleasure of betting is you dont know whos going to win or whos going to lose, and then you bet, isnt it? But youre already enlightened; you know everything whats going on or better. You cant bet. You cant watch one simple soap opera, you know, American soap opera like what Coronation Studio, or something like that, because you know everything whats going on, going to happen everything instantly. Therere so many things like that. You cant do anything basically. You cant buy stocks and what, shares, yah; you cant do anything. What? - Because enlightened person is all accomplished being. See, it is a very, very boring place. From our, from our point of view, its a very boring place. So see if you dont have a right attitude like me, we will not go, we will not see enlightenment. Who the hell wants this kind of enlightenment? You understand; who will wish such kind of enlightenment where you cant bet, you cant date? I dont know, you cant have that anxiety of whether he or she will like you or not things like this. We cant have that.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 4/31

So, right attitude; to build this right attitude, yah, I was telling you the four views, right attitude. Then the second one is having this abundance (Tibetan phrase), having this limitless or abundance of wealth of skill. Because its, its, its one thing to have the right attitude, but if you dont have that wealth of skills, you can go on, on this path for a long, long time. According to these Mahayana guys, they say that it takes like three countless eons thats kind of depressing, isnt it? So, there youll need what we call skill, lots of skills like tools, kit, what do you call it kit? Toolkit yes, you need Vajrayana toolkit; sort of things that work fast, good, I dont know, like things that work like multi-function and things that do not cost you much, actually do not cost you at all; you know, like do not cost you your limbs, your head as the Mahayana people seem to be talking about. You understand; things that, things that you can use easily, I dont know, like ready-made things. Yah, this is what you need so attitude and the wealth of skills, wealth of skills. So for this you need the Vajrayana sort of, Vajrayana (Tibetan phrase) yah, vast, vastness of skilful means, yah. These are important points that is why I elaborating a little bit.

Once we reach to the description of the hell realms and all that, Im going quite fa st because I think you can read this. The translation I heard is very, very good. I think its very good. So there are, some of these are quite important. So today, to -night, you are here with the intention of listening. For those who want just out of curiosity if you are here to see what Tibetans have to say about life. Fine, thats all you need. Then go home. Dont even bother to become Buddhists you understand? Thats okay. For those who want to sort of follow this path then its really important to ha ve the right attitude, even to listen to this teaching. You are listening to this teaching not because youre going to write down and youre going to finish your PHD - you understand? Because you have certain thesis on, I dont know, about the Eastern thoughts about mind. You know, because of that you are here. If you are purely for that, its fine too. But if you are following the path, thats not the right attitude. Because that kind of attitude; you see the problem is this. You can go a Buddhist teaching like this out of; with, with a simple attitude such as wanting to become a, just wanting to know about Buddhism a little bit. But with this kind of attitude if you are listening here, you will not hear entire, complete message of all compounded things are impermanent. You will not hear it. You understand; you may listen but you will hear this all compounded things are impermanent. Now out of curiosity, if you listen to this, you will only know so far, but you cant go beyond that yah. So, what kind of attitude we should have? For those who seriously wish to follow the path, they, they should have this attitude - I will listen to this teaching, I am listening to this teaching so that I can apply this into my practice; so that I can enlighten all the sentient beings Mahayanas attitude, Mahayanas motivation. Very, very important; so many reasons why it is important. I will tell you again and again. But one thing; if you come here and listen to these teachings - maybe you have quite a good motivation but not good enough. Quite good because you want to, you are fed up with this samsaric life, you want to reach nirvana. You want to reach enlightenment but only yourself. You dont care about other sentient beings. And that is not the supreme or the best; that is not the supreme motivation or supreme attitude we are talking here, okay? As I say this, we should listen to these teachings for the sake of all the sentient beings. Were not being just nice guys, you understand? Like you understand Oh we should save mankind we are not only talking about that. There is a philosophy behind this. The philosophy is a mind that wishes to enlighten only oneself independently, right? Independently, only myself; independently the very mind itself is the ignorance because everything is dependent. Everything there is no such thing as I, myself alone will get enlightenment you understand? Everything is dependent. This is why right from the beginning, not only because it is such a nice thought, such a supreme thought that to wish to enlighten, to wish, to have this wish to enlighten all sentient beings is such a good thought, a supreme thought. Not only that but philosophically, ultimately, it is the right thought. Not only its a good and supreme thought, but it is the right thought. Because you are; theres no such thing as, independently, you know, enlightenment; only yourself and not care about others. So this is not just being; whenever we talk about this, for the sake of all sentient

beings, we are not trying to be just nice boys and girls. It is a very, very fundamental, touching-down the reality of the phenomena; something you have to keep in your head okay. Now if you do that, the moment you, okay; the moment you begin to listen to teachings and practice whatever, with this kind of big mind, big attitude I will do this for the sake of all the sentient beings, then your path is becoming indestructible. Maybe a very, very, very big circumstance has to come to interfere you; otherwise small things like, I dont know, marriage break-up or I dont know, things like that, may not bother you so much you understand? This, this is so important okay. And then, the vastness of the skilful, skilful means; the vastness of skills out of the Vajrayana, okay; so having this motivation, how should you listen using the Vajrayana skill? Then we have to talk about the visualizations, okay. This place is no more this ordinary place - San Francisco, what is this? Whats this? What is the name of this place? Whatever, yah; this place is no more this ordinary place; this wall is not this ordinary wall; and theyre all, this place is pure land. These walls are made out of jewels, but jewels - not only the jewels that we know in this earth, but even beyond that. Yah, this is the skill of the Vajrayana, because it sets the atmosphere. See right now, some pathetic teacher is sitting up there in front of you, and some poor sort of wandering dharma groupie is listening you understand? Its really not setting up; setting up is not so good. It doesnt go further. Thats why you hear this weekend teachings again and again, again and then you never sort of go beyond that. 1989 You met this teacher and the student same thing; 1990 same thing; 1991 same thing; just that more and more wrinkles, less tooth, thats about it; maybe a little, yah; more bad news than good news, usually. So this set-up, you know, set-up; set-up is so important, yah, like flower arrangement, like this set-up. So we have done quite wonderfully here, this set-up. Thats good, the symbolic setup; but the real set-up, especially from the Vajrayana point of view - Vajrayana skill; this is using Vajrayana skill you have to set up. Set-up here, this land, this whole country is not this ordinary country bound by space, bound by direction; but this is a Sukhavati, this is a pure land. This is a buddha field. This, this question is infinite like a, ehAnyway, to be, you know, the underline, the bottom line is this place is not what you see, its not just that. Its not ordinary place. Okay, now, this you have to hear, unfortunately. You have to hear now. The teacher who is teaching this is not an ordinary person but also the Samantabhadra himself Samantabhadra - okay? And the listeners, like yourselves, is also not ordinary including yourself. You are not this miserable, useless, guilt-ridden sort of, you know, being not that. Vidyadharas - all of you are vidyadharas. Vidyadhara means sort of (Tibetan consultation) master of wisdom? - Holder of the wisdom? Saints for those who are quite new here; saints accomplished beings, accomplished beings. You know, eh, not ordinary beings; tenth bhumi bodhisattvas okay; about to, just maybe a split second and then youre already enlightened. You know that kind of, te nth bhumi bodhisattvas yah. Then not only yourself, but you know, whoever is sitting next to you; you know, the guy who is sitting next to you is not that, I dont know, smelly, you know, whatever, mm, that grumpy geek? Is it geek? - Yah, not that. A great buddha, a bodhisattva, a great bodhisattva, probably something like Avalokiteshvara, you know, with the four arms, everything okay. Youre, you know,

your friend next to you; maybe a woman not like vain that you know sort of, I dont know, Id better not say much (laughter) but someone like Tara or Saraswasti, a realized being okay. And the teaching is also not bound by words and phrases and grammar, and vocabularies, and Sanskrit words or Tibetan words or titles. But it is non-stop, ever sort of (Tibetan phrase) on-going, uninterrupted sort of teaching okay. This is what you visualize, so to speak, visualize. This is what you have to think! You have to visualize okay. Now, here, Patrul Rinpoche; so beautiful this Patrul Rinpoches saying (Tibetan phrase) this is a very important, eh, remark here. Hes saying that now as you think this is a pure realm, this guru is Samantabhadra or Guru Rinpoche (Padmasambhava) or Vajrasattva; and we are also bodhisattvas or vidyadharas as we think that, its not like we are actually not but we imagine like that. Its not like that. You understand; its not like we are imagining something that is not. Patrul Rinpoche is saying that in fact, in reality, what we see, for instance, this building is the delusion. The reality of this is Sukhavati; this is the pure realm. The teacher that who is teaching to you, bound by time, space, shape, colour, gender, whatever, is your own delusion. In fact this persons reality is Samantabhadra, Guru Rinpoche, so on and so on. And yourself, the listener your idea about how miserable you are, youre useless, that is your delusion. The reality of you is the buddha. So there is nothing wrong in thinking like this way because thats the right way - the right way of thinking. In fact, what you are ordinarily, you know, when you think something, you know like this is San Francisco; this is, you know so and so thats the wrong way. Thats what Patrul Rinpoche is emphasizing here.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 5/31

And this; now what does this make? This drags the path very fast. See the ordinary vehicles dont have this skill. You know, I was telling you earlier the skilful means. The skill, the skill of the vajrayana is what you have to use; even during the listening of the teaching you accumulate merit just like this. For instance, if you come here with a very, very limited attitude motivation of listening to this teaching out of curiosity, out of, I dont know, curiosity to the teaching, curiosity to the teacher not so much merit. Just you learn something, maybe; maybe you will not, and then maybe you make a flower arrangement like this. Eh, it creates a certain amount of merit but thats, you know, not so much; but if you think that the teacher, the place, the listener, all using the Vajrayana skilful means, you accumulate merit just billions and billions more, stronger, faster. That's the sort of Vajrayana attitude; I

mean Vajrayana skilful means, okay. So this is the first three important things that I have to tell you. And then from tomorrow onwards we will go through the teachings. If our patience, my patience, your patience prolong our lives, our energy can carry on, I have a wish to go through this, maybe four years or five years slowly. And this year maybe we will finish, maybe not, maybe not finish but sort of cover a little bit of preliminary thinking, attitude, the four common preliminary practices. And that when we; then we will explain very extensively the refuge, the concept of refuge. And there those who wish to receive the refuge vows, which are probably next year, we can perform that. And then after that we have Vajrasattva. We can maybe follow the path slowly, step-bystep gradually. Okay, thats it. So as I said earlier, eh, the actual teachings are finished. Those who wish to sit for the lung, they can sit. And those who do not want to have lung, you will have, you will make a great, youll, I think youll be a great help if you sort of go for it will be much fresher here, I think you understand. Okay, we will have a break five five minutes, ten minutes.. Okay, this is a transmission, lung. Eh, because we cant finish this tonight, I'm sure some of you will not come tomorrow. So dont, Im just going to tell you - don't feel guilty or anything like that. If you cant come tomorrow, just listen whatever you can okay. Eh, since this is a transmission you can write, you can, I dont know, do other things. Theres nothing much to listen. All you have to listen is the sound. I guess you cant fall asleep because when you fall asleep, when you fall asleep, you dont listen; you cant hear the sound. I dont know, maybe for some individual people, maybe it is possible. Yeah, apart from that, you can think of other things, you can fantasize about other things - no other. But if you want to, you can have the things we talk earlier - the right attitude, the big attitude. You can also apply the vastness, the vast skilful means of the Vajrayana - thinking that this place, this teacher, the listener, this time - is special. You can think like that, okay. (Rinpoche begins the lung transmission.) Turn to page 26 in Tibetan and in the translated version, the first chapter - okay. So, those who are not coming from tomorrow, for instance, those who cant come from tomorrow, in the future if you would want to have the complete transmission, you can, of course, eh, ideally receive the transmission right from the beginning, if you dont have the time, you can start from the second chapter. This is how the, how its practiced in Tibetan - okay. So we will conclude here tonight, okay. We will have no question and answer for today. In order for us to gain this, eh, ability to dismantle, dismantle this, eh, knot of delusion, weve to have the right view. When we talk about view, we talk about right view and wrong view. The right view is a view that is perceived by sober mind, so to speak; eh, mind that is unbiased, mind that is not filtered by all kinds of delusion basically sober and sane mind - sane mind, sane; not insane mind. Whatever you; a view that is found or realized or constructed or established by such a sane mind is what we call right view. Until we manage to have this right view, we will always have obviously wrong view. And with the wrong view, wrong contemplation. With the wrong kinds of contemplation, all kinds of wrong actions will arise, as the example we used yesterday. If our mind that is ridden by anxiety, insecurity, some kind of panic with such kind of mind, with this kind of insecurity or insane, whatever this

mind finds or realizes its usually a wrong view. And then based on those wrong views, they will have all kinds of wrong contemplation, wrong thoughts. Here when I use the word wrong and right, its not so much to do with morality, okay. Its to do with an object that's been found by a sane or insane mind, okay. Its like someone whos intoxicated by alcohol or a drug, whatever they see; if they look at this glass of water, they see this as something different - glass of wine maybe. That view is what in our normal world is considered as wrong view - and why? Because his mind is insane, hes intoxicated, hes drunk; his mind does not have this capability to see the right view - which is the water. Isnt it, yeah its simple to understand; the same logical here. From a sublime being, from a sane, realized beings point of view, we are always intoxicated by all kinds of emotion, all kinds of expectation, hope and fear. This is why whenever we make a decision, whenever we find a view, whenever we establish a view; its always a wrong view. Because its coming from panic, its coming from anxiety and so on. And then obviously, automatically, we will have all kinds of wrong, wrong action, such as aggression, you know, aggressive actions, possessive actions and all kinds of wrong actions. The result is always the pain, always suffering. And this endless of, endless dwelling on the wrong view, endlessly dwelling on the wrong contemplation and endlessly engaging with the wrong actions is what we call samsara. And this is what we need to stop. At least this is what we need to weaken, make it weaker at least. Thats, that is our aim. For that we try to, we have many, many methods. And this, Kunzang Lam Shyalung is one method, this is one path that you have decided to take. For this but to have, to be, you know, to have; even to have a little interest in the, in searching or the seeking for the right view as you seem to have; because you have sacrificed this wonderful weekend for this. So you have a little bit of motivation to seek for the right view. Even that it may be a split second inspiration that you have that have driven you here. But you should be very glad this is coming from a very, very, eh, this is coming from a lot of merit. In the past you must have created a lot of merit. And out of this merit you have this; suddenly you have this inspiration. Even the curiosity but this curiosity that you have, this inspiration that this you have is not going to last. For sure its going to, sort of, disappear. This is going to stop; so for that because, you know, were also used to wrong view. We are comfortable with the wrong view, so to speak. And we do not want to let go but then the problem is - as much as we are comfortable with the wrong view, we also somehow, eventually this wrong view always leads you to the pain. And somehow we know this a little bit, but because of the old habit we always sort of go back to this. Its like smoking or drinking. We all know that everywhere you go, people tell you smoking is bad for your health, alcohol is bad for your health. And then you try, you have a motivation of stopping it, but when you see these cigarettes dangling on someone's mouth, you know, even after ten years, you still have this urge to go back to the wrong view and wrong meditation and the action. Its like that. Its really, really difficult to maintain even this glimpse of curiosity that you have you understand. So this is why great masters like Patrul Rinpoche, before he teaches you the path, he always emphasizes us, encourages us to build this foundation. And yesterday he

gave two very, very important foundations the attitude and the skill. This attitude which is going to not only, eh, this attitude that we talk yesterday, is not only the key for you to start your path, open your doors to your path; but this attitude of Mahayana, such as the attitude of wishing, practicing this for the sake of all sentient beings. This attitude is going to be like one that holds your path together or one that holds your curiosity from now to the enlightenment. You know, even this little curiosity or little interest that you have - this motivation is going to do this job. And towards the end, this motivation or this attitude is going to also make you not feel disappointed; because when you see this attitude does not have expectations. The attitude that, this attitude is going to come again and again. We will have to talk about this again and again. When we talk about the Mahayanas attitude; this Mahayanas attitude has very, very; this attitude does not have expectations. So because of that, because there is, there is no expectation, the element of expectation is not there because of that its not going to lead you to disappointment. And so this is why right attitude; this is why Patrul Rinpoche emphasized.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 6/31

And then great masters like Patrul Rinpoche, know very well that this is a degenerated time, we sentient beings are degenerated beings. This is 20th century becoming almost 21st century, isnt it? And people have no time, people have no energy, people have no sort of stubborn inspiration. He knows this very well. Buddhas and bodhisattvas know this very well. This is why after the attitude, we talk about skills. You then apply Vajrayana skilful means so that your path, as you seek the right view; this long, boring, full of eh, hazards, is it hazards, hazards? This journey, this long endless journey (Loud sound of heavy thing dropping) Just like that. (Laughter) This long journey will not be, that this long difficult journey to seek theres so much challenge, you know, so much challenge. As we were speaking earlier you have quit smoking but you are sitting or living with friends who are smoking all the time. All kinds of brand so youre; it's very hard to sort of maintain your courage, to maintain like that. So for that the Vajrayana skill, something that will make your path not only powerful but quick, and this we talked also yesterdayokay. Today we begin with; now having this motivation or attitude, and with this kind of motivation to adopt, this kind of skill you should listen to these teachings. You

should practice this path. Right now before we go through the detailed instructions on how to practice the path, we talk about how to listen to the teachings with this, eh, how to listen to the teachings. Okay. So right attitude and the skilful means is what you apply. On top of that, this time you have to have the right conduct on listening, listening to the teachings okay. Now as I told you, you are, this time if youre really interested we are following this big book. And apart from few points like numbers of hell realms and things like that, I am, I have decided to explain most of these points quite thoroughly. Because some of these points may seem to be applying only to Tibetans; if you read it with a little bit of skill again the skill is so important, you know. If you read it with a little bit of different attitude and different skill, this every information here is quite importantokay. Usually these are the parts most of the students here, including myself, we skip - you understand. This is preliminary stuff, you understand. We usually go to the mind business sort of, you understand, but I have to be patient here. Im as vulnerable as you are, you know, because as a spiritual entertainer (laughter), I have to make sure that you will not fall asleepyou understand. So I have to make things interesting but I think that kind of motivation will not lead us so much. So Im, I have to, it doesnt matter, this time I have to close my eyes doesnt matter even if you are getting bored with this, I have to go through most of the important remarks. Okay So here when we talk about conduct, as you listen to the teaching, theres three sort of downfall that you have to abandon. Conduct to avoid theres three conducts to avoid three kinds of defect. When you listen to the teaching, its important that you concentrate on the teaching because if you wander then you are like a pot turned upside down. No matter how much we pour water, nectar it will not, it will not be able to become the container of all this information. So thats, that's the standard defects that you have to avoid. Thats easy to understand, okay. Then there is a slightly more; I think listening unless you are really dull and you are, unless you are I have a feeling that this problem comes more with the Tibetans, not so much in the West, especially this problem, the first problem. Nine oclock, theres a gong, then they all go to the class and then they, sort of some kind of routine, they sit there. And then the abbot teach so most of the young monks I did this before a lot - we don't listen; not so much appreciation. I don't think this problem comes so much with you guys because you are not forced to be here. Most of you paid your time, energy, save your leave, save your money so that you can come here, hide from your Christian husband, (laughter) you understand and you are here. So you must be listening; so this I cannot, I dont think this problem will occur to you so much. But this definitely goes, because most of these but having said this, this can come to these dharma students who usually are attendants of rinpoches, you understand who are close to the rinpoches, who travels round with rinpoches or who usually receives a lot of teachings. Because they have been hearing so much, theyre sort of jaded dharma practitioner so then they dont listen. Because they think oh, I will hear this anyway in San Francisco. I will hear it; if I miss this here I will hear it in Los Angeles because this rinpoche is teaching next time in Los Angeles like this. And then the time goes by. So some of the people who you know like pretending that

they are part of the, I dont know, attendants of rinpoche, maybe the chief of the dharma centre, I don't know these people they usually have a little bit of this problem. Dont you think, yeah, a little bit? But most of you you have come a long way, some pregnant, some conceived, some, you know things like this. So I'm sure you will listen unless previous night you had a very wild night and here you are a little bit dull; that, that's a different issue. Now the second defect is something that comes both to Tibetans, definitely to Tibetans but also to you guys it can happen - the pot with the hole in it - if you just listen without remembering anything that you hear or understand, yeah. Here again you in the West, I have noticed theres a very good; you see in the West theres a tradition of going to school and I dont know, because, because there is a certain interest, because you listen I think, maybe you have a less, again a lesser of this problem. Because you take notes, you record in the teaching, but then again have said this, you may take notes and record teachings, but the teachings, the instructions, the pith instructions might be, might get rotten, left over, never read your notes, right? You take a note right now and you never read this for twenty years and it will rot. You record these teachings and you never listen. Its extra expenditure...things like this but I dont know. Again this is, I think this come to you guys but definitely it comes to people like me and again, like monastery students, monks because first of all they don't even listen. Even they listen, they dont try to remember; I'm talking generally. That's so; this is one defect we should, defect of conduct we should avoid. Listen attentively and after you listen, contemplate on it, remember it, trying to remember the instructions. Now, Im sure you have a question - I can't remember every word, every sentence, yeah, yeah, if you tune your; this will come later, well talk later. Now that the third problem now this, this can come so you have to watch out that. The third defect; the pot containing poison now this can come. Yeah, so watch out; dont become this, this, dont; watch out, try to avoid this conduct. Eh, when you listen to the teachings, first of all, if you listen with the wrong attitude such as becoming famous, famous, such as, I dont know, eh, get some ideas for your thesis, I don't know; you know things we talked yesterday. Then the purpose of dharma is lost. Because purpose of dharma is to penetrate your mind and then dismantle that net of delusion, remember. Its not working because you are not applying the dharma to destroy the net of delusion. In fact the dharma became another contribution as a threat to make the net even more tighter. So the third defect is what we have to watch out as you listen to the teaching. And then as you listen to the teaching, you should also try to watch out to what we call the six stains. (Pause) This is quite important, mm. If you want to be a serious dharma practitioner, very important - - pride, the first stain. We are not talking about pride like I am, me, I, me, I, listener to the teaching - I am better than these new dharma students. We are not talking about that only. We are talking about having this pride that I'm better than the master whos giving you the teaching. Now this you may; yeah, of course I don't think it will occur, especially for those who have been practicing dharma for a while. It may not occur, this kind of pride may not occur obviously or consciously but it does occur very, very unconsciously and very subtly. Eh, because when you are listening; of course as a human being, as a sentient being, as an ignorant being, you are even though youre trying to build the right attitude - because of your habit, many, many

lifetimes of habit, you have a certain attitude. So you might, I don't know, it can be a simple construction of sentence that you think thats not the right way of construction of sentence. You understand? - Things like that. Subtle pride can happen so one has to watch out. In this case between you and me, you can have a lot of pride, dont worryyou understand? But normally when you are receiving from a great master, watch out because the problem is when you have a pride, the pride - we talk this later actually first let me finish the six stains. Pride, then also faith or devotion to the teaching and the guru; its like, okay, first of all, you have this pride which already close, closes a lot, a lot of the doors, so no information will go in. I guess I should tell you the defect of the pride. See the problem with the pride, pride is like a, eh, very, very, quick generator; quick generator of preconception, you understand - a lot of preconceptions, because of your and certain Ah, this I know you understand? So when you have this preconception, because you dont have the humility I dont know, you understand. But because of the pride, you think Ah, this one I know- maybe okay, five points. If you have a little bit of pride you may think I don't know this, I don't know this, this but I know THIS - that kind of pride. So you are receiving the teaching; as you receive the teaching, this preconception will always bother you. You will; okay the master will teach you and you will hear, you will hear it through this. So your dharma, the whole path you will construct with the help of this pride. So its very dangerous. Okay, and this leads to the other five problems actually.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 7/31

Lack of devotion or the faith - path, the teaching is, the dharma or the teaching is like a path. If you want to reach somewhere youve to have a certain trust that if you walk along this path with this guide you will reach somewhere wherever you want to reach. If you don't have this faith that this path; if I follow this, what is it turf, avenue, is it turf? That I will reach University of San Francisco. If you dont have that, suddenly while you are driving, maybe Bush Street or Pacific Avenue or something like this, someone says Hey, you know, its not that way, then youll, you, easily you will get distracted. Youll then go here and go there and then you will be a perfect victim of people like us, who are good at, sort of, entertaining spiritually, you understand? So we can say Hey, hey, look, look, this is the way, then you come to us and then we will throw you, like a volley ball, well throw you to another path. And then this path will throw you to here; you will never reach anywhere, you understand? Easily get distracted because you have no trust on the path that you took and the trust to this

guide, you understand. This is actually caused by the previous stain which is the pride. Then the third problem, the third stain - (Tibetan phrase), lack of effort is how it is translated here but Ill have my version. Eh, lack of effort, hmm, its, its actually, yeah I think lack of effort is a very good translation. I think its something to do with the valuing, how you value. See most of the time, we do not have a high value, we dont, what you call it? We do not rate the dharma or the path of enlightenment as a, we dont give a high rate, you know rate of value, what do you call it? Value its not that big value for us. We can, most of us here, even though we consider ourselves as a dharma practitioner, I bet including me - we can, we will be, we will be trading this for something. You know the Dharma; its not THAT valuable for us. We say, we think at times its a very valuable thing, but I don't know, how much we value it. Now If you really value, if you think that having the right view is such a wonderful thing, that if actually even having a glimpse of the right view for a split second, worth billions of dollars ah, then you are putting a very high value. Now if you really rate like that, if you, if you put that kind of value then you would have the effort; you will, in fact you will not, you will not take it as an effort. Because is a joy to, you know, I mean like mountaineers, for example, going, you know, reaching to the highest peak in Mount Everest is a such a big value for them. So they then done everything at home, they risk their lives and their whole act of climbing the mountain is such a joyful thing. This is because they value the reaching the highest peak is such a big; you know they really value it. So not valuing the dharma is one big stain, yeah. Now this stain I can't really blame you guys entirely because most of us, we don't even know how to value. We have not yet, for most us we have not really study the dharma thoroughly. We have not, we don't have enough information so we really don't know; you know its like, eh, its like as Patrul Rinpoche actually said, I bring such an analogy from the latter; its like, for most of us, its like, Patrul Rinpoche said like green grass in front of a tiger meaning you dont know how to eat because we dont, we have not learn it, you know, the value, the benefit of this. This is, this is the problem. So I think emphasizing on studying the dharma; when you study the dharma, then you will understand that its a very valuable thing. So this is one stain not valuing the dharma. And then, outward distraction thats kind of easy to understand you know, movies, football, you know like a, I dont know, parties, and dinner appointments and just all of that. Outward like, you know, friends come in, friends want to socialize, socializing, I dont know, what you think, all these like, mmm, mainly coming from s ort of fear of losing, the losing and hope of gaining, you know. Out of that, for most of us, socalled this outward distraction is almost like a job, you understand. Its out of necessary, you understand; you have to have it, otherwise you will not survive in this earth. This is why when people like Patrul Rinpoche say, Hey, look, we should refrain from this kind of stain outward distraction. Its kind of difficult to chew, difficult to understand, difficult to accept. But what is the characteristic of this, definition or the characteristic of distraction? - Something that hinder, something that hinder, hindrance? - Something that is a hind or interference; and something that eventually doesnt give you any help. That is the definition of distraction, a ccording to the teaching. So most of the outward distraction that we usually engage in they

always, they end up eventually waste our time. Now, the opposite of that; slightly opposite of that is inward tension then some people sort of avoid all these, you know, because suddenly you have a strong inspiration to practice the dharma. You suddenly, I dont know, something may have happened in your family; I dont know, maybe you have a terrible fatal disease or something like that that may have caused you to practice the dharma. So you follow the path, you pursue a path, meet a teacher, you meditate and you practice; but then you have this kind of problem inward tension. Not relaxing; this is also extreme, another extreme. The outward, you know, outward distraction is distraction to outside; inward, inward tension is actually distraction to inside. Thinking, you know, okay when you think about the movies, you are distracted by outside. When youre thinking am I am a good dharma practitioner, like twenty hours, am I doing the right thing, am I pleasing my teacher? You know, sort of so much; if that, because as you can see you are not really practising, practising the dharma here. You are trying to eh, convince someone or youre trying to - again it is back to the pride. This is why inward distraction or inward tension - fifth stain; this is something you have to get rid of. And then (Tibetan phrase), mmm, listening to the teaching with a little bit of boredom, thinking oh, this is too long, too bored, too boring, I have heard this many times, the same thing, this is the same old stuff, things like that. I have this problem a lot. When I receive teachings from my masters, I have every problem but this one, the sixth one, is one of my biggest problems. You should analyse which of this six you have more than the others. I dont think you have the sixth one so much, I dont know. These are, yeah; and Patrul Rinpoche, in his commentary, he said out of these stains or faults, one should really watch out to two things. The others are maybe something that is easy, something that is easier to, eh, overcome. But theres two things, two faults or stains that creep into us silently and damage us in a very big, eh, you know, create a big damage within us. And these two are jealousy and pride; and these two, one has to watch out. Mm, maybe three questions based on this, if you want to have questions. Yeah. Question: The question based on the effect of pride, typically when you talk about, you know, when you say four or five you dont know, maybe you know one area you start constructing the path because of that. Can you say a little bit about the person what is happening to the person who is not taking that approach; what kind of approach can we simply have if we were not kind of manipulating this pride issues? Rinpoche: It will come. I think so. Yes, speak louder, okay. Question: I went two years on these teachings on chapter one. It speaks about here that unless you practice dharma according to the dharma, dharma itself becomes the cause of rebirth. Well, if you are short of realization and you dont have the right view, is it correct that youre constantly creating negative karma and evil rebirth; then how you can ever, how can you ever realize enlightenment if youre continually creating the evil rebirth?

Rinpoche: Okay; eh, when Patrul Rinpoche, when he is saying if you dont know; if you dont practice the dharma according to the dharma, that means; you see, according to the dharma, you should practice the dharma for the sake of sentient beings without pride, without jealousy, without all these faults hes talking about. And this is what we have to try. We should try to practice without these. Thats the goal, yeah; that is the goal also but that is the result. By the time you manage to have none of these faults, youre quite up there. So this is the beautiful part. This is the beautiful thing about the Vajrayana path. Even though we are right beginning from the book; actually some instructions, the simple answer at the moment, we are not even; we have not even touch the actual teaching. We are right now going through how to listen to the teaching. But if you can actually learn how to listen to the teaching, that alone can take you quite up, you know maybe tenth bhumi bodhisattva or something. Yes, that is, this is the beautiful thing about; eh, generally the whole Buddhas teaching. This is why you see teaching like impermanence and teaching like sunyata; people usually think that sunyata is more exotic, more profound and it has more complete path. And that emptiness, I mean impermanence is more like preliminary thing that you practice first to get into the path which is okay, which is right in one way. But on the other hand, later you will hear when we talk about impermanence just contemplating on impermanence, you will, you will manage to get a lot of things, even the understanding of emptiness. This is the, sort of hundred thousand, how many? Eighty-four thousand methods. In each method there are eighty-four thousand methods. Its like that. Yeah. Question: Thank you Rinpoche, I appreciate your kind, type of conversation that goes on with defect like pride and some of the things we say. I have trouble with jealousy and cannot quite contain my jealousy; could you say a little more about some of the conversation that we have that actually jealousy; for example, with pride you mentioned when you break some of the teachers sentences Rinpoche: Oh, I see. Jealousy, okay; many, many interpretations, but since we are touching with something very practical kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung is very practical, not so much; its not so much; it can be academic but its mainly for practical things. So jealousy is when you do not rejoice other peoples virtuous thoughts and actions. Thats, thats like the dawn of jealousy, you understand. So this is what you have to learn. Okay, yes.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 8/31

Question: Can you specifically talk about the fourth stain, which is the inward distraction? Rinpoche: Yes, yes; its coming, two hundred pages (laughter) okay. Student: You mentioned all compounded things Rinpoche: All compounded things are impermanent? Student: All compounded things are impermanent. Is there anything that is not compounded? Rinpoche: Strictly speaking, no; because, no. Student: At one point you were saying that, maybe I misunderstood; you said all things are impermanent including nirvana Rinpoche: Nirvana that we think about; yes. Student: They are not exactly the same? the nirvana we think about and Rinpoche: Yeah, this is why Buddhists talk about parinirvana. Student: Is there two nirvanas? Rinpoche: Yeah, they sort of out of a lack of words, you know, expression they call it parinirvana, okay. And that is not a compounded phenomenon. First of all, its not phenomena, so its beyond compounded and uncompounded thing. Thats why its beyond extremes, the fourth one, remember; the fourth, beyond fabrication. But this compounded, uncompounded phenomena - is a fabrication. Nirvana, the actual nirvana, the ultimate nirvana is beyond fabrication, okay. Yeah, Carrie?

Question: Rinpoche, I feel very much like a pot with lots of holes in it. Rinpoche: Pot with a lot of holes, okay. Question: How do, how do you concentrate? I can remember the teachings a week after I hear them and they sort of disappear. How can you concentrate throughout your entire life so that your mind becomes one with dharma. Rinpoche: Okay, again a practical advice. If you are a serious dharma practitioner, if youre following the path, especially if you are a beginner, theres nothing much you can do except pray to Guru Rinpoche Padmasambhava to put, what you call it?

Mm, you know, seal these holes; yeah its true. And then on top of this, something more physical maybe, its a good question actually. These holes are actually; you know who create these holes? The six stains. Pride; it pokes a big hole. And then lack of faith is like rust, you understand; it, it does not poke immediately but it sort of slowly, without you noticing, it creates a big hole. Sort of sometimes lack of faith is like when you look at the pot, actually its quite good, but all it needs is a little bit of touch and then it will make a big hole. So these are the hole-makers, actually. Outward distraction, inward distraction or tension, and discouragement these are the hole-makers; so watch out these things.

Student: Rinpoche, you speak about the importance of understanding impermanence; but the text talks a lot about reborn in the hell realm and motivation. One thing is I have a hard time understanding . Rinpoche: Okay, we will talk about that. Student: You will touch on that? Rinpoche: I hope so wait (pause). Always watch out to this pride. Whenever the pride comes, expose it to other people. Try to generate devotion or the faith to the dharma because that is like a door to the practice, door to the path. Always try to upgrade your value to the dharma every day because if you do not value the dharma; depending on how much you value the dharma. If you value, if you value the dharma a little bit, then you are dharma practitioner, but not - small time practitioner. If you value slightly more, then youll become better dharma practitioner. So its the valuing the dharma that decides whether you are good dharma practitioner or not. Remember nowadays when we hear people talk oh, hes a good dharma practitioner what does that mean? He spends a lot of time with Rinpoches thats really just the candid, obvious reason why hes NOT a good practitioner too (laughter). Because he has done a lot of retreats? Six years of retreat, nine years of retreat; eh, eh, we dont know, we dont know what he has been doing inside. You know, he might have like novels to read; I dont know who knows what he has been doing. You know some fantasies, all kinds of things. All of these do not show whether he or she is a good dharma practitioner. Now when you see someone who really values the dharma as these mountaineers value the highest peak, its the most glorious, glorious thing; can you understand what I am saying? That decides; that will measure whether this person is a good dharma practitioner or not you understand. If someone; okay, if theres, if theres a choice for instance, maybe eh, a cup of warm nice cappuccino and a boring, I dont know, longwinded teachings on usual stuff like compassion you understand. Many of these old time dharma practitioners who happen to be next to a lama or Rinpoche for a lifetime, they might use this cappuccino. Those who value they will give up this. I dont think we have reached to a stage where bodhisattvas, you know like

Shakyamuni Buddha, when he was a bodhisattva, he valued the dharma - just, just four shlokas or one shloka (one verse) for one verse of truth he has given up so much. He gave up his kingdom. He gave up his wife. He made holes in his body, thousand holes; filled these holes with butter and what you call it? (Wicks, from audience) Wicks; put wicks and made butter-lamp offerings to his master; things like that. I think thats almost impossible for us right now, but at least, things like a cup of coffee or dharma, you understand? A weekend holiday or dharma, you understand? Eh, get along with your Muslim wife and satisfy her needs or wishes for this day or maybe, sacrifice that and go to, I dont know, a weekend retreat things like that valuing. The valuing; how much you value this will decide your butter yolk who is and who is not a good dharma practitioner, you understand. Otherwise you see a lot of dharma practitioners these days; most of them are not necessarily good dharma practitioners. Theyre just good, theyre just good with spiritual materialist, materialism. I dont know, wrong; and then he has a lot; I feel, I feel actually sad, you know, out of; we have to finish this text, you know. So there are certain things, Im trying, trying to find certain things maybe not necessarily to explain but I cant find. Every word, every sentence is so special. Outward distractions - is something that which one should watch because if you; and then as analogy given by Patrul Rinpoche if you are distracted by outward form, you are like a butterfly distracted by a lamp. Soon you are going to be killed by this form; things like that. Thats an example that you can read in this book very beautiful examples. Like if you are attracted to taste, you are like a fish; soon a bait, a fishermans bait will catch you. And then inward distractions like thinking about the future, planning, planning your worldly life I guess thats one big problem. But even more than that, thinking, planning about your spiritual life how next year youll do a one month retreat and go to Nepal, things like that planning about the future. This is not good. Because if this happens, then you are, you become like the father of Dharmachapa - you are like the father of the Famous Moon. I will let you read the story in the book. I guess these are the things I can skip. Its in the page fourteen in the translation later, okay. Inserted from another source: Father of Famous Moon

Father of Famous Moon


Don't invite the future. If you do youre like the father of Famous Moon. This refers to the story of a poor man. Hundreds of years ago there was a man who was a beggar. One day he came across a large pile of barley. He was very happy because he had never had as much barley as that. He put it in a big sack.

He was afraid that somebody would steal it when he was sleeping, so he tied the sack to a rafter, and then lay down beneath it. But he couldn't sleep. He was very happy because of his big sack of barley. Then he started to day dream. "I'm going to start a business and it will make me really rich, and once I'm rich, I'm going to find a beautiful girl friend and marry her.Then she is going to have a baby boy ..............

What shall I call him?" the beggar thought. Just then, the moon appeared and shined through his window, so he decided to call his son Famous Moon. However, all this time a rat had been gnawing away at the rope that was holding up the sack. That rope suddenly snapped. The sack fell on the man and he was killed. This story teaches us that whatever we do or study, we should do it right now! Don't think about tomorrow! If you do, tomorrow may never come. Just like the beggar, your time may run out.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 9/31

Mmand inward distraction or inward, what you call it, eh, tension, is it? - Inward tension; theres also a beautiful story here. These stories are quite nice, again at the end of the page fourteen. Once in the past Ananda was teaching Shrona how to meditate. Shrona had difficulty in getting it right. Sometimes he was too tensed, sometimes too relaxed. Shrona went to discuss with Buddha who asked him, When you were a lay man, you were a good veena player, wont you? Yes I played very well. Did you, did your veena sound best when the strings were very slack or when

they were very taut? Things like that; you read this story, okay. After this, then we talk about the five wrong ways of remembering the teaching. This is in response to your question also. You know, in your question, you were asking how do you, how do you not become a what, a vessel with a lot of holes; yeah, the five wrong ways of remembering. Okay, lets have a break for maybe ten minutes. This is what you have to avoid again as you listen to the teaching. As I said, these, all these in itself, there is a complete path even though it comes under the title of How to listening, how to listen to the teaching. We are not only talking about some mundane, you know like how to sit and how to fold your hands were not talking things like that. We are talking quite profound things here. If you can even listen; if you can listen to the teaching with even not; maybe not entirely all these qualities or awareness of all these, eh, things that you have to remember - proper conduct, proper attitude - you, you have, you, you are practicing dharma, you know even by listening to the teaching. But anyway, its coming under the title of How to listen to the teachings. Right, so the five wrong ways of remembering that you have to avoid. Eh, remembering the words but not the meaning thats something that you have to avoid. Sometimes we get inspired by words, elegant words, poetic phrases, and we put emphasis on these words, the elegant, eloquent words and phrases; and not think about the message of this word, the meaning of this word thats trying to tell, imply something to us. If we do that, then the teaching is not benefiting, the teaching is not penetrating your mind. Again for some people, a different kind of attitude exists, thinking oh, words are not so important; it is the meaning that is very precious. So skipping all these words and phrases, and trying to sort of getting into the word; well thats all very well but there is one danger in it. The danger is you can separate the words and the meaning and then there is the danger of misinterpretation. This is why emphasizing words, emphasizing to the, to both words and meaning is quite important. But I guess these two downfalls or defect is something thats easy to understand. I dont know whether this applies to us so much; I mean, Im sure it occurs to us a lot but(long pause) The third what, the third wrong way of remembering, wrong way of understanding the dharma this is something that I have my own, with my own eyes and ears, have seen that it really occurs a lot with people like us. This third problem; which is - the Buddhas teachings have many different levels, Buddha was an omniscient being. When he taught; okay Buddha was an omniscient being and he was full of skilful means. He, he was never, he never has this poverty of skilful means. Its not like he has only one thing to say and he kept on repeating that again and again. He was full of ideas. He had so many methods. And he gave this method to different kinds of people, for different time, different situation, different, eh, I dont know; individuals he gave different teachings. Generally, out of our deluded mind; generally we can categorise these teachings into two the teaching that needs interpretation and the teaching that is more straightforward, sort of teaching that does not require interpretation. Now many of the listeners to the teaching, then instead of being careful about how you, how youre

taking it; you know this is a problem thats happening all the time I have seen - for instance, like vegetarian and non-vegetarian issues; and this big issue about women and Buddhism, stuff like that, you understand. And people write about oh, the Buddhist, some of the Buddhist ideas are unfair to women - very unfair because whoever says this, he or she must have first finished reading all the sutras and tantric texts, only then you can make such comments. How can you read one sutra of one school that is taught by Buddha at one particular time, to one particular narrow-minded, you know, narrow-minded society that is like, that is a Hindu, caste-believing, dominating society, you understand? He had to give such teachings because he was, he was compassionate. He was already implementing big ideas like eh, there is no God as a creator, there is no, eh, you know, all human beings have the Buddha nature. Things like this are already a very radical thing to say. So, see when you; this is my, this is my only, okay this is how I guess when, when Buddha taught. I think for people, say; lets say you have very important message to give to the people number one message, right. And this message is going to help thousands and thousands of people. Now there is another message that you can give, right, which will also help thousands and thousands of people. But at that time if he brings up the second issue, second subject listener, the conservative, you know, they might not listen to BOTH. There is a big problem here, you understand. Things like this, you have to really understand the difference between the Buddhas teachings. Some he said; eh, he said many different things; some he said I, when I was a prince, when I was a bird, when I was a hunter, when I was a prostitute, he said. Some, in some sutras like Lankavatara Sutra, he said whoever thinks that he, Buddha is a person, a form, a colour, a shape, a taste this person has the wrong idea, things like that. So you have to be quite skilful here when you read the Buddhas teaching. And this is what you need to know. This problem will come to you, okay. And not only Buddhas teaching; even probably a teaching of your master. This, of course, has a lot of our normal human problem; for instance, our master, we sort of obey our masters. Our fickle ego, ego-mind is very, very, very clever. Lets say you want to go to New Zealand and build a retreat centre, you understand. Thats your wish, very strong wish. I am talking about someone actually (laughter). And this master says maybe not necessary. But then you ask this question in all, all this request in ten thousand forms until you, until your master has to almost say yes thats a good idea (laughter). You understand this happens; things like this kind of problem can occur based on this third problem so watch out. You know like; okay then there is a problem like when the master tells you something, you know like Ah, you actually look quite fat, then you take i t so literally and really got hurt, you understand. And then if the master tells you, Oh, you look not bad, your practice is good, not enough, you understand; maybe youre happy for most. What I am saying is that we take certain things literally, certain things we choose not to take literally its all up to us, isnt it? Certain things we take literally, certain things we dont. And then at the end, we blame the teacher and the teaching not so good. So this is where the third

And similarly, very similar, the fourth one is very similar; instead of different kinds of teaching, its the different sections of the teaching. Beginning stage; for instance in the beginning, we would say everything is impermanent, right, everything is impermanent. Okay, now lets say, in the beginning, the teaching, the teaching might; theres a subject like okay, our life is impermanent; thats right, our life is impermanent; death, dying, okay. We going to listen and listen; towards the end when we listen to the main teaching, then we have everything is emptiness. When we hear the word everything is emptiness, then there are certain very jumpy students who then bring up the previous issue life is impermanent if everything is emptiness, how can life be impermanent? You know, everything is emptiness; trying to jumble everything. Now this is not good. This also I have seen with myself, I do this; Im sure you do this too. Beginning stage most of the teachings are trying to divert your attention to more wholesome things, you understand, more holy things; more close, trying to bring you closer to the truth, so to speak. And then towards the end of the teaching, usually show you the raw truth. This is always sort of standard structure of the teaching. Structure of the Buddhist teaching, Buddhist teaching; mostly in the beginning, always trying to divert your attention to more good things like the truth, bring you closer to the truth. Once you are quite close, close to the truth; then reveal the truth. And then the job is done. But when we do that; the expression of when we teach based on bringing you closer to the truth, we have to talk about as if something exists, like there is so-called death, there is so-called rebirth, there is so-called hell realm, you understand. Then emptiness is introduced later, after youre quite close to the truth - emptiness. Many people ask if everything is emptiness, hell must be emptiness also so why should we have fear? Things like that. So always, this is something one has to watch out. Of course, the fifth one, theres a big problem. This happens a lot, watch out misunderstanding. Remembering the teachings incorrectly, completely opposite; teachings say something, the teacher says something and you understood, you understood it completely on the other, on the sort of wrong direction, misunderstood totally. This happens a lot. The antidote for that, of course will come later, but just for now always think that what you have understood may not be the final ultimate truth, okay. Always have that humility. Not only this will challenge this kind of problem but also your mind of seeking the dharma, wanting to learn more the dharma will come, okay; so thats it. So these are from the what, three falls of, mm, what we call it, the six stains, the five wrong ways of remembering and the three defects of the pot. These are what we call what you, what, what a listener or dharma practitioner must avoid when you listen to the teaching. Now what to do; how should you listen? Okay we cant be these three pots, we shouldnt have these six stains, we shouldnt have these five different kinds of mm, wrong ways of understanding of, wrong ways of remembering the teaching. Then, now how should we listen to the teaching? What to do? The Four Metaphors; this is a very good metaphor.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 10/31

First the Four Metaphors; as the Sutra Arranged like a tree says - this is the name of the Sutra Arranged like a tree Noble One, you should think of yourself as someone who is sick, of the dharma as a remedy, of your spiritual friend as a skilful doctor, and of diligent practice as the way to recovery. These are the four metaphors. I dont think we need to explain this a lot because eh; but eh, one thing I like to say is this Four Metaphors, especially, especially contemplating on I am a sick person. This is good Im not healthy, you know. I am someone who has little problem, you understand. This is good. We are not talking about you know, worthlessness and this kind of thing. Just unwell; you are, youre not well; not well with what? Not well with passion, aggression, pride and jealousy. See if a person admits that you are sick then a person will, of course, has this motivation to see a doctor and eat medicine. So my own instruction for you is time to time, remember that we are we are not mm, we are like this sick person, handicapped, maybe sick; if Californians dont like to hear this then sort of little handicapped, I dont know. Most of these things are not something that Californians would like to hear, isnt it? This, this is quite harsh, but what to do? This is the way. Anyway accepting, admitting that I am a patient, yeah maybe a patient, yeah; I thought eh, what, mm, five out of five Californians are patients for some kind of therapist, you know (laughter), is there? Maybe easier to adopt this kind of attitude I am a patient, Buddha is a doctor, dharma is the medicine, practising the dharma is like the process of recovery. That attitude is really, really good. Personally for me, this, the first thought I am a patient really hurts me a lot. Because when, when I think Im a patient, that means Im not strong enough; I dont have the strength, I need a help - that kind of attitude, okay. The next, the six transcendent perfections, six paramitas; the way you listen, okay how you listen to the teachings we are still talking about that. We are still under the title of The way we and then were talking about the six paramitas. We can do that while you listen to the teachings. Eh, arranging this is a very Mahayana and Theraveda influence actually arranging a seat of a master higher than you; arranging the place of the teaching, beautiful and creating the right atmosphere such as flowers - this kind of sacrifice is generosity. This is something you can create. You can all individually create, like eh,

creating a space, eh, creating a right atmosphere, I dont know if you have eh, eh, very strong armpit smell, then buy a good deowhat do you call it? Deodorant, yeah. Because the persons next to you have to listen to the teaching so you should not distract their and in a way thats a very good generosity, you understand. Because you are giving them, creating this right atmosphere, yeah; dont take it personally (laughter), dont take it literally, and dont worry. And then cleaning the place of the teaching, wherever it is being taught; and also creating the more right atmosphere oneself like a - okay this is a very important teaching, and I should sit straight or I dont know, put on better clothes when you go to the teaching as if it is the most important occasion. You know like going to a very important function, like eh, where you need to wear black suit for instance tuxedo. It creates such an atmosphere and creating that kind of atmosphere is shila, discipline; and also, of course listening with humbleness, listening with eh, respect and so on. And then being patient with this very long and boring teachings; being patient with, sort of completely eh, what you call it, not eloquent, eloquent? Words coming out of especially this one; being patient with eh, I dont kn ow, lack of language skills, things like this. Thats the patience. And then trying to avoid the wrong view about the guru, of the teacher and the teaching and then instead of having the wrong view, creating this joy to listening to the teaching. That is diligence. You see according to the Mahayana, the definition of diligence is joy to do whatever youre doing that is the diligence. And then concentrating on the teaching is the samadhi. Its like the meditation itself. And then applying whatever youre taught, whatever youre listening to the teaching, applying that directly towards your ego, you know, okay, you listen to a master talking about how pride is not good. Most of the time we think oh, yes pride is not good; my friend has so much pride you know, instead of applying to yourself. So applying to oneself constantly is the wisdom. So this six paramitas is necessary. And then besides, as Patrul Rinpoche said as a gesture of respect to the teaching, one should sit lower than the teacher. And also the teacher must - which I forgot, and I dont know, I felt awkward last night - I should be prostrating to this chair that Im sitting on eh, but I guess Ill do it once the main teaching starts, okay. Because this is, this is what Buddha also did just before he taught in Varanasi, he prostrated to the throne where he is going to sit and teach things like this. And there are certain, some descriptions, some details coming from Shantidevas Bodhicharyavatara. I dont know how much that will make sense in you, to you like one should not teach to those whose head is bounded by eh, wrapped by a cloth of or one who is holding a knife things like that. I think its a very, theres so much Indian, you know; in India when it was taught I dont know how much that is relevant. Maybe it is relevant, Im sure we can find out something that is relevant here which you can think later, okay. Thats it; so with this we have finished with How to listen to the teachingokay. Now the main teaching; to start with the main teaching, first we are starting with

How difficult it is to find the freedoms and the advantages the precious human body its sometimes referred as. But I think the translation, this one; this translation is very good, How difficult it is to have freedoms and advantages. Generally theres outline of you know, theres like when, when were, when we try to reflect on the nature of the freedom, when we try to define what is meant by freedom - the classic Buddhist teaching here, outline like, has eight outlines - okay. Eh, being born in the hell and preta (ghost) realms, as an animal, warring god or barbarian, having wrong views, being born when there is no buddha, or being born deaf and mute these are the eight stages without freedom. Im sure you have heard this many times, also the book itself actually explains quite well. Mm, Im not going to spend so much time explaining this. Eh, I think born in the hell, hell realms, definitely one has no freedom, one is constantly tormented by all sufferings and you know, trauma. Ones only wish is to escape from this trauma or suffering things like that. Eh, so similarly, preta realm is easy to understand, animal realm should be easy to understand. Warring god now heres one point that you have to know. From the Buddhist point of view, human birth is far more greater birth than a god realm. And this is because human birth can be a, can be, is the perfect vessel for the dharma practice; not the god, not by being god, you understand. This is one thing that you just, I just want to say. The barbarian thats something that we can maybe, if you have any problem with the barbarian? - Any problems with the barbarian? What do we mean by barbarian? Eh, many, many definitions but this is quite a dangerous remark, but I have to say. Mainly if you believe in a philosophy or a religion that believes that by killing someone or by destroying someones happiness that it accumulates certain, I dont know, deeds that will throw you into heaven, you understand. These are, from the Buddhist point of view they are, no matter how clever, organized and systematic and advanced they are, they are all barbarian. This is why I am saying it is quite dangerous because history has told us that there is a lot of that, isnt it? You got the message, okay. I dont want to spell it out because I treasure my life so much (laughter). And then there is some other definitions like there are certain religions that believe that marrying the mother is the path to the heaven. Similarly, you know like killing ones own enemy is the path to heaven things like that. These are all from the Buddhist point of view, barbaric. And then also eh, sacrificing animals; now when we include that, were being very, very strict; very, very strict Bud dhists. Sacrificing animal and thinking that by offering the blood, hot blood of an animal, that way you can accumulate, I mean that way youre crossing, youll reborn in heaven stuff like that. So that should be okay. Mm, having wrong views now that we have talked earlier, is very similar; having wrong views such as mm; I like to define this also a little bit. Having wrong view in Buddhism is actually more on if you do not believe cause, condition, do not believe in cause, condition and effect then you, youre, youre going, youre having the wrong view. So for instance like scientists, I dont know where to put them because they are one of the biggest believers of cause, condition and effect, isnt it? So that way, in a

way they are the perfect vessels for the teaching but their limit of cause, condition, effect is after a while they stop. I think their mind does not reach to some cause and condition that is not obvious here. So, but then one good thing about scientists is that they never say this is the final ultimate path; maybe that also saves, you know.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 11/31

Anyway, someone who does not believe in cause and effect, and there are a lot of people; because once you do not believe in cause and condition and effect theres only two things that can happen either you become eternalist or you become nihilist. Eh, actually I dont know, somehow this is something encouraging in the West because theres quite an advanced system of thinking, system of discussion. And then scientific world, you know; I think, I dont know, its difficult to say but we can discuss this. So I will sort of skip this first definition of freedom from the classic Buddhist teaching which is free from these eight different kinds of states. If you have any questions, you can ask me because I am; I dont think thats difficult, okay - any, any questions? Yeah. Question: Rinpoche, you were talking about the (inaudible)quite on practicing the dharma. Is that? Rinpoche: Yes, it is. Student: Rinpoche on the subject of the Four Metaphors, I thought the first one on the arrangement of a tree I dont understand how that relates to patient and . Rinpoche: Arranged like a tree is the name of the sutra. Student: Ohthe four metaphors, what is the fourth? Rinpoche: The first one is I am a patient. No, doctor, medicine and the process of recovery, mm. Eight, any questions on this eight freedom- freedom from eight Question: You have mentioned that there is a way of using skilful means to understand a lot of the writings eh, that dont necessarily always seem to pertain to

the West. And I want to ask a particular I was reading this section on, you know the beings in hell, things like that. I notice a lot of emotional reactions I was having. I was wondering if you could discuss that a little bit more, if thats okay, Rinpoche: Eh, you, you dont understand the hell realm, is that what you are saying? Student: Well, I just, I have these certain emotional reactions through reading this. Its more of a feeling; I feel like eh, I dont want to become a Buddhist because I am afraid of hell. And also theres a sense of; you know when youre talking about suffering, its such a difficult word to fully comprehend. I mean there are so many different levels of suffering and eh, I just get a little confused in reading this, you know. Whats the point? Rinpoche: Looks like you have this, this; your question has many different aspects. First the suffering; okay you hold on that mind, I have to ask you. You can sit down. Okay, first the aspect of the suffering; eh, I dont know the word what, what is meant by suffering in English, okay -.dukkha, dukkha. Anyway as we talk yesterday, everything that is compounded is impermanent can you understand that? Yeah, time; okay, when you do something, act okay; when you pick up this glass of water and drink theres a doing; theres an action, isnt it? That action has, is bound by three time the beginning, the middle and the end. Can you understand that - of course? Now because if, now if dont have one of them, then youre in big trouble. Lets say now theres a beginning of picking up the glass but theres no middle you are stuck, you understand? So in every phenomenon that is compounded action, theres always this three time beginning, middle and end. Now anything that is compounded by three time or compounded by time and space is impermanent because there is uncertainty. When is this going to exhaust? When is this going to end? You understand uncertainty. Uncertainty creates tension, hope, fear; that is the suffering Buddhists talk about. Its not necessarily like you know pain, you know, not like this gross suffering that we talk; eh, the uncertainty did you get that? Student: Well, I wanted to ask, is that; this is my feeling about the description of the hell because my first reaction is Rinpoche: Okay, now lets go to the hell here; we will have to go again later. But to answer your question hell, the description; theres a long description of hell realm later. Eh, Im not going through all the descriptions; I dont know, maybe I will because; I think maybe it is necessary. Here, remember we were talking earlier when you listen to the teaching, you have to be careful with this what we call five, what was it? Five wrong, wrong ways of understanding. See in some teachings Buddha said, not only Buddha said; actually in the Vinaya Sutra, there is a tradition of painting the hell realm on the, in the front of the monastery, you understand. You know, hideous and all sorts of you know fire and boiling and all that. Why? Because there is so many idiots, thick-skulled people, you understand. For them, to tell, to describe about hell, you can only paint. Hey, hell is very hideous, hell Is painful, hell is burning, hell is boiling, hell is mincing,

grilling, you know, I dont know, barbecuing, all of that (laughter), you understand. Yeah; now you then watch this and you get sort of scared, whatever, then you get into the path. Now you are, and then you develop your capacity of understanding; and interpretation becomes better. Then Buddhists tell you hell does not exist outside. Hell is your anger, your aggression, you understand? So this is what you have to learn slowly. So based on that, actually if you go through the description of the hell that is going to come later its actually a perfect description of our aggression. So dont get when you read this book, as you read the description of the hell, dont get carried away by the description a nd think that this is somewhere under, I dont know, Bahamas or something like that. This exists here, right now, very minute. In fact, not only the six realms but, I mean not only the hell realm but every six realm. You could be travelling through all these six realms within one hour. You could be angry in the beginning, and then you could be jealous - then youre in the asura realm. You could be dull and ignorant and completely not know what to do animal realm, you understand. You could be very vain, you understand, god realm, like this. So you, you know you can go through this. Did I clarify your doubts, yeah? Okayyeah. Student: Could you say how space and time are compounded? Rinpoche: Okay for that I want to, I want to know what do you mean by compounded? Student: I dont know. Rinpoche: Ah, okay. I think for Buddhists, compounded means more than one together and making a phenomenon. Can you understand? Not plural; not singleplural; together making something that is a phenomenon, you understand? When you drink a glass of water, it has to have past, I mean beginning, middle and end; do you agree? Student: Yes Rinpoche: So there is a three, three time. Without one of them, you have no act of drinking. Okay. Now thats all very fine but the problem here is when you are bound by the time, then it is, it is bound to decay, bound to decay which is it has to have an end. Okay this is, maybe this is what you need to know it has to have an end. If there is no end, for instance if there is no; Im starting to drink, okay, Im beginning to drink. Now the act of beginning to drink must have an end, otherwise I will not drink. End of the beginning of the drinking is the beginning of the actual drinking. End of that is the beginning of stopping to drink. So we are all bound by time. If you are bound by time, you are bound to decay; and decay is uncertainty, pain, suffering thats it. Student: Thank you.

Rinpoche: Okay, yeah. Question: In our guts, we also dont believe thats hells, anima ls and pretas; and for us, I think its easier to accept psychological interpretation which what I think you just gave. But in terms of the whole scope of, you know, the path so of getting that there are rebirths, which is my understanding and that theres continuity seems like the biggest obstacle which is the wrong view Rinpoche: Very difficult, I think so. Eh, for that we have to, come to a mutual agreement on definition of mind between a scientist-oriented West and Buddhist. Until then, there is, I dont think there is a beginning of a discussion. This is why I think most of these conferences, conferences on science and Buddhism; I dont know what they are doing. And I must say, as a Buddhist proudly we have the definition of mind, but scientists have yet to come up with something. Theyre still not producing a definite definition of mind. If scientists have produced that, then we can discuss. Then only then, we can discuss about reincarnation; otherwise scientists still dont have the definition I dont know whether they believe in mind. And if your opponent, when you are, when youre having discussion, if one, if one side does not; you see whenever Buddhists and scientists try to talk about reincarnation and mind, its like one person is talking about Los Angeles and the other person is talking about San Francisco doesnt meet. Yeah.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 12/31

Student A: Rinpoche, I was in; I have a good friend who is a neuro-biologist. Eh, he doesnt talk about mind so much. But he talks about consciousness; that consciousness is an emergent property of eh, of you know the body that if you get enough, that if you get enough gathered together, the consciousness will emerge. How does that relate to your philosophy or Buddhist philosophy of mind that sort of. I mean how are you saying that mind exists as separate phenomena? Are you proposing sort of dualism? Rinpoche: No, no, mind is mm; mind is a; you see phenomena, when you are taking about the phenomena, matter - you are talking about object. Buddhists do not believe an independent object without subject. Theres no; because if a scie ntist; that actually even scientists do not believe, I am sure. Because you see if you believe in

independent object prior to the subject, then you are almost believing; you are becoming a theistic. Student A: No, but you can still believe its a quality that emerges I mean when scientists. Rinpoche: Ah, you are doing it, you are doing it, your mind is doing it. You are guessing it; you are guessing this matter must have existed before even mankind exists. Who is doing, who is doing the thinking? We - you can only do that. According to Buddhism object and subject have to come together. There is such thing as object before subject, or subject before object; there is no such thing. Student A: But what so you call mind then? What do you call mind? Rinpoche: Ah Student A: (Laughter from student) Rinpoche: Five years of project we have to answer your one question. (Laughter from audience) Student A: Ill be back. Rinpoche: Okay, lets have lunch. What do you think? We will resume around 2.30 yes.

Student B: We are to do this with the motivation to help sentient beings. What is still for me to promote that attitude if you dont feel you have it? Rinpoche: Can you repeat that? Student B: What are the skilful means to bring forth the attitude, the proper motivation if you feel you dont have the compassion to help all sentient beings? Because it seems to me youve to have that to begin. Rinpoche: Yes eh, strictly speaking, you see strictly speaking, you dont really have to have that motivation to help sentient beings. First, this will come but in a very, very large form, this is what I like to tell you. Its a good question that you raise. Because, okay; your question is the view, the right view. In order to have the right view, what do we do now? First the most important thing is we have to have the fear the fear to the wrong view. Understanding the wrong, with wrong view will lead us to wrong contemplation and wrong action; and this will lead us to the pain. That is what youve to have. Now, first youve to have that. Okay, well, it may be not enough. Youve to have really, really you know; I mean right now the certain thing like right view or this is right view may be; you see even our right view that we think that we have, after a while you think - Ah, I thought until now, this is the right view but I realize it is not the right view. So youll, you will then

sort of peel off the skin so to speak and then you will face another right view; and then after a while, youll then realize that is not the ultimate right view. That is the process of the path. So first, youve have the fear and then you take refuge to the right view. And this is why after all these preliminary stuff, we actually have; we, we will then begin on Chapterwhen is it? In the Second Part, you know, Part Two, the extraordinary or the inner preliminaries. We then, Chapter One, we then take refuge. Right now, we are still constructing the outer preliminaries, common preliminaries, okay. And then having such kind of fear you seek for the right view. Then you realize that you cant really achieve the ultimate, the absolute right view without having compassion. So in Chapter Two of Part Two, we will then talk about bodhicitta; right, yeah, so this is coming, but this will come much, much later. We are talking about page 171. So when I say youve to have the fear that means a lot that means so much. Yes we do have sometimes, but you know, first of all we dont have fear. For some like you, maybe you have but you dont have it all the time. Third, thirdly the fear that you think maybe not the right fear that we want here. Maybe you have a fear to certain pain and certain anxiety that temporarily we dislike, but you still are very much obsessed with cause of this fear. You are longing for it and you are very much eh, keeping it inside you, strongly; and this is why we have to uproot that. So here in order to really sort of generate this kind of fear, we have to talk about renunciation mind, and so on. Maybe the fear is not; it has some kind of negative connotation but for now, sometimes like a surrealistic artist, we have to exaggerate a little bit so that our dull mind will shake. Otherwise, somehow I dont know, we dont go, we dont get it - any other questions based on what we have talked? Yeah, yes.

Student C: Rinpoche, are you saying that pain could be the signal that you have the wrong view? Rinpoche: No, no, ah; no because bliss can be a signal also that you have a wrong view. Pain is not necessarily a signal that you have a right view, I mean wrong view. No; okay this is a good question, very good question. What kind of signalling do we have when we are going through a wrong view? Actually there is a lot of signalling but the signalling is so big and too much that we dont realize. Theres so many signals, its not like; you know signal is like traffic lights, isnt it? In the midst of; you know it has to be distinctive, isnt it? Like red light, stop; you know theres no other red light, just that light, especially designed. Thats what we call signal, isnt it? Signal is something that you can recognize. Theres just so many signal or sign. But we are somehow because theres too much, we dont realize. Anyway the signal of having the wrong view constantly is doin g things endlessly to something that is fruitless, you understand? Student C: Like what? Rinpoche: Oh, like eh, escaping from certain addiction; since we are in California we should talk about addiction, isnt it? And then adopting a new kind of path to gether

from that addiction; and then get addicted to that path, you understand? And then eh, suddenly realizing Ah, this is also addiction, you understand. Yes, doing things that, engaging to things that is useless, fruitless, futile and eh, never ending. Student C: What is the way out of this? Rinpoche: Way out is to have the right view. Do you remember yesterday we talked about Vogue magazine? Yeah, doing like this is sort of futile, fruitless, you know and then realizing ah, then you know the real right view about breast or leg is in our mind, then you give up that, then it doesnt matter. You got it? Student C: Not the breast (laughter from audience) Rinpoche: Yeah (laughter), any question? Anyway, theres lot of information here. I think if some of you are finding difficult, just ask me; whatever you want to ask.

Student D: I want to ask a question again about the right view because I can understand the aspiration of benefiting all sentient beings. But do our practice and our learning - how does it actually benefit them if you are not a realized teacher. Is that the idea? Rinpoche: Can you, become what? Student D: I can understand the idea of dedicating the merit of your practice and being a teaching situation like this to benefit all sentient beings. But my question is does it actually benefit them? Rinpoche: Yes. Student D: Could you explain how? Rinpoche: Because sentient beings; in the first place, sentient beings, the recipients of the merit or the power of the, your prayer is actually your own mind, your own imagination, your own fabrication. As we talked earlier this morning, in the Buddhist philosophy, within, within the limit of our mind, as everything, subject and object everything is a manifestation of our mind. Based on this philosophy we can dedicate our prayer which is also our mind to sentient beings, those who are also our mind you understand, okay.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 13/31

Rinpoche: Wait. Wait. Student A: Rinpoche, in reference to the six stains and the paramitas, I was wondering eh; I find that as I started ngondro that I become a little afraid of my teacher, who is you; but it probably would be Im afraid of anybody. I mean it s okay seeing you in Boulder or okay seeing you in Skype. Now youre here in San Francisco, like youre a little too close (laughter). Im really grateful that I dont have to go to dinner, its would just be so uncomfortable. So what is that? Is it pride or like generosity or. Rinpoche: Oh, no, no, nothing of those. I think its just a mm; you are going through a certain experience of to be with someone who is very difficult to be with (Laughter from audience). Yeah, thats all; nothing profound (laughter). Yeah. Student B: Rinpoche, when we were generating the view, for example for a teaching here and we begin to visualize the throne, eh, Guru Rinpoche, the jewelled walls, eh, when is the, when do you cross the border from visualization to conceptualization? Making our practice a fantasy versus eh, generation of devotion. Rinpoche: Second part, I dont know. Student B: When do we distinguish between our own delusion and fantasy versus a true generation of devotion? Rinpoche: Thats good. This is a good question, yes. This is why before even I begin this book, I was you telling the four pillars or the four views, didnt I? Now, as I said yesterday, when you read this, when you study not only this, all, all kinds of Buddhist books keep these four views in your head. And then you will, then you will really benefit a lot. Okay, youre talking about devotion. Youre talking about this teaching. Youre talking about Vajrayanas skilful means of thinking that this is a pure land; this teacher is eh, Buddha Samantabhadra or Padmasambhava. Now all these statements they are, they are based on these four views. They, they; each of them, actually each statement like devotion, the practice of devotion is based on all compounded things are impermanent, all of that. Our devotion, devotion we have now is a compounded thing. Its impermanent. See it helps a lot, you understand. And then all phenomena have no truly existing self-nature; so this includes this wall. Because this wall does not have a truly existing self-nature, therefore we can visualize this wall as anything, as a jewel, as a tree, whatever because of that. If it is a truly existing wall, thats it, thats all we can do wall; we cannot visualize them, you understand. The same, the four these views apply to all the Buddhist methods. If you practice something, even if you generate your compassion; if you help someone with this small-time compassion that you have; you know Im sure you have being trying to be a good Buddhist; you must have a little bit of compassion sometimes trying to help.

But the problem is you forget these four views. If you apply these four views, for instance when you help someone, what do you do? You help and then you expect for a great result, such as this person being, getting cured from something, you understand? Why are you expecting like that? Because you are missing with certain views that all phenomena have no truly existing self-nature. Youre having a little bit of problem there, thats why you think - ah, there must be a result, you understand. Yeah, did I answer your question? Student B: Yes, occasionally it really works; the next time around, Ive have to struggle and struggle sometimes Rinpoche: Yes, yes - you just have to get used to it, this one so that you dont have to struggle, so that it would become spontaneous one day, yeah. Student B: What are the actions you have and can do? Rinpoche: Ah, good; apply the first view every compounded thing is impermanent, so theres no point of attachment, attachment to your experience of your view. Very good; we do, we practitioners do get attachment. We do get attached to this certain experience that we gain when we practice bliss, devotion, nostalgia, sensation, all of that. We do get attached to, so better watch out. Because they are compounded things, they are impermanent. They have no truly existing self-nature. They are also emotion; therefore theyre also pain, yeah. Student B: Thats the hard part. Rinpoche: Okay, now what do we do? After lunch usually people do not concentrate so I am going to read lung for a few minutes, you understand. So dont fall asleep but eh, you do not have to concentrateokay. Because its very difficult to have this opportunity; myself, for example I dont know, Im sure you must be very diligent and all that, you know. But I am very lazy and judging for, judging myself more and more, you know I feel very lazy whenever this idea that I need to teach somewhere. It just, it almost like ehyou know, when you, I think like those who have a job, right, you have to get up early in the morning to go to the office, isnt it? To the job work, its like this, the feeling like this When the teaching finishes, its almost like coming to the, like a big weekend, the feeling, yeah, so Im saying, I dont know how much we can teach. I can teach this again and again; so once I teach I want to make it quite thorough, thorough so this is why Im trying to, I dont know, do this; trying to also teach this when you are not sleepy or something like that. So Ill do the lung first. (Rinpoche gives the lung.) So thats the; with this you have received transmission of Second, Second Chapter of Part One the impermanence. So, now eh, we are, we have finished talking about the preliminary stages so we are eh; we just began this morning the main teaching and this teaching Kunzang Lam Shyalung or The Words of My Perfect Teacher has mainly two parts the common, common foundation and the uncommon foundation.

First we are doing the common foundation, common preliminary teachings. And first of all, we try to see how fortunate we are to have found these freedoms and advantages or in other words, how difficult it is to find these freedoms and advantages. Eh, based on the classic Buddhist teachings that are found in every Mahayana sutra, almost every Mahayana sutra, we talk about the definition of freedom this morning. Eh, free from eight different kinds of realms or eight different kinds, eight different kinds of states, okay. There will be sort of supplementary explanation later, which we will discuss but first the, the standard Mahayana concept of freedoms and advantages. So now we talk about advantages. Therere also two kinds of advantages we are talking the individual advantages and circumstantial advantages. Born as a human ah, yeah, born as a human thats one advantage; born also in a central place basically where there is a living tradition of teaching the dharma; where there are teachers who can transmit teachings that have unbroken lineage, where there is environment of practice. I guess thats something you can call the central place. And then having all kinds, all the faculties such as you know mm, like not being handicapped or handicapped with, I dont know eh, right, eh, environment also; this is actually more like inside eh, sort of sane enough to start the dharma or sober enough to start practicing. You have some kind of sense to judge a few things, certain things. And then without a conflicting lifestyle thats like if you are used to, I dont know, doing something very extremely opposite of what dharma, dharma taught such as eh; the analogy is quite difficult because it all got to do with motivation. But anyway eh, it would be easier if you bring these four views again. If you are dwelling in a place where constantly you are blocked by someone or something to see that all compounded things are impermanent if you have that kind of lifestyle - now that is a big statement. It could be like you are associating with a friend, who believes in killing, mass murder, you know something like this. Or it could be someone who is totally vain, that who wants to live amongst the celebrities, drives those stretched limousines, I dont know who constantly blocks you to see that thing all compounded things are impermanent, you understand. This is what you call conflicting lifestyle. I think many Rinpoches have this, you understand (laughter). And then, and then faith in the dharma, that is easy to understand, that we have taught. Anyway, these are individual, what we call individual advantages; any questions on this? Because, otherwise, Ill; any questions on this particular this one, okay, yeah?

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang

bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 14/31

Student C: I always have a very hard time with this one about things being not truly existing and impermanent; because if I try to contemplate it, I just get into intellectual dead-end. So I like to ask if Im going to do this in the long term how to begin to cultivate this observation of impermanence without getting into like intellectualized way of doing this or understanding all compounded things disintegrate etc., etc. Rinpoche: Wait its coming. Any more questions on this individual advantages, okay? Now, circumstantial advantages; five circumstantial advantages okay dont forget we are talking about freedoms and advantages. We have talked about freedoms briefly. It will come again in a different way. Were now talking about advantages, okay. A Buddha has appeared, yeah; eh, in order to understand this, you need to understand a little bit of Buddhist what, they call sort of Buddhist cosmology, I dont know, the; yes I guess cosmology, Buddhist cosmology. Eh, its believed, okay that for instance, this, this, this age is what they call fortunate eon. And they call, Buddhist think, okay, this is Buddhist version, Buddhist, Buddhist concept. Now as I said before when you listen to these things, dont jump to an immediate conclusion because Buddhists said a lot of things. For instance, as I was going to say in the Sutra of Fortunate Eon, its said that in this eon there will be one thousand Buddhas; and out of one thousand Buddhas, four Buddhas have gone, yeah. Again in certain tantric teachings, Buddhas are all the time there, everywhere, yeah. So dont bring these two issues and try to get some kind of, you know, contradiction; because unless you want to get tired, it really does. Buddhism will be never be defeated by your certain childish eh, sort of intellectual game, you understand, that kind of. You know, it, its not a contradiction; its just a different stages of teaching, okay. So right now, when we talk about circumstantial advantages, we are talking, we are, we are because this is a preliminary, especially common preliminary. We are; our support of the teaching is very much based on the common teachings. In the common teachings, its believed that at certain eons or kalpas, they call it, time anyway, certain period of time, certain; there is a gap where Buddhas dont come. You understand the Buddhas dont come. This is what hes referring here. A Buddha has appeared. Shakyamuni Buddha has appeared. Now for those who are practising Vajrayana, it makes even more, its even more, actually it should make more eh, eh, important. It should have more important message because for instance this fortunate eon, in this fortunate eon (pause) within this fortunate eon, only even though there is one thousand Buddhas, Buddhas teaching; okay out of one thousand Buddhas, only four are gone. But Vajrayana, tantric teaching is taught only three times within this fortunate eon and already one circle of tantric teaching is taught in the past. And this is the second one during

Buddha Shakyamunis time. This is why also that many masters of the past, saints and scholars and poets of the past in Tibet and India when they praise Lord Shakyamuni, Siddhartha Gautama especially praise to him so much. It is because of his merit that he has this extra teaching of tantra. And very, at the end of this eon, when Manjushri, when Lord Manjushri sort of manifest himself as reaching enlightenment, then again, once again there will be tantric teaching. And then there will be no more tantric teaching again for so many, many eons things like that. This is based on the common, common teachings, okay. So a Buddha has appeared and then, and then not only Buddha has appeared, he also taught. He has preached the dharma. Because this also you have to know a bit of Buddhist cosmology here; there are times that Buddhas actually come. They dwell in the Earth for certain time but they may never teach due to the lack of the merit of sentient beings. They will just be there. They will not teach, right. So these are the circumstantial advantages that we have, we have got. Shakyamuni Buddha has appeared. He has not just appeared, but he has also taught. Sometimes we may be reborn, even Buddhas have taught, Buddhas appeared and taught, we may be reborn at the time when the teachings are degenerated such as just before, just before the next Buddha, the fifth Buddha, Lord Maitreya. Just before he emerges into this Earth, there will be a complete sort of degeneration of the Lord Buddhas teaching. Now if you are, if youre reborn at this age, then thats the age of what they call Darkness, okay. But you are not in this kind of situation. You again have this circumstantial advantage that his teachings are still exist alive. And then you are, you have entered into this path. Its not that you have not entered, okay. Buddhas have come, Buddha came, he taught, his teachings exist but sometimes we are too busy, we are too ignorant we have not entered into the path. But somehow because of our merit, we have, we are hearing the teaching, we have entered ourselves into the path. And then there are those who are kind-hearted towards others masters they are still there. If you dont have master, then again you are deprived from a certain advantage but you; yeah, these are the advantages. Anyway, I am not saying we have or we dont have, okay. Let me go through the freedoms and the advantages. We have finished ten advantages the individual advantages and the circumstantial advantages - any questions on this? (Pause) Yes, the last one, the fifth circumstantial advantage which is there are those who have a kind heart. They are those who are kind-hearted towards others masters; thats important. Because after entering into the path, after practice, after entering into the path while youre practicing the dharma, its very important that we are coached or looked after by a kind-hearted master. When Atisha Dipamkara, when he came to Tibet, his disciples, three main disciples Kuton, Ngok and Dromtn; these three disciples asked him which is more important to practice eh, essential teachings of the sutras and the Mantrayana or the pith instructions of the guru. And then Atisha Dipamkara said that pith instruction of the guru is much more important to be put into the practice.

And the reason he gave is because when, when he said that, Kuton, Ngok and Dromtn, his three disciples said dont we have sangha one day substitute as a master? Then he said not really; maybe it can help a little bit but you see, now getting a little bit of influence of Vajrayana; so you definitely need this kind-hearted spiritual companion, okay. I think we should use this word spiritual companion (dge bai gshes gnyen). And this is, before we have a break, I like to share this with you. Atisha said the reason why the spiritual companion is so important theres one, two, three three reasons. Even though a person actually has taken the Vinaya vow, lets say, okay; even though a person has taken a Vinaya vow, a person has actually eh, is doing, practicing samadhi, meditation and the person also is pursuing the wisdom, prajna so these are like shila, samadhi and prajna. Even a person is dwelling with these three, if the person does not see the futility aspect of samsara, this person is still bound by samsara, can be bound by samsara easily, you got it? In order to enhance this renunciation mind, in order to make the person understand the futility aspect of this samsaric life easier, quicker spiritual companion is therefore necessary reason number one. Very interesting reasons; secondly - even though a person is practicing very much, even though eh, you know dedicating his or her practice to the practice so much, if the person does not know how to aspire, how to have the aspiration, the right aspiration, all his practice can be destroyed by one instant negative emotion such as an anger to a bodhisattva. Again in order to plant this seed of aspiration, spiritual companion is necessary number two. Okay, a person can be very scholar, scholarly in the Buddhist knowledge, a person can be very disciplined, doesnt eat meat, you know none of this, you know like just the right discipline, the shila, you know sangha shila. You know mm, I dont know, two hundred and fifty vows of the monk, three hundred and so on for the nuns eh, bodhisattva vows, Vajrayana vows eh, even the person is very good with the vows. And also even, even though the person is very kind and compassionate, if the person does not, if the person, if this person still get, falls into these eight worldly dharma, these eight worldly traps, eight worldly dharma - then there is still a little bit of danger that this person can go back to the samsara. Now in order to let this person sort of, I dont know, to distract this person so that this persons attempt will be directed, diverted from the eight worldly dharma spiritual companion is necessary. This is Atisha Dipamkaras reason, okay. We will discuss again when we come back. Lets have some break.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche

(Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 15/31

Student A: (inaudible) Rinpoche: Can you repeat that? Thats quite good so can you repeat that?

Student B: I want to clarify something that you said. What I heard you say was that Vajrayana teachings were only going to be taught three times in this eon, but when I read in Kunzang Lame Shyalung, it seems to say that they will only be taught three times TOTAL, and it specifies the first kalpa, the current kalpa and the kalpa .... Rinpoche: I think to make things more precious in total, I think...yeah, yeah. But you see why I didnt hesitate to say total is because when we say total, we are talking about the beginning of a time and the end of a time. Then you can talk about a total, isnt it? These are very; these are teachings that require interpretation. Student C: I have a question about circumstances. Eh, I notice they are videotaping this. Im not sure they are doing the lung but I was wondering if I could, would it be appropriate to take the video tape back to the sangha in Alaska and eh, with your presence so that they dont make some of the mistakes. I mean I make so many mistakes. That would really help some of the eh, other practitioners. Rinpoche: They can listen to the teachings. It will, it can help them, maybe, I dont know. But lung they have to hear it from me. I will, Ill come to Alaska if therere people who want to practice this; this much I can give. The lung, I can give, you understand? But eh, things like initiations and pointing out the mind, and stuff like that is beyond me, yeah. But this is my path. Student D: On, on the third reason that you need a spiritual companion, if somebody is scholarly and disciplined and kind and compassionate, and then eh, are not really looking for spiritual companion but eh, find someone that they feel some resonance, who they laugh at their sense of humour and theres kind of connection. How, how does this person eh, how is this person eh, request that this person be their spiritual companion and eh, then what, what would this person do about that? (Laughter from audience) Rinpoche: This sounds very tricky question (huge spontaneous laughter from audience). What do you think? Student D: Eh, well I am confused because I heard you in Boulder last year at this same weekend, then you said eh; that you really were only available for one night stand (laughter).

Rinpoche: I see - what else? (Laughter) he, he, he.... Student D: You said that you didnt want any commitments eh. Rinpoche: I think we have to talk this privately (laughter)...he, he, he... Student D: But, but you did say that eh, to cut into one word you got caught in was praise that if somebody praise greatly and says what a wonderful teacher you were, how much they learn from you and how tremendously gifted you were in your use of language and how eloquent you were and eh, things like that you might just give them everything. (Laughter) Rinpoche: He, he, he...You really take things literally, dont you? (Laughter) he, he, he... Student D: To go back to what you said before, I, I am worried about where to go with the dharma since Chogyam Trungpa died and I sort of wandered in the bardo for a long time eh, and so eh, I do take things seriously. Rinpoche: Follow this for a while. Student D: Follow Patrul Rinpoche? Rinpoche: Yes Student D: But not you Rinpoche: Oh, yeah, definitely I would choose Patrul Rinpoche more than any one. If a - yeah. Student D: So youre not talking about a living spiritual companion? Rinpoche: No need, since already you have one Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche. Student D: Well, my husband doesnt. He took refuge with you Rinpoche: He, he hasnt? Student D: He took refuge with you. Rinpoche: Oh, that doesnt mean much. We, we; thats just mean that he took refuge to the Buddha, dharma and sangha, thats all. But I can still teach him whatever, you know things like this. Student D: So, so then to come full circle, when you talk about spiritual companion, youre talking about... Rinpoche: Someone who really reads it in front of you. Student D: Someone who reads it in front of you - it doesnt just on occasion?

Rinpoche: Yeah, or also someone who directs your attention to worldly dharma, from the worldly dharma to hopefully some more meaningful things. Student D: Thank you. Okay, now the additional sixteen conditions that Longchenpa talks about. Its very, very beautiful; something that we should think about - what he called it eight intrusive circumstances and eight incompatible propensities. These are the sixteen additional conditions something that we can relate to. So for those who have very strong emotional problems, like strong anger, strong passion, I dont know, very short tempered, short temper not so bad actually; very short but long-lasting temper (laughter). Those are very difficult people to handle. Something we can really relate to this one, yeah. Because even though; okay for those who have very, I dont know (Tibetan phrase), actually, no Im sorry I shouldnt say those who have emotions thats wrong - that I mean that everyone has. Those who have emotions but those who, those who, I dont know the word; my own, the closest word that I come think of is spoil. Those who spoil their emotions Can you find a word? [Indulge from audience] Indulge yeah. Those who let go their emotions however they want to manifest, you understand? This kind of person even though at times when you see your master, when you read dharma books like this, when you actually, you know, maybe in contrast suffering something like that even though - you know, glimpse of renunciation mind, glimpse of mind wishing to practice the dharma can happen. But because you have really indulged yourself with the emotions so much, the emotions are so powerful that you always end up losing the initiative, sort of, to practice the dharma; because youre always being overpowered by emotions. For this you need to do shamatha meditation. Im just telling you this because youll, you will like to hear what to do for that, right shamatha meditation. Mm...if you are mentally handicapped, what do you call it? Eh, mm, disabled, mentally, completely like a vegetable, a coma maybe that is one of the circumstances. Thats one, thats one of the disadvantages, okay. If you are, if you are associating with friends or circumstance that will block you to see the right view such as all compounded things are impermanent; because these friends or these circumstances can influence you, you know, so having the right influence, searching for the right influence, dwelling with the right influence is necessary. That does not mean that we have to dwell with the so-called sangha. Because dharma sangha does not necessarily bring the right atmosphere, okay. Even though you have a little interest in practicing the dharma, if you are lazy, if you have let yourself overpowered by laziness, then youll always, youll think you know like I will practice the dharma tomorrow, next year, next month and then time will pass. Thats the fourth. Mm...now this fifth one; kind of, maybe kind of difficult to understand if you just read the book. This is why I need to explain here. Even though you are diligent in

practicing; many people are, like myself, maybe you we can be quite diligent in practicing the dharma. But because of the two reasons; one because of your past karmic lifes obscuration, negative karma, bad karmas obscuration no matter how diligent you are, not a single inspiration or realization comes in our mind, okay. Because of that, thats one reason. And then the second reason is also because you have a lack of understanding of karma, how the cause, condition and effect manifests. Because of these two reasons, you can get disappointed or you can get disillusioned by the dharma. Okay thats one disadvantage.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 16/31

And for those who do not have rights, yeah, human rights, individual rights; those who, okay lets say if youre born as a, I dont know, courtesan somewhere in Arab. I dont know or if you are born as a slave somewhere, then you have no freedom, no right to practice the dharma. Thats six. If youre entering into the dharma with a very short-term goal such as eh, healing a certain depression or certain pain or anxiety that you have or longevity or, I dont know, certain protection from something or eh, mm, anyway a short-term goal. If you have a short-term goal, then what happens is while you practice the dharma, we go through a lot of different circumstances. And when the bad circumstance comes then you will think the dharma is not helping you. So you will be disillusioned. Youll give up the dharma. This shows that you have only a short-term goal. Youre, your, your goal is not for enlightenment because even a temporary circumstance can actually disturb me. And then falling into these eight worldly, eight worldly traps of the dharma like looking for the praise, trying to avoid criticism, looking for happiness, trying to avoid unhappiness, looking for attention, trying to eh, avoid people ignoring you; you know, things like that. So this is what Longchenpa say eight intrusive circumstances and then we have eight incompatible propensities. These are something we can relate to, okay, all these. If you, you are so caught up with eh, problems of your friends, your relatives, your child, your mother, your, I dont know, your spouses, your kin; basically youre, you

are caught, youre trapped. You are in this trap of samsaric; not only you yourself is caught with samsaric life but you really worry about your, I dont know, your friends, your spouses or your children, their welfare, their health. All of these can cause eh, big distraction thats one. Now this one, the second one; kind of quite difficult to understand this, difficult; this is well translated here. Some people lack any scrap of humanity and their nature is so depraved that they are unable to improve their behaviour. Even a genuine spiritual teacher would find it very difficult to set them on the noble path. As the sublime beings of the past said - the abilities of a disciple can be shaped, but not his basic character. We are talking about some kind of basic character; we are not talking about basic nature of a human being. Were talking about sort of human character. Again you know, okay, this is one good example. See when; were quoting from, we are quoting from past masters sayings. Sublime beings of the past said the abilities of the disciple can be shaped but not his basic character. Now this is quite a big statement. But when we say not his basic character it is sort of exaggeration, you understand because, of course a sublime being can do anything they like with their skilful means and compassion. But right now, at this stage, in order for us not to fall into this kind of trap, we use very strong words and strong instruction methods such as that if you fall into this kind of character, you will, youll, I can never save you. You know, its like a reaction kind of statement, something that you should know. Anyway the third one is eh; I think, it, it definitely comes a lot, okay. Stubbornness is one thing, yeah. We have this very stubborn in every level eh, not flexible, not openminded, very stubborn, being very stubborn, and also not being thoughtful about other peoples feelings, always very selfish and then think about only oneself. This kind of character is what Longchenpa is talking about here, okay. And then if you have no devotion - thats the fourth. And then finding, okay; there are some, some of us, we find, enjoy, we find the joy, I dont know how to say eh. For instance, some of us we like fishing or killing, taking someone elses life anyway having some kind of joy or finding it interesting, finding it satisfactory, yeah, finding lot of satisfaction when you engage into negative or negative or non-virtuous actions and thoughts. Somehow there are some people; its, its almost like eh; what would Americans say? Turned on, is it turned on? Yeah turned on. Many of us are turned on by these negative thoughts and actions. This is dangerous, because you are creating yourself as a perfect vessel for the negative actions, negative actions and the thoughts thats five. And then the opposite of that, finding it totally eh, boring and uninteresting whenever we talk about virtuous things, and virtuous actions and thoughts; this is where Patrul Rinpoche said there are certain people, eh, certain beings who do have such kind of mind. For them giving a teaching is like giving grass to a dog like finding, finding no interest, not even a little bit, you understand; totally indifferent or ignored finding no interest, yeah.

And then even though you have entered into the path of the dharma, if you have broken Vinaya vows or Mahayana vows, then it can lead you to the lower realms - so breaking the lower vows of Mahayana and the Theravada tradition. And then the most important the last one breaking the Vajrayana samayas or the commitments; now these sixteen is additional what we call advantages that Longchenpa talks about. Okay, so now do you have questions on this? Im going to conclude the first, sort of freedom and advantage I think, sort of conclude; yeah? Question A: Rinpoche, I have a question about the statement the ability of a disciple can be shaped but not his basic character. My question isnt so much about eh, if the guru can change the basic character, but if a sort of basic negative character actually exists because at other times you said that the fact our emotions change one day were angry, the next day were not angry shows that our fundamental character is not anger but the buddha-nature. Rinpoche: Yes, yes, of course; but as I was saying earlier this is a preliminary teaching. We use word, extreme sort of statements like that. Its almost like telling a baby you know; oh, you know like if the baby is approaching to a sweet for instance, that she should not eat, then we tell no this will burn your mouth or something like that, you understand. We, theyre, youll find lots of this kind of teachings, especially in the beginning; to make us aware, I dont know how you say it. I think we do this, dont we? Human beings, we use words like its very dangerous just to make someone pay more attention, you understand. These are the phrases; words belong to that kind of style. I can now see actually there is actually a book written by Mipham Rinpoche that you can actually learn so that you know which teaching is for what style, and what kind of style is being used, you understand. Its mainly for actually teachers. You have sometimes, sometimes you have to be very mild, sometimes you have to be very strong to make a point what do you call it? - Strong statement to make a point. Its like if I wear today a pink shoes, Im telling you - look at me, you understand. You cannot pretend that you didnt see, you understand; you have to, yeah, (dramatic statement from audience) yes, like mini-skirts, for instance or things like that - statement. Dramatic statement, yeah, thats a good word. Its, its important though; theres no sort of, yeah? Question B: Thank you, Rinpoche; ah, you mentioned; it was number five engaging in negative thoughts or action is wrong. And I was wondering; its sort of simplistic question, I guess too simplistic but how can one access that source within which all, all the wisdom emanates from? You know automatically at will access that which can stop wrong actions and stop negative thoughts. Rinpoche: It will come, its coming, yeah. Right now were this preliminary teaching; were only, you know what is the title right now? The big title is eh, the main teaching yes, but the big title is To understand how difficult it is to have the freedom and advantages, remember. So in order to make us understand why this freedom is so important, we are talking these things. And what makes you not free; such things, when youre emotional, when youre short-tempered, when youre I dont know, when youre in hell realm, when you have too many friends and relatives to s ocialize with, things like this, yeah.

Okay now were beginning to conclude this chapter. So now that you have heard the characters and definitions of the so-called freedoms and advantages, now what do you do is first you pray to the buddhas and bodhisattvas, sit on a very comfortable cushion, breathe in and out normally, relaxed and then CHECK, SEE whether you have these freedoms and these advantages or not. This is your meditation now, you understand. You check again and again; each point you check. That itself has a lot of; its a very profound path. If you check yourself for instance like looking at a mirror if you have to and try to see how much of these freedoms that Patrul Rinpoche talks about you have. How much of these advantages and disadvantages, I mean advantages he talks whether you have or not? That alone, not only it will make you realize how precious these freedoms are, how precious these advantages are; but by contemplating on it, you will manage to realize lots of the things you have never realized about yourself your emotion, your inner world because most of the time facing oneself is a very difficult thing. This is why we are always socializing; were always trying to forget oneself, you understand. Were always trying to; it is like the real oneself is here, and then we put another oneself, and then talk with people, make friends with people and then show this oneself to the other people and to yourself, both. So the real oneself, this vicious, fickle, sneaky, this real oneself is here inside. Usually we dont look at this oneself; so this is why this alone, this meditation on what we call freedom, freedoms and advantages alone will tell you a lot. This, this alone will give you a lot of good quality because you will become humble for one thing. Youll appreciate yourself. If you realize suddenly oh, you have so much freedom, so much of these advantages you have, such as you are now born in the time when Shakyamuni appeared, taught; his teachings are still alive, there are masters who have compassion incredible. You begin to appreciate about yourself things like that. Theres a lot of benefit on this. So its not like this is something you just read and not meditate. This is a meditation. You do this meditation. This is your homework now for until I see you again.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 17/31

So as Patrul Rinpoches saying here whether youre the highest ranking human beings such as Presidents, whether youre the holiest beings such as great lamas, whether youre the smallest ranking, sort of the lowest ranking beings it doesnt matter. We all need to see whether you have these freedoms or advantages again

and again before you actually enter into the main path. And if you see; see theres like eight freedoms, remember eight freedoms, ten different advantages and then sixteen additional eh, what are conditions. If you see one or two within yourself or maybe half, maybe all then meditate on joy. Have a joy, you know and think that how fortunate I am to have obtained such kind of precious human body. I shall not waste this. In order not to waste this, I will definitely try to see the right view; therefore I will engage into the path. This is what you have to contemplate again and again. Now if some of them are missing, some of the qualities are missing or half of the qualities are missing, or if all the qualities are missing that is not really possible actually, we are all human beings to start with. Then whatever is missing, you try to actually have it, you try to establish, you try to make it happen so that youll, youll, youll have none of this missing, yeah. This is, this is your instructions. For a practitioner, its important to be aware of these freedoms and advantages that we have again and again, all the time. As Patrul Rinpoche, Patrul Rinpoches saying here first we talk about eight freedoms, but actually the ten advantages are more difficult to obtain than the eight freedoms. Okay, then Patrul Rinpoche goes on, giving some extra examples why freedom, this kind of freedoms and advantages are so difficult to obtain. And Patrul Rinpoche gives us some classic examples, which you can read. Its not that difficult to explain I will skip that one. So Patrul Rinpoche writes this poem; I think maybe its Patrul Rinpoche, maybe not, but anyway he quotes this poem: To come across a precious jewel is nothing compared to finding this precious human life. Look how those who are not saddened by samsara fritter life away. To win a whole kingdom is nothing compared to meeting a perfect teacher. Look how those with no devotion treat the teacher as their equal. To be given command of a province is nothing compared to receiving the bodhisattvas vows. Look how those with no compassion hurl their vows away. To rule over the universe is nothing compared to receiving a tantric empowerment. Look how those who do not keep the samayas jettison their promises. To catch sight of the Buddha is nothing compared to seeing the true nature of mind. Look how those with no determination sink back into delusion. So with this we finish the first chapter the chapter of Freedoms and Advantages. Now you can ask all kinds of questions. We will start with the second chapter tomorrow. Does it after, I mean this, this book is very well translated you know. Its almost that you can just read it. Does it make any difference that after me explaining to me and then you read does it make difference? (Yes from audience) Yeah? What kind of difference does it make? (Laughter) Yeah, what? Yeah? Student A: Sometimes for me, I think eh, I understand the words seems though I do understand it but when you explain it, you go into more detail and you give examples. So my understanding becomes much more rich and much more full. Rinpoche: Okay, thats good, Im glad; because otherwise, sometimes I feel that you

can just read it. (Laughter) Student B: Rinpoche, when we were just reading it, we were only using one sense but when we hear you eh, explain it, we were also hearing it and we can read that at the same time. So I think thats the additional for me. Rinpoche: Actually, yeah, you should read this book, huh; from the first chapter. I tell you, yeah, actually this I was thinking of telling you tomorrow but I can tell you today. I might forget it. Those who are serious in following Patrul Rinpoches path, Longchen Nyingtik, not only Longchen Nyingtik but Vajrayana path what you do even though you dont have this, you know your own whatever eh, private root guru, private property, I don t know, whatever this. Even though you dont have that, have Buddh as and Bodhisattvas right in front of you, pray to them and then read half a page. And then pray to the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas that May all the enlightenment qualities that is taught here will grow inside us. May all these negative qualities that are taught here be dispelled. You can read this, half a page every day. When you read, dont read it as if you are studying. Sometimes there are certain things you dont understand, doesnt matter just read it half a page. Yeah, any more questions? Here. Student C: Hello Rinpoche, this is a hard question to put into words but its about when you were talking earlier about subject and object and those coming together. Eh, Im trying to understand that more clearly. And where Im stuck is all these sentient beings that are suffering that I see and the reality of them or the lack of reality of them. And how, whats the right view towards the beings that I see around me, that I interact with and having the what is the right view in that? Rinpoche: Right view when you see sentient beings who are suffering is that what you are asking? What kind of right view you should have? The right view which you should have that is all these sentient beings they dont know what is the right view. Thats why theyre suffering, right. Now you want them to know the right view. This is why youre learning this so that youll have the right view and then you can teach them and enlighten them. Student C: Is it, is it just a product of my own mind or is it? Rinpoche: Oh, yes, that is yes but that is quite difficult to understand. Because, I mean theoretically its easy to say everything is our mind. This has always been the problem, I mean not only in the dharma. Even in the mundane, worldly level we know, we say like how many generations of human beings have said what - beauty is in the eyes of the beholder, is it? Theyre saying its mind, but who actually realizes that because this is mind, I should not be attached. No, most of them they think theyre there. Thats why they go round the world chasing each other. Its very difficult; easy to understand but difficult to practice, difficult especially APPLY. Practice on the cushion inside your meditation room is easier, but applying it right there on the spot very difficult. How imagine you tell your boyfriend or girlfriend hey, look you are beautiful and thats my

imagination. (Laughter) You are, youre, youre, what do you call it? What did they call it? Youre, youre; the day or the night is ruined, ruined but that is a fact, mm. Student D: I have a short attention span and my expectations. Im able to think in terms of all sentient beings. I have a tendency of kind of wanting to know when is this going to happen, you know. But eh, also like in terms of like fortunate eon and the degenerate age and now Buddhism is all coming to the West so I think Oh, yeah, its going to be a Buddhist nation you know. Eh, I guess that I get confused about how to think in terms of; I get confused on how to think in terms of what to expect, you know how the world and all the conditions are going to get terrible or you know there is going to be some kind of immediate eh, boon of Buddhism you know; and the degenerate age and the fortunate eon, you know one of those. I dont know how to conceptualize like all sentient beings Rinpoche: I think you have to practice. There is a lot of answers for that but right now practically I think you have to learn the art of or the technique of, the technique of aspiration - aspiration again and again, which will come actually. This will come. Yes? Can you use this mike? Can you repeat that again, I cant hear? Student E: Rinpoche, can you elaborate on what makes an activity dharmic as opposed to non-dharmic? Rinpoche: Actively; what did, what did I say earlier how can you judge whether a person is dharma practitioner or not, a good dharma practitioner or not? I forgot completely. How much the person is valuing the dharma? Thats it. If the person is valuing the dharma, the person will be very active towards the dharma. Actually I skip a lot of stories here, there is; oh no, its coming maybe. Eh, it comes in the impermanence, teaching on the impermanence. Which master was it? One Nyingma master, he was practicing in the cave and when he goes out; every time he goes out, he stumbles over a small root of a tree. And he thought Ah, I have to cut this because this might grow but no, no this will take some time, you know to cut the tree. No, no this is a waste of time. Ive better go and prac tice. I may not, I may not live. This keeps on happening and the tree grows very big. Stories like this, its like this you know, putting effort actively. Itll come if you value the dharma. Student E: Does it come down to intention, though? Rinpoche: Yes, yes, definitely. I mean as I was saying earlier mountaineering people, those who like to be on the peak of Mount Everest how much they put effort, so much; they risk so much for what? I mean I understand if somebody is making a lot of money or I dont know, making a movies or something like that. (Laughter) Sort of understandable, but climbing the peak of Mount Everest for what? It doesnt do anything. What does it do? I dont understand. I think its the most useless thing to do, but then again, it depends you know again what value, valuing. I guess this is how our Christian husband and wife think to us when we practice hundred thousand prostrations. What is this? Might as well, might as well go to

Mount Everest, Im sure they think like that, yeah. Thats it, okay. Student F: Rinpoche, can your karma from past life be so negative that you practice as hard as you can in this life its going to be difficult. And can lama see that in you before you start and recommend a course of accumulating merit or a different practice? Rinpoche: Some lamas can, yes; I think so. Okay, thats it, yeah. You want to ask one more; this one lady, yeah, okay, yes. Student G: I believe you said that eh, shamatha practice was antidote to indulging emotions? Rinpoche: Antidote to indulgence, yes. Student G: Could you say something about that? Rinpoche: Yes, yes, we will, we will. (Laughter) So much taking refuge, bodhicitta; anyway when we talk about bodhicitta, well talk about ultimate and relative bodhicitta. When we talk about relative bodhicitta, I guess we touch to that subject a little bit, okay.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 18/31

Student H: Would you say a little bit about prayer and expectation? Having the right attitude in prayer, I get a little confused with eh, you know growing-up Christian Rinpoche: If you arejust apply that four views, okay, you do prayer. If youre a Buddhist, if youre doing a Buddhist prayer; youve to have that four things, four views then that that becomes Buddhist prayer. If youre not, if your prayer does not have that four, then it becomes theistic prayer. These four things that I gave you is quite important. This is a key for you to study Buddhism and practice Buddhism, okay. Eh, this book those who have its very good, I think. Those who dont have, if you can afford buy this one. They should give me a commission for this (laughter). And if those who can afford to buy for someone else thats also very rejoice-able, you understand, okay. Thats it. We meet tomorrow ten oclock, is it? Yeah.

(The next day) So in order to achieve enlightenment or buddha, state of the buddha; in order for oneself to reach or achieve state of the buddha, we are, we, one must practice, study, hear the teachings, contemplate on it and then meditate. And then follow all the gradual, gradual bhumis or the states of bodhisattvas. Now buddha, the word buddha has two meanings, as you may have known, many of you awakened and accomplished. Awakened one - awakened; awakened from this delusion, this deep sleep of delusion - ignorance. And when we have wrong views, when we have wrong views about compounded phenomena, when we have wrong views about our emotions, when we have wrong views about compounded, some compounded phenomena as if they are everlasting, permanent, stable. When we have wrong views that our emotions are joy, bliss, happiness and when we have wrong views about phenomena, that they have a truly existent self-nature; and then we think that nirvana or enlightenment is some kind of state, some kind of achievement then we are sleeping. Then we are in this deep sleep of ignorance delusion. A Buddha is awakened from this kind of wrong views, wrong ideas. Now this is quite important. Buddha himself said (Tibetan phrase) quite, very, very important this one. These four views that we have been talking three days now that every compounded things are impermanent, all emotions are pain, all phenomena do not have self, truly existent self-nature, nirvana is beyond fabrication or extreme. These four views of the ultimate reality will, is always there whether, this is what the Buddha said, whether Buddha came to the earth or not the ultimate reality will never change. Now this statement is a big one. You see many people think somehow compounded world, compounded things have become impermanent AFTER Buddha said so. All phenomena become selflessness after Buddha said so. But that is not the case. Whether the Buddha came or not, whether the Buddha taught or not, Buddha, even though he is the most powerful, even though he is the most skilled, he can never change these four views. These four views are like there. It is something that he cannot change. This Buddha, the person, the being, someone like Shakyamuni he can never ever manipulates this view. Why we call Shakyamuni a Buddha? Because he is one of the persons who realize these four views. And as soon as he realized these four views, he, he, he is released from this grip, this very strong grip of fixation towards wrong ideas and views, yeah. Its like nightmare for instance. Until we dont, until we dont know that it is a nightmare, that it is merely a dream, we, our fists, what do we call it? Clench and then breathe heavy and all that. The moment you know this is a dream, basically the moment you know the TRUTH released; and thats it, NOTHING MORE. You understand, its not like suddenly as soon as you realized the truth, you become, I dont know, you grow, you grow horn, I dont know, you have extra heads, extra arms no, no, none of that. But at the same time, it is something very, very; a special thing. Its like Milarepas

story when Milarepa; you know Rechungpa wanted to study about non-duality, basically he wanted to study this third view that all things have no truly existent self-nature. And he was sort of discontent with Milarepa, so he wanted to go to India to study about non-duality, not Madhyamika philosophy and all that in the Nalanda University, I mean the big Buddhist universities. Milarepa said maybe this is not necessary, but he insists; so Milarepa let him go. After years, many years, Rechungpa is coming back, maybe graduated from certain schools. Milarepa went to receive him and on the way, on the way as they were walking back, suddenly there was a big storm, big storm and eh, hail, hail. And there was no place to take shelter and they were both searching for a shelter like a cave or a tree. There was nothing, it was Tibetan plateau, barren sort of. And then suddenly they saw a small yak horn and then Milarepa - he quickly went inside this yak horn. And then he sang a very, very famous song saying that if you know non-duality, come in, theres still a lot of space (laughter). The yak horn didnt become bigger than Milarepa; Milarepa didnt become smaller than the yak horn; yet yak horn was outside of Milarepa and Milarepa is inside yak horn. Now this is something we cannot chew, we cannot imagine why? Because we have a grip, a strong grip on so-called small and big, you understand; thats why we are not letting, this is why we cannot, were deluded. We are still stuck with smallness, bigness; we are stuck, you understand? But even though, that story is quite an interesting one; even though Milarepa Rechungpa didnt manage to go in the yak horn, he at least saw it, what was happening. That is quite amazing. That means he has already learned quite a lot. People like us, I mean forget about seeing, we cant even believe that such things happened. Not only that, if you read Milarepas story, you may think oh this is one of the supernatural, magical thing that this Milarepa guy who happened to be known as a great magician, isnt it? So you might think oh, this is one of his magic. But you see these are the words that trick us a lot. The word magic; we think that oh Milarepa has done something against the reality. You see its something not possible, but because hes a great magician, he did something, he performed a magic, you understand. But in fact, what he really did was he; he was not going against the reality AT ALL. He was actually facing the reality. He was actually performing the reality. The reality is there is no such thing as big and there is no such thing as smallest, or big, biggest or smallest. Thats what he was performing. Thats, thats the world, the world beyond the biggest and small, smallest is the world that Milarepa is dwelling all the time. So Milarepa is a Buddha why? Hes awakened; hes awakened from what? Hes awakened from this deep sleep of smallness of yak horn and the bigness of his body. Now the second, second word buddha; buddha has a second connotation; the second meaning of the buddha is accomplished, accomplished. Then your question would be so what? Okay you got, you go into, you know; so you know there is no such thing as smallest and there is no such thing as biggest, so what? Ha, there is a lot of things that you are accomplished - spontaneously accomplished.

As you can see in the story, Milarepa has managed accomplished, accomplished something that Rechungpa didnt, especially when, when the, what do you call it? Eh, when it is really necessary because there was a hail, remember. See someone like Rechungpa was still had to surrender to an umbrella or a cave or a tree. Not accomplished what is accomplished mean? Accomplished means many things. Accomplished, spontaneously accomplished especially managed to do whatever you like to do, managed to have whatever you want to have, managed, yeah, thats accomplished, isnt it? Accomplished; and Milarepa, as you can see is accomplished being. Why is he accomplished? Why are we not accomplished? We cant be accomplished because were stuck, were stuck with the small, were stuck with the big, were stuck with ideologies, were stuck with Buddhism, were stuck with Christianity, we are stuck with all these ideas, views. Milarepa is not. The moment you are not stuck with the view, then you can do whatever you like and everything works. You can get inside the yak horn, not becoming smaller than the yak horn. Yak horn can be outside you and the yak horn doesnt have to become bigger. Yet you are inside of a yak horn. Thats a very, very big accomplishment, something that we cannot even imagine. And this in order for us to; now as you hear this because of the nature of the story, it almost has a magical touch like you know going inside a yak horn wow, bit like sort of Disneyland or what do you call it? - Walt Disneys kind of invention? So dont get carried away by this kind of magical story. Come down, down to earth. Were, you know when were talking about enlightenment, we are not talking about some kind of celestial mansion. We are talking about a very simple thing, a simple, what do you call it? Released of this grip, you know the strong grip; grip, is it the right word, grip? We are right now holding it so tight; the grip is so tight, we are feeling, we are going through some kind of numbness, numb, numbness. So this is why mm, you know sort of the immediate effect of this grip you dont feel. This is why you dont know what is suffering, yeah. So for us to; today I want to tell you, for us to let go this grip we have to practice dharma. And then for that we need Mahayanas great, vast, vast attitude, Vajrayanas vast skilful means; and with these two faculties, we should listen to the teaching with all the manners that we talk yesterday.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 19/31

We are now in the process of teaching the main one, main subject and in the main subject theres two categories, the common foundation and uncommon foundation. The common teachings, within the common teachings we have already finished talking about, describing the freedoms and advantages. Your job is to see whether you have these freedoms or not, whether you have these advantages or not. As I said yesterday, if you dont have, if you do have then feel, you know feel happy, rejoice and then appreciate it and make use of it. Dont waste it. If you dont have it, if you dont have even one or two, try to have those faculties because now this is, this is the point. I think many of us do have, probably not all but definitely some, half maybe, maybe more than half. And thats very, very lucky; thats, I mean thats very, very fortunate. This must mean that we have done lots of good deeds in the past, thats why we have this. And its very important that we do not waste these freedoms and advantages. I mean even a weekend when we want, when we have freedom, we do not want to waste it, do we? I mean for, like if you have a weekend, ordinary people, when you have a weekend or a summer holiday, a vacation or a leave you plan it long time before. You know Caribbean Sea, I dont know whatever hotels, resorts you plan and you really try to make use of it. From the bedroom to the beach, you know you try to make use of this freedom as much as you can. You understand, like not bringing your cellular phone, is it? Cellular phones, things like this. But if you; likewise right now we have these freedoms and advantages. This is why when we have this, its very important we do not waste it. Because sadly these human bodies or these freedoms and advantages that we have, although they are such a great thing, sadly they are compounded things. And what is it, what is the nature of compounded things? They are impermanent and this is the second chapter, the impermanence, okay. Here I like to clarify. The second chapter, the Impermanence this impermanence, the teaching on impermanence; see when we talk about the four views, the first view is all compounded things are impermanent. Thats like the philosophy itself, okay thats the philosophy. Thats like the ground. Here we talk about impermanence also, its slightly different. Of course, it is part, part of the first view but this, this teaching; the second chapter is actually instruction on meditation. When I say all compounded things are impermanent, we are talking about the view, okay. Here when we talk about, when were going through the second chapter, based on that view, we are touching the actual meditation what you should be thinking, okay. So one is, this is the actual contemplation. So the reason why I want to clarify this is because in this section, as many people seem to indicate youll, especially non-Buddhists, they always think that Buddhism always talks about sad things, sort of pessimistic things death, dying, impermanence, you understand. Well as I, as we talk yesterday, in order for us to invoke some kind of revulsion towards this samsaric life, when we, as a technique of meditation, as a technique of impermanence meditation yes I agree, there is more what you think about is more like how this is going to exhaust, how these are going to decay and all that, okay. When we talk about the first view that all compounded things are impermanent,

were not only talking about bad news. When we talk about all compounded things as impermanent, we could be also talking about good news. Like if you are going through a certain depression or sadness, a really, really deep one; that sadness or depression is also compounded thing. Therefore it can change, therefore it can decay, therefore you can also reach to some kind of state of happiness. But thats not what we are going to talk on this in the second chapter, because the second chapter is encourage you to get into the dharma. We are not talking so much about happiness here. Here we are talking about eh; this is a technique for you so that your renunciation mind will grow. Okay something that you have to notice. First okay; we talk yesterday - a practitioner can visualize buddhas and bodhisattvas in front of us, sit on a comfortable cushion, relax, breathe in and out normally for a few times, and then look at, literally look at these phenomena, these mountains, this river, this sun, this moon. Not only look but hear, listen to the sound; all these things are going to decay and I dont have to elaborate all these reasons as its in the book. We know very well that these are all going to decay, exhaust, dismantle. They are all impermanent. Similarly, okay, Ill just go through the points. You can ask questions later. Similarly again look at the sentient beings, human beings, animals, whatever, anyway sentient beings. Look at all these sentient beings and then ask questions. As theres a sutra, theres a sutra called Letter of Consolation Sutra, Letter of Consolation; in the Sutra Buddha asked have you ever? - This is supposedly consolation, you understand (laughter). You should actually pin this as a condolence card, I think. Actually masters like when I notice masters His Holiness Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche when we go to funerals or when people die and when they come to receive his blessings, he would always console them with these words this kind of words anyway. Like here have you ever on earth or in the heavens see a being born who will not die? Or heard that such a thing happen or even suspected that it might? Questions like that you can ask. This, this is contemplation. This is meditation, impermanence meditation; looking more, concentrating more at the beings, the first, yeah. And Patrul Rinpoche is saying here breathing gently people enjoy their slumber, but between one breath and the next, there is no guarantee that death will not slip in. To wake up in good health is an event which truly deserves to be considered miraculous, yet we take it completely for granted. Words like this you read again and again; and then remind yourself what is fragile, fragility of this, this phenomena, this container phenomena, this contained phenomena, this inanimate phenomena, this animate phenomena all of these are going to decay, all of these are subject to impermanence. Then this one is quite good; this, this really works the impermanence of holy beings. This is SO good. Because no matter how we Buddhists brag about, you know we are sort of not theistic, you know this is a philosophy, this is not a religion, all of that. Somehow as a human being there is this inborn, sort of almost like inborn theistic approach, you understand, like holy beings, great masters they are beyond death, that kind of thing. You understand we; its not that conscious but its very unconsciously you know like, usually objects that we pray I dont know, for the problems, you know like when we pray to solve this problem whatever, we always think these objects are beyond problems, isnt it? This is like, this is sort of subtle

habit that we have. So this one is quite good thinking about the death and the decay or the impermanence aspect of the holy beings - so many great beings of the past and the present; they, they die. None of them have ever lived basically and this is something quite special in the, in Buddhism no one immortal, okay. So thinking of the impermanence based on the holy beings. And then also the impermanence of those in positions of power this, this will also work because we think that the death and impermanence comes only to you know, certain; not consciously, unconsciously we sort of think that rich and powerful can live longer or live forever or something like that but that is not the case. The impermanence exists within also those in positions and power. Ill skip most of the stories that you can read, okay; and then as Milarepa said Milarepa said this thing we call our corpse, so fearful to behold is already right here our own body. Words, words like this can remind us of death. There is an extensive description by Patrul Rinpoche that how we, so afraid of dead body, how we treat them as something dirty or something, I dont know, it makes you feel not good for many of us. When a person dies, suddenly the atmospheres changed; I dont know the description that is written. You see this book is written mainly for the Tibetans and especially for the nomads. Many of these examples that are used are for Tibetans and nomads. I guess you can imagine like, you know when people die here. You know we; quite important this one eh, we go through certain, you know the whole atmosphere changes, whole feeling changes around us. Imagine, okay imagine one of us dies here, huh, right now. For instance, like Sarah; if she dies, then what do we do? We put her in a coffin, is it? Make up, do we need that? (Laughter) Dont they do that? Yeah. And then I dont know, those, those who dont know Sarah, I guess you dont feel that. But those who know her; its just so, the feeling is different, you know like she was just there sitting on that chair this morning and right now, maybe we will hug her and all that. But unless youre very, very attached to Sarah, you know you feel little strange to touch this body, you understand. Because her eyelid doesnt move, she doesnt smile, or if she died smiling, the mouth is like this, you understand. Anyway theres a different feeling this is what Patrul Rinpoches talking here. Your body is trussed up with a rope and covered with a curtain held in place with earth and stones see this is a very, very Tibetan thing. Your bowl is turned upside down on your pillow no matter how; yeah, mm, I dont know, I like to, yeah this is important so I like to describe a little bit. Eh, for instance, I dont know eh, if so meone like May Gu its important to talk, its not inauspicious, you got to realize this, yeah. If she dies today in her home, then; okay normally she eats breakfast and lunch, and that she does in her home. So whenever she does this, her son or her daughter or her husband prepares this, maybe, its a normal habit, okay. So suddenly she dies. Now you cant do that, you cant put this in a plate and fork and knife then there is a certain feeling you understand what Im saying? - Yeah, the, the disruption, disruption of a normal pattern.

What Patrul Rinpoche is talking here is this is here right now, its not like its going to happen one day at the end. Its here now, this minute; this disruption, thats it, thats a good word the disruption can happen. The whole character of disruption; theres, theres all the reasons why this disruption can happen ; all the reasons, more than we need is here yeah, impermanence this sudden, sudden disruption of normal life.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 20/31

Everything you have, and then besides this, not only the death; besides this, everything what you have saved doesnt matter, everything you have collected , photos, it doesnt matter eh, wine is it? Wine, stamps, photos of the gurus, and dharma books, all of these are going to exhaust. All of these are going to be separated from you. Not only that, a certain state that you are in; eh, wait; mm, also everything that is gathered, its so this is why you know I feel almost like frustrated because every analogy Patrul Rinpoche gave is wonderful, so vivid, so visual. Hes saying, one example that he gave, I mean we dont have time to explain all the examples. One example that hes giving here is look you know especially those who have families and friends, look better to have fun now, you know while you can, youd better be together and happy, be happy with each other because fondue, fondue, Im sure you have, I dont know whether America has this? In Europe they have this. You know market, morning market, like fish market? Yeah in Seattle they have this market but the Seattle market is different. You know like big ground and suddenly a lot of people do business and then towards the day and middle of the day, they all disappear, go home. And this is such a visually incredible good example. Patrul Rinpoches saying our families and friends, this gathering, sangha, family, friends, I dont know like meeting of two friends, its like gathering of market. Its goin g to go, you know, in a different direction. You know, no matter, you know eh, at the end, you have to go separate way. This is; they use this analogy so important; almost scary you know to be, to be. You know this market, so beautiful, fresh, fresh fish, fresh peach, fresh strawberries, people shouting, housewives with a cart coming, kids running up and down, you know and so busy, beautiful; and then suddenly around midday, completely deserted. This is, this happens such a good example. Therere so many examples like this.

Also, thats why so-called friend and family is totally impermanent; especially these days, much more impermanent. The divorce rate has gone up so much, isnt it? And the divorce rate, separation rate, broken heart rate, what else? Eh, dumping each rate has gone up a lot; so cannot trust, one can never trust. You see it has; besides it has, it does sound very, very negative but it has a lot of good side effects, you know. For instance, you have, if you have listened to these teachings and contemplate; from now if you date with your new boyfriend or girlfriend, and if you are starting to have a new relationship if you have this impermanence in your head like - oh, oh this is going to be like a fish market (laughter), its going to really help, dont you think? You, you make merry while the fish market is happening and when it goes doesnt matter because next day theres another fish market coming (great laughter); yeah, so coming together. So-called friends, this is one; friends and enemies are also impermanent, completely. This is a good one actually. I like to quote this. Katayana cried out he eats his fathers flesh, he beats his mother off, he dangles on his lap the enemy that he killed, the wife is gnawing at her husbands bone I laugh to see what happens in samsaras shore. Well, that we are talking about you know, reincarnation, but even without the reincarnation business, I mean our friends that whom we trust. This is why when you know, when two couple, when couple breaks up, if youre not careful, you become the worst of enemy. Because the reason is because you love this person so much in the beginning, you trusted him or her so much, you expose yourself. You know this guy knows about you so well. This is why you just dont like when you break up with him, much talk about this, I dont know, things like this. So friends that we have, loved ones, we dont know; tomorrow they are the most hated ones. Today we have the most hated one here right in front of us, we dont know. Day after tomorrow, we will be exchanging rings with them, you understand, marry, I dont know. So amazing, I mean Im surrounded by this kind of people, you understand. Therere, we have like couples, sort of having kind of stable relationship. In fact this guy he had a sort of very short, short relationship but suddenly he had long relationship. And one day I received a call oh, Im breaking up with this woman; and right on that day, he again called me oh, I have another one whom I met only for two weeks and we are planning to get married, like this. So it, it changes so fast, you understand. And then, you know what things can become, enemies can become friends, friends can become enemies. Im exaggerating a little bit here, okay; friends can become enemies, enemies can become friends. Its a big problem here (laughter), okay. And then just so special this teaching and then (laughter); then Patrul Rinpoche said even so-called good and bad, wholesome and what do you call it? Unwholesome? Good and bad, even that, even that definition of good and bad is impermanent so true, so true. I mean in this world, like the fast moving world such as America, my god the definition of what is, what is the right thing to do, and what is the wrong to do? I mean from the time I remember, America has changed; I dont remember they used to for the black people, they used to call like African American. You know things like that, the term or this is a racist thing to do; I dont know right now which one is the latest right word for the black people, the coloured people what is the right word? African American but Asian, American Asian is it? (Asian

American from audience) Oriental is not a good word any more, right? (Laughter) Used to be such an exotic word, isnt it Oriental Express and stuff like that? (Laughter) Now we have to call it what? American Asian Express, what, Asian American, Asian American. The idea, idea of what is good, what is the right thing, what is justice, what is freedom all this changes so much. And being able to, you know keep, what, keep track of these changes is what we call in this world successful. But its endless, its just endless. Its never going to stop, its going to change all the time. See this is not necessary a bad news teaching, isnt it? It is such a; if you know that all these so-called ideas, puritanical ideas, this, I dont know they are going to change. Then one will not that paranoid. I dont know somehow I have a feeling that from now - maybe after twenty years, if a couple is having a relationship, if the couple doesnt have whip and leather and chain, what is it? Cuff, then it will be called a very unhealthy relationship (laughter). What do you call it? Very eh, bland, bland relationship, what do you call it? Boring, what, boring, yeah, very, sort of tame. No, tame is a good word but sort of uninteresting relationship theyre having you know. After twenty years I bet some people will come to lamas and say we are not having a good relationship (laughter). Why not? Our relationship is very uninteresting, you know. Why not? Well, everybody seems to be using leather and all that, we are not. This can happen, I think. Lets have a break (laughter) Rinpoche: Yeah questions. Student A: Rinpoche, with regards to reincarnation and impermanence, could you comment eh, what is it that reincarnates? Because if theres something that reincarnates, it would seem that did not die and therefore was not impermanent? Eh, so could you clarify this point for me? Rinpoche: Mind. What is the definition of reincarnation in English? Student A: Well, reincarnation presumably means to take a new body, so; in fact I think perhaps the theistic view is that there is a soul, and the soul takes a new body; so I dont wish to have that theistic view but Im actually not sure what the correct Buddhist view would be? Rinpoche: Its a very difficult one. You see the, the, the Tibetan word, the dharma term yang srid, yang srid, srid pas, has something to do, theres, theres a connotation of continuation. It doesnt necessarily mean taking a new body, although it has a lot of that; but basically continuation, you understand. Actually this is good that you brought this thing because see we talk about time, do you remember? Eh, all compounded things are impermanent. We are talking about you know, time, compounded thing, past, I mean beginning, middle and end. Yesterday, were you here? Right see, in our ordinary mind as I ask you were you here yesterday you say yes. Then but when we analyse this thoroughly yesterdays you and todays you - are totally different because you are bound by time. Yesterday is yesterday, and today is today. If it is same, exactly same, then you will never get old. You understand what Im saying because you are bound, not bound by time.

You are changing every second, every moment; every minute you are changing. The first moment is gone, it will never come back. You are now dwelling in the present moment. This is going to go soon; in fact its gone. The future moment is arising. Yet between yesterday and today there is a continuation of you, because otherwise you will not remember. You know at the same time we cannot say yesterdays you and todays you are totally, absolutely separate. They are not separate; because if they are totally separate, then whatever you have learned yesterday, including your name, you will not remember today. You dont have to because youre two different beings. This is a philosophy, see in order to understand the idea of reincarnation its very important to understand this philosophy of interdependence. So a Buddhist would say yesterdays you and todays you are neither same nor different. That is the only answer you can give. People who; the one who can accept, one who accepts the philosophy of interdependence they always give this kind of answer theyre neither same nor different. Samsara and nirvana they are neither different nor same. They always say like that. You cannot make a decision. You cannot, see are you getting what Im saying? Okay, there is a continuation of you. Its going to continue tomorrow also; but tomorrow your moment of tomorrow and todays moment are different. Otherwise, the beginning and the end will all become one, right. Now based on this, this continuation when you die what happens is actually there is a big, there is a final separation between your mind and your body. This is what is called death the separation between the four aggregates and the fifth aggregate. You know when Buddhists talk about the five aggregates, youre, these five aggregates are separating. And this is what we call death.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 21/31

Now if I give you analogy, mind is like a eh, contwhat do you call it? Bodies are like a container, mind is likewhat is it? Contained. There is a contained and container relationship between mind and the body. So thats why if something happens to your body, definitely it, it affects your mind; but still the container and contained is separate item. It doesnt mean that they are same. If a container, when a container exhausts does not necessarily mean the contained exhausts. Of course it will effect; this is why when you die, it definitely, it really effects our mind

so much. It effects both in a good way and bad way. Bad way mainly from our emotional point of view because we have so much attachment, fixation and love to this life so theres such, we have such a strong grip to this so-called life. Thats why when we are coming to the end of life; its such a sad thing thats happening. Good news, thats something, theres something good about it - this is more from the Vajrayana point of view. The body, the elements, this, this is by force, not by your practice but by force its degenerating. So your mind is becoming pristine clear; youre sort of - see our body which has sense, sense organs and all of it, somehow becomes like a magnet, magnet to the distractions. It draws a lot of distractions. When the body dysfunctions, then you have less of a distraction. When theres less of a distraction, then the mind is more clear. So this is a time that Vajrayana people go crazy about ha, ha, this is so important, bardo, you know this is where we have to grab this and practice it and then make use of it. And I can understand why. You see normally we have to really try hard to get hold of this pristine clear mind. This time, not only by the power of your meditation you are managing to do it, but by the nature, natures force because one big part of your body, bodily functions and all this - magnetizer of distractions is dismantling. So it is a big opportunity Anyway going back to your question, mind and body is a separate entity. So this mind now, now that I have explained to you this, now we have again, now we have to go back to the explanation of karma, okay, karma. When we talk about karma, what we talk about cause, condition and effect, you understand. If there is a cause and condition and if, then they always say if theres no obstacle, interference, then this cause and condition has no choice but to give result. It has to. A drop of water here today, a glass of water here today - if theres no space, no time, no wind, nobody to drink, I dont know, no sun to dry, no fire element to dry, you understand - this drop, this glass of water will remain for thousand years. But why the glass of water decays or exhausts - because there is a wind, there is oxygen, theres someone who drinks, you understand thats what we call obstacle. Mind, to discontinue mind there is only one obstacle guess what it is? Enlightenment when you get enlightenment, it discontinues the mind. Until you achieve enlightenment, mind has to continue, and that continuum is what they call reincarnation. I hope I didnt confuse you; this is, this is very big, the question is very big, but this is a vague answer, very vague; needs a few days to answer this. Yes. Wait, I think they want to record this; is that okay? Student B: Rinpoche, Padmasambhava and other holy beings eh, attain the kayas and deathlessness, and I dont know, I dont know you can explain the seemingly contradiction between that and the section on impermanence where Patrul Rinpoches talking about the impermanence of holy beings. Rinpoche: Okay, easy, thats easy (laughter). The deathlessness, immortal, things that these Vajrayana people talk about especially the level of Guru Rinpoche, those who wish, those who follow the Guru Rinpoches path, Amitayus, Amitabha, long-life Buddha and all that. You know amar, amar, the Sanskrit word amar; a is a

negative, mar means death deathless, no death. It is, of course I mean from a mundane, day to day, the meaning is just no death but in the Vajrayana, in the tantric, death is dualism. If you are going beyond death, I mean if you go beyond dualism, dual, bad, good, beautiful, ugly, small, big that is deathless. And if you can manage to go beyond that, that is what we call enlightenment, isnt it? And enlightenment is definitely not a compounded phenomenon. Thats why it is not impermanent. Thats why its also not permanent. Easy, easy like that, isnt it? So deathless, deathless, kaya - all these are poetic language that these Buddhist poets sometimes - they should have been very careful about these things when they write. It does bring a lot of misconceptions, you know, deathless body, rainbow body; then it really, especially it; this is so seeming, seemingly theistic approach. This is why its so, so frustrating because Buddhism itself is beyond theism and atheism, I think. But then theres a whole human beings - there is a lot of tendency in sudden someone more superior; already theres a very good tendency to become theistic. And then on top of that, we have a certain religious upbringing. On top of that these Vajrayana people talk about lives and heads and colour and pure realms and mandalas it just makes everyone so confused. Zen I think, Zen Buddhism is the best (laughter), yeah. Student C: If there is no mind after a person reaches enlightenment, then is it possible for them to come back if there is no mind? Once theyre enlightened, is that it, they dont come back? Rinpoche: When we talk about coming back, when we are talking about coming back an enlightened being this is a good question. When we talk about enlightened being coming back to help sentient beings of course thats what you are talking, isnt it? We are always talking about us, our point of view, you understand? We are always talking about its like this; mm, remember yesterday we talk about everything being mind. Like Shakyamuni Buddha he came to the Earth, he was born in India, he was a prince, he was not an American. You know he never had a hotdog, you understand, things like that. Do you know? Now whos talking about, whos talking? We, we are talking; so its our perception of enlightened being coming back. As Im not enlightened being, I cannot talk about an experience, experience of an enlightened being, okay first. Even though I am enlightened being and I will still not managed to talk about enlightened experience because thats beyond expression. Even though I can express it, you will never hear because you know we cant really talk. But lets try still. From the classic Buddhist point of view, an enlightened being, from his or her point of view there is no so-called samsara or nirvana or going back and forward. So there is not even the idea of coming back what does it mean by coming back? See when you talk about coming back, its like this. Its something like this. See, okay lets say when you, tomorrow when youre enlightened, when youre enlightened suddenly okay, tomorrow when you reach Vancouver as you touch your plane in

Vancouver International Airport, suddenly you are enlightened. Now for you, you have never; you realize that you have never, ever even for a split second experience as a samsaric being, ever, EVER. You never have a, you understand what Im saying, you never experience as a samsaric being in your life, in your past life because theres no such thing as past life; no time remember. Now then your devoted disciples, someone like Amelia, comes and asks you Leslie, Buddha Leslie, give me some teachings, how can I practice? Then you give teachings and then you tell her when I was a bodhisattva, I went to San Francisco, you understand, time, situation, all of that. But it, this is all Amelias point of view, never your point of view. This is how all this so-called nirmanakaya works. See I told you, Buddhists are so slippery. They can, they have, they have answers for all these. But it works; this is how it works. And surprisingly this is how things work, our mundane, you know in our world; you know someone sees it works. Its like...what is it? Its like this mind projection works so strong. Its like some friends that I know they read newspapers and at the back of the newspaper they have what you call lonely hearts is it? (Laughter) What do you call it? Personal, personal ads; internet whatever, internet dating service, and you dont know. Well you dont know whom you are talking and all that, you understand; you dont know. But you still make a date, and then tomorrow youre going to meet this guy or a girl, I dont know, you understand. Then you have all kinds of preconceptions about he looks like, or things like this. And then even after meeting, you will still have your own mental projection, your own projection, and thats how things work. This is why internet works in dating if one of you dont have so-called preconception, then none of this dating service will work. If one human, okay when you date, it takes two people, right? If one of them doesnt have so-called preconception or mind, it doesnt work. Then its difficult, you cannot imagine, theres no fun also, okay.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 22/31

Student D: Rinpoche, Im not sure that I still got that. If a person or being is, whatever has no mind; I wish I can talk about emanation, whats an emanation, thats another question Rinpoche: Yes, we are talking about emanation; whenever we talk about emanation, we are talking about an audience. Audience, one who perceives the emanation;

emanation, yeah; emanation like manifestation, you mean? - Manifestation, manifestation, whenever, manifestation are you like talking like? (Yes response from student) Yeah, whenever you are talking about manifestation, youre talking about one; you are also talking about See when you talk about manifestation, your mind is busy with manifest-or, I think. Now forget that; now concentrate on the audience to whom you manifest. Okay because until you have that audience, why manifestation? So what I am saying is it is the audience thats so important here. Without the audience there is no show. Any intention of coming and you know, rising and setting, and then giving light to the certain part of the building, not giving light to certain, there is no, no, no intention like that. But it benefits to those who wish to benefit. Student D: Are you saying that its the audience that brings the emanation? Rinpoche: YES, audiences devotion, their merit, their projection brings it ah, very good. Student D: So when a teacher dies, eh, for instance when Karmapa died, and they said he was not reborn or emanate again, I guess then because there wasnt enough merit by the disciples Rinpoche: All these, all these are disciples talk. Yeah, audience talk; they talk whatever they like to talk oh, Buddha came; oh, he didnt come, he was a bit too late, you know; he came too fast all of these (laughter). Its all, yeah, okay. Student D: I, I have one more question. You were telling us the story about Milarepa and the yak horn; and that he took shelter inside the yak horn and he had a companion. And you said that the companion was fortunate because the companion saw this. Now we cant even believe that it can happen. My question is; Ive been trying to imagine this I can do is seeing Milarepa either shrinking or the yak horn growing. So what did his companion see? Rinpoche: Well, I dont have enough merit to even describe that, yeah. Okay, can you come here first, this one and then? Student E: Thank you; eh just two questions. Are you saying that its enlightenment a mind without preconception? Rinpoche: Enlightenment has no mind. (Tibetan phrase) Chandrakirti said this black and white, clear-cut enlightened, enlightened being does not have mind. Student E: So its like totally, impressive Rinpoche: Because for Buddhists, mind means dualistic subject and object. Student E: Well, the other question was is enlightenment once and for all, or is it progressive; do you constantly moving towards it moment by moment? Rinpoche: The absolute enlightenment once and for all; you know that you reach there and thats it. But then thats what we call example enlightenm ent that can

come from now. Suddenly you realize all compounded things are impermanent a little bit of enlightenment there, you understand. Student E: So, so its self-secret; self-secret? That keeps unfolding in some way. Rinpoche: Yes, like yeah; thats why this is the path, this path. Student E: Thank you. Student F: Im also a little bit stuck on this yak business. Since there is no big and small, what is this inside and outside? Rinpoche: Well, thats just an expression. We have to say, we have to, we have to describe something. Im sure for Milarepa, for Milarepa he doesnt even have outside and inside thats what hes trying to say. At least Rechungpa; I guess okay you can say Rechungpa could see the show but he still saw outside and inside; so a little bit of delusion there, I think. Student F: Why did he have to get out of the hell, why did he have to get out of the hell? Rinpoche: I think he wants to make a statement (laughter). Its true, yeah. This is a good question because you see His Holiness Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche, my master; he used to tell us all the time. He said therere so many reasons why we can, theres so reasons to prove why Buddha is so compassionate. Making this path so complicated like stages, preliminaries, foundations, and you know; shamatha, vipassana, you know making it complicated, complicated, not easy, sort of complicated, sort of stages progressive path? That alone shows that Buddha is so compassionate because he said in reality all Buddha had to say was oh, sentient beings, you are all buddha; thats all he had to say - nothing, but that one doesnt work. So he had to actually invent the path progressively, difficult, you know complicated; thats what we ask for. Student G: Rinpoche, eh, seems like the more that I contemplate impermanence, the more impressed I am with the fixation of my mind, the power of it and the longevity of it. And so the pain of seeing that is heightened you know, somewhat confusing as to the very antidote, you know sort of leads to a kind of heightened pain of seeing how this attachment and fixation, how strong... Rinpoche: How this attachment, yeah; eh, your attachment is to... Student G: I think primarily is the body and life. Rinpoche: Maybe you are beginning to now live consciously as you do impermanence meditation. Thats good; my only advice is just go ahead, carry on. Okay, impermanence we are talking about impermanence some more, some really important ones. So we, weve talked about how this universe, these mountains and rivers and rocks, how these are impermanent, didnt we? We talked about how these human beings

are impermanent; we talked about how buddhas and holy beings are also impermanent. We talked about how people who are in positions and power they are impermanent. And then we talked about how these ideas such as good and bad, democracy or you know, socialism; even these are impermanent, right. We talked about a lot of different, sort of kinds of impermanence like friends and foes, eh, what we call value, valuing, yes, the value system. What we value today, we may not value tomorrow. What we not value today, we value tomorrow; things like that. Now, EVEN THIS VERY THOUGHT that you have, this is an interesting one, this is a very good one. This very thought; okay you right now examine yourself you must have a thought going on in your head, some kind of idea, I dont know, idea to eh, go on a bike from, I dont know, around Europe, or something like that just some kind of idea; sudden, sudden - all these are passing thoughts. This is a, this is a very important one; like you think ah, you know all kinds of judgement whatever we have the very moment. This very moment you must have a thought and this thought, idea, no matter how strong it is is permanent, IMPERMANENT. Its going to go, its going to change. Today you think that this is the good way, this is the best way, yeah; tomorrow you will not think. This afternoon you might change your mind. You know changing mind, yeah, that one; and then more important one even this devotion and inspiration that we have theyre impermanent. This compassion that we have, devotion that we have; this, this fear to the death, this eh, I dont know all these are impermanent. All these are passing thoughts. So this, so one should really contemplate and realize that all these are impermanent again and again; whether you are walking, whether you are sleeping, whether you are sitting somewhere, whether you are talking, whatever you do, however you are spending this life always try to remember impermanence again and again. If it doesnt help just by thinking, you should even recite and say it loud that everything is impermanent, my passing thought, this, this moment thought is impermanent, my idea is impermanent. You can actually say it and you should also mean it. I like you but you know things can change. You know Im head over heels in love with you, but you know things can change, all like that. So there is no such thing as I will love you forever and ever. This is totally a lie. And then some advice from the Kadampa masters; so wonderful, incredible wherever you stay; for instance wherever you sit like this as I sit like this, one should think this is it, I may never stand up. I may just sit here and then this will be the end. As you sleep, just before you fall asleep, you can also think maybe I will never wake up tomorrow. But when you wake up surprisingly tomorrow morning you can think and say I may not see this afternoon, I may not experience the experience of this afternoon. Kadampa masters in the past, you know before going to the bed; you know usually we all arrange like we put, you know, practitioners we always arrange things like small things like, I dont know, hanging the jacket in the closet properly, thinking that youll wear it tomorrow. But Kadampa masters, when they practice, after they like drink tea or whatever, towards the end of the day, they will put it upside down as if this may be my last and the final tea.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 23/31

One should always consider this body of ours, this body that we have, these conditions that we have, we should always think this is something like rented, you know like rented, what do you call it? Place, yes rented, we just rented it; it is not owned by us. (Long pause) The few Kadampa sort of advices I think is quite good to read, maybe. Where you are, all places are impermanent, so keep the pure buddhafields in mind. Food, drink and whatever you enjoy are impermanent, so feed on profound concentration. Sleep is impermanent so while you are asleep, purify sleep delusions into clear light. Wealth, if you have it, it is impermanent; strive for the seven noble riches. Loved ones, friends and families are impermanent so in a solitary place, arouse the desire for liberation. High rank and celebrity are like; celebrities are impermanent so always take a lowly position. Speech is impermanent, so inspire yourself to recite mantras and prayers and et cetera, et cetera - lot, lots of advices from the Kadampa masters. These things can be applied mmm. Also Buddha himself said to meditate persistently on impermanence is to make offerings to all the buddhas. To meditate persistently on impermanence is to be rescued from the suffering by all the buddhas. To meditate persistently on impermanence is to be guided by all the buddhas. To meditate persistently on impermanence is to be blessed by all the buddhas. By meditating on impermanence we are making offering to the buddhas because when you; I like to explain this quotation a little bit. As Buddha said if we meditate on impermanence, that is the best offering, the supreme offering to all the buddhas. And this is so because usually when we make offerings to the buddhas, theres you know in our ignorant mind, we think we are offering some very limited offering substances such as butter lamp or flowers as if we are trying to please the buddhas but thats not the fact. Offering to the buddhas is a practice, practice of what? Practice so that we will not, we will release from this grip, remember thats the whole point here. Now if you meditate on impermanence, naturally because you realize everything is impermanence your grip towards this phenomena will be loosened and that IS the generosity. You will never have miserliness, you will never have attachment, you ll, you will not be greedy because you have seen that impermanence. So that is the

offering. Someone who meditates on impermanence as Buddha said is rescued from the suffering by all the buddhas or prophesized by the buddhas as someone who definitely be enlightened because someone who meditates on impermanence will soon see the true nature of the phenomena which is emptiness. Impermanence as Kadampa masters say, impermanence, the thought on impermanence it, first it makes you enter into the dharma. After you enter, after you enter yourself into the dharma, impermanence, thought on impermanence will enhance enthusiasm towards dharma, okay. At the end when you are about to reach enlightenment this is the important one. If you meditate on impermanence, at the end when you are about to reach enlightenment or when, when you are enlightened, this impermanence will help you to understand that everything is equal. Equality, emptiness, the door you know this is very important the door to the emptiness is impermanence. So if you want to do a vipassana meditation, before grabbing emptiness, you grab impermanence because it is something feasible. You can do it; it is something credible, its something you can perform. Emptiness is too beyond us at the moment but at the end it will have the same effect. Because we have, we dont have that enough knowledge and understanding of impermanence, thats why there is a very difficult, there is a blockage for us to understand, understand the emptiness. Because we think that there are certain things thats truly and permanently existing. Now if you can destroy, maybe not that truly but if you can destroy this concept of permanently existing, more than eighty percent of the phenomena fixation will be dismantled. And obviously that will bring closer to the equality or emptiness. Similarly if you meditate on emptiness, first many people have this difficulty I dont have enough devotion. Yeah, people always say my devotion; first of all I have no devotion. Even though I have devotion, my devotion is not strong, not stable, that kind of problem. You know we hear a lot of people having so much intelligence they know the dharma but they are very sad and they are very tormented because they know, they somehow realize it they have lack of devotion. And then they look at other people who may not have that much dharma knowledge but they somehow have this very comforting devotion. And I have seen a lot of people who, who are envious of this kind of people. Now what do we do? How do we invoke devotion? By actually thinking impermanence. If you meditate on impermanence first impermanence will; impermanence will become the cause of the growth of devotion. Secondly once you get into the dharma, we have lack of diligence; again if you want to have diligence, impermanence will bring this diligence. At the end we need wisdom to understand the reality of the phenomena. Again here impermanence, impermanence is the best tool to bring the wisdom because impermanence is something we can see, we can hear, we can touch, we can; its so obvious. And based on the logic of impermanence, if you concentrate, wisdom will come. The wisdom of knowing all compounded things are impermanent that alone will bring

you to the wisdom. And then again a Kadampa master whose name is Putowa he, he; when he gave his disciple a parting advice, the last word, he said you should meditate on impermanence again and again; if you do that, then one day, one day you will realize that I am, you will realize that you are going to certainly die. And that is a very important remark here, you know. If you think again and again, if you meditate on impermanence; you would then realize one day that definitely, certainly Im going to die one day. See we dont have that; we somehow know yeah, of course were going to die; this that much we know but that certainty, that strong sense of I am certainly going to die sooner or later that we dont have enough in the head. If you have that, Kadampa master Putowa said, then you will have no difficulties when you want to abandon the bad karma. So true because see we dont, we dont realize, we dont have this Okay, Im certainly going to die, we dont have that notion in our head. Thats why for us to refrain, for us to abandon things like - maybe for us to abandon anger may sound kind of nice. But to abandon passion, to abandon you know, many of these you know, negative karma is very difficult because this is something we like to indulge with. So once you develop that certainty that Im certainly going to die then you will find it easy to abandon bad karma, easy to accomplish or accumulate good karma. And then again Putowa, sort of he, he was about to go; and then he turned back and again said wait I have one more to say carry on meditate on impermanence; after that because of impermanence, you will have a genuine love and compassion in your heart. And if you have that love and compassion, based on the impermanence okay, not just single love and compassion based on the impermanence knowledge or the notion, then you will never get tired of helping sentient beings. And then he, Putowa sort of attempted to leave. Again he turned and said hey, hey, I have one more last word for you. On the top of this, on top of this impermanence meditation, meditate on emptiness. If you meditate emptiness based on the impermanence, then you will have no difficulty in letting go all this delusion, all this illusion. Otherwise if you dont have this impermanence knowledge in your head, you, you think these delusions and illusions you know, like this mirage-like they are true, they are permanent. Thats why you are clinging on it. So where will you find emptiness? Never; but if you have impermanence in your head, then meditate on emptiness, you will find it easy to let go this delusion. Like, like if you have a good dream; very, very good dream once you know that its something changeable - it is impermanent. Then based on that if you realize that this is something not truly existent, its easy to let go. So with this, the Second Chapter, the chapter of Impermanence is finished. If you have questions, Ill answer. Student A: Rinpoche, I want to ask a practical question about how to eh; you were talking about getting rid of the passion and things like that. But Im wondering if there is a practical way of actually that I can understand how to do this because when something arises like when I feel like, I feel like the pride comes up, I notice and say thats the pride, but then what do I from there...

Rinpoche: You are talking about immediately, right on the spot? (Affirmative answer) Thats a difficult one. Yeah, if you go to some of the Dzogchen masters they will say just chant Ah and look at the nature of the mind (laughter); you know look at the nature of the mind. Things like this it doesnt work, I tell you (laughter); because, because by the time you are reciting Ah and trying to look at - LOOK AT THE NATURE OF THE MIND! WHAT DOES THAT MEAN BY THE WAY? You know, that alone will make you more angry, you understand. So if youre thinking about, if you want someone sort of, immediate sort of, its quite difficult. This is why normally when you are not angry, when you are not having any pride, you should already get used to this impermanence and emptiness and all that. And then you will find it easier when they actually come, you understand. So dont wait for pride to come, do it now.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 24/31

Student A: How exactly? Rinpoche: Exactly as this Kadampa masters saying that all, you know like pride, you know for instance pride has a lot to do with reference, competition, you understand competition, reference, Im better than him, Im better than her, things like that. Or pride has got a lot to do with insecurity, of losing, not gaining, being criticized; it has got a lot to do with insecurity. So think that all this so-called praise, criticism, all these are impermanent. Today they might praise me but tomorrow they are so fickle. They might, they will, you know, criticize me. Today they might criticize me, tomorrow they will praise me stuff like that; again and again get used to that. And then one day when you have certain pride, all you have to do is sort of, what you call it, mm? Flick on your pride a little bit and it will quickly go down. So you will have to do it now. Really dharma practice is mainly; you should practice especially if youre a beginner, you should do it when there is no emotions, no extreme emotions, you understand. Never think like when you actually have a pride or anger, you apply it and when that goesYou see thats a very, very modern mentality, Panadol mentality, you know like pain-killer mentality. You know you just swallow a little bit of Panadol or pain killer.

We need sort of Chinese medicine like eat and drink this Chinese medicine, bitter medicine whether you are sick or not, you know whether you are painful or not. You go on for a while. Student A: I just want to make sure I understand correctly so, so I should contemplate on impermanence in order to okay. Rinpoche: Yes, think like praise oh, somebodys saying you are beautiful oh, that praise is impermanent. Someone says youre ugly; that is imperma nent, like that. Not only the praise, SO MANY impermanence; okay lets say somebody, somebody tells you; someone tells you - you are beautiful. Theres so many impermanence in there. One the person who tells you may not tell you the same thing tomorrow. Another, the so-called beautiful is impermanent in your head. This, nowadays being slim and being that is sort of supposing beautiful, maybe; maybe next year its different. Its like this. Its, its very fickle. All of this information should be kept in our heads, then it would be easy to counteract it when the time comes. Student A: Thank you. Student B: In practicing, quote, unquote practicing impermanence and trying not to become too attached, how do you avoid taking advantage of that - using it as an excuse rather than a method? Rinpoche: Can you repeat that again? Student B: In trying to quote, unquote recognizing impermanence of all things, how do you avoid making that into an excuse to not take things seriously? Rinpoche: No, you can never take as an excuse. If you are beginning to take excuses - that means you still believe in permanence. You are attempting to even use something as an excuse. Youre trying to get away from something, isnt it? Student B: But my perception its not an excuse that everything is impermanent, therefore this goes, that goes and its convenient for me because Rinpoche: If it is a convenience, then you are still attached to the permanence. Student B: Then how do you know its a convenience? How do you know when impermanence is impermanence and when impermanence is something that happens to be a convenient way out of a problem? Rinpoche: Grip loosen the grip, that one. If you have lesser of a grip then that means that impermanence is working; if you count impermanence a hundred thousand times but still the grip is so tight - not so good. What? Student from the floor: If the grip is too loose Rinpoche: Oh, it can never get too loose. If it gets loose, its really good, very, very

good. But you know, I tell you this is a dangerous one; this question is a danger one because I know what youre meaning. Sometimes you become irresponsible, right? (Right from audience) We are not talking that, huh? Student B: How do you succumb this? How do you succumb this? Rinpoche: This is what Im saying. Being irresponsible has a lot; can you understand this one? Being irresponsible has a lot to do with not understanding the impermanence; SO MUCH because you are attached to this sort of hippie -yuppie life. Thats why you are being irresponsible, you know, you understand. So thats why you, you like this. Student C: Rinpoche, Im still trying chewing over the statement that enlightenment has no mind; so youre saying is mind compounded, is that youre saying? Rinpoche: Oh, yeah, very much; subject and object two things. Student C: Mind is compounded. Okay, I heard you say, I think I heard you say on another occasion everything is mind? Rinpoche: Yes Student C: But, even a tree, does tree have mind? Rinpoche: No, no; everything is mind, not everything has mind, yeah. Student C: Oh, god (big laughter). Everything is mind. Trees are mind? Rinpoche: Yes, your mind. Student C: Do trees have buddha-nature? Rinpoche: No, no. Student C: Thank you. Rinpoche: Okay, here this one. Student D: Rinpoche, I want to ask you a little more about what you were saying when a woman was asking about impermanence as an excuse. Eh, when you; I was really relieved when I heard you said the part about love and compassion if you have a good understanding of impermanence. And then when you act with love and compassion, I guess that it will be a fuller way of acting that way Rinpoche: You will not be tired of helping sentient beings. Student D: Right, right; well eh, theres, I hear people, (sigh) I, I get really concerned about oppression in the world and you know, people in prison, people who are suffering a lot, people who were, you know, et cetera. And sometimes people say to me well, all those things are impermanent anyway; and its their karma. And , and

maybe I have too much attachment I think that I need to work on; and also theres something that I am not understanding. And I like to know about the relationship of impermanence with love and compassion. Rinpoche: No, I think theres a lack of understanding of karma from the people who say Oh, this is karma anyway; because karma doesnt mean its a fixed. Karma is compounded thing, its impermanent also. So you can help them, sort of dismantle this compounded thing. Student D: How? What, what, what would you say? Rinpoche: Many, many ways; many, many ways; eh, provoke them, bribe them (laughter), be gentle, be rough; oh goodness, so many ways. Make friends with them, make enemies with them, EVERYTHING! Theres not a single thing as Shantideva said theres not a single thing that is not, that cannot be used as a skilful means for a bodhisattva. Talk to them, not talk to them, pay attention to them, ignore them, we dont know; paying attention can help but sometimes ignoring completely can help. Student D: So can I just ask you one more thing. I do a lot of work in prisons and I get really tired; and theres a lot of suffering there. And Im wondering whether you have any advice, maybe I need to meditate more on impermanence you think that will help? Rinpoche: I think so, very much and make them understand that impermanence also. Student D: The prisoners? Rinpoche: Mm, okay. Student D: Thank you very much. Rinpoche: Okay, lets go and have lunch; 2.30, well come back.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 25/31

Student B: Im sorry, can you hear me? Im sorry if Im being a bit obtuse but your response to my saying that I was too attached to impermanence was that Im too attached to this yuppie-hippie thing. And Im sorry I dont understand. Can you explain a little more clearly?

Rinpoche: Oh, what is it that you dont understand?

Student B: What do you mean this yuppie-hippie thing, first of all and how am I attached to it?

Rinpoche: Oh, I was just saying sometimes some people; their, when people; this is human, human nature. You know if you have a child and if you have a husband or wife; you have a job and then this has been going on like maybe ten years. And then you get a little tired of that; so your excuse is oh, everything is impermanent. I like to go and do dharma practice, but in your mind youre just wanting to get rid of this, this responsibility, you understand.

Student B: But if I were too attached to my husband, my job, and my child, then I would be told that I have a problem with attachment. How do you find the balance?

Rinpoche: If you are too attached; ah, then if you can really sort of think about impermanence then your idea of impermanence will become very strong because theres a bigger challenge here.

Student B: How can you find the balance between the two of them?

Rinpoche: Which balance?

Student B: I, I will like personally to get to a point where I neither too attached nor too laissez about letting everything go; and I would to know how to evaluate my position and bring myself...

Rinpoche: Not too attached? You mean a little bit attached? (Laughter) Yeah.

Student B: Well if Im unattached, I am a cold, heartless person.

Rinpoche: Theres no balance then. If you want that kind of compromise, theres nothing to compromise as its impermanent. The best thing you can do is this. Have a husband, have lots of children, have good, you know whatever the proper family that human beings expect us to have, society expects you to have, and always never forget this notion of impermanence that this cannot last. This may disappear. I will die; they will die. If you have this in your head; if the thing works, if the relationship is going well, then thats good. But if the relationship is not doing well, you will not be that paranoid at least that much blessing youll receive, blessing of no-paranoia.

Student B: That comes back to my initial problem which is when you let go of something like that, you feel as if youre not giving adequate value as youve been too attached to impermanence. Youre using it as an excuse.

Rinpoche: No, no, thats what Im saying. You know when you let go, it doesnt mean deny, abandon because thats what I was saying earlier. If you abandon that does not mean that you understood impermanence. That actually tells me that you are still attached to PERMANENCE; because by doing so, youre attached to some kind of escape. Wherever you go, you cant escape from this impermanence. There..

Student E: Rinpoche, Ive taken just a few teachings but I never have the transmission before. It seems quite powerful but I dont have much understanding about it. I wonder if you would say just something about the meaning and importance of the transmission.

Rinpoche: Its to receive the lineage blessing. See most of these are very practical teachings. These are what we call sort of like a manual of practice. In the manual of practice, many saints and the practitioners of the past they had done lots of practice. Of course, Buddha, Buddha gave us whole path how to attack with our enemies emotions, negative, you know, thoughts and stuff like that, all. Yeah, Buddha himself gave us a complete teaching.

And then as it is coming down to us, 2500 years almost, more; society has changed, civilization has changed, thinking has changed, right. But there are always masters who dwell within those civilizations; you know different stages of civilization and these people have practised during different stages. They have gone through different kinds of experience. They have also developed their own method of how to attack with this new, new problem, so to speak; not really new problem but sort of seemingly new. They have left us all these pith instructions.

Patrul, for him as he received the teaching from his master, Gyalwe Nyugu, he received this from; eh, he made lots of notes this is almost his, his teaching notes. This Patrul Rinpoche is a very great master, you know so incredible, and in the Vajrayana we, we; in the Vajrayana the concept of blessing, concept of merit, concept of energy are so important these are emphasized a lot.

If you have a merit which is produced by devotion, longing, renunciation mind; also produced by virtuous acts such as generosity and so on. If you have this kind of merit, then you would meet, you would encounter with compassionate beings who carry, who have this unbroken life sort of blessing lineage. So lung is, lung, the transmission is almost like a symbolic, very symbolic way of transferring this blessing, for instance Jigme Gyalwe Nyugu taught this teaching. Jigme Gyalwe Nyugu is one of the three great disciples of Jigme Lingpa; Jigme Lingpa incredible, very, very special master.

Jigme Gyalwe Nyugu had two disciples; in Tibet they call it moonlight disciple and sunlight disciple - and sunlight disciple is Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, the First and moonlight disciple is Patrul Rinpoche. And Patrul Rinpoche - while Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo is also, Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo is known for being like a Possessor of the Seven Authorities, the Great Commentator, the Great Collector of all the lineages like Sakya, Kagyu, Nyingma, Gelug and all Patrul Rinpoche is known for being like a pillar of the Practice lineage. He emphasized so much on practice.

But actually I guess its because of the time; if there are certain, Im just wondering you know. Nowadays its such, in many ways its such a degenerate time; people are so sectarian between different schools and different lineages, and different lamas. They, probably they dont hate each other but they really resent each other almost, you know. And they are so possessive; they are so wary of each other, something not so nice. So what Im trying to say is like Patrul Rinpoche, Patrul Rinpoche; this manual, this one, more actually for me; actually like His Holiness Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche, my master, told me many times - this book is like teachings to the ordinary people but its like a scolding to the rinpoches. Actually if you read many of the stories, its directly given to the lamas, the teachers, masters. Its really, really good; its scary some of the scolding. Or they call it (Tibetan phrase); means the pith instructions using the method of digging the fault, yeah, very powerful.

Anyway Patrul Rinpoche then had also a lot of disciples. And all these disciples have kept this lineage alive. In fact not only is it kept alive, but it has sort of supplementary footnotes which I heard its going to be translated or maybe its in hereno? No, not in the revised edition. There is, its actually happening, theyre translating in English. And after Patrul Rinpoche passed away, from then until like the time of my, our guru, just before this generation; there have been many, many practitioners who practice this path and they have come out with sort of some ideas to combat with

problems. And those are written down as supplementary footnotes to this teaching. So lung is like conferring that life blessing, living blessing.

Student F: Rinpoche, I still have a question about the Four Pillars - Im not understanding very well the differences between the First pillar and the Third pillar.

Rinpoche: The first one is compounded, all compounded things are impermanent and

Student F: All phenomena do have truly existent self-nature?

Rinpoche: Yeah; see, okay thats a good question. When we say all compounded things are impermanent; very good question actually; its more relative approach as if there is a phenomenon that, that decays; whereas in the Third pillar, the third view, there is not a phenomenon that is truly existent which decays, okay totally sunyata, emptiness.

Student F: Thank you.

Student G: I have two quick questions. Just when I leave, I want to be sure - is it best for one if you do not have the lung not to read this book or is it okay?

Rinpoche: You can read this book.

Student G: And the second question has to do with impermanence and specifically merit and how one dedicates merit with the four views in mind?

Rinpoche: Well, merit is compounded thing; thats why its impermanent. So its very important that you dedicate this merit before it gets dismantled by certain negative force. But just, and then there is; and then there is the other side because merit is impermanent, you can also multiply the merit. If you have created one merit, you can rejoice about this merit and merit multiplies, you understand, like that.

And then merit has no truly existent self, so one should not be attached to ones merit because there is no such thing as a merit in reality; and then the result of merit which is nirvana, which is beyond all fabrication, yeah.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 26/31

Student H: Rinpoche, yesterday you were talking about the two main, two of the main obstacles jealousy and pride. And with regard to pride, you said that when you sort of catch yourself with pride, you should, I think you said share this with people, let people know about it. Can you give an example of what do you mean by that? Rinpoche: Mm, I think eh, (pause) this is a big one, this question is very big question. Usually we hide; one of the manifestations of the pride is denying, hiding, hiding. Its like raised between vulnerability and the pride, usually pride always takes over. So basically you do not expose; mm, I think about this and then tell you. Right now I am not coming with a good example. Can you ask me this question again? Student H: So when is it? Rinpoche: Thats an important question, but also when we do the uncommon foundation, if youre and I am still alive, thats going to be like the third year, when we talk about the confession, the purification based on Vajrasattva, we talk so much about pride because thats what we are aiming at. You agree with this pride very badly. Student I: Rinpoche, earlier today you mentioned that after you live - love, compassion and devotion, they are changed. In practice, my understanding is that we should increase our devotion to the teachings, to the teacher, the lineage; that we should increase our compassion towards all sentient beings. My question is two-fold. How can we start the change, the negative change from compassion to lack of compassion, from devotion to teacher, dharma and lineage to lack of it? And is there a particular stage in ones practice of realization where this change doesnt occur where we can degenerate? Rinpoche: Mm, I didnt get the first part; can you repeat that again? Student I: Yes, you said earlier today you said that all feelings including love and devotion and compassion change. (Yes, they are all impermanent. yes from Rinpoche) And since as practitioners, we try to develop compassion, we try to work

on developing devotion to teacher, lineage and, and dharma... Rinpoche: But when you develop that compassion, when you develop devotion, it doesnt mean that youre trying to make the devotion and compassion PERMANENT. Student I: What does it mean then? What processes youre describing? Rinpoche: It means ah, this is good. It means you go through the path and you peel off all these layers and layers and layers of skin of the path ah, this is the genuine devotion. Two days later, no, that was not it. Ah, this is it. You peel off this again and again until you find NOTHING inside this fruit with thousand layers. Student I: But at the end when you find the emptiness, is there not some compassion Rinpoche: No way, no way, no object to devote, no devotion, no one having devotion; (No compassion? from student) no compassion, no, no compassion in the sense of object and subject, were talking here. But then beyond that, wh o knows what kind of compassion? - Yeah. See this is what they call dharmakaya. This is why dharmakaya is very difficult to understand, very difficult. If you are trying to understand dharmakaya, the, the; your primary mistake when you are trying to learn dharmakaya will be, if you use your existing emotion, existing habit pattern and existing reference, and then try to search dharmakaya you will never find. But without using this existing reference, existing path, how can you do it thats the difficulty here. But at the same, but then our masters, they are very clever. They have invented what they call example dharmakaya which is something that we can talk about. Like dharmakaya no colour, no shape, beyond this, beyond that, you know no time, no space; of course we are still moving our lips, we are still using our words, but thats example dharmakaya, okay. Yes. Student J: Earlier you mentioned that the truth, the views that the Buddha taught all of us - exist whether or not the Buddha had been there to teach them to us. I guess I cant remember the name of the experiment but I guess there is an experiment in science which determined that its impossible to observe something without changing what is that you observe. So I just want to make sure I understand maybe what youre saying. Does that mean that in order the truth or to understand right view truly that you actually have become the truth yourself so, so that you are not separate from it, trying to observe it. Does that sound right? Rinpoche: In order to understand this truth. Student J: In order to understand right view; as long as Im still trying to understand right view, it seems like it would be impossible to understand it. What... Rinpoche: I think this approach is like this. If you want to understand the truth, then

first you have to know and accept that you have a wrong view. That's Patrul Rinpoche's approach; that's easy? Student J: That's easy (laughter). Rinpoche: Not so easy, you know, not so easy. Okay, as usual I do, I read some pages (Rinpoche reads the transmission in Tibetan) From Chapter Three, 'The Defects of Samsara', I have read three lower realms until the, yeah; so next time we'll start with the human realm, I mean the transmission. So this morning we talk about impermanence; we talk, first we talk about how difficult it is to have this freedom and advantages. Then we somehow, we realize that somehow because of our past merit, we have some of these freedoms and advantages. Then we are told that these freedoms and advantages that we have must be used. We should not waste it; must be used NOW, this moment. One should not wait because everything is impermanent, including these freedoms and advantages. If we do not use these freedoms and advantages, it's like going to a golden island, seeking for jewel and finally reaching the golden island but coming back empty handed. So this is why instead of thinking that I will practice tomorrow or next day, next month; instead of delaying this way, you should practice now, this minute. Example that Patrul Rinpoche gave us is like hungry yak - it is such teaching taught in the nomad land in Tibet. Hungry yaks, when they eat grass, they don't leave even one single grass sort of left. They eat all; likewise everything we have a little bit of freedom, a little bit of space; you know, we have this, dharma practitioners - we have this, sometimes, most of the time we have this laziness thinking that we will practice the dharma later. Sometimes we have this mentality that we must practice the dharma properly; I don't know somehow with proper ritual, proper shrine, proper sitting arrangement, I don't know. So and then always wait for this kind of proper situation; and this many times this wastes our time. So no matter where you are, whether you are in the middle of a bar, serving a drink or sitting in the train going somehow - if you happen to realize where you are - grab that situation and immediately apply it to the practice. Whatever the practice that you know - instructions given by your master, things that are usually in the sutras, things that you read in the shastras such as this. Even though you dont know anything, you dont have any eh, other sort of, more sort of complete practice instructions; at least try to see how much of these freedoms and advantages you have. Or try to be aware of the impermanence, impermanence aspect of all these phenomena, this life, these ideas, these friends, these enemies, this inspiration, this I dont know whatever. Whatever the thought comes realize, be aware of this, these things as a passing thought. As His Holiness Dudjom Rinpoche said this life is like a dream, but more than that, its like a passing dream. That makes the thing much more urgent, you know. Its, its exhausting, decaying all the time - so, so important to think about the impermanence.

Now having heard impermanence; okay one day we will die. We are going to be, we are going to be; our body and our mind will be separated. We will come to a stage, so-called stage, to this so-called death. Now if death is like a, as Patrul Rinpoche said (pause); if after, if when, when we die if sort of vanish or disappear like a fire burning. You know when a fire is exhausted, then thats it, thats the end. Or water, water evaporating then whole of this teaching is not necessary. You know if, if when after we die, if nothing is left this is the, this is an important part because when I was teaching in one of the Buddhist philosophical schools in India, to some rinpoches and monks; some of the Buddhist philosophies especially Abhidharma was very tough, very, very difficult subject. And you know, monks, they study really, really hard but somehow some monks face lots of difficulties and there is one monk usually hes quite cheeky. And he told me once this Buddhist concept of reincarnation of the next life, it better be true, because otherwise he said Im missing a lot here (laughter). This one is kind of easy to understand the freedoms and advantages that we talked before. Its also easy, its very logical to understand the impermanence but that only make, drive; that can only draw your attention so far, not so much, to the dharma. But if you dont know this concept, when you die, after you die, you are not going just to disappear like a rainbow, sort of complete end. You are actually going to be reborn. If you dont know this one, then you dont have a ground for your spiritual path. This one needs a little bit of discussion here because this Chapter will talk; this Chapter describes quite, quite extensively the descriptions or the defects of the samsara. So in the Defects of Samsara theres an extensive description of how the hell looks like and all that. Now you can read it and Im not going to explain so much.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 27/31

But I think a very, very important point here is to accept the fact that when we die, after we die, we are not going toWhen we die, its not like we are going to disappear, vanish into some kind of space. How much can you accept this? Are you accepting it, sort of; how much can you accept it? Yeah this one needs a little bit of discussion. Why are, you know as Drakpa Gyaltsen said, Drakpa Gyaltsen, great Sakya master said (Tibetan phrase) means if you have attachment to this life, you are not a dharma practitioner; if you have attachment to samsara, you have no

renunciation mind. Now this one, the second one is what we are talking about. How much can, yeah? You are all here and many of you I guess have adopted this buddhadharma as your path. You have any difficulties, yeah? Student A: When I started with the teachings, I could not believe it at all... Rinpoche: Do you want to use mike? Yeah, maybe... Student A: When I started with the teachings, I could not believe it at all. Over the years I have heard many masters teach. I have thought about it. I have worked with my own mind. I have read books. I have done everything I can to help myself to believe it. And now intellectually I believe it but I know I dont HAVE it. And I dont know what needs to happen for me to really get it? Rinpoche: Very admirable actually because you live in a different situation. Its very easy for people like me and those people like Tibetan monks, Tibetan people practice. There is no tradition of asking questions is there really a next life? You know, they just blindly follow. Even these guys, they still dont really pursue the dharma. In the West, so much influence of scientific sorts of logic and here and there; and to see, to actually see a growing number of followers of the Buddhadharma is very, very amazing. I guess that alone is a proof; that alone is a reason to prove that reincarnation exists. Because why do they believe? There must be some, something of a karmic debt that you have to pay to the Buddhist to have to believe in this, because reincarnation is, reincarnation is very difficult to talk about. We can talk about it philosophically, intellectually very difficult to understand. But without this we cannot really begin our path for the enlightenment. I mean if we dont have a next life, why practice? Really there is no reason to practice at all. We have enough of things to do in this life. Why adopt a new Buddhism? Why the hassle? Yeah, I want to hear a few more about what is your reason to be here sort of, you know like, why; yeah? Student B: I apologise to you. I dont agree with you. I feel that I have benefited from practice, reading lamas, receiving teachings even if there is no next life. My life has improved and my mind; I guess because my mind has changed through the years. So it doesnt matter to me if there is a next life or not, because this, my life was so terrible, my karma so heavy and it continues. And a lot of people here know me. Im a student for a very long time and I owe, I owe my sanity, my life to my teachers, everybody from His Holiness Dalai Lama to eh, even simple monks and nuns. (Rinpoche: I see) And so it doesnt matter to me if there is a next life. (Rinpoche: Very good) But it sounds good but I like to think that you know, I think there is. So for me, it doesnt matter. This lifes gotten better and so here I am. Rinpoche: Thats good. Excellent, just shows, shows again, you know very good, I

mean very heavily in debt karmic, you know a being who has come...What? Student B: I, I will not brag to me what a great practitioner I am. I have received so many teachings and Ive had people tell me what a sin it is that I, that I dont put into action, that I dont practice, do the practice, do the prayer. I, I, you know but the point its a philosophy; its not a religion to me. I am not a religious person. And it is definitely make a qualitative effect on my being, thank youmuch debt, much debt. Rinpoche: Any other reasons why, you know, about this huh? This is important to think about. Student C: I just want to put in why Im here. I can readily accept it because through my past, some of my past experiences where as a child, theres no way I could have seen something, know about something and it happens; and it gives me the creeps, when I, when I felt it. And so thats why I believe in reincarnation because theres no other way that I could have known these places, seen these people and heard about things thats just like eh, dj vu thats how it got me here. I just want to share the experience. Rinpoche: Somehow, somehow I have a feeling that Im more of - what do they call it? - Heathen? - Heathen? (Laughter) Is it? And you people are much more of a believer, okay, well done. Here, somebody wants to, yeah. You have all given me very good emotional reasons, yeah, this is good. Student D: Rinpoche, eh, Im realizing more and more as time goes along in this path of mine; and I think that more than anything else, Im a masochist (student laughs). Rinpoche: So Student: I think I, I must like being tortured. Rinpoche: So, thats the reason why you... Student D: It must be, I cant think of anything. Rinpoche: For reincarnation? (Laughter) Student E: Rinpoche, I dont have any clear feeling like conviction that there will be another life after. The question seems to be conceptual in that the teachings and the practice have made me present to this particular life in a way that allows me to live it just a little bit more, with a little bit more actual awareness; so that when the moment of death comes, its not a question of this same confused life maybe happening again, but maybe a little bit of loss of confusion allowing me to live that moment. Rinpoche: You know all these reasons are very good, you know like what she was saying dj vu; you know what youre saying these are all good, very good. But, yeah, its all very good. Im not going to bring any of my what do you call it? Heathen, is it heathen? Mm, heathen, heathenism logic here, otherwise it will shatter your devotion, okay.

Student F: When I began, when I began I felt very deeply that it had to be that way, for some reason. I had, it had to be reincarnation. Rinpoche: Yeah thats right, thats right. Student F: But then lately I have been asking myself well, I dont know its me. You know what Im saying (laughter). So I, I, Im working so hard to try to make this, this next life better but I mean I dont know how I got what I got now, if somebody else wereAnd I dont know, I wont know it next time(laughter) Rinpoche: Very good (laughter). I like this, yes. Student G: Well, nobody had mentioned so far so I thought I will say something. I have memories of past lives so theres no, I mean if anyone; thats the best kind of proof as far as I feel. Rinpoche: Yeah, yeah, thats good, thats good. Someone who goes against all these things and someone today anyone? Someone whos more sceptical about this, how about Dave? Can you think about something? You usually come out with some kind of...(laughter) Dave: Why here? Rinpoche: No, no, why we should not believe in reincarnation? Why you do not believe in reincarnation? Why you do not believe? Why you do believe that when you die, its like, like exhaustion of a fire? What do you call it? Extinct, extinction of a fire. Dave: I really believe in reincarnation (laughter). Rinpoche: Well

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 28/31

Student H: Its really egoistic to believe in reincarnation. You dont want to die. Rinpoche: Yeah, pass it around (the mike). Student I: What is the situation in Tibet all the lamas being killed?

Rinpoche: Yeah, well, still doesnt prove that theres a reincarnation exists. Whats all this reincarnation business and finding reincarnation business? All this Tibetan superstition and you know anyone, any heath, anywhat, heathen? How do you call it? (Response from students) Heathen, heathen. Student I: Yeah, the problem I have the way some people talk about reincarnation. Or even the way I think about it sometimes - that it seems to be a way people cherish themselves and cherish their ego. And theyre doing, theyre practising for themselves and the next life like the lady said youre not even going to know its you. So what difference does it make, you know? But I dont understand reincarnation as a motivation for practice. And I dont even understand why it would be so important, it really Rinpoche: It is VERY important otherwise; okay somehow judging from, okay like someone like me, judging from Im doing, what Im thinking, how much emotion I have, I know quite well that enlightenment is almost out of question for this life. So if there is a reincarnation, then I might as well try now too; so that I can sort of accumulate, you know. Student I: How do you know youre not going to come back? I mean you going to come back. YOU'RE going back as Rinpoche. Rinpoche: How do I know? That one. Student J: Rinpoche, just quickly, aren't you a reincarnation yourself? (Laughter) Chokyi Lodro? Rinpoche: What? Student J: Aren't you? We were told you were reincarnation of Chokyi Lodro. (Rinpoche: Yeah, yeah) Do you have any memories? Rinpoche: No, no, no, no memories at all. But memories do not prove anything. Student J: But I mean they told you you're reincarnation; you didn't know that you were... Rinpoche: That's what I was saying. How do we know that this is all invention of? A lot of things that Tibetans believe are not so true; especially they are such a backward country. Student J: Eh, one more thing; Rinpoche, we were, I met Khamtrul Rinpoche... Rinpoche: You know, Tibetan people thought the world is flat. These are the people who taught that reincarnation exists (laughter). Student J: Rinpoche, that was one of the first things I knew about Tibetans; that was one of the first things I knew. They said that they believe in but I'm still in Tibetan Buddhism. I, I met Khamtrul Rinpoche and he told me something really interesting.

He said that he knew Sogyal Rinpoche, our teacher, in two, two consecutive life times. Rinpoche: Yeah, well, you can; do you believe that? (Laughter) Student J: Rinpoche, I don't know. I was asking you. He, you know that's pretty interesting. In his one life time he knew Sogyal, in two life times I thought that was really something. Rinpoche: Sure, oh, yeah, yeah. They say these things but who knows, there is no really a solid proof. I mean more than that, that's NOTHING, that's REALLY NOTHING! In India a few years ago, there was a kid - this was sort of published in the Indian major newspapers also - who actually remembered his past life's wife, bank account, his children's names and all of that. But I mean these are not really, really solid reason, I mean good reason we can; I mean we're trying to establish a very sophisticated philosophy here - Buddhism. A few newspapers from INDIA (laughter) how can we, not religious so much. Student K: Rinpoche, when I was in school, I believe that it was all just a good marketing job, you know. And I thought that; I think as time has passed, maybe stronger than my own pride, I see my own fear. So its more out of fear that, oh yeah, out of my fear. Rinpoche: Thats, thats, thats quite good, this one. This ones a bit like me too (laughter). Yeah, sometimes I really wish to get rid of these things, but then you know what if they are RIGHT (laughter) there? - So might as well not waste it. But this one is a good one, lets based on this, okay. Based on what you said, we go one. What do you think? So it may be true. Yes, there may be a next life and according to Buddhism, there may be a next life. Okay and if there is a next life, if there is reincarnation then there is only, there is the six realms. One of these realms is where you can get rebirth. And wherever, whichever realm you are reborn, theres always full of suffering all the time. Not only do you go through the suffering, but youll also accumulate lot of cause and conditions so that youll have more suffering. And this is what we call samsara. So then Patrul Rinpoche extensively goes on explaining, first explaining very with a lot of details of hell realm, okay. If you were born in the hell realm how much you know, different kinds of hell realm okay, so many different kinds of hell realm eh, altogether eighteen hell realms. As I said yesterday, as a response to a ladys question, hell realm can be understood in many different ways. Symbolically hell realm does exist somehow beyond our reach; hot, cold, where beings are caught, smashed and you know, tortured existing place symbolically. Also hell realm can be understood as actual place in this earth alone. There is actually a living hell; for example right now certain beings in places like Kosovo, for instance, they are going through that hell experience. And then we can also understand the hell realm in a much more inner level. When a person is going through extreme aggression, it burns you, it destroys you. You have

so much suffering, we know that; and that is a hell realm. But so, one should not take, you know one; Im not sort of devaluing the categories of these hell realms. Just because we dont have much time, we dont have m uch time to go over all these different stages of hell realm; I really cant, we dont have much time. So I will skip most of these, but this does not mean that these are not relevant now. These are very much relevant, for instance, the first hell realm out of the eighteen hells Reviving Hell. If you read the description of this Reviving Hell, it does exist. You know as I was saying three symbolically, more sort of physically and more sort of inner. In three ways this Reviving Hell does exist. But this; when it is taught by Patrul Rinpoche, it was very much based on the symbolic hell realm. This is because the audience; you know when, when the master teach, most of the, most of the time, the teaching is, has to be as pervasive as possible. So a disciple who has superior faculty, who can interpret the hell realm as a more inner, of course they will, naturally they will manage to do it. But then if there is a disciple who doesnt have such kind of faculty to interpret, it is important for in order for them to have some kind of revulsion towards samsara. To see the defects of samsara, it is important to describe more symbolically. But having said this, for instance, like the first hell, the Reviving Hell, when we ask questions like how long do they live there? Fifty human years equal to one day in the god realm of the Four Great Kings, thirty of those days make a month, twelve months make a year, five hundred such years equal one day in the Reviving Hell. Yeah, so then symbolically, okay; this is of course symbolic teaching. But when, when a person is going through extreme pain or some kind; okay if you are in a prison, if you really hate this prison situation, every minute ticks very slowly. Whoever is going through suffering thus feel everything very slow, takes long time. So its very easy to understand. One should be open. One, one should not despise these teachings as this is something irrelevant now. Its very much relevant, okay. So there are sixteen hell realms, and these hell realms, mainly a product; my favourite description actually out of these hell realms is this one the Howling Hell this is one of my favourite descriptions. It is said here beings suffer by being roasted in the buildings of red-hot metal with no exit. They scream and cry; no, not this; eh, is it? (Response from attendant) Eh, mm, Neighbouring Hell, yes, when we were talking Neighbouring Hells there is a one of my favourite descriptions is this the Forest of Swords. Once again free, they rejoice to see a beautiful forest and rush towards it. And when they get there, there is no beautiful forest. It turns out to be a thicket whose trees have swords growing on their metal branches instead of leaves. Sounds very much like migration, you know from one city to another city. Dont you think? You know, it, its a perfect description of a, you know aggressive person moving from one place to another. So one can, yeah just have this kind of approach and then you will understand easier, to accept also; any questions about the hell realm? Otherwise we will skip up to the Hungry Ghost realm; anyway the Animal, Hell realm a product of aggression mainly.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 29/31

Student A: Rinpoche, when you say the hell realms have symbolic existence, are you suggesting that they have less relative reality than reality that we now find ourselves? Or is there another dimension like this, another dream-like reality? Rinpoche: Yes, another dimension; another dimension, I guess, yeah. As Vasubandhu, the great acharya, Vasubandhu said, supposedly right underneath Bodhgaya, yeah; its all symbolic teachings. Student A: Thats, thats what confusing when you said symbolic; someho w it means that its less real than this reality. Rinpoche: Less real? Okay, I dont know, metaphorical, metaphorical teaching, should I say? I dont know; does that help you? - Metaphoric... Student A: To me, a metaphor is like, is like a reflection of some, you know what I mean? Rinpoche: It depends; okay its less real if, if you are someone, a disciple who has this faculty, who has this faculty to interpret that hell is an expression of our anger, then from this point of view this is a symbolic or metaphorical hell. But if you dont have this kind of faculties, then it is a truly existing hell realm, another dimension, just like this. Student A: Okay, thank you. Rinpoche: About hell? Okay (Animal responded by student). Oh, its coming, dont worry; yeah, hell realm? Okay (laughter). Student B: Rinpoche, I, Ive read various accounts of hell realms and one thing that crisps me is sometimes its that the punishment doesnt seem to fit the crime. Eh, like I read, I dont remember, here or somewhere else, about a nun who said something unkind to another nun, then she spent, you know, endless time in hell realm. And some of these accounts for adultery, it seems like eh, when they describe the description of the hell realms as a result of these offences, it seems awfully vicious for what the offence was. And instead of creating a kind of confidence in me, it seems odd...

Rinpoche: It, it depends very much with the intention again, very much. These are usually eh; Im sure most of this is based on the extreme intention, really, really bad intention. If you read the stories, you would know. Yeah, if you read the stories, like in the pretas, for instance, or even in hell realm, if you read the stories. And theres like eh; the stories usually help us to understand more because the stories have a full description about what kind of intention the person had. Eh, like a butcher who took a vow not to kill as soon as the sun sets until the sun rise? When he died, he had a special hell. He had this hell that during the daytime he gets, you know like cut and pierced by all these animals, that, thats kind of, thats what he experiences but as soon as the sun sets, he shifts sort of to this house its so beautiful, comfortable cushions, beautiful ladies serving him and all that like that. The stories usually help. Student B: Rinpoche, its almost sounding like, I know its not this of course, but mm, how is the punishment or whatever been dealt out? Its must be mind. Are we, people who go, who experience the hell realms.... Rinpoche: Yeah, this is valuable question. First, the good and bad; you know when we talk about good karma and bad karma, good intention and bad intention, yeah. Its not this good and bad, was not a decision made by the Buddha although it sounds because the teaching comes from the Buddhist teachings, we, we think that oh, Buddha said this is a bad intention; Buddha said killing is not good, therefore we shouldnt kill, you know. All that sort of the habits now but if you go back to the origin of the karma, the, the origin of the sort of philosophy of the karma good and bad is not a decision of the Buddha. Actually good and bad is a decision of yourself. But this needs a lot of discussion, okay. Yourself but when we say yourself, what kind of yourself - a sober mind? So, lets say sober mind is like this. You dont like pierced by a knife, would you, I mean to yourself? It gives you pain. Okay once upon a time, okay youre like a small baby, you dont know anything about what is pain and what is pleasure, then you grow up. Then you have this instinct, sort of needle poking you gives you pain, you understand? Ah, so you have education now; this gives you pain, unpleasant, something that you dont want, okay. One day you are angry with someone; what is your, what is your reaction? You want him or her to have pain. So you take out a needle and poke him. This is coming from your education that you have; you understand what Im saying ? So this is what we call bad intention based on your knowledge. Yeah, you got it? Now, so this is what we call like a cause. You have planted; you see the action normally, generally speaking, killing is a bad action, okay. But what makes the killing a bad action is usually to do with the intention. There is a story, I think actually its in here. Buddha, when he was a bodhisattva, he actually killed a guy in order to save five hundred bodhisattvas. According to the Mahayana sutras, this bodhisattva had

accumulated ninety-nine eons merit together instantly by the act of killing this. You see, so the action, actual action does not really count the actual action. It is the intention that is so much emphasized in the Mahayana, specially. Anyway with the intention of giving a suffering to someone and then actually doing it when you actually do it, and then not only doing it but when the action is completed, when the result is given, meaning when you manage to make someone suffer then thats one full act. Now that action will not exhaust by itself. Remember the glass of water we talked yesterday. It will not disappear itself. It needs someone to drink. If it needs to be ext, extinguished, what do you call it? Extinct or decay, it needs time, space, wind, I dont know. Anyway that act will not decay itself. It needs something to stop. Until it stops, it will continue. It is impermanent but it continues; continue means impermanence, right. It continues then it gives you the result, pain. Thats, that is what we call punishment. Its not really a punishment given by anyone; just a ripening of your own, ripening of a fruit that the seed which you have planted. Lets have a break, yeah Sue Ying, you want to ask this? Student C: I have a question, Rinpoche. If Im in the hell realm and I recognize Im there, how do I get out of it? (Rinpoche: Ah...) I thought of some ideas (laughter). Rinpoche: Mm, yeah, okay. Student C: I can practice. I can do tonglen practice. Rinpoche: Very good. Student C: I can depend on the prayers of other people, hoping that their prayers might help me get me out. Rinpoche: Excellent. Student C: But Im wondering how I can gain merit to get out of hell myself...? Rinpoche: All of these; what you just said - tonglen, definite. Student C: But how can I gain merit by doing tonglen to get out of the hell realm; myself - is that what you are saying? Rinpoche: At, at the same time, the moment you do tonglen, youre achieving a lot of merit. You know Shakyamuni Buddha, you know all these Mahayanas; they have these wonderful stories. They said you know bodhicitta mind, bodhicitta mind always have to have something that; you know bodhicitta, you know bodhicitta is based on a kind thought, kind thought, this kind thought. And many; many sentient beings; this kind thought, you know this kind thought that we have also has to have its own cause and conditions. Otherwise, you know like you remember we have quoted this quotation so much in

Vancouver - how the buddhas and bodhisattvas, by the merit of sentient beings, this lightning-like good thought appears in this darkness of, in the mind of sentient beings. Yeah, that kind thought needs cause and condition. Usually kind thought comes from kind thought itself, so Mahayana has some stories like when did Shakyamuni Buddha, when he was, before he was even bodhisattva, when was his first thought, first kind thought arise in his being? Buddha was in the hell; I mean this Buddha, Shakyamuni Buddha when he was not even bodhisattva. He was ordinary human being. He was in the hell, what you call it, serving his sentence, sort to speak. And he had a kind, moment of kind thought for a fellow colleague in hell realm, hell being. They were both dragging a chariot or something and he was more healthy and the other one is not. So when the hell guardian hit this person again and again, he had a kind thought and saying and then turned to the hell guardian and said let me do this for him. And then the hell guardian got so angry and said you shout up, what is this for you? And hit the hammer on his head and then died there; because of his kind thought, he was reborn in the Tushita heaven. This is his first kind thought and based on that, he developed this kind of thought. And then he met Kassapa Buddha, took the bodhisattva vows and here we are, hes driving us crazy right now (laughter).

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 30/31

This year on this time we will, we can only do until the human realm; so well do the preta and the animal. I was hoping itll be slightly more but maybe the human realm thats quite important, so we will start; I dont want to skip a lot. Because human realm is the realm that we are existing, we are living so understanding suffering of human realm is probably more important. Anyway, preta - realm of the preta caused by, mainly be greed, miserliness, passion; theres extensive, extensive description about preta realm. Similarly as we spoke earlier, sort of symbolic preta realm; and also one can understand preta realm actually existing on this earth where people, where human beings continuously, constantly tormented by suffering of famine, hunger, starvation and all that. We know this, theres a lot in this world. In certain part of the world, the amount of the money that we spend for a pair of shoes in certain part of the world we can feed probably three hundred people for a

month. Such kinds of conditions exist and actually the description of the preta is again yet another perfect description of this realm, I mean this thing that that we see. I mean I hear people suffering in war, in famine, in disaster place; then how, you know people like Red Cross or United Nations, they try to help. Even though theres a lot of help on the way, many of these people dont even get it because there is a bureaucracy, therere some other things, you know interfering, things like that. There is a story of a monk who travelled in the preta realm, which is quite good. You should read this, which is in this book. When he arrived in the land of the preta, he saw a beautiful mansion, a palace; and inside the palace he saw a beautiful girl sitting on a throne that has like four legs. And each of the, you know what do you call it? Legs of the throne, there is one preta being tied, really hungry and thirsty, and ugly and miserable. This monk, Doying Je, he was begging alms and he somehow, he was wandering and he somehow reached, reached this palace. And he asked this girl to give some food. And then this girl said okay Ill go and get alms for you, but make sure that you dontOkay she went and then brought some food. She went back inside her house, some other part of her house, saying now Ill go and get some more. While we go, dont share your food with these four pretas, these hungry ghosts. And the monk sat somehow and ate the food that the girl brought. And while he was eating, miserably these four pretas were begging for some food. They were all so hungry, starving; and there was a story that when he gave to these pretas, all the food transformed into like burning iron and so on; or become their own flesh or their own blood and pus. And the girl returned with more food and then scolded the monk and said Didnt I tell you, you shouldnt give these? And then the monk was a bit of sort of surprised and then monk asked the girls Who are these? Why are you tied, tying up here? And then she said sort of eh, casually she said This is my husband, this is my son, and this used to be my wife and this used to be my servant, maid. They all; and then there is each of them has their own story why they became pretas. These stories are very beautiful stories, sort of; this travelling monk who actually went to many of this kind of realm. It is very interesting story, you should read; its in here. Pretas therere two kinds of pretas; one is actually living on the earth physically those who have actually solid, tangible body. Then there is another type of pretas those who do not really have any sort of tangible body, those who have only like a sort of mental body. Most of the bardo beings actually, many bardo beings are pretas, bardo beings. Also many; I think these are the things that we call ghosts, spirits. And they have not only their hungry and thirsty, but they have a lot of other fear. They always have, theyre always afraid of something. They have no certain; they have no certain, sort of fixed place to stay. They have, they never have fixed friend or relatives. And they are very afraid of the presence of human beings, stuff like that; many of this kind of realm, eh, this kind of preta mainly caused by miserliness or greed. I will not go through the extra, all the other details. Any question about this? Should be easy to understand this, huh.

And then the Animal realm the realm thats mainly produced by our ignorance; one - animal realm, the suffering of the animal realm, theres a lot of description here but we dont really have to read it even. We can see their suffering. As Patrul Rinpoche said here, some of these animals, they cant even have; first of all, like pretas they dont get food. Even if they get some food to eat, they cant eat it with sort of eh; they cant relax and eat this food. They are always afraid. They have to eat it sort of f ast; and then they eat each other. Then theyve also suffering of being killed by hunters, suffering of being used by human beings, such as mountain horses. And then fish, many, many animals being eaten for their flesh, many animals being killed for their fur, all kinds of things. All these sufferings are caused by ignorance. And if were reborn into this kind of place, not only we go through this suffering but we will accumulate more cause and condition so that we will suffer more. These are the three lower realms, so here what do you do? Visualize buddhas and bodhisattvas in front of you, sit on a cushion, look at the, I mean imagine the hell realm, hungry ghost realm or the preta realm and the animal realm. And think that at this moment we have all these freedoms and advantages. But this human body that we have, which is endowed with freedoms and advantages is not, may not last long because of the nature of impermanent, impermanence. And if I, because of the power of the past life that reborn in this hell, preta realm or animal realm, I will never encounter a path that leads me to see the right view for myself, and definitely not for the others. So use these as some kind of reminder for you to carry on with the path quickly, as soon as possible. Okay, so this is the three, three lower realms. Mm, (pause) lets see what kind of, how the situation will allow us, maybe if we can do this, maybe like two times a year, then we might finish it within a year or two, yeah (clapping and applause). Its just that some people may like to, some people, now that you have heard this, you may be very impatient to practice, you know. So let us think about this. So if you have no other questions, I think we have finished this time. Student A: Does the question have to be about the realms? - Realms? Rinpoche: No, no; you can ask any question. What is it? Student A: The truly existing nature... Rinpoche: Yeah, whats wrong with that? (Laughter) Student A: Okay, kind of travelling, I, I got into sort of intellectual way of looking at it. The truly existing nature, if I can use example like a car, a career or my children, whatever, - are you saying that, that there is no car nature, just to use a car? Theres no such thing that there is a car other than our concept of the car? Rinpoche: Yes, hmm... Student A: Same for career, children, etc, etc. And in order to get past this mistaken

view to, lets say for example the Vajrayana view; if we are, meditate successfully on over and over again until we shake, lose this grip of eh, the car concept, then, then we actually have the faculty to have the view like Vajrayana and so forth. Okay I, eh, ask that to be confirmed because I mean some of these things, I just have never been get into, you know like this truly existing nature meditation, eh, the permanence and all that stuff - is just always broken down for me... Rinpoche: It is, thats why yeah, this, this four views is so difficult to sink in our head. Student: Yeah, and so thats why I asked yesterday about how to, to eh; suggestions and guidance on how not to make this intellectual, because I mean frankly I have avoided it for these years because it just seem like oh, I get to intellectual dead-end.yet so important. And I stopped; I gave up, I mean I try something more exciting, you know (laughter). So then I want to ask about like maybe practical advice in something we may not want to accept easily like, you know like my daughter; I dont want to just make her some medication so that; Im, Im trying to purify my, my view especially so that I dont want, I dont to relegate this individual to eh, an aspect of my practice, yet I have responsibility to be a good parent. You know so somehow, how do we work in our, our duty as a parent and yet we want to like not have this special grip like a child, you know. Its easy to say about a car, but something like more precious... Rinpoche: Yeah, yeah; very similar problem as this morning, a lady asked from there. You just have to get used to it. You cant apply this immediately on the spot. When the problem comes, you just have to get used to it. This is what we call gom meditation. I dont know what meditation means in English. What does it mean? Student A: Really I dont know. Rinpoche: Tibetan word gom has a connotation of getting used to, getting used to the view. You see you have the view and you have to get used to this view. Student A: So as confirmation, as we get used to it... Rinpoche: Then we lose the grip. Student A: We lose the grip and yet we develop eh, but I like... Rinpoche: Accomplished, we accomplish. You still drive; youll still be a good father, youll still be all of that. Student A: Okay, but we get a kind of skill at being a really good parent for example, and at the same time, were loosening our grip of the concept. Rinpoche: Very good, yeah. When we lose the grip of the notion of a perfect parent, then youll become a good parent, I think at this time. But thats different from when we were speaking with Lucy here. Some people deliberately try to loosen the grip when you dont want to take responsibility of becoming a good father and mother.

Thats not loosening the grip. Thats holding more grip, clinching more. Thats not being; you know much more attachment and nihilistically, very bad. Yes.

THE WORDS OF MY PERFECT TEACHER - by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tib. , Kunzang Lam Shyalung; Wyl. kun bzang bla ma'i zhal lung) ...part 31/31

Student B: I was wondering if you have thought of an example yet about how to expose your pride? Rinpoche: When you have pride, usually you dont have so much rejoice. When you have pride and jealousy, you dont, at that time youre, youre lacking in rejoice of other persons virtuous quality and action. It could be like youre jealous, you know; then you should actually, openly, genuinely say to this person look, Im getting jealous. You know, you understand, not as a joke, but really. If you can do that; I mean its, its, if you want to break up with your girlfriend, for instance, and if, if, if the boy and the girl is on the verge of breaking up, right the pride plays an important role in here. Both sides are waiting whos going to say no more; you know whos going to dump, you understand. Both sides are waiting; nobody wants to take the responsibility to say okay we should end this. Right, both sides are waiting. Then the problem is one day because it gets just too much, somebody has to do it. So someone does it. Whoever does first, the victim, the object, the, you know the, I mean the person what? (In response to audience) The one who got dumped, right? - Dumpy? (Laughter) He or, his or her pride gets REALLY hurt, isnt it? But in fact, he or she was already thinking of dumping the other person. Its just that the other person did it before, you understand - earlier. Its all like that; at that time exposed yeah. Student C: Rinpoche, I have a question about mind. If, if there were say only ten sentient beings that existed, and two of them had babies, so there was number eleven created. Is there, is there a new mind that comes out of that? Or I guess another, another part of the question, when all ten of those beings achieved enlightenment, is there no more mind after that time? Rinpoche: Very good (laughter)...mm, what, are you Buddhist? (Student C: Yes) Then you are Vajrayana Buddhist? (Student C: Yes I am) What school do you follow, Nyingma or Kagyu or Sakya?

Student C: Nyingma School. Rinpoche: Mm, (laughter); according to the Nyingma School, according to the Dzogchen - new, you know new sentient beings, new mind gets produced. This I will tell you just to make, yeah, I will tell you also. Im not sort of exaggerating here okay, but this is going to really puzzle you a lot. Im not going to go more than this, okay. Yeah. Student D: I dont know about anyone else but for myself, Im very proud of the fact that Im getting over my pride (laughter). Rinpoche: Yeah, I see mm. okay...transmissions? Student E: Yes, the transmissions, is there any chance of putting them on a CD or something so that we can listen while doing the housework (laughter). (Rinpoche: Say what?) I got here late. I only got the last half, half day of this; but the transmissions, the reading of the Sanskrit were WONDERFUL. Theres a lot there even though I dont understand it, theres a lot thats transmitted. Is there a chance that like this, there could be a tape made of you reading this? Rinpoche: I guess so, but if you, you can listen to the tapes and stuff like that but if you really want to listen to transmission, you have to get it from a person. Student E: It doesnt transmit through...? Rinpoche: Not really. I am a really hard-line Buddhist here. But you can still make a tape and listen for the sake of inspiration and all that. Student F: Rinpoche, when I try to visualize the hells, I have a hard time because I dont know what the hell beings look like. Can you describe them? Rinpoche: I think they look like Jar Jar. Student F: Jar Jar Binks (laughter)...I, I really dont like Jar Jar. Rinpoche: Okay, you dont like? (Student F: No) Thats why. (Student F: What?) I mean thats why. Student F: Oh, okay. Rinpoche: Mm, maybe Jar Jar is too sweet; lets see. We dont want to burn to the death, yeah. So, I dont know, whoever; do you? I dont know, just anything; semi human, birds, everything. Have you seen prawns being fried? Yeah, like that or lobster; lobsters, crabs. (Some descriptive background feedback from a person in the audience) Yeah, well thats sort of a image that you can have hell realm and animal realm in union. What? Student G: Could; you were saying earlier that an action wont decay by itself. That it needs something to stop it. And I wonder whether is the end of an action is that every action has a beginning, a middle and an end, and every phenomenon does,

right - so is the end of action karma? Is that when the decay, when, when the karma exhausts itself, does that really the end of the action? Rinpoche: No, because end has a beginning and the end, I mean end has a beginning, middle and end. Student G: Which end? (Laughter) Rinpoche: The beginning of, the beginning of the end, middle of the end, and the end of end. Student G: So where, so Rinpoche: Of course, you have to have. Student G: So where is the karma, when is the karma come in? Rinpoche: All of this is karma, all of this, right from the beginning, yes. Student G: So could you give an example? - Like you were saying with the glass of water, something really concrete. Rinpoche: Something very concrete; like this, yes, like this teaching. Student G: So, so the beginning is Friday night, were almost at the end. And, and also this is karma because Rinpoche: All this is karma because it is motivated by something, some kind of motivation, good motivation, bad motivation, I dont know. Student G: But then it may also create more karma, right? Rinpoche: It can, it can create good karmic result. It can cause more good karma, yes. Student G: Ah, okay, thanks. Rinpoche: Okay, three more questions and then we will stop. Student H: Rinpoche, to understand reincarnation from a logical point of view, do you recommend Dharmakirtis treatise, Dharmakirtis logical argument for the existence of reincarnation? (Rinpoche: Dharma?) Dharmakirti Rinpoche: Oh, yes, yes, very much, the Second Chapter; Second Chapter is for that. Student H: Okay, thank you. Rinpoche: Yes, the lady there. Yes, you have, okay.

Student I: Rinpoche, I dont like being in any of these realms. How do I get out of the preta realm and also the animal realm? Rinpoche: Many, many methods; take refuge, thats one thing, easier, easier, more feasible. As Shantideva said I offer my body, speech and mind to the buddhas and bodhisattvas. Now you can do whatever you like. Im part like your property. Student J: This is not a question. This is a very strong request. You can see that we are all the parts with poison in our minds and how much we need you. And that some of us are not able to travel too much, and we will need help because we are stuck here with ourselves in our own minds. So what I would like to ask you very strongly is to please come more often because we really need your help (applause). Rinpoche: Stop here; (Student: Dedication prayer?) Okay(Rinpoche conducts the dedication prayer)okay.

THE END OF 1999 TEACHING (Three more years to go, 2000, 2001, 2002) Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche, The Words of My Perfect Teacher, San Francisco, 1999 (transcribed from audio file) http://www.khyentserecordings.org/namo/Dzongsar_Khyent se_Rinpoche.html

Dedication of Merit

ge war di yi nyur du dak Through this merit, may I quickly orgyen lama drub gyur ne

Accomplish the level of the Oddiyana Lama and through that dro wa chik kyang ma l pa May all beings, without exception, de yi sa la g par shok Be established at that level.