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ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING UNIT-1 ENVIRONMENT, ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY Definition Environment is derived from the French

word Environ which means to encircle or surround. Environment is s m tot!" of #!ter, !ir, !n$ "!n$, inter-re"!tions%i&s !mon' t%emse"ves !n$ !"so #it% t%e % m!n (ein's, ot%er "ivin' or'!nisms !n$ &ro&ert) . The above definition given in Environment Act, 1986 clearly indicates that environment includes all the hysical and biological surroundings and their interactions. S*o&e !co e of environmental science is broad. !ome of the as ects of sco e of environmental science are" !tudying the interrelationshi s among biotic and abiotic com onents for sustainable human ecosystem, #arrying out im act analysis and environmental auditing for the further catastro hic activities, $evelo ing and curbing the ollution from e%isting and new industries, !to ing the use of biological and nuclear wea ons for destruction of human race, &anaging the un redictable disasters and so on. There are some ma'or issues li(e global warming, de letion of o)one layer, dwindling forests and energy resources, loss of global biodiversity etc., that are going to affect the man(ind as a whole and for that we have to thin( globally. Nee$ for & ("i* !#!reness o *ublic awareness very essential to hel understand ros and cons of environmental roblems. o The +nited ,ations #onference on Environment and $evelo ment held in -io de .anerio in 199/ and o ularly (nown as Earth summit followed by the world summit on sustainable $evelo ment in /00/, have highlighted (ey issues of global environmental concern. o Environmental ollution cannot be removed by laws alone. o The ro er im lementation and es ecially ublic artici ation are im ortant as ects. o *ublic artici ation is ossible only when the ublic is aware about the ecological and environmental issues.

o A drive by the government to ban the littering of olythene cannot be successful until the ublic understands the environmental im lications of the same. o The ublic has to be educated about the fact that if we are degrading our environment we are actually harming ourselves. Con*e&t of E*os)stem The term Ecology was coined by Earnst 1aec(el in 1869. 2t is derived from the 3ree( words 4i(os5 home 6 logos5 study. !o ecology deals with the study of organisms in their natural home interacting with their surroundings. An ecosystem is a grou of biotic communities of s ecies interacting with one another and with their non5living environment e%changing energy and matter. ,ow ecology is often defined as 7the study of ecosystems7. The ecosystem is a unit or a system which is com osed of a number of subunits that are all directly or indirectly lin(ed with each other. They may be freely e%changing energy and matter from outside8an o en ecosystem or may be isolated from outside8a closed ecosystem. Str *t re of !n e*os)stem The structure of an ecosystem e% lains the relationshi between the abiotic 9nonliving: and the biotic 9living: com onents. 1+ Bioti* Str *t re a. The lants, animals and microorganisms resent in an ecosystem from the biotic com onent. b. These organisms have different nutritional behaviour and status in the ecosystems and are accordingly (nown as *roducers or #onsumers, based on how they get their food. A(ioti* str *t re a. The hysical and chemical com onents of an ecosystem constitute its abiotic structure. b. 2t includes climatic factors, eda hic 9soil: factors, geogra hical factors, energy, nutrients and to%ic substances.

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- n*tion!" Attri( tes Every ecosystem erforms under natural conditions in a systematic way. 2t receives energy from the sun and asses it on through various biotic com onents and in facts, all life de ends u on this flow of energy. The ma'or functional attributes of an ecosystem are as follows" 1: Food chain, food webs and tro hic structure /: Energy flow ;: #ycling of nutrients 9<iogeochemical cycles:

=: *rimary and !econdary roduction >: Ecosystem develo ment and regulation .ro$ *ers/ *roducers are mainly the green lants, which can synthesi)e their food themselves by ma(ing use of carbon dio%ide resent in the air and water in the resence of sunlight by involving chloro hyll, the green igment resent in the leaves, through the rocess of hotosynthesis. They are also (nown as hoto autotro hs 9auto?self@ tro h?food, hoto?light:. There are some microorganisms also which can roduce organic matter to some e%tent through o%idation of certain chemicals in the absence of sunlight. They are (nown as chemosynthetic organisms or chemo5autoto hs. For instance in the ocean de ths, where there is no sunlight, chemoautotro hic sul hur bacteria ma(e use of the heat generated by the decay of radioactive elements resent in the earthAs core and released in oceanAs de ths. They use this heat to convert dissolved hydrogen sul hide 91 /!: and carbon dio%ide 9#4/: into organic com ounds. Cons mers/ All organisms which get their organic food by feeding u on other organisms are called consumers, which are of the following ty es. i. 0er(ivores 1&"!nt e!ters2/ They feed directly on roducers and hence also (nown as rimary consumers. e.g. rabbit, insect, man. ii. C!rnivores 1me!t e!ters2/ They feed other consumers. 2f they feed on herbivores they are called secondary consumers 9e.g. frog: and if they feed on the carnivores 9sna(e, big fish etc.: they are (nown as tertiary carnivoresBconsumers. iii. Omnivores/ They feed on both lants and animals. E.g. humans, rat, fo%, many birds. iv. Detritivores 1Detrit s fee$ers or S!&rotro&%s:" They feed on the arts of dead organisms, wastes of living organisms, their castoffs and artially decom osed matter e.g. beetles, termites, ants, crabs, earthworms etc. De*om&osers/ $ecom osers derive their nutrition by brea(ing down the com le% organic molecules to sim ler organic com ounds and ultimately into inorganic nutrients. Carious bacteria and fungi are decom osers. 2n all the ecosystems, this biotic structure revails. 1owever, in some, it is the rimary roducers which redominate 9e.g. in forests, agroecosystems: while in others the decom osers redominate 9e.g. dee ocean:. Con*e&t of E*os)stem

The term Ecology was coined by Earnst 1aec(el in 1869. 2t is derived from the 3ree( words 4i(os5 home 6 logos5 study. !o ecology deals with the study of organisms in their natural home interacting with their surroundings. An ecosystem is a grou of biotic communities of s ecies interacting with one another and with their non5living environment e%changing energy and matter. ,ow ecology is often defined as 7the study of ecosystems7. The ecosystem is a unit or a system which is com osed of a number of subunits that are all directly or indirectly lin(ed with each other. They may be freely e%changing energy and matter from outside8an o en ecosystem or may be isolated from outside8a closed ecosystem. Str *t re of !n e*os)stem The structure of an ecosystem e% lains the relationshi between the abiotic 9nonliving: and the biotic 9living: com onents. 3+ Bioti* Str *t re a. The lants, animals and microorganisms resent in an ecosystem from the biotic com onent. b. These organisms have different nutritional behaviour and status in the ecosystems and are accordingly (nown as *roducers or #onsumers, based on how they get their food. A(ioti* str *t re a. The hysical and chemical com onents of an ecosystem constitute its abiotic structure. b. 2t includes climatic factors, eda hic 9soil: factors, geogra hical factors, energy, nutrients and to%ic substances.

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- n*tion!" Attri( tes Every ecosystem erforms under natural conditions in a systematic way. 2t receives energy from the sun and asses it on through various biotic com onents and in facts, all life de ends u on this flow of energy. The ma'or functional attributes of an ecosystem are as follows" 6: Food chain, food webs and tro hic structure D: Energy flow 8: #ycling of nutrients 9<iogeochemical cycles: 9: *rimary and !econdary roduction 10: Ecosystem develo ment and regulation .ro$ *ers/

*roducers are mainly the green lants, which can synthesi)e their food themselves by ma(ing use of carbon dio%ide resent in the air and water in the resence of sunlight by involving chloro hyll, the green igment resent in the leaves, through the rocess of hotosynthesis. They are also (nown as hoto autotro hs 9auto?self@ tro h?food, hoto?light:. There are some microorganisms also which can roduce organic matter to some e%tent through o%idation of certain chemicals in the absence of sunlight. They are (nown as chemosynthetic organisms or chemo5autoto hs. For instance in the ocean de ths, where there is no sunlight, chemoautotro hic sul hur bacteria ma(e use of the heat generated by the decay of radioactive elements resent in the earthAs core and released in oceanAs de ths. They use this heat to convert dissolved hydrogen sul hide 91 /!: and carbon dio%ide 9#4/: into organic com ounds. Cons mers/ All organisms which get their organic food by feeding u on other organisms are called consumers, which are of the following ty es. v. 0er(ivores 1&"!nt e!ters2/ They feed directly on roducers and hence also (nown as rimary consumers. e.g. rabbit, insect, man. vi. C!rnivores 1me!t e!ters2/ They feed other consumers. 2f they feed on herbivores they are called secondary consumers 9e.g. frog: and if they feed on the carnivores 9sna(e, big fish etc.: they are (nown as tertiary carnivoresBconsumers. vii. Omnivores/ They feed on both lants and animals. E.g. humans, rat, fo%, many birds. viii. Detritivores 1Detrit s fee$ers or S!&rotro&%s:" They feed on the arts of dead organisms, wastes of living organisms, their castoffs and artially decom osed matter e.g. beetles, termites, ants, crabs, earthworms etc. De*om&osers/ $ecom osers derive their nutrition by brea(ing down the com le% organic molecules to sim ler organic com ounds and ultimately into inorganic nutrients. Carious bacteria and fungi are decom osers. 2n all the ecosystems, this biotic structure revails. 1owever, in some, it is the rimary roducers which redominate 9e.g. in forests, agroecosystems: while in others the decom osers redominate 9e.g. dee ocean:. -oo$ C%!ins The seEuence of eating and being eaten in an ecosystem is (nown as food chain. All organisms, living or dead, are otential food for some other organism and thus, there is essentially no waste in the functioning of a natural ecosystem.

A cater illar eats a lant leaf, a s arrow eats the cater illar, a cat or a haw( eats the s arrow and when they all die, they are all consumed by microorganism li(e bacteria or fungi 9decom osers: which brea( down the organic matter and convert it into sim le inorganic substances that can again be used by the lants5the rimary roducers. !ome common e%am les of sim le food chains are" o Gr!ss 5 'r!ss%o&&er5 -ro' 5 Sn!6e 50!#6 1Gr!ss"!n$ e*os)stem2 o .%)to&"!n6tons 5 #!ter f"e!s 5 sm!"" fis% 5 T n! 1.on$ e*os)stem2 o Li*%ens 5 rein$eer 5 M!n 1Ar*ti* t n$r!2 Each organism in the ecosystem is assigned a feeding level or tro hic level de ending on its nutritional status. Thus, in the grassland food chain, grassho er occu ies the 2 tro hic level, frog the 22 and sna(e and haw( occu y the 222 and the 2C tro hic levels, res ectively. 2n nature, we come across two ma'or ty es of food chains" 1+ Gr!7in' foo$ *%!in/ 2t starts with green lants 9 rimary roducers: and culminates in carnivores. E%am le" 3rassF -abbitF Fo% ,+ Detrit s foo$ *%!in/ 2t starts with dead organic matter which the detritivores and decom osers consume. *artially decom osed dead organic matter and even the decom osers are consumed by detritivores and their redators. E%am les" Geaf litterF algaeF crabsF small carnivorous fishF large carnivorous fish 9&angrove ecosystem: $ead organic matterF fungiF bacteria 9Forest ecosystem: <oth the food chains occur together in natural ecosystems, but gra)ing food chain usually redominates. -oo$ 8e( Food web is a networ( of food chains where different ty es of organisms are connected at different tro hic level, so that there are a number of o tions of eating and being eaten at each tro hic level. 2n a tro ical region, the ecosystems are much more com le%. They have rich s ecies diversity and therefore, the food webs are much more com le%. Food webs give greater stability to the ecosystem. 2n a linear food chain, if one s ecies becomes e%tinct or one s ecies suffers then the s ecies in the subseEuent tro hic levels are also affected. 2n a food web, on the other hand, there are a number of o tions available at each tro hic level. !o if one s ecies is affected, it does not affect other tro hic levels so seriously.

For E%am le" 1aw( eats both mice and birds. #oyote eats mice, rabbits and birds.

Si'nifi*!n*e of foo$ *%!ins !n$ foo$ #e(s/ Food chains and food webs lay a very significant role in the ecosystem because the two most im ortant functions of energy flow and nutrient cycling ta(e lace through them. They hel maintain the ecological balance. Food chains show a uniEue ro erty of biological magnification of some chemicals.

E*o"o'i*!" .)r!mi$s 3ra hic re resentation of tro hic structure and function of an ecosystem, starting with roducers at the base and successive tro hic levels forming the a e% is (nown as an ecological yramid. Ecological yramids are of three ty es" I+ .)r!mi$ of n m(ers" a. 2t re resents the number of individual organisms at each tro hic level. b. He may have u right or inverted yramid of numbers, de ending u on the ty e of ecosystem and food chain as shown in Fig.1 c. A grassland ecosystem 9Fig. 1: and a ond ecosystem show an u right yramid of numbers. d. The roducers in the grasslands are grasses and that in a ond are hyto lan(ton 9algae etc.:, which are small in si)e and very large in number. e. !o the roducers form a broad base. f. The herbivores in grassland are insects while tertiary carnivores are haw(s or other birds which are gradually less and less in number and hence the yramid a e% becomes gradually narrower forming an u right yramid.

Fig" 1. 3rassland ecosystem II+ .)r!mi$ of (iom!ss/ a. 2t is based u on the total biomass 9dry matter: at each tro hic level in a food chain. b. The yramid of biomass can also be u right or inverted. Fig./. show yramids of biomass in an aEuatic ecosystem. c. The ond ecosystem shows an inverted yramid of biomass 9Fig. /:. d. The total biomass of roducers 9 hyto lan(tons: is much less as com ared to herbivores 9)oo lan(tons, insects:, carnivores 9!mall fish: and tertiary carnivores 9big fish:. Thus the yramid ta(es an inverted sha e with narrow base and broad a e%.

Fig"/ *yramid of biomass in ond III+ .)r!mi$ of Ener')" a. The amount of energy resent at each tro hic level is considered for this ty e of yramid of energy gives the best re resentation of the tro ic relationshi s and it is always u right. b. There is a shar decline in energy level of each successive tro hic level as we move from roducers to to carnivores. Therefore, the yramid of energy is always u right as shown in Fig.;.

Fig";. *yramid of energy Ener') -"o# in !n E*os)stem Flow of energy in an ecosystem ta(es lace through the food chain and it is this energy flow which (ee s the ecosystem going. The most im ortant feature of this energy flow is that it is unidirectional or one5way flow. +nli(e the nutrients, 9li(e carbon, nitrogen, hos horus etc.: energy is not reused in the food chain. Also, the flow of energy follows the two laws of Thermodynamics" I "!# of t%ermo$)n!mi*s states that energy can neither be created nor be destroyed but it can be transferred from one form to another. The solar energy ca tured by the green lants 9 roducers: gets converted into biochemical energy of lants and later into that of consumers. II "!# of T%ermo$)n!mi*s states that energy dissi ates as it is used or in other words, it gets converted from a more concentrated to dis ersed form. As energy flows through the food chain, there occurs dissi ation of energy at every tro hic level. E*o"o'i*!" S **ession Ecological succession is defined as an orderly rocess of changes in the community structure and function with time mediated through modifications in the hysical environment and ultimately culminating in a stabili)ed ecosystem (nown as clima%. Ecological successions starting on different ty es of areas or substrata are named differently as follows" 1i2 0)$r!r*% or 0)$rosere" !tarting in watery area li(e ond, swam , bog 1ii2 Mes!r*%/ starting in an area of adeEuate moisture. 1iii2 9er!r*% or 9erosere" !tarting in a dry area with little moisture. They can be of the following ty es" Githosere " starting on a bare roc( *sammosere " starting on sand 1alosere " starting on saline soil .ro*ess of S **ession T%e &ro*ess of s **ession ta(es lace in a systematic order of seEuential ste s as follows" i+ N $!tion" 2t is the develo ment of a bare area, without any life form. The bare area may be caused due to several anthro ogenic activities.

ii+ Inv!sion/ 2t is the successful establishment of one or more s ecies on a bare area through dis ersal or migration, followed by ecesis or establishment. iii+ Com&etition !n$ *o!*tion" As the number of individuals grows there is com etition, for s ace, water and nutrition. They influence each other in a number of ways, (nown as coaction. iv+ Re!*tion " The living organisms have a strong influence on the environment which is modified to a large e%tent and this is (nown as reaction. v+ St!(i"i7!tion " The succession ultimately culminates in a more or less stable community called clima% which is in eEuilibrium with the environment Get us consider very briefly two ty es of succession. A+ 0)$rosere 10)$r!r*%: " This ty e of succession starts in a water body li(e ond. A number of intermediate stages come and ultimately it culminates in a clima% community which is a forest. B+ 9erosere 19er!r*%: " This ty e of succession originates on a bare roc(, which lac(s water and organic matter. 2nterestingly, here also the clima% community is a forest, although the intermediate stages are very different. -orest E*os)stem $e ending u on the climate conditions, forest may be classified as" 1!2 Tro&%i*!" R!in -orests" They are evergreen broadleaf forests found near the eEuator. They are characteri)ed by high tem erature, high humidity and high rainfall, all of which favour the growth of trees. 1(2 Tro&%i*!" $e*i$ o s forests" They are found a little away from the eEuator and are characteri)ed by a warm climate the year round. -ain occurs only during monsoon. 1*2 Tro&%i*!" s*r ( forests" They are found in areas where the day season is even longer. 1$2 Tem&er!te r!in forests" They are found in tem erate areas with adeEuate rainfall. These are dominated by trees li(e ines, firs, redwoods etc. 1e2 Tem&er!te $e*i$ o s forests" They are found in areas with moderate tem eratures. 1f2 Ever'reen *onifero s forests 1Bore!" -orests2" They are found 'ust south of arctic tundra. 1ere winters are long, cold and dry. !unlight is available for a few hours only. The abiotic environment of forest ecosystem includes the nutrients resent in the soil in forest floor which is usually rich in dead and decaying organic matter. .ro$ *ers" *roducers are mainly big trees, some shrubs and ground vegetation. .rim!r) *ons mers" *rimary consumers are insects li(e ants, flies, beetles, s iders, and big animals li(e ele hants, deer, sEuirrels etc.

Se*on$!r) *ons mers" !econdary consumers are carnivores li(e sna(es, li)ards, fo%es, birds etc., Terti!r) *ons mers" Tertiary consumers are animals li(e tiger, lion etc. De*om&osers/ $ecom osers are bacteria fungi which are found in soil on the forest floor. -ate of decom osition in tro hical or sub5tro hical forests is more ra id than that in the tem erate )ones. Gr!ss"!n$ E*os)stem/ The grassland ecosystem occu ies about 10I of the earthAs surface. The abiotic environment includes nutrient li(e nitrates, sul hates or hos hates and trace elements resent in the soil, gases, li(e #4/ resent in the atmos here and water etc. Three ty es of grasslands are found to occur in different climatic regions" 1!2 Tro&i*!" 'r!ss"!n$s" They occur near the borders of tro ical rain forests in regions of high average tem erature and low to moderate rainfall. 1(2 Tem&er!te 'r!ss"!n$s" They are usually found on flat, gentle slo ed hills, winters are very cold but summers are hot and dry. 1*2 .o"!r 'r!ss "!n$s" they are found in arctic olar region where severe cold and strong, frigid winds along with ice and snow create too harsh a climate for trees to grow. .ro$ *ers/ *roducers are mainly grass and some herbs, shrubs, and few scattered trees. .rim!r) *ons mers" *rimary consumers are gra)ing animals such as cow, shee , deer, house, (angaroo, etc. !ome insects and s iders have also been included as rimary consumers. Se*on$!r) *ons mers" !econdary consumers are animals li(e fo%, 'ac(als, sna(es, li)ards, frogs and birds etc. Terti!r) *ons mers" $ecom osers are bacteria, moulds and fungi, li(e enicillium, As ergillus etc. The minerals and other nutrients are thus brought bac( to the soil and are made available to the roducers. Flow chart" Food chain 3rassF 3rass ho er FGi)ard 3rass F -abbitF Fo% F Gion Desert E*os)stem $esert occurs in the region where the average rainfall is less than /> cm. The abiotic environment of a desert ecosystem includes water which is scarce. The atmos here is very very dry and hence it is a oor insulator. That is why in deserts the soil gets cooled u Euic(ly, ma(ing the nights cool.

$eserts are of three ma'or ty es, based on climatic conditions"

i+ Tro&i*!" $eserts li(e !ahara in Africa and Thar $esert, -a'asthan, 2ndia are the driest of all with only a few s ecies. ii+ Tem&er!t re $eserts li(e &o'ave in !outhern #alifornia where day time tem eratures are very hot in summer but cool in winters. iii+ Co"$ $eserts li(e 3obi desert in #hina have cold winters and warm summers. .ro$ *ers/ the chief roducers are shrubs, bushes and some trees whose roots are very e%tensive and stems and leaves are modified to store water and to reduce loss of water as a result of trans iration. Gow lants such as mosses and blue green algae are minor roducers. .rim!r) *ons mers" *rimary consumers are animals li(e rabbits which get water from succulent lants. They do not drin( water even if it is freely available. #amel is also a rimary consumer of the desert. Se*on$!r) *ons mers" !econdary consumers are carnivores li(e re tiles having im ervious s(in which minimi)e loss water from the surface of body. Terti!r) *ons mers" The tertiary consumers are mainly birds which conserve warer by e%creting solid uric acid. De*om&osers/ $ecom osers are bacteria and fungi which can thrive in hot climate conditions. <ecause of scarcity of flora and fauna, the dead organic matter available is much less and therefore decom osers are also less in number. Flow #hart" Food chain !hrubF -abbitsF -e tilesF <irds A: !ti* e*os)stems AEuatic ecosystems dealing with water bodies and the biotic communities resent in them are either freshwater or marine. Get us consider some im ortant aEuatic ecosystems. 1i2 .on$ e*os)stems" a. 2t is a small freshwater aEuatic ecosystem where water is stagnant. b. *onds may be seasonal in nature i.e. receiving enough water during rainy season. c. *onds are usually shallow water bodies which lay a very im ortant role in the villages where most of the activities center around onds. d. They contain several ty es of algae, aEuatic lants, insects, fishes, and birds. e. The onds are, however, very often e% osed to tremendous anthro ogenic ressures. f. They are used for washing clothes, bathing, swimming, cattle bathing and drin(ing etc. and therefore get olluted. 1ii2 L!6e e*os)stems" a. Ga(es are usually big freshwater bodies with standing water.

b. They have shallow water )one called Gittoral )one, an o en5water )one called Gimnetic )one and dee bottom area where light enetration is negligible, (nown as rofundal )one9Fig.=:.

Fig"= Jonation in a la(e ecosystem Or'!nisms/ Ga(es have several ty es of organisms" 1i2 1ii2 1iii2 1iv2 1v2 ."!n6tons that float on the surface of waters e.g. hyto lan(tons li(e algae and )oo lan(tons li(e rotifers. Ne6tons that swim e.g. fishes. Ne stons that rest or swim on the surface. Bent%os that are attached to bottom sediments e.g. snails. .eri&%)tons that are attached or clinging to other lants or any other surface e.g. crustaceans.

Str!tifi*!tion/ The la(es show stratification or )onation based on tem erature differences. $uring summer, the to waters become warmer than the bottom waters. Therefore, only the warm to layer circulates without mi%ing with the colder layer, thus forming a distinct )onation" E&)i"imnion" Harm, lighter, circulating surface layer. 0)&o"imnion" #old,viscous,non5circulating bottom layer T)&es of "!6es/ 1!2 O"i'otro&%i* "!6es which have low nutrient concentrations. 1(2 E tro&%i* "!6es which are over nourished by nutrients li(e nitrogen and hos horus, usually as a result of agricultural run5off or munici al sewage discharge. They are covered with 7algal blooms7 e.g. $al la(e.

1*2 D)stro&%i* "!6es that have low 1, high humic acid content and brown waters e.g. bog la(es. 1$2 En$emi* "!6es that are very ancient, dee and have endemic fauna which are restricted only to that la(e e.g. the Ga(e <ai(al in -ussia. 1e2 Artifi*i!" "!6es or im&o n$ments that are created due to construction of dams e.g. 3ovindsagar Ga(e at <ha(ra5,angal. 1iii2 Stre!ms/ These are freshwater aEuatic ecosystems where water current is a ma'or controlling factor, o%ygen and nutrient in the water is more uniform and land5water e%change is more e%tensive. Although stream organisms have to face more e%tremes of tem erature and action of currents as com ared to ond or la(e organisms, but they do not have to face o%ygen deficiency under natural conditions. This is because the streams are shallow, have a large surface e% osed to air and constant motion which churns the water and rovides abundant o%ygen. Their dissolved o%ygen level is higher than that of onds even though the green lants are much less in number. The stream animals usually have a narrow range of tolerance to o%ygen. That is the reason why they are very susce tible to any organic ollution which de letes dissolved o%ygen in the water. Thus, streams are the worst victims of industrial develo ment. 1iv2 River e*os)stems/ -ivers are large streams that flow downward from mountain highlands and flowing through the lains fall into the sea. !o the river ecosystems show a series of different conditions. T%e mo nt!in %i'%"!n$ art has cold, clear waters rushing down as water falls with large amounts of dissolves o%ygen. In t%e se*on$ &%!se on the gentle slo es, the waters are warmer and su ort a lu%uriant growth of lants and less o%ygen reEuiring fishes. In t%e t%ir$ &%!se, the river waters are very rich in biotic diversity. &oving down the hills, rivers sha e the land. They bring with them lots of silt rich in nutrients which are de osited in the lains and in the delta before teaching the ocean. 1v2 O*e!ns/ These are gigantic reservoirs of water covering more than D0I of our earthAs surface and lay a (ey role in the survival of about /,>0,000 marine s ecies, serving as food for humans and other organisms, give a huge variety of sea5 roducts and drugs. 4ceans rovide us iron, hos horus, magnesium, oil, natural gas, sand and gravel.

4ceans are the ma'or sin(s of carbondio%ide and lay an im ortant role in regulating many biogeochemical cycles and hydrological cycle, thereby regulating the earthAs climate. The oceans have two ma'or life )ones" 9Fig">:

Co!st!" 7one/ 2t is relatively warm, nutrient rich shallow water. $ue to high nutrients and am le sunlight this is the )one of high rimary roductivity. O&en se!" 2t is the dee er art of the ocean, away from the continental shelf. 2t is vertically divided into three regions" E &%oti* 7one which receives abundant light and shows high hotosynthetic activity. B!t%)!" 7one receives dim light and is usually geologically active. A()ss!" 7one is the dar( )one, /000 to >000 meters dee . The abyssal )one has no rimary source of energy i.e. solar energy. 2t is the worldAs largest ecological unit but it is an incom lete ecosystem. Est !r) Estuary is a artially enclosed coastal area at the mouth of a river where fresh water and salty seawater meet. These are the transition )ones which are strongly affected by tidal action. #onstant mi%ing of water stirs u the silt which ma(es the nutrients available for the rimary roducers. The organisms resent in estuaries show a wide range of tolerance to tem erature and salinity. !uch organisms are (nown as eurythermal and euryhaline. #oastal bays and tidal marshes are e%am les of estuaries. Estuary has a rich biodiversity and many of the s ecies are endemic. There are many migratory s ecies of fishes li(e eels and salmons in which half of the life is s ent in fresh water and half in salty water. For them estuaries are ideal laces for resting during migration, where they also get abundant food. Estuaries are highly roductive ecosystems. The river flow and tidal action rovide energy for estuary thereby enhancing its roductivity. Estuaries are of much use to human beings due to their high food otential. 1owever, these ecosystems need to be managed 'udiciously and rotected from ollution.

Intro$ *tion to Bio$iversit)


Definition Bio$iversit) refers to the variety and variability among all grou s of living organisms and the ecosystem com le%es in which they occur.

2n the convention of <iological diversity 9199/: biodiversity has been defined as the variability among living organisms from all sources including inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aEuatic ecosystems and the ecological com le%es of which they are a art. Geneti* $iversit) 3enetic $iversity is the basic source of biodiversity. The genes found in organisms can form enormous number of combinations each of which gives rise to some variability. 3enes are the basic units of hereditary information transmitted from one generation to other. Hhen the genes within the same s ecies show different versions due to new combinations, it is called genetic variability. For e%am le, all rice varieties belong to the s ecies ory)a sativa, but there are thousands of wild and cultivated verities of rice which show variations at the genetic level and differ in their color, si)e, sha e, aroma and nutrient content of the grain. This is the genetic diversity of rice S&e*ies $iversit) ! ecies $iversity is the variability found within the o ulation of a s ecies or between different s ecies of a community. 2t re resents broadly the s ecies richness and their abundance in a community. There are two o ular indices of measuring s ecies diversity (nown as Shannon-wiener index and Simpson index. Hhat is the number of s ecies in this bios hereK The estimates of actual number vary widely due to incom lete and indirect data. The current estimates given by Hilson in 199/ ut the total number of living s ecies in a range of 10 million to >0 million. Till now only about 1.> million living and ;00,000 fossil s ecies have been actually described and given scientific names. E*os)stem $iversit) Ecosystem diversity is the diversity of ecological com le%ity showing variations in tro hic structure, food5webs, nutrient cycling etc. The ecosystems also show variations with res ect to hysical arameters li(e moisture, tem erature, altitude, reci itation etc. The ecosystem diversity is of great value that must be (e t intact. This diversity has develo ed over millions of years of evolution. 2f we destroy this diversity, it would disru t the ecological balance. He cannot even re lace the diversity of one ecosystem by that of another.

#oniferous trees of boreal forests cannot ta(e u the function of the trees of tro hicl deciduous forest lands and vice versa.

Bio'eo'r!&%i*!" *"!ssifi*!tion of In$i!/ <iogeogra hy com rising of hytogeogra hy and )oogeogra hy deals with the as ects of lants and animals. There are around ten biogeogra hic regions in 2ndia. !.,o Bio'eo'r!&%i* ;one 1 / Trans51imalayan 1imalayan Bioti* &rovin*e + er -egions ,orth5Hest 1imalayas Hest 1imalayas central 1imalayas East 1imalayas Lutch Thar Gada(h #entral 2ndia 3u'arat5-a'wara &alabar #oast Hestern 3hat &ountains $eccan *lateau !outh #entral *lateau Eastern *lateau #hotta ,ag ur #entral 1ighlands + er 3angetic *lain Gower 3angetic *lain <rahma utra Calley ,orth5Eastern 1ills Andaman 2slands ,icobar 2slands Ga(shadwee 2slands Hest #oast East #oast Tot!" 1s:+6m+2 186/00 6900 D/0000 1/;000 8;000 =>000 180000 ,A 10D600 =00=00 >9D00 99;00 ;D8000 ;=1000 198000 /1D000 /8D000 /06=00 1>;000 6>/00 106/00 6;9D 19;0 180 6>00 6>00 !re!

; = > 6

$esert !emi5Arid Hestern 3hats $eccan *eninsula

D 8 9 10

3angetic *lain ,orth5East 2ndia 2slands #oast

V!" e of (io$iversit) The value of biodiversity in terms of its commercial utility, ecological services, social and aesthetic value is enormous. The multi le uses of biodiversity value have been classified by &c,eely et al in 1990 as follows" 1i2 Cons m&tive se v!" e" these are direct use values where the biodiversity roduct can be harvested and consumed directly e.g. fuel, food, drugs, fibre etc.

a. -oo$" A large number of wild lants are consumed by human beings as food. About 80,000 edible lant s ecies have been re orted from wild. About 90I of resent day food cro s have been domesticated from wild tro ical lants. A large number of wild animals are also our sources of food. (+ Dr 's !n$ me$i*ines/ i. About D>I of the worldAs o ulation de ends u on lants or lant e%tracts for medicines. ii. The wonder drug enicillin used as an antibiotic is derived from a fungus called enicillium. iii. Gi(ewise, we get Tetracyclin from a bacterium. Muinine, the cure for malaria is obtained from the bar( of #inchona tree, while $igitalin is obtained from fo%glove which is an effective cure for heart ailments. iv. -ecently vinblastin and vincristine, two anticancer drugs, have been obtained from eriwin(le lant, which ossesses anticancer al(aloids. 4ur forests have been used since ages for fuel wood. The fossil furls coal, etroleum and natural gas are also roducts of fossili)ed biodiversity. 1ii2 .ro$ *tive se v!" es" a. These are the commercially usable values where the roduct is mar(eted and sold. b. These may include the animal roducts li(e tus(s of ele hants, mus( from mus( deer, sil( from sil(5worm, wool from shee , lac from lac insects etc, all of which are traded in the mar(et. c. &any industries are de endent u on the roductive use values of biodiversity e.g. Nthe a er and ul industry, lywood industry, railway slee er industry, sil( industry, ivory5wor(s, leather industry, earl industry etc. So*i!" v!" e" a. These are the values associated with the social life, customs, and religion of the eo le. b. &any of the lants are considered holy and sacred in our country li(e Tulsi, ee ul, &ango, and Gotus etc. c. The leaves, fruits or flowers of these lants are used in worshi or the lant itself is worshi ed. d. &any animals li(e #ow, !na(e, and *eacoc( also have significant lace in our sycho5s iritual arena. Et%i*!" v!" e" a. 2t is also sometimes (nown as e%istence value. 2t involves ethical issues li(e 7all life must be reserved7. b. The ethical value means that we may or may not use a s ecies, but (nowing the very fact that this s ecies e%ists in nature gives us leasure. c. He are not deriving anything direct from Langaroo, Jebra or 3iraffe, but we all strongly feel that these s ecies should e%ist in nature. Aest%eti* v!" e"

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a. ,o one of us would li(e to visit vast stretches of barren lands with no signs of visible life. b. *eo le from far and wide s end a lot of time and money to visit wilderness areas where they can en'oy the aesthetic value of biodiversity and this ty e of tourism is now (nown as eco5tourism. c. Ecotourism is estimated to generate about 1/ billion dollars of revenue annually. 1vi2 O&tion v!" es" a. These values include the otentials of biodiversity that are resently un(nown and need to be e% lored. b. There is a ossibility that we may have some otential cure for A2$! or cancer e%isting within the de ths of a marine ecosystem, or a tro ical rain forest. c. Thus o tion value is the value of (nowing that there are biological resources e%isting on this bios here that may one day rove to be an effective o tion for something im ortant in the future. E*os)stem servi*e v!" e" a. 2t refers to the services rovided by ecosystems li(e revention of soil erosion, revention of floods, maintenance of soil fertility, cycling of nutrients, revention floods, cycling of water, their role as carbon sin(s, ollutant absor tion and reduction of the threat of global warming etc.

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G"o(!" Bio$iversit) Following the 199/ OEarth summitP at -io de .aneiro, it become evident that there is a growing need to (now and scientifically name, the huge number of s ecies which are still un(nown on this earth. Tro ical deforestation alone is reducing the biodiversity by half a ercentage every year. Terrestrial biodiversity of the earth is best described as biomes, which are the largest ecological units resent in different geogra hic areas and are named after the dominant vegetation e.g. the tro ical rainforests, tall grass rairies, savannas, desert, tundra etc. 4ut of the ;000 lants identified by ,ational #ancer -esearch 2nstitute as sources of cancer fighting chemicals, D0I come from tro ical rain forests. There is an estimated 1,/>,000 flowering lant s ecies in tro ical forests. 1owever, till now we (now only 15;I of these s ecies. Tem erature forests have much less biodiversity, but there is much better documentation of the s ecies. 3lobally, we have roughly 1,D0,000 flowering lants, ;0,000 vertebrates and about /,>0,000 other grou s of s ecies that have been described. Table 1 shows the estimated number of some (nown living s ecies in different ta%onomic grou s" Table"1 Giving s ecies estimates 9Horld -esource 2nstitute, 1999: T!<onomi* 'ro & N m(er <acteria Q #yanobacteria >,000 *roto)oans ;1,000 Algae /D,000 .elly fish, #orals etc. 10,000

Am hibians -e tiles <irds &ammals Bio"o'i*!" $iversit) !t N!tion!" Leve"

=,000 >,000 9,000 =,000

Every country is characteri)ed by its own biodiversity de ending mainly on its climate. 2ndia has a rich biological diversity of flora and fauna. 4verall si% ercent of the global s ecies are found in 2ndia. 2t is estimated that 2ndia ran(s 10th among the lant rich countries of the world, 11 th in terms of number of endemic s ecies of higher vertebrates and 6 th among the centers of diversity and origin of agricultural cro s. The total number of living s ecies identified in our country is 1,>0,000. 4ut of a total /> biodiversity hot5s ots in the world, 2ndia ossesses two. 2ndia is also one of the 1/ mega5biodiversity countries in the world. Re'ion!" or "o*!" (io$iversit) <iodiversity at regional level is better understood by categori)ing s ecies richness into four ty es, based u on their s atial distribution as discussed below" .oint ri*%ness refers to the number of s ecies that can be found at a single oint in a given s ace. 9ii: A"&%! 1 2 ri*%ness refers to the number of s ecies found in a small homogenous area. 9iii: Bet! 1 2 ri*%ness refers to the rate of change in s ecies com osition across different habitats. 9iv: G!mm! 1 2 ri*%ness refers to the rate of change across large landsca e gradients. 5 richness is strongly correlated with hysical environmental variables. 5 richness means that the cumulative number of s ecies increases as more heterogonous habitats are ta(en into consideration. In$i! !s me'! $iversit) n!tion 2ndia is one of the 1/ mega diversity countries in the world. The &inistry of Environment and forests, 3ovt. of 2ndia 9/000: records =D,000 s ecies of lants and 81,000 s ecies of animals which is about DI and 6.>I res ectively of global flora and fauna. En$emism" ! ecies, which are restricted only to a articular area, are (nown as endemic. 2ndia shows a good number of endemic s ecies. Center of ori'in" A large number of s ecies are (nown to have originated in 2ndia. ,early >000 s ecies of flowering lants had their origin in 2ndia. 9i:

M!rine $iversit)" Along D>00 (m long coastline of our country in the mangroves, estuaries, coral reefs, bac( waters etc. there e%ists a rich biodiversity. &ore than ;=0 s ecies of corals of the world are found here. R A large ro ortion of the 2ndian <iodiversity is still une% lored. There are about 9; ma'or wet lands, coral reefs and mangroves which need to be studied in detail. 0ot s&ots of (io$iversit) Areas, which e%hibit high s ecies richness as well as high s ecies endemism, are termed as hot s ots of biodiversity. The term was introduced by &yers 91988:. There are /> such hot s ots of biodiversity on a global level out of which two are resent in 2ndia, namely the Eastern 1imalayas and Hestern 3hats. These hot s ots covering less than /I of the worldSs land are found to have about >0I of the terrestrial biodiversity. About =0I of terrestrial lants and />I of vertebrate s ecies are endemic and found in these hots ots. After the tro ical rain forests, the second highest number of endemic lant s ecies are found in the &editerranean 9&ittermeier:. Earlier 1/ hot s ots were identified on a global level. Gater &yers et al 9/000: recogni)ed /> hot s ots. Two of these hots ots lie in 2ndia e%tending into neighbouring countries namely, 2ndo5 <urma region 9covering Eastern 1imalayas: and Hestern 3hats N !ri Gan(a region. The 2ndian hot s ots are not only rich in floral wealth and endemic s ecies of lants but also re tiles, am hibians, swallow tailed butterflies and some mammals. 1!2 E!stern 0im!"!)!s" a. They dis lay an ultra5varied to ogra hy that fosters s ecies diversity and endemism. b. #ertain s ecies li(e !a ria himalayana, a arasitic angios erm was sighted only twice in this region in the last D0 years. c. 4ut of the worldSs recorded flora ;0I are endemic to 2ndia of which ;>,000 are in the 1imalayas. 1(2 8estern G%!ts/ a. 2t e%tends along a 1D,000 Lm/ stri of forests in &aharashtra, Larnata(a, Tamil ,adu and Lerala and has =0I of the total endemic lant s ecies. b. 6/I am hibians and >0I li)ards are endemic to Hestern 3hats. c. The ma'or centers of diversity are Agastyamalai 1ills and !ilent Calley5Tthe ,ew Amambalam -eserve <asin. d. 2t is re orted that only 6.8I of the original forests are e%isting today while the rest has been deforested or degraded. e. Although the hots ots are characteri)ed by endemism, interestingly, a few s ecies are common to both the hots ots in 2ndia.

T%re!ts to Bio$iversit) E%tinction or elimination of a s ecies is a natural rocess of evolution. 2n the geologic eriod the earth has e% erienced mass e%tinctions. $uring evolution, s ecies have died out and have been re laced by others. The rocess of e%tinction has become articularly fast in the recent years of human civili)ation. 4ne of the estimates by the noted ecologist, E.4. Hilson uts the figure of e%tinction at 10,000 s ecies er year or /D er dayU This starling figure raises an alarm regarding the serious threat to biodiversity. Get us consider some of the ma'or causes and issues related to threats to biodiversity. 1i2 Loss of 0!(it!t $estruction and loss of natural habitat is the single largest cause of biodiversity loss. <illions of hectares of forests and grasslands have been cleared over the ast 10,000 years for conversion into agriculture lands, astures, settlement areas or develo ment ro'ects. There has been a ra id disa earance of tro ical forests in our country also, at a rate of about 0.6I er year. Hith the current rate of loss of forest habitat, it is estimated that /05/>I of the global flora would be lost within a few years. &arine biodiversity is also under serious threat due to large scale destruction of the fragile breeding and feeding grounds of our oceanic fish and other s ecies, as a result of human intervention. 9ii2 .o!*%in' 2llegal trade of wildlife roducts by (illing rohibited endangered animals i.e. oaching is another threat to wildlife. $es ite international ban on trade in roducts from endangered s ecies, smuggling of wild life items li(e furs, hides, horns, tus(s, live s ecimens and herbal roducts worth millions of dollars er year continues. The cost of ele hant tus(s can go u to V100 er (g@ the leo ard fur coat is sold at V 100,000 in .a an while bird catchers can fetch u to V 10,000 for a rare hyacinth macaw, a beautiful coloured bird, from <ra)il. 1iii2 M!n-8i"$"ife *onf"i*t 2nstances of man animal conflicts (ee on coming to lime light from several states in our country. 2n !ambal ur, 4rissa 19> humans were (illed in the last > years by ele hants. 2n retaliation the villagers (illed 98 ele hants and badly in'ured ;0 ele hants. !everal instances of (illing of ele hants in the border regions of Lote5#hamara'anagar belt in &ysore have been re orted recently.

The man5ele hant conflict in this region has arisen because of the massive damage done by the ele hants to the farmerSs cotton and sugarcane cro s. The agoni)ed villagers electrocute the ele hants and sometimes hide e% losives in the sugarcane fields, which e% lode as the ele hants intrude into their fields. 2n the early /00=, a man5eating tiger was re orted to (ill 16 ,e alese eo le and one =5 year old child inside the -oyal #hitwan ,ational *ar( of Lathmandu. 2n .une, /00= two men were (illed by the leo ards in *owai, &umbai. C! se of M!n-!nim!" *onf"i*ts/ 1i2 1ii2 $windling habitats of tigers, ele hants and bears due to shrin(ing forest cover com els them to move outside the forest and attac( the field or sometimes even humans. +sually the ill, wea( and in'ured animals have tendency to attac( man. Also, the female tigress attac(s the human if she feels that her newborn cubs are in danger. <ut the biggest roblem is that if human5flesh is tasted once then the tiger does not eat any other animal. Earlier, forest de artments used to cultivate addy, sugarcane etc. within the sanctuaries when the favourite sta le food of ele hants i.e. bamboo leaves were not abailable. ,ow due to lac( of such ractices the animals move out of the forest in search of food. Cery often the villagers ut electric wiring around their ri e cro fields. The ele hants get in'ured, suffer in ain and turn violent. The cash com ensation aid by the government in lieu of the damage caused to the farmers cro is not enough. The agoni)ed farmer therefore gets revengeful and (ills the wild animals.

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Reme$i!" Me!s res to C r( t%e Conf"i*t/ 1i2 1ii2 1iii2 1iv2 1v2 Tiger #onservation *ro'ect 9T#*: has made rovisions for ma(ing available vehicles, tranEuilli)er guns, and binoculars to tactfully deal with any imminent danger. AdeEuate cro com ensation and cattle com ensation scheme must be started. !olar owered fencing should be rovided along with electric current roof trenches to revent the animals from straying fields. #ro ing attern should be changed near forest borders and adeEuate fruits and water should be made available for the ele hants within forest )ones. Hild life corridors should be rovided for mass migration of big animals during unfavorable eriods.

En$!n'ere$ s&e*ies of In$i! The 2nternational +nion for #onservation of ,ature and ,atural -esources 92+#,: ublishes the -ed $ata <oo( which includes the list of endangered s ecies of lants and animals. The red data symboli)es the warning signal for those s ecies which are endangered and if not rotected are li(ely to become e%tinct in near future.

2n 2ndia, nearly =>0 lant s ecies have been identified in the categories of endangered, threatened or rare. E%istence of about 1>0 mammals and 1>0 s ecies of birds is estimated to be threatened while an un(nown number of s ecies of insects are endangered. A few s ecies of endangered re tiles, birds, mammals and lants are given below" o Re&ti"es/ 3reen sea turtle, tortoise, ython o Bir$s/ 3reat 2ndian bustard, *eacoc(, *elican, 3reat 2ndian 1ornbill, !iberian o C!rnivoro s M!mm!"s/ 2ndian wolf, red fo%, red anda, tiger, leo ard, 2ndian, lion, golden cat, desert cat o .rim!tes/ 1ooloc( gibbon, ca ed mon(ey, golden mon(ey o ."!nts/ A large number of s ecies of orchids, -ododendrons, medicinal lants li(e -auvolfia ser entina, the sandal, wood tree santalum, cycas beddonei etc . The Joological !urvey of 2ndia re orted that #heetah, *in( headed duc( and mountain Euail have already become e%tinct from 2ndia. A s ecies is said to e e%tinct when it is not seen in the wild for >0 years at a stretch eg. $odo, *assenger igeon. A s ecies is said to be endangered when its number has been reduced to a critical level. 2f such a s ecies is not rotected and conserved, it is in immediate danger of e%tinction. A s ecies is said to be in vulnerable category if its o ulation is facing continuous decline due to overe% loitation or habitat destruction. ! ecies which are not endangered or vulnerable at resent, but are at a ris( are categori)ed as rare s ecies.

En$emi* s&e*ies/ The s ecies are only found among a articular eo le or in a articular region are (nows as endemic s ecies. 4ut of about =D, 00 s ecies of lants in our country D000 are endemic. !ome of the im ortant endemic flora includes orchids and s ecies li(e sa ria himalayana, +varia lureda, ,e enthes (hasiana etc. A large number out of total of 81,000 s ecies of animals in our country is endemic. The western ghats are articularly rich in am hibians and re tiles. About 6/Iam hiians and >0I li)ards are endemic to Hestern 3hats. $ifferent s ecies of monitor li)ard, reticulated ython are some im ortant endemic s ecies of our country. Conserv!tion of Bio$iversit) The enormous value of biodiversity due to their genetic, commercial, medical, esthetic, ecological and o tional im ortance em hasi)es the need to conserve biodiversity. There are two a roaches of biodiversity conservation"

1!2 In sit *onserv!tion 1#it%in %!(it!t2/ This is achieved by rotection of wild flora and fauna in nature itself. E.g. <ios here -eserves, ,ational *ar(s, !anctuaries, -eserve Forests etc. 1(2 E< sit *onserv!tion 1o tsi$e %!(it!ts2/ This is done by establishment of gene ban(s, seed ban(s, )oos, botanical gardens, culture collections etc. In Sit *onserv!tion/ At resent in our country we have" D ma'or <ios here reserves, 80 ,ational *ar(s, =/0 wild5life sanctuaries and 1/0 <otanical gardens They totally cover =I of the geogra hic area.

T%e Bios&%ere Reserves conserve some re resentative ecosystems as a whole for long5 term in situ conservation. 2n 2ndia we have" ,anda $evi 9+.*.:, ,o(re( 9&eghalaya:, &anas 9Assam:, !underbans 9Hest <engal:, 3ulf of &annar 9Tamil ,adu:, ,ilgiri 9Larnata(a, Lerala, Tamil ,adu:, 3reat ,icobars and !imili al 94rrisa: A N!tion!" .!r6 is an area dedicated for the conservation of wildlife along with its environment. 2t is also meant for en'oyment through tourism but without im airing the environment. 3ra)ing of domestic animals, all rivate rights and forestry activities are rohibited within a ,ational *ar(. Each ,ational *ar( usually aims at conservation s ecifically of some articular s ecies of wildlife along with others. !ome ma'or ,ational *ar(s of our country are enlisted in the Table / below" Table / !ome im ortant ,ational ar(s in 2ndia N!me of N!tion!" .!r6 La)iranga 3ir ,ational *ar( <andi ur *eriyar !aris(a St!te Assam 3u'arat Larnata(a Lerala -a'asthan Im&ort!nt 8i"$"ife 4ne horned -hino 2ndian Gion Ele hant Ele hant, Tiger Tiger

8i"$"ife s!n*t !ries are also rotected areas where (illing, hunting, shooting or ca turing of wildlife is rohibited e%ce t under the control of highest authority. !ome ma'or wildlife sanctuaries of our country are shown in table ;. Table ; !ome 2m ortant Hildlife !anctuaries of 2ndia N!me of S!n*t !r) 3hana <ird !anctuary !ultan ur <ird !anctuary &udamalai Hildlife !anctuary Cedanthangal <ird !anctuary Hild Ass !anctuary St!te -a'asthan 1aryana Tamil ,adu Tamil ,adu 3u'arat M!=or 8i"$ Life ;oo s ecies of birds 9including migratory: &igratory birds Tiger, ele hant, Geo ard Hater birds Hild ass, wolf, nilgai, chin(ara

For lants, there is one gene sanctuary for #itrus 9Gemon family: and one for itcher lant 9an insect eating lant: in ,ortheast 2ndia. E< Sit Conserv!tion/ This ty e of conservation is mainly done for conservation of cro varieties. 2n 2ndia, we have the following im ortant gene ban(Bseed ban( facilities" 1i2 ,ational <ureau of *lant 3enetic -esources 9,<*3-: is located in ,ew $elhi. 1ere agricultural and horticultural cro s and their wild relatives are reserved by cryo5 reservation of seeds, ollen etc. by using liEuid nitrogen at a tem erature as low as N 196 degree #elsious. Carieties of rice, turni , radish, tomato, onion, carrot, chilli, tobacco etc. have been reserved successfully in liEuid nitrogen for several years without losing seed viability. ,ational <ureau of Animal 3enetic -esources 9,<A3-: located at Larnal, 1aryana. 2t reserves the semen of domesticated bovine animals. ,ational Facility for *lant Tissue #ulture -e ository 9,F*T#-: for the develo ment of a facility of conservation of varieties of cro lantsBtrees by tissue culture. This facility has been created within the ,<*3-.

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For the rotection and conservation of certain animals, there have been s ecific ro'ects in our country e.g. *ro'ect Tiger, 3irl Gion *ro'ect, #rocodile <reeding *ro'ect, *ro'ect Ele hant, !now Geo ard *ro'ect etc.

UNIT > , Environment!" &o"" tion O(=e*tives/ 2n this to ic we are going to deal about different ty es of ollution and due to this ty es of ollution how our environment is facing disasters and calamities. Intro$ *tion/ Environmental surroundingsP T)&es of &o"" t!nts/ ollution can be defined as Othe unfavorable alteration of our

1. <io degradable ollutants 5 /. ,on5 degradable ollutants5 *ollution are of different (inds 1. Air ollution /. water ollution ;. soil ollution =. marine ollution >. noise ollution 6. thermal ollution and D. ,uclear ha)ards Air &o"" tion/

decom ose ra idly by natural rocesses. do not decom ose or slowly decom ose in the environment.

2t may be defined as O the resence of one or more contaminants li(e dust, smo(e, mist and odour in the atmos here which are in'urious to human beings , lants and animals So r*es of !ir &o"" tion/

a: ,atural ollution 5 volcanic eru tions, forest fires, biological decay, etc. b: &an N made activities N Thermal ower lants, agricultural activities etc. C"!ssifi*!tion/ 1. *rimary ollutant N these are those emitted directly in the atmos here in harmful form li(e #4, ,4 etc /. !econdary ollutant N these may react with one another or with the basic com onents of air to form new ollutants. Contro" Me!s res/ 1+ a: b: c: d: e: /. a: b: So r*e *ontro"/ +se only unleaded etrol +se etroleum roducts and other fuels that have low sul hur and ash content *lant trees along busy streets because they remove articulates and carbon mono%ide and absorb noise. 2ndustries and waste dis osal sites should be situated outside the city centre . +se catalytic converters to hel control the emissions of carbon mono%ide and hydrocarbons. Contro" me!s res in In$ stri!" *enters " Emission rates should be restricted to ermissible levels 2ncor oration of air ollution control eEui ments in the design of the lant lay out .

8!ter &o"" tion/ 2t may be defined as O the alteration in hysical, chemical and biological characteristics of water which may cause harmful effects on human and aEuatic life. T)&es, effe*ts !n$ so r*es of #!ter &o"" tion/ 1. 2nfectious agents" 5 <acteria, viruses, roto)oa and arasitic worms. !ources "5 1uman and animal wastes. Effects " Cariety of diseases. /. 4%ygen demanding wastes"5 Animal manure and lant debris that can be decom osed by aerobic bacteria. !ources " 5 !ewage , a er mills, and food rocessing facilities Effects" Hastes can degrade Euality by de leting water of dissolved o%ygen. ;. 2n organic #hemicals " 5 Hater soluble inorganic chemicals. 1. Acids /. #om ounds of to%ic metals such as lead , arsenic and selenium ;. !alts such as ,acl in ocean water . Effects " 3enetic mutations, birth defects and certain cancers. T%erm!" &o"" tion 10e!t2/

E%am le " E%cessive heat. 1uman source " Hater cooling of electric ower lants and some ty es of industrial lants . Almost all of all water withdrawn in +nited states for cooling electric ower lants. Effects" 1. Gowers dissolved o%ygen levels and ma(es aEuatic organisms more vulnerable to disease and to%ic chemicals /. Hhen a ower lant first o ens or shuts down for re air, fish and other organisms ada ted to a articular tem erature range can be (illed b the abru t change in water tem erature (nown as thermal shoc( Contro" me!s res of #!ter &o"" tion/ 1. The administration of water ollution should be in the hands of state or central government. /. 2ndustrial lants should be based on recycling o erations, because it will not only sto the discharge of industrial wastes into natural water sources but by roducts can be e%tracted from the wastes. ;. *lants, trees and forests control ollution and they acts as natural air conditioners. =. 1ighly Eualified and e% erienced ersons should be consulted from time to time for effective control of water ollution. >. <asic and a lied research in ubic health engineering should be encouraged. Soi" .o"" tion/ 2t may be defined as Othe contamination of soul by human and natural activities which may cause harmful effects on living beingsP. T)&es/ 1.2ndustrial wastes !ources and effects"5 ul and a er mills, chemical industries, oil refineries , sugar factories etc., These ollutants affect and alter the chemical and biological ro erties of soil. As a result , ha)ardous chemicals can enter into human food chain from the soil, disturb the bio chemical rocess an d finally lead to serious effects. /.+rban wastes !ources and effects"5 *lastcs, 3lasses, metallic cans, fibers, a ers , rubbers , street swee ings, and other discarded manufactured roducts. These are also dangerous. ;.Agricultural ractices !ources and effects"5 1uge Euantities of fertili)ers, esticides, herbicides , weedicides are added to increase the cro yield. A art from these farm wastes, manure, slurry , are re orted to cause soil ollution. =.-adioactive ollutants !ources and effects" These are resulting from e% losions of nuclear dust and radio active wastes enetrate the soil and accumulate there by creating land ollution. >.<iological agents.

!ources and effects" !oil gets large Euantities of human, animal and birds e%creta which constitute the ma'or source of land ollution by biological agents. Contro" me!s res of soi" &o"" tion The ressure on intensification of farm activities increases for two reasons 1. o ulation growth /. $ecrease of the available farm land due to urbani)ation The soil ollution can be controlled by 1. forestry an d farm ractices /. *ro er dum ing of unwanted materials ;. *roduction of natural fertili)ers =. *ro er 1ygienic condition >. *ublic awareness 6. -ecycling and -euse of wastes D. <an on To%ic chemicals. M!rine &o"" tion/ 2t may be defined as O the discharge of waste substances into the sea resulting in harm to living resources ha)ards to human health, hindrance to fishery and im airment of Euality for use of sea waterP. !ource of marine ollution" The coastal )ones contains rich heritage , coral reefs, wetlands, and seagrass beds. Effects of marine ollutants" 1. The resence of heavy metals and organic ollutants cause more damage in birds as thinning of eggshell and tissue damage of egg. /. 4il s illing causes abnormally low body tem erature in birds resulting in hy othermia. ;. 4il films are able to retard significantly the rate of o%ygen u ta(e by water. Contro" me!s res of m!rine &o"" tion 1. *lants for conserving marine biodiversity must be ta(en into account of human needs. /. *eo le should be educated about marine ecosystems and the benefits offered by them. ;. Gocal communities must be involved in rotecting and managing their coastal resources =. !ocial and economic incentives must be offered for conserving and sustainable use of marine resources. >. 3overnments must manage their own water while e%tending coo eration to the neighboring states. Noise &o"" tion/

2t may be defined as O the unwanted, un leasant or disagreeable sound that causes discomfort for all living beingsP T)&es of noise/ 1. 2ndustrial noise /. Trans ort noise ;. ,eighborhood noise Effe*ts of Noise &o"" tion 1. /. ;. =. This affects human health, comfort and efficiency. 2t causes muscles to contract leading to nervous brea(down, tension 2t affects health efficiency and behavior. 2n addition to serious loss of hearing due to e%cessive noise, im ulsive noise also causes sychological and athological disorders. >. <rain is also adversely affected by loud and sudden noise as that of 'et and aero lane noise etc. Contro" !n$ &reventin' me!s res 1. !ource control N acoustic treatment to machine surface , design changes , limiting the o erational timings /. Transmission ath intervention5 the source inside a sound insulating enclosure, construction of a noise barrier or rovision of sound absorbing materials ;. 4iling N *ro er oiling will reduce the noise from the machines. T%erm!" &o"" tion / 2t may be defined as the O addition of e%cess of undesirable heat to water that ma(es it harmful to man, animal or aEuatic life or otherwise causes significant de artures from the normal activities of aEuatic communities in waterP So r*es of t%erm!" &o"" tion 1. /. ;. =. >. ,uclear ower lants #oal fired ower lants 2ndustrial effluents $omestic sewage 1ydro N electric ower.

Effe*ts of t%erm!" &o"" tion a: -eduction in dissolved o%ygen b: 2ncrease in To%icity

c: d: e: f:

2nterference wwith biological activities 2nterference with re roduction $irect mortality Food storage for fish

Contro" me!s res of t%erm!" &o"" tion/ a: 1: /: b: c: d: #ooling towers" 5 This is used as a coolant wet cooling tower $ry cooling tower #ooling onds ! ray onds Artificial la(es N The heated effluents can be discharged into the la(e at one end and the water for cooling ur oses from the other end.

N *"e!r 0!7!r$s/ The radiation ha)ard in the environment comes from ultraviolet, visible, cosmic rays and micro wave radiation which roduces genetic mutation in man. !ources of ,uclear 1a)ards" 1. ,atural !ources N which is in s ace which emit cosmic rays /. &an made sources 9 Anthro ogenic sources: These are nuclear nuclear accidents, nuclear bombs, diagnostic (its etc Effe*ts of N *"e!r 0!7!r$s/ 1. E% osure of the brain and central nervous system ot high doses of radiation causes delirium, convulsions and death within hours or days. /. The use of eye is vulnerable to radiation. As its cell die, they become o aEue forming cataracts that im air sight. ;. Acute radiation sic(ness ios mar(ed by vomiting , bleeding of gums and in severe cases mouth ulcers. =. ,ausea and vomiting often begin a few hours after the gastrointestinal tract is e% osed . 2nfection of the intestinal wall can (ill wee(s afterwards. >. +nborn children are vulnerable to brain damage or mental retardation , es ecially if irradiation occurs during formation of the central nervous system in early regnancy. Contro" me!s res/ 1. ,uclear devices should never be e% loded in air. /. 2n nuclear reactors, closed cycle coolant system with gaseous coolant may be used to revent e%traneous activitation roducts. ;. #ontainments may also be em loyed to decrease the radio active emissions. ower lants, W5rays ,

=. E%treme care should be e%ercis;ed in the dis osal of industrial wastes contaminated with radio nuclides. >. +se of high chimneys and ventilations at the wor(ing lace where radioactive contamination is high. 2t seems to be an effective way for dis ersing ollutants. So"i$ 8!ste M!n!'ement/ &anagement of solid waste is very im ortant in order to minimi)e the adverse effects of solid wastes. Ty es of solid wastes" 1. +rban wastes !ources N a: $omestic wastes N Food waste, #loth, Haste a er etc <: #ommercial wastes N *ac(ing material, cans, bottles , olythene etc. #: #onstruction Hastes N Hood, concrete debris etc. $: <io medical wastes N Anatomical wastes , infectious wastes etc., /. 2ndustrial wastes !ources N a: ,uclear ower lants N generates radioactive wastes < Thermal ower lants N roduces fly ash in large Euantities ;. #hemical industries *roduces large Euantities of ha)ardous and to%ic materials Ste&s invo"ve$ in so"i$ #!ste m!n!'ement / 1. -educe , -euse and -ecycle of materials N raw materials re usage should be reduced , reuse of waste materials should be reduced and recycling of the discarded materials into new useful roducts should also be reduced. /. $iscarding wastes a: Gand fill " !olid wastes are laced in sanitary landfill system in alternate layers of 80 cm thic( refuse, covered with selected earth fill of /0cm thic(ness b: 2ncineration" 2t is a hygienic way of dis osing the solid waste. 2t is a thermal rocess and is very effective for deto%ification of all combustible athogens c: #om osting" 2t is another o ular method racticed in many cities in our country. 2n this method , bul( organic waste is converted into a fertili)ing manure by biological action. Ro"e of !n in$ivi$ !" in &revention of &o"" tion/ 1. *lant more trees /. 1el more in ollution revention than ollution control ;. +se water, energy and other resoucrces efficiently =. *urchase recyclable, recycled and environmentally safe roducts >. reduce deforestation 6. -emove ,4 from motar vehicular e%haust D. +se of eco friendly roducts. C!se st $ies/ 1. Effluents treatment at &-G , #hennai

/. ;. =. >. 6. D.

The <ho al gas tragedy Arsenic ollution in ground water !oft drin( bottling unit &ercury wastes *alar river ollution The miniamatta e idemic 9 marine ollution:

Dis!ster m!n!'ement 0!7!r$ 2t is a erceived natural event which threatens both life and ro erty Dis!ster A disaster is the reali)ation of this ha)ard 2t is defined as the geological rocess and it is an event concentrated in time and s ace in which a society or subdivision of a society undergoes severe danger and causes loss of its members and hysical ro erty. T)&es 1. ,atural disasters N refers to those disasters that are generated by natural henomena /. &an made disasters N refers to the disasters resulting from man made ha)ards. -"oo$s Hhenever the magnitude of water flow e%ceeds the carrying ca acity of the channel within its ban(s the e%cess of water overflows on the surroundings causes floods. #auses of floods 1. 1eavy rain, rainfall during cyclone causes floods /. sudden snow melt also raises the Euantity of water in streams and causes flood ;. sudden and e%cess release of im ounded water behind dams =. clearing of forests for agriculture has also increased severity of floods. -"oo$ m!n!'ement 1. Encroachment of flood ways should be banned /. <uilding walls revent s illing out the flood water over flood lains ;. $iverting e%cess water through channels or canals to areas li(e la(e, rivers etc., where water is not sufficient, =. 4 tical and microwave data from 2-! is also used for flood management >. Flood forecasts and flood warning are also given by the central water commission C)*"ones/ 2t is a meterological rocess, intense de ressions forming over the o en oceans and moving towards the land.

Effe*t/ 1. The damage de ends on the intensity of cyclone the damage to human life, cro s, roads, trans ort, could be heavy /. #yclone occurance slow down the develo mental activities of the area C)*"one m!n!'ement/ 1. !atellite images are used by meterological de artments for forecasting the weather conditions which reveal the strength and intensity of the storm. /. -adar system is used to detect the cyclone and is beign used for cyclone warning C!se st $ies #yclone in orissa N 1999 L!n$ s"i$es/ The movement of earthy materials li(e coherent roc(, mud, soil and debris from higher to lower region to gravitational ull is called land sliedes C! ses/ 1. &ovement of heavy vehicles on the unstable slo y regions create landslides /. EarthEua(e, shoc(s, vibrations and cyclone create landslide E!rt% : !6es/ An earthEua(e is an sudden vibration caused on earth surface with the sudden release of tremendous energy stored in roc(s under the earthSs crust. C! ses/ 1.$iseEuilibrium in any art of the earth crust /. +nderground ,uclear testing ;. $ecrease of underground water level. Effe*t/ $amage the settlements and trans ort systems #olla ses houses and their structures $eformation of ground surface Tsunami E!rt%: !6e m!n!'ement/ #onstructing earthEua(e resistant building Hooden houses are referred !eismic ha)ard ma should give the information about the magnitude of intensity of antici ated earthEua(es. Ts n!mi/

A tsunami is a large wave that is generated in a water body when the seafloor is deformed by seismic activity. This activity dis laces the overlying water in the ocean. C! ses of ts n!mi 1. !eismic activities li(e earthEua(es, landslides, volcanic eru tions, e% losions, can generate tsunami. /. $eformation of the sea floor due to the movement of lates. Con*e&t of Ts n!mi A tsunami is not a single wave but a series of waves li(e the ordinary waves which we see on a ses. Effe*ts on Ts n!mi 1. Tsunami attac(s mostly the coastlines, causing devastating ro erty, damage and loss of life /. Tsunami can (ill lot of human beings, livestoc(Ss, etc ;. Tsunami may also s read lot of water borne diseases. Ts n!mi M!n!'ement EarthEua(es under the water are monitored by sensors on the floor of the sea. The sensors send the information of floating buoys on the surface, whenever they detect any changes in ressure of the sea The information is then relayed to satellites, which asses it on to the earth stations. Finally the country ma(e the eo le alert through the media to ta(e all necessary recautions. C!se st $ies/ Tsunami in 2ndia -ie"$ st $) of "o*!" &o"" te$ site Tiru ur in Tamilnadu *allavaram in chennai

UNIT-3 NATURAL RESOURCES

-orest reso r*es


Uses of -orests Commer*i!" ses/ &an de ends heavily on a larger number of lant and animal roducts from forests for his daily needs. The chief roduct that forests su ly is wood, which is used as fuel, raw material for various industries as ul , a er, news rint, board, timber for furniture items, other uses as in ac(ing articles, matches, s orts goods etc. 2ndian forests also su ly minor roducts li(e gums, resins, dyes, tannins, fibers, etc. &any of the lants are utili)ed in re aring medicines and drugs@ Total worth of which is estimated to be more than V;00 billion er year. &any forests lands are used for mining, agriculture, gra)ing, and recreation and for develo ment of dams. E*o"o'i*!" ses/ The ecological services rovided by our forests may be summed u as follows" .ro$ *tion of O<)'en" The main green house gas carbondio%ide is absorbed by the forests as a raw material for hoto synthesis. Thus forest cano y acts as a sin( for corbondio%ide thereby reducing the roblem of global warming caused by green house gas #4/ 8i"$ "ife %!(it!t" Forests are the homes of millions of wild animals and lants. About D million s ecies are found in the tro ical forests alone.

Re' "!tion of %)$ro"o'i*!" C)*"e" Forested watersheds act li(e giant s onges, absorbing the rainfall, slowing down the runoff. They control climate through trans iration of water and seed clouding. Soi" Conserv!tion/ Forests bind the soil articles tightly in their roots and revent soil erosion. They also act as wind brea(ers. .o"" tion mo$er!tors" Forests can absorb many to%ic gases and can hel in (ee ing the air ure and in reventing noise ollution. Over E<&"oit!tion of -orests &an de ends heavily on forests for food, medicine, shelter, wood and fuel. Hith growing civili)ation the demands for raw material li(e timber, ul , minerals, fuel wood etc. shot u resulting in large scale logging, mining, road5 building and clearing of forests. 4ur forests contribute substantially to the national economy. The international timber trade alone is worth over +! V =0 billion er year. The devasting effects of deforestation in 2ndia include soil, water and wind erosion, estimated to cost over 16,=00 crores every year. Deforest!tion $eforestation means destruction of forests. The total forests area of the world in 1900 was estimated to be D,000 million hectares which was reduced to /890 million ha in 19D> fell down to 'ust /,;00 million ha by /000. $eforestation rate is relatively less in tem erature countries, but it is very alarming in tro ical countries. $eforestation is a continuous rocess in 2ndia where about 1.; hectares of forest land has been lost. The er ca ita availability of forest in 2ndia is 0.08 hectares er erson which is much lower than the world average of 0.8 hectares. The resence of waste land is a sign of deforestation in 2ndia.

C! ses of Deforest!tion/ &a'or causes of deforestation are listed below" a: $evelo ment ro'ects b: !hifting cultivation c: Fuel reEuirements d: #onstruction of dams e: 3rowing food needs Conse: en*es of $eforest!tion/

!ome of the effects of deforestation are listed below" a: Effect on climate 1. 3lobal warming /. Gess rainfall ;. 1ot climate and others. b: Effect on biodiversity 1. Goss of medicinal lants. /. Goss of timber, fuel wood and others. c: Effect on resources 1. Goss of land resource /. Goss of soil fertility ;. !oil erosion =. $rastic changes in biogeochemical cycles d: Effect on economy 1. 2ncrease in medicinal values /. $emand of industrial roducts and others e: Effect on food 1. Goss of fruit roduction /. Goss of root based foods C!se St $ies Desertifi*!tion in %i"") re'ions of t%e 0im!"!)!s/ $esertification in 1imalayas, involving clearance of natural forests and lantation of monocultures li(e *inus ro%burghi, Eucaly tus camadulensis etc., have u set the ecosystem by changing various soil and biological ro erties. The area is invaded by e%otic weeds. These areas are not able to recover and are losing their fertility.

Dis!&&e!rin' Te! '!r$ens in C%%ot! N!'& r/ Following the destruction of forest rain fall declined in #hhota ,ag ur to such an e%tent that tea5gardens also disa eared from the region.

8!nin' r!in f!"" in U$%!'!m!n$!"!m/ The rainfall attern was found to fluctuate with wooded land area in the hills. Hhen the ,ilgiri mountains had lu%uriant forest cover annual rainfall used to be much higher.

Tim(er E<tr!*tion Gogging for valuable timber such as tea( and mahogany not only involves a few large trees er hectare but about a do)en more trees since they are strongly interloc(ed with each other by vines etc. Also road construction for ma(ing a roach to the trees causes further damage to the forests. 2n 2ndia, firewood demand would continue to rise in future mostly consumed in rural areas, where alternative sources of energy, are yet to reach. Minin' o &ining is the rocess of removing de osits of ores from substantially very well below the ground level. o &ining is carried out to remove several minerals including coal. o These mineral de osits invariably found in the forest region, and any o eration of mining will naturally affect the forests. o &ining from shallow de osits is done by surface mining while that from dee de osits is done by sub5surface mining. o &ore than 80,000 ha of land of the country is resently under the stress of mining activities. Effe*ts of minin' reso r*es/ &ining o eration reEuire removal of vegetation along with underlying soil mantle and overlying roc( masses. This results in destruction of landsca e in the area. Garge scale of deforestation has been re orted in &ussorie and $ehradun valley due to mining of various areas. 2ndiscriminate mining in 3oa since 1961 has destroyed more than >0,000 ha of forest land. &ining of radioactive mineral in Lerala, Tamilnadu and Larnata(a are osing similar threats of deforestation.

D!ms !n$ t%eir effe*ts on forests !n$ tri(!" &eo&"e o <ig dams and river valley ro'ects have multi5 ur ose uses and have been referred to as 7Tem les of modern 2ndiaP. o 2ndia has more than 1>>0 large dams, the ma%imum being in the state of &aharashtra 9more than 600: followed by 3u'arat 9more than />0: and &adhya *radesh 91;0:. o The highest one is Tehri dam, on river <hagirathi in +tttaranchal and the largest in terms of ca acity is <ha(ra dam on river !utle'. Effe*ts on Tri(!" &eo&"e

The greatest social cost of big dam is the wides read dis lacement of local eo le. 2t is estimated that the number of eo le affected directly or indirectly by all big irrigation ro'ects in 2ndia over the ast >0 years can be as high as /0 millions. The 1ira(ud dam, one of the largest dams e%ecuted in fifties, has dis laced more than /0,000 eo le residing in />0 villages.

Effe*ts on forests Thousands of hectares of forests have been cleared for e%ecuting river valley ro'ects which brea(s the natural ecological balance of the region. Floods, landslides become more revalent in such areas. For e%am le The ,armada sagar ro'ect alone has submerged ;.> la(h hectares of best forest com rising of rich tea( and bamboo forests. The Tehri dam submerged 1000 hectares of forest affecting about =;0 s ecies of lants according to the survey carried out by the botanical survey of 2ndia.

8!ter Reso r*es


Uses of 8!ter $ue to its uniEue ro erties, water is of multi le uses for all living organisms. Hater is absolutely essential for life. &ost of the life rocesses ta(e lace in water contained in the body. + ta(e of nutrients, their distribution in the body, regulation of tem erature, and removal of wastes are all mediated through water. 1uman beings de end on water for almost every develo mental activity. Hater is used for drin(ing, irrigation, and trans ortation, washing and waste dis osal for industries and used as a coolant for thermal ower lants. Hater sha ed the earthAs surface and regulates our climate. Over ti"i7!tion of s rf!*e !n$ 'ro n$ #!ter Hith increasing human o ulation and ra id develo ment, the world water withdrawal demands have increased many folds and a large ro ortion of the water withdrawn is olluted due to anthro ogenic activities. 4ut of the total water reserves of the world, about 9DI is salty water and only ;I is fresh water. Even this small fraction of fresh water is not available to us as most of it is loc(ed u in olar ice ca s and 'ust 0.00;I is readily available to us in the form of ground water and surface water. Effe*ts of over e<&"oit!tion of #!ter

S (si$en*e/ Hhen ground water withdrawal is more than its recharge rate, the sediments in the aEuifer 9a layer of roc( that is highly ermeable and contains water: get com acted, a henomenon (nows as ground subsidence. 2t results in sin(ing of overlying land surface. $ue to this structural damage in buildings, fracture in i es etc., occurs. Lo#erin' of #!ter t!("e" &ining of groundwater is done e%tensively for irrigating cro fields. 1owever, e%cessive mining would cause lowering of water table. 8!ter "o''in'" Hhen e%cessive irrigation is done with brac(ish water it raises the water table gradually leading to water5logging and salinity roblems. -"oo$s !n$ $ro '%t 1eavy rainfall often causes floods in the low5lying coastal areas. *rolonged down our can also cause the over5flowing of la(es and rivers resulting into floods. Hhen annual rainfall is below normal and less than eva oration, drought conditions are created. C! ses of f"oo$ !n$ $ro '%t/ $eforestation, overgra)ing, mining, ra id industriali)ation, global warming etc., have contributed largely to a shar rise in the incidence of floods. $eforestation leads to desertification and drought too. Hhen the trees are cut, the soil is sub'ect to erosion by heavy rains, winds and sun. The removal of thin to layer of soil ta(es away the nutrients and the soil becomes useless. The eroded soils e%hibit droughty tendency. .reventive me!s res/ #lear (nowledge in control of drought and desertification can be very useful for dealing with the roblem. #arefully selected mi%ed cro ing hel s to o timi)e roduction and minimi)e the ris(s of cro failures. !ocial forestry and Hasteland develo ment can rove Euite effective to fight the roblem, but it should be based on ro er understanding of ecological reEuirement and natural rocess. Conf"i*ts over #!ter 2ndis ensability of water and its uneEual distribution has often led to inter5state or international dis utes. 2ssues related to sharing of river water have been largely affecting our farmers and also sha(ing our governments. &any countries are engaged in bitter rivalries over this recious resource.

For instance, Argentina and <ra)il, dis ute each otherAs claims to the Ga *lata river, 2ndia and *a(istan fight over the rights to water from the 2ndus, &e%ico and +!A have come in conflict over the #olorado river, 2ndia and <angladesh are fighting for <hrahma utra river, and 2ran and 2raE contest for the water from !hatt5Al5 Arab -iver.

Hithin 2ndia, water conflicts are still being continues between the states. For Eg., !haring of Lrishna water between Larnata(a and Andhra *radesh, !haring of !iruvani water between Tamilnadu and Lerala, and others. !haring of #auvery between Larnata(a and Tamilnadu 4n .une /,1990, the #auvery Hater dis ute Tribunal was set u which through an interim award directed Larnata(a to ensure that /0> T&#F of water was made available in Tamil ,aduAs &ettur dam every year, till a settlement was reached. 2n 19915199/ due to good monsoon, there was no dis ute. 2n 199>, the situation turned into a crisis due to delayed rains and an e% ert #ommittee was set u to loo( into the matter which found that there was a com le% cro ing attern in #auvery basin. !amba addy in winter, Luravai addy in summer and some cash cro s demanded intensive water@ thus aggravating the water crisis. *ro er selection of cro varieties, o timum use of water, better rationing are suggested as some measures to solve the roblem Bi'-D!ms >Benefits !n$ .ro("ems Benefits/ -iver valley ro'ects with big dams lay a (ey role in the develo ment rocess due to their multi le uses. These dams aim at roviding em loyment for tribal eo le and raising the standard and Euality of life. $ams can hel in chec(ing floods and generate electricity and reduce water and ower shortage, rovide irrigation water to lower areas, rovide drin(ing water in remote areas and romote navigation, fishery etc. .ro("ems/ The im acts of big dams can be u stream as well as downstream levels. The u stream roblems include the following" $is lacement of tribal eo le Goss of forests, flora and fauna #hanges in fisheries !altation and sedimentation of reservoirs Goss of non5forest land !tagnation and waterlogging near reservoir <reeding vectors and s read of vector Nborne diseases

-eservoir induces seismicity causing earthEua(es &icroclimatic changes 3rowth of aEuatic weeds The downstream roblems include the following" Hater logging and salinity due to over irrigation &icroclimatic changes -educed water flow and slit de osition in river Flash foods !alt water intrusion at river mouth Goss of land fertility 4utbrea( of vector5borne diseases li(e malaria.

&ineral -esources
Uses of miner!"s &ineral is an element or inorganic com ound that occurs naturally. The main uses of minerals are as follows" $evelo ment of industrial lants and machinery 3eneration of energy e.g. coal, lignite, uranium #onstruction, housing ,settlements $efense eEui ments5 wea ons, settlement Trans ortation means #ommunication5tele hone wires, cables, electronic devices &edical system5 articularly in Ayurvedic !ystem Formation of alloys for various ur oses Agriculture5 as fertili)ers, seed dressings and fungicides .ewellery5 eg. 3old, silver, latinum, diamond &a'or reserves and im ortant uses of some of the metals" Met!"s Aluminium #hromium #o 2ron er M!=or #or"$ reserves Australia, .amaica M!=or ses

*ac(ing food items, trans ortation, utensils, electronics #2!9The common For ma(ing high strength steel alloys, wealth of 2nde endent in te%tiles and tanning industries states:, !outh Africa +.!.A, #anada, #2! Electronic and electrical goods, building, construction, vessels #2!, #anada, +.!.A 1eavy machinery, steel roduction trans ortation means.

&anganese *latinum 3old !ilver ,ic(el

!outh Africa, #2!

For ma(ing high strength heat resistant steel alloys !outh Africa, #2! +se in automobiles, catalytic converters, electronics, medical uses. !outh Africa, #2!, 4rnaments, medical use, electronic #anada use, in aeros ace #anada, !outh Africa *hotogra hy, electronic 'ewellery. #2!, #anada #hemical industry, steel alloys

&a'or uses of some of the non metallic minerals Non-met!" miner!" M!=or ses !ilicate minerals Gimestone 3y sum *otash, hos horite !ul hur yrites !and and grovel for construction, bric(s, aving etc. +sed for concrete, building stone, used in agriculture for neutrali)ing acid soils, used in cement industry +sed in laster wall5board, in agriculture +sed as fertili)ers +sed in medicine, car battery, industry

Environment!" im&!*ts of miner!" e<tr!*tion/ &a'or mines which are (nown for causing severe roblems are given below" .aduguda +ranium &ine, .har(hand5 e% osing local eo le to radioactive ha)ards. .haria coal mines, .har(hand5 underground fire leading to land subsidence and forced dis lacement of eo le. !u(inda chromite mines, 4rissa5 !ee ing of he%avalent chromium into river osing serious health ha)ard, #r66 being highly to%ic and carcinogenic. Ludremu(h iron ore mine, Larnata(a5 causing river ollution and threat to biodiversity. East coast <au%ite mine, 4rissa5Gand encroachment and issue of rehabilitation unsettled. ,orth5Eastern #oal Fields, Assam5Cery high sul hur contamination of groundwater. Im&!*ts of minin'/ &ining is done to e%tract minerals from dee de osits in soil. Environmental damages caused by mining activities are as follows" o Deve'et!tion !n$ $ef!*in' of "!n$s/ &ining reEuires removal of vegetation along with underlying soil mantle and overlying roc( masses. This results in destruction of landsca e in the area.

o S (si$en*e of "!n$/ !ubsidence of mining areas results in tilting of buildings, crac(s in houses, buc(ling of roads, bending of rail trac(s and lea(ing of gas from crac(ed i e lines leading to serious disasters. o Gro n$#!ter *ont!min!tion/ &ining ollutes the groundwater. !ul hur, usually resent as an im urity in many ores is (nown to get converted into sul huric acid through microbial action, thereby ma(ing the water acidic. o S rf!*e #!ter &o"" tion/ The acid mine drainage often contaminates the nearby streams and la(es. The acidic water, radioactive substances li(e uranium, heavy metals also contaminate the water bodies and (ill aEuatic animals. o Air &o"" tion/ 2n order to se arate and urify the metal from other im urities in the ore, smelting is done which emits enormous Euantities of air ollutants. 4%ides of sul hur, arsenic, cadmium and lead etc. shoot u in the atmos here near the smelters and the ublic suffers from several health roblems. o O** &!tion!" 0e!"t% 0!7!r$s/ &iners wor(ing in different ty e of mines suffer from asbestosis, silicosis, blac( lung disease etc Reme$i!" me!s res/ Ado ting eco5friendly mining technology +tili)ation of low grade ores by using microbial N leaching techniEue. 2n this method, the ores are inoculated with the desired strains of bacteria li(e Thiobacillus ferro%idans, which remove the im urities and leave the ure mineral. -e5vegetating mined areas with a ro riate lants 3radual restoration of flora *revention of to%ic drainage discharge. C!se st $ies 1+ Minin' !n$ : !rr)in' in U$!i& r !oa stones, building stone, and dolomite mines s read over 1>,000 hectares in +dai ur have caused many adverse im acts on environment. About 1>0 tones of e% losives are used er month in blasting. The &aton mines have badly olluted the Ahar river. The hills around the mines are suffering from acute soil erosion. The waste water flows towards a big tan( of 7 <ag $ara7. $ue to scarcity of water eo le are com elled to use this effluent for irrigation ur ose. The animals li(e tiger, lion, deer, and birds have disa eared from the mining area. ,+ Minin' in S!ris6! Ti'er Reserve in Ar!v!""is The Aravalli range is s read over about 69/ Lm in the ,orth5west 2ndia covering 3u'rat, -a'asthan, 1aryana, and $elhi. The hill is rich in mineral resources.

&ining o erations within and around the !aris(a Tiger reserve has left many areas ermanently infertile and barren. The recious wild life is under serious threat.

-oo$ reso r*es


8or"$ -oo$ .ro("ems $uring the last >0 years world grain roduction has increased almost three times. The er ca ita roduction is increased by about >0I. At the same time o ulation growth increased at such a rate in less develo ed countries. Every =0 million eo le die of undernourishment and malnutrition. This means that every year our food roblem is (illing as many eo le as were (illed by the atomic bomb dro ed on 1iroshima during Horld Har 22. This statistics em hasi)e the need to increase our food roduction, and also to control o ulation growth. 2t is estimated that ;00 millions are still undernourished. Im&!*ts of over'r!7in' !n$ !'ri* "t re+ Over'r!7in'/ 4vergra)ing can limit livestoc( roduction. 4ver gra)ing occurs when too many animals gra)e for too long and e%ceed the carrying ca acity of a grass land area. Im&!*t of over'r!7in'/ L!n$ $e'r!$!tion/ 4vergra)ing removes the grass cover. The humus content of the soil is decreased and it leads to oor, dry, com acted soil. Soi" erosion/ The soil roots are very good binders of soil. Hhen the grasses are removed, the soil becomes loose and susce tible to the action of wind and water. Loss of sef " s&e*ies/ $ue to overgra)ing the nutritious s ecies li(e cenchrus, anicum etc. are re laced by thorny lants li(e *arthenium, Wanthium etc. These s ecies do not have a good ca acity of binding the soil articles and, therefore, the soil becomes more rone to soil erosion. A'ri* "t re/ Tr!$ition!" A'ri* "t re !n$ its im&!*ts/ +sually involves a small lot !im le tools ,aturally available water 4rganic fertili)er and a mi% of cro s M!in im&!*ts/ $eforestation !oil erosion

$e letion of nutrients

Mo$ern A'ri* "t re !n$ its im&!*ts" o 2t ma(es use of hybrid seeds of selected and single cro variety. o high5tech eEui ments, lots of energy subsidies in the form of fertili)ers and, esticides o 2rrigation water M!in im&!*ts/ 2. Im&!*ts re"!te$ to %i'% )ie"$in' verities 10YV:" The uses of 1XCs encourage monoculture i.e. the same genoty e is grown over vast areas. 2ncase of an attac( by some athogen, there is total devastation of the cro by the disease due to e%actly uniform conditions, which hel in ra id s read of the disease. II+ -erti"i7er re"!te$ &ro("ems/ a. Mi*ron trient im(!"!n*e/ #hemical fertili)ers have nitrogen, hos horus and otassium 9,,*,L: which are essential macronutrients. E%cessive use of fertili)ers cause micronutrient imbalance. For e%am le, e%cessive fertili)er use in *un'ab and 1aryana has caused deficiency of the micronutrient Jinc in the soils, which is affecting roductivity of the soil. b. Nitr!te .o"" tion" ,itrogenous fertili)ers a lied in the fields often leach dee into the soil and ultimately contaminate the ground water. The nitrates get concentrated in the water and when their concentration e%ceeds /> mgBG, they become the cause of a serious health ha)ard called 7<lue <aby !yndrome7 or methaemoglobinemia. This disease affects the infants to the ma%imum e%tent causing even death. c. E tro&%i*!tion" A large ro ortion of nitrogen and hos horus used in cro fields is washed off along with runoff water and reach the water bodies causing over nourishment of the la(es, a rocess (nown as Eutro hication. 9Eu?more, tro ic?nutrition:. $ue to Eutro hication the la(es get invaded by algal blooms. These algal s ecies grow very fast by ra idly using u the nutrients. The algal s ecies Euic(ly com lete their life cycle and die thereby adding a lot of dead matter. The fishes are also (illed and there is lot of dead matter that starts getting decom osed. 4%ygen is consumed in the rocess of decom osition and very soon the water gets de leted of dissolved o%ygen. This further affects aEuatic fauna and ultimately anaerobic conditions are created where only athogenic anaerobic bacteria can survive. Thus, due to e%cessive use of fertili)ers in the agricultural fields the la(e ecosystem gets degraded. 222. .esti*i$e re"!te$ &ro("ems" Thousands of ty es of esticides are used in agriculture. The first generation esticides include chemicals li(e sul hur, arsenic, lead or mercury to (ill the ests. They have number of side effects as discussed below" a. Cre!tin' resist!n*e in &ests !n$ &ro$ *in' ne# &ests" About /0 s ecies of ests are now (nown which have become immune to all ty es of esticides and are (nown as 7!u er ests7.

b. De!t% of non-t!r'et or'!nisms" &any insecticides not only (ill the target s ecies but also several non5target s ecies that are useful to us. c. Bio"o'i*!" m!'nifi*!tion" &any of the esticides are non5biodegradable and (ee on accumulating in the food chain, a rocess called biological magnification. This is very harmful. 2C. 8!ter Lo''in'" 4ver irrigation of cro lands by farmers for good growth of their cro usually leads to water logging. 2nadeEuate drainage caused e%cess water to accumulate underground and gradually forms a continuous column with the water table. +nder water5 logged conditions, ore5s aces in the soil get fully drenched with water and the soil5 air gets de leted. The water table rises while the roots of lants do not get adeEuate air for res iration, &echanical strength of the soil declines, the cro lants get lodged and cro yield falls. 2n *un'ab and 1aryana, e%tensive areas have become water5logged due to adeEuate canal water su ly or tube5well water. *reventing e%cessive irrigation, sub5 surface drainage technology and bio5drainage with trees li(e Eucaly tus are some of the remedial measures to revent water5logging. C. S!"init) .ro("em" At resent one third of the total cultivable land area of the world is affected by salts. !aline soils are characteri)ed by the accumulation of soluble salts li(e sodium chloride, sodium sul hate, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride etc. in the soil rofile. Their electrical conductivity is more than = d!Bm. !odic soils have carbonates and bicarbonates of sodium, the 1 usually e%ceeds 8.0 and the e%changeable sodium ercentage 9E!*: is more than 1>I. Reme$)/ 1i2 The most common method for getting rid of salts is to flush them out by a lying more good Euality water to such soils. 1ii2 Another method is laying underground networ( of erforated drainage i es for flushing out the salts slowly. C!se st $ies S!"init) !n$ #!ter "o''in' in . n=!(, 0!r)!n! !n$ R!=!st%!n/ The first alarming re ort of salt5affected wasteland formation due to irrigation ractices came from 1aryana in 18>8. !everal villages in *ani at, and $elhi lying in Hestern Xamuna #anal were suffering from salinity roblems. The floods of 19=D, 19>0, 19>/, 19>=5>> in *un'ab resulted in aggravated water logging with serious drainage roblems. 2ntroduction to canal irrigation in 1.; m ha in 1aryana resulted in raise in water table followed by water5logging and salinity in many irrigated areas as a result of fall in cro roductivity. -a'asthan too has suffered badly in this regard following the biggest irrigation ro'ect 72ndhra 3andhi #anal *ro'ect7

Ener') reso r*es

Gro#in' ener') nee$s+ $evelo ment in different sectors relies largely u on energy. Agriculture, industry, mining, trans ortation, lighting, cooling and heating in buildings all need energy. Hith the demands of growing o ulation the world is facing further energy deficit. 2n develo ed countries li(e +.!.A and #anada an average erson consumes ;00 3. er year. <y contrast, an average man in a oor country li(e <hutan, ,e al or Ethio ia consumes less than 1 3. er year. This clearly shows that our life5style and standard of living are closely related to energy needs. Rene#!("e !n$ Non-Rene#!("e ener') so r*es Gife on earth de ends u on a large number of things and services rovided by nature, which are (nows as energy resources. Energy -esources are of two (inds. I+ Rene#!("e reso r*es" which are ine%haustive and can be regenerated within a given s an of time eg. Forests, wildlife, wind energy, biomass energy etc. !olar energy is also a renewable form of energy as it is an ine%haustible source of energy. II+ Non-rene#!("e reso r*es which cannot be regenerated eg. Fossil fuels li(e coal, etroleum etc. 4nce we e%haust these reserves, the same cannot be re lenished. Even our renewable resources can become non5renewable if we e% loit them to such e%tent their rate of consum tion e%ceeds their rate of regeneration. Rene#!("e ener') reso r*es/ I+ So"!r ener')/ !+ !un releases enormous Euantity of energy in the form of heat and light. (+ The solar energy received by the near earth s ace is a ro%imately1.= (.BsBm / (nown as solar constant. *+ ,ow we have several techniEues for harnessing solar energy. $+ !olar heat collectors, solar cells, solar coo(er, solar water heater, solar furnace and solar ower lant are some im ortant solar energy harvesting devices. II+ 8in$ Ener')" !+ The high s eed winds have a lot of energy in them as (inetic energy due to their motion. (+ Hind energy is very useful as it does not cause any air ollution. *+ After the installation cost, the wind energy is very chea .

III+ 0)$ro &o#er" !+ The water flowing in a river is collected by constructing a big dam where the water is stored and allowed to fall from a height. (+ The blades of turbine located at the bottom of the dam move with the fast moving water which in turn rotates the generator and roduces electricity. *+ 1ydro ower does not cause any ollution. $+ 1ydro ower ro'ects hel in controlling floods, used for irrigation, navigation etc. IV+ Ti$!" ener')" !+ 4cean tides roduced by gravitational forces of sun and moon contain enormous amounts of energy. (+ The tidal energy is harnessed by constructing a tidal barrage. *+ $uring high tide, the water flows into the reservoir of the barrage and turns the turbine, which in turn roduces electricity by rotating the generators. $+ $uring low tide, when the sea5level is low, the sea water stored in the barrage reservoir flows out into the sea and again turns the turbines. V+ O*e!n t%erm!" ener') 1OTE2" !+ The energy available due to the difference in the tem erature of water at the surface of the tro ical oceans and at dee er levels is called 4TE. (+ This energy is used to boil liEuid li(e ammonia. *+ The high ressure va ours of the liEuid formed by boiling are then used to turn the turbine of a generator and roduce electricity. VI+ Geot%erm!" ener')/ !+ The energy harnessed from hot roc(s resent inside the earth is called geothermal energy. (+ !ometimes the steam or boiling water underneath the earth does not find any lace to come out. *+ He can drill a hole u to the hot roc(s and by utting a i e in it ma(e the steam or hot water gush out through the i e at high ressure which turns the turbine of a generator to roduce electricity. VII+ Biom!ss ener')/ !+ <iomass is the organic matter roduced by the lants or animals which include wood, cro , residues, cattle dung agricultural wastes etc. (+ The burning of biogas cause air ollution and roduce a lot of ash. *+ 2t is therefore more useful to convert biomass into biogas or bio fuels. VIII+ Bio'!s/ !+ <iogas is a mi%ture of methane, carbon dio%ide, hydrogen and hydrogen sul hide. (+ <iogas is roduced by anaerobic degradation of animal wastes in the resence of water. *+ Anaerobic degradation means brea( down of organic matter by bacteria in the absence of o%ygen. $+ <iogas has many advantages. 2t is clean, non5 olluting and chea . e+ There is direct su ly of gas from the lant and there is no storage roblem I9+ Bio f e"s/

!+ <iomass can be fermented to alcohols li(e ethanol and methanol which can be used as fuels. (+ 3asohol is common fuel in <ra)il and Jimbabwe for running cars and buses. *+ &ethanol is very useful since it burns at a lower tem erature than gasoline or diesel. $+ $ue to its high calorific value, hydrogen can serve as an e%cellent fuel. e+ &oreover it is non5 olluting and can be easily roduced. f+ *resently 1/ is used in the form of liEuid hydrogen as a fuel in s aceshi s. Non -Rene#!("e ener') reso r*es/ I+ Co!"/ a. #oal was formed />>5/>0 million years ago in the hot, dam regions of the earth during the carboniferous age. b. The ancient lants along the ban(s of rivers were buried after death into the soil and due to the heat and ressures gradually got converted into eat and coal over million years of time. c. Hhen coal burnt it roduces carbon dio%ide, which is a green house gas res onsible for causing enhanced global warming. II+ .etro"e m/ a. 2t is the life line of global economy. b. *etroleum is a cleaner fuel as com ared to coal as it burns com letely and leaves no residue. c. 2t is also easy to trans ort and use. d. #rude etroleum is a com le% mi%ture of al(ane hydrocarbons. e. 1ence it has to be refined by the rocess of fractional distillation, during which we get large variety of roducts namely, etroleum gas, (erosene, etrol, diesel, fuel oil, lubricating oil, araffin wa% etc. f. The etroleum gas is easily converted to liEuid form under ressure as G*3. III+ N!t r!" '!s/ a. 2t is mainly com osed of methane with small amounts of ro ane and ethane. b. 2t is used as a domestic and industrial fuel in thermal ower lants for generating electricity. c. 2t is used as a source of hydrogen gas in fertili)er industry and as a source of carbon in tier industry. IV+ N *"e!r ener')/ a. ,uclear energy is (nown for its high destructive ower. b. ,uclear energy can be generated by two ty es of reactions" 1i2 N *"e!r fission/ 2t is the nuclear reaction in which heavy isoto es are s lit into lighter nuclei on bombardment by neutrons. Fission reaction of +/;> is given below.
9/

+/;> 60n1

;6

Lr9/ 6

>6

<a1=1 6 ; 0n1 6 energy

1ii2 N *"e!r f sion/ 1ere two isoto es of a light element are forced together at e%tremely high tem eratures 91 billion Y#: until they fuse to form a heavier nucleus releasing enormous amount of energy in the rocess.
1

1/611/

1e/60n16energy

,uclear energy has tremendous otential but any lea(age from the reactor may cause devastating nuclear ollution. $is osal of the nuclear waste is also a big roblem.

L!n$ Reso r*es


L!n$ !s ! reso r*e He de end u on land for our food, fibre, and fuel wood. About /0051000 years are needed for the formation of one inch or /.> cm soil, de ending u on the climate and the soil ty e. <ut, when rate of erosion is faster than rate of renewal, then the soil becomes a non5renewable resource

L!n$ $e'r!$!tion Hith increasing o ulation growth the demands for land for roducing food, fibre and fuel wood is also increasing. 1ence there is more and more ressure on limited land resources which are getting degraded due to over5e% loitation.

!oil erosion, water5logging, salini)ation and contamination of the soil with industrial wastes li(e fly5ash, ress5mud or heavy metals all cause degradation of land. M!n in$ *e$ "!n$s"i$es Carious anthro ogenic activities li(e hydroelectric ro'ects, large dams, reservoirs, construction of roads and railway lines, construction of buildings, mining etc are res onsible for clearing of large forested areas. Earlier there were few re orts of landslides between -ishi(esh and <yasi on <adrinath 1ighway area. <ut, after the highway was constructed, 1> landslides occurred in a single year. $uring the construction of roads, mining activities etc. huge ortions of fragile mountainous areas are cut or destroyed by dynamite and thrown into ad'acent valleys and streams. These land masses wea(en the already fragile mountain slo es and lead to landslides. They also increase the turbidity of various nearby streams, thereby reducing their roductivity. Soi" erosion !oil erosion is defined as the movement of soil com onents, es ecially surface litter and to soil from one lace to another. !oil erosion results in the loss of fertility because it is the to soil layer which is fertile.

!oil erosion is basically of two ty es based u on the cause of erosion" a: Norm!" erosion or 'eo"o'i*!" erosion/ caused by the gradual removal of to soil by natural rocesses which bring eEuilibrium between hysical, biological and hydrological activities and maintain a natural balance between erosion and renewal. b: A**e"er!te erosion" This is mainly caused by man made activities and the rate of erosion is much faster than the rate of formation of soil. 4vergra)ing, deforestation and mining are some im ortant activities causing accelerated erosion There are two ty es of agents which cause soil erosion. They are climatic agents and biotic agents. I+ C"im!ti* A'ents > 8!ter !n$ 8in$/

Hater affects soil erosion in the form of rain. 8!ter in$ *e$ soi" erosion is of following ty es" a: S%eet erosion/ Hhen there is uniform removal of a thin layer of soil from a large surface area, it is called sheet erosion. b: Ri"" erosion/ when there is rainfall and ra idly running water roduces finger5sha ed grooves or rills over the area, it is called rill erosion. c: G "") erosion/ Hhen the rainfall is very heavy, dee er cavities or gullies are formed, which may be + or C sha ed. S"i& erosion/ This occurs due to heavy rainfall on slo es of hills and mountains. d: Stre!m (!n6 erosion" $uring the rainy season, when fast running streams ta(e a turn in some other direction, they cut the soil and ma(e caves in the ban( 8in$ erosion is res onsible for the following three ty es of soil movements" a: S!"t!tion/ This occurs under the influence of direct ressure of stormy wind and the soil articles of 151.> mm diameter move u in vertical direction. b: S s&ension" 1ere fine soil articles 9less than 1mm diameter: which are sus ended on the air are (ic(ed u and ta(en away to distant laces. c: S rf!*e *ree&/ 1ere the large articles 9>510 mm diameter: cree over the soil surface along with wind. II+ Bioti* A'ents/ a. E%cessive gra)ing, mining, and deforestation are the ma'or biotic agents res onsible for soil erosion. b. $eforestation without reforestation, overgra)ing by cattle, surface mining without land reclamation, irrigation techniEues that lead to salt build5 u , water logged soil, ma(e the to soil vulnerable to erosion.

Soi" *onserv!tion &r!*ti*es/ 2n order to revent soil erosion and conserve the soil the following em loyed.

ractices are

1+ Convention!" ti"" f!rmin'/ a. 2n traditional method the soil is bro(en u and smoothed to ma(e a lanting surface. b. This disturbs the soil and ma(es it susce tible to erosion. c. #onservational till farming, o ularly (nown as no5till5farming causes minimum disturbance to the to soil. d. 1ere s ecial tillers brea( u and loosen the subsurface soil without turning over the to soil. e. The tilting machines ma(e slits in the soil and in'ect seeds, fertili)ers, and little water in the slit, so that cro grows successfully. ,+ Conto r f!rmin'/

3+

4+

?+

@+

a. 4n gentle slo es, cro s are grown in rows across, rather u and down. b. This ractice is (nows as contour farming. c. 2t hel s to hold soil and slow down loss of soil through run5off water. Terr!*in'/ a. 2t is used on still stee er slo es are converted into a series of broad terraces which run across the contour. b. Terracing retains water for cro s at all levels and cuts down soil erosion. Stri& *ro&&in' " a. 1ere stro s of cro s are alternated with stri s of soil saving cro s li(e grasses or grass5 legume mi%ture. b. Hhat ever run5off comes from the cro ed soil is retained by the stri of cover5 cro and this reduces soil erosion. A""e) *ro&&in'/ a. 2t is a form of inter N cro ing in which cro s are lanted between rows of trees or shrubs. This is also called A'ro forestr). b. Even when the cro is harvested, the soil is not fallow because trees and shrubs still remain on the soil holding the soil articles and revent soil erosion. 8in$ (re!6s or s%e"ter(e"ts" a. The trees are lanted in long rows along the cultivated land boundary so that wind is bloc(ed. b. 2 The wind s eed is substantially reduced which hel s in reventing wind erosion of soil.

Desertifi*!tion $esertification is characteri)ed by devegitation and loss of vegetal over, de letion of groundwater, salini)ation and severe soil erosion. $esertification leads to the conversion of irrigated cro lands to desert li(e conditions in which agricultural roductivity falls. &oderate desertification roduce 105/>I dro in roductivity. !evere desertification cause />5>0I dro while very severe desertification results in >0I dro in roductivity. C! ses of Desertifi*!tion" The ma'or man made activities res onsible for desertification are as follows. I+ Deforest!tion" !+ $eforestation means destruction of forests. (+ The total forests area of the world in 1900 was estimated to be D,000 million hectares which was reduced to /890 million ha in 19D> fell down to 'ust /,;00 million ha by /000. *+ $eforestation rate is relatively less in tem erature countries, but it is very alarming in tro ical countries. II+ Over'r!7in'/ !+ 4vergra)ing can limit livestoc( roduction. (+ 4ver gra)ing occurs when too many animals gra)e for too long and e%ceed the carrying ca acity of a grass land area.

*+ 4vergra)ing removes the grass cover. $+ The humus content of the soil is decreased and it leads to oor, dry, com acted soil. e+ The soil roots are very good binders of soil. f+ Hhen the grasses are removed, the soil becomes loose and susce tible to the action of wind and water. '+ The dry barren land reflects more of the suns heat, changing wind atterns leading to further desertification. III+ Minin' !n$ : !rr)in'" !+ &ining o eration reEuires removal of vegetation along with underlying soil mantle and overlying roc( masses. This results in destruction of landsca e in the area. Conserv!tion of n!t r!" reso r*es/ ro"e of !n in$ivi$ !" $ifferent natural resources li(e forests, water, soil, food, mineral and energy resources lay a vital role in the develo ment of a nation. Hhile conservation efforts are underway at ,ational as well as 2nternational level, the individual efforts for conservation of natural resources can go a long way.

Conserve 8!ter $onAt (ee water ta s running while brushing, shaving, washing or bathing. #hec( for water lea(s in i es and toilets and re air them rom tly. A small in5hole si)ed lea( will lead to the wastage of 6=0 liters of water in a month. +se dri irrigation and s rin(ling irrigation to im rove irrigation efficiency and reduce eva oration. 2nstall a small system to ca ture rain water and collect normally wasted used water from sin(s, cloth5washers, bathtubs etc. which can be used for watering the lants <uild rain water harvesting system in your house. Even the *resident of 2ndia is doing this. Conserve ener') Turn off lights, fans and other a liances when not in use. 4btain as much heat as ossible from natural sources. $ry the clothes in sun instead of drier if it is a sunny day. +se solar coo(er for coo(ing your food on sunny days which will be more nutritious and will cut down on your G*3 e% enses. 3row deciduous trees and climbers at ro er laces outside your home to cut off intense heat of summers and get a cool bree)e and shade. This will cut off your electricity charges on coolers and air5conditioners. Try riding bicycle or 'ust wal( down small distances instead of using your car or scooter. .rote*t t%e soi" Hhile constructing your house, donAt u root the trees as far as ossible. *lant the disturbed areas with a fast growing native ground cover.

&a(e com ost from your (itchen waste and use it for your (itchen5garden or flower5 ots. $o not irrigate the lants using a strong flow of water, as it would wash off the soil. 2f you own agricultural fields, do not over5irrigate your fields without ro er drainage to revent water logging and salinisation . +se mi%ed cro ing so that some s ecific soil nutrients do not get de leted. .romote S st!in!("e A'ri* "t re $o not waste food. Ta(e as much as you can eat -educe the use of esticides. Fertili)e your cro rimarily with organic fertili)ers. Eat local and seasonal vegetables. This saves lot of energy on trans ort, storage and reservation. #ontrol ests by a combination of cultivation and biological control methods.

E: it!("e se of reso r*es for s st!in!("e "ife st)"e There is a big divide in the world as ,orth and !outh, the more develo ed countries 9&$#A!: and less develo ed countries 9G$#A!:, the haves and the have nots. The &$#As have only //I of worldAs o ulation, but they use 88I of its natural resources, D;I of its energy and command 8>I of its income. As the rich nations continue to grow, they will reach a limit. 2f they have a growth rat of 10I every year, they will show 10/= times increase in the ne%t D0 years. Hill this much of growth be sustainableK The answer is A,oA because many of our earthAs resources are limited and even the renewable resources will become unsustainable if their use e%ceeds their regeneration. Thus, the solution to this roblem is to have more eEuitable distribution of resources and wealth. He cannot e% ect the oor countries to sto growth in order to chec( ollution because develo ment brings em loyment and the main roblem of these countries is to tac(le overty. The oor in the G$#A! are at least able to sustain their life. +nless they are rovided with such basic resources, we cannot thin( of rooting out the roblems related to dirty, unhygienic, olluted, disease infested settlements of these eo le5which contribute to unsustainability. Thus, the two basic causes of unsustainability are over o ulation in oor countries who have under consum tion of resources and over consum tion of resources by the rich countries, which generate wastes. 2n order to achieve sustainable life styles it is desirable to achieve a more balanced and eEuitable distribution of global resources and income to meet everyoneAs basic needs. The rich countries will have to lower down their consum tion levels while the bare minimum needs of the oor have to be fulfilled by roviding them resources.

A fairer sharing of resources will narrow down the ga between the rich and the oor and will lead to sustainable develo ment for all and not 'ust for a rivileged grou . . . .

UNIT > 4 SOCIAL ISSUES AND T0E ENVIRONMENT O(=e*tives $evelo ing and moderni)ing the technologies without losing our sound traditional values and ractices is essential. S st!in!("e $eve"o&ment &eeting the needs of the resent, without com romising the ability of future generations, to meet their own needs.

Tr e s st!in!("e $eve"o&ment 4 timum use of natural resources with high degree of reusability, minimum wastage, least generation of to%ic by roducts and ma%imum roductivity. Dimensions of s st!in!("e $eve"o&ment &ulti dimensional conce t N derived from interactions between society, economy and environment. As&e*ts of s st!in!("e $eve"o&ment i. 2nter5generational eEuity ii. 2ntra5generational eEuity A&&ro!*%es for s st!in!("e $eve"o&ment 1. $evelo ing a ro riate technology 5 locally ada table, eco5friendly, resource efficient and culturally suitable. /. -educe, reuse, recycle Z;-R a roach N reduces waste generation and ollution ;. *roviding environmental education and awareness N changing attitude of the eo le =. #onsum tion of renewable resources N attain sustainability >. #onservation of non renewable resources N conserved by recycling and reusing 6. *o ulation control Ur(!n &ro("ems re"!te$ to ener') 1. #auses for urbani)ation /. energy demanding activities ;. solution for urban energy roblem 8!ter *onserv!tion The rocess of saving water for future utili)ation ,eed for water conservation 1. changes in environmental factors /. better lifestyles ;. increase in o ulation =. deforestion >. over e% loitation of ground water 6. agricultural and industrial activities D. Str!te'ies of #!ter *onserv!tion 1. -educing eva oration losses /. reducing irrigation losses ;. re use of water =. reventing of wastage of water >. decreasing run5off losses 6. avoid discharge of sewage Met%o$s of #!ter *onserv!tion

1. -ain water harvesting5 A techniEue of ca turing and storing of rain water for further utili)ation. 4b'ectives of rain water harvesting 1. increasing demands /. recharging the ground water ;. reducing the ground water =. increase in hydro static ressure /. Hater shed management N The management of rainfall and resultant run5off Factors affecting watershed 1. +n lanned land useR /. deforestation ;. droughtly climates 4b'ectives 1. To minimi)e of ris( of floods /. For im roving the economy ;. for develo mental activities =. To generate huge em loyment o >. To romote forestry 6. To rotect soil from erosion Resett"ement !n$ Re%!(i"it!tion of &eo&"e #auses 1. $ue to $evelo mental activities /. $ue to $isaster ;. $ue to conservation initiatives -ehabilitation issues 1. $is lacement of tribals increases overty /. <rea(u of families ;. #ommunal ownershi of ro erty =. vanishing social and cultural activities >. Goss of identity between the eo le #ase !tudies N !ardar !arovar $am, The Theri dam *ro'ect , *ong $am Environment!" et%i*s -efers to the issues, rinci les and guidelines relating to human interactions with their environment. Environmental roblems 1. $eforestation /. *o ulation growth

ortunities

;. *ollution due to effluent and smo(e =. Hater scarcity >. Gand degradation !olutions 1. -educing the energy sources /. recycle and reuse of waste roducts ;. !oil degradation =. !ustainable develo ment >. *rotection of <io N diversity 6. -educing the o ulation C"im!te The average weather of an area #auses of climate change" 1. *resence of green house gases /. $e letion of o)one gases Effect of climate change 1. &igration of animals /. u setting the hydrological cycles results in floods and droughts ;. changes in global attern of winds. Green %o se effe*t/ The rogressive warming of earth surface due to blan(eting effect of man made #4/ in the atmos here. 3reen house gases5 causing global warming #4/, #h=, ,/4, #F#s Effect on global warming5 effects on 1. sea level /. agriculture and forestry ;. water resources =. terrestrial ecosystems >. human health &easures 1. /. ;. =. reducing #4/ emission utili)ing renewable resources *lant more trees Ado t sustainable agriculture

ACID RAIN/ The reci itation of #4/ , !4/, and ,4/ gases as ollutants in water. Effe*ts of !*i$ r!in 1. 1uman beings $estroy life N nervous , res iratory and digestive system

#auses remature death from heart and lung disorders /. 4n <uildings #orrosion 5 Ta' &ahal , houses, statues, bridges, metals ;. 4n terrestrial and la(e ecosystem -educes rate of hotosyenthesis, growth of cro s, Fish o ulation And bio mass roduction Contro" me!s res 1. /. ;. =. #lean combustion technologies using ollution control eEui ments -e lacement of coal by natural gas Giming of la(es and soils hoto 5 chemical reaction

O7one "!)er $e&"etion/ 4)one is formed in the stratos here by

O7one $e&"etin' *%emi*!"s" #hloro Fluro carbon, 1ydro chloro fluoro carbon, <romo fluoro#arbon. Effe*ts 1. 4n human health N !(in cancer, cataracts, allergies etc. /. 4n aEuatic systems5 hyto lan(ton, fish ;. 4n materials5 aints, lastics =. 4n climate N increasing the average tem erature of the earth surface. Contro" Me!s res 1. -e lacing #F#s /. +se of methyl bromide N cro fumigant N *"e!r !**i$ents !n$ 0o"o*! st The release of large amounts of nuclear energy and radioactive atmos here. 8!ste "!n$ re*"!m!tion Haste land"5 The land which is not in use N un roductive , unfit for cultivation another economic uses. T)&es of #!ste "!n$" +ncultivable waste land N <arren roc(y areas, hilly slo es, sandy desserts. #ultivable waste land5 degraded forest lands, gullied lands. &arsh lands, saline land etc., C! ses for #!ste "!n$ form!tion/ roducts into the

1. /. ;. =. >. 6. D.

!oil Erosion, $eforestation, Hater logging, !alinity E%cessive use of esticides #onstruction of dams 4ver5e% loitation of natural resources !ewage and industrial wastes &ining 3rowing demands for fuel, fodder wood and food causes degradation and loss of soil roductivity.

O(=e*tives of #!ste "!n$ re*"!m!tion 1. /. ;. =. To im rove the hysical structure and Euality of the soil To revent soil erosion To avoid over N e% loitation of natural resources To conserve the biological resources

Met%o$s of #!ste "!n$ re*"!m!tion 1. $rainage /. Geaching ;. 2rrigation ractices =. 3reen manures and bio fertili)ers >. A lication of 3y sum 6. Afforestation rogrammes D. !ocial forestry rogrammes #onsumerisation of Haste roducts #onsumerisation N #onsum tion of resources Traditionally favorable rights of sellers5 -ight to introduce roduct, rice , 2ncentives. Traditionally buyer rights5-ight to buy, right to e% ect the roduct to erform as claimed 2m ortant informations to be (nown by buyers" 5 ingredients, manufacturing dates, e% iry etc. O(=e*tives of *ons meris!tion/ 1. 2m roves rights and ower of the buyers /. &a(ing the manufacturer liable ;. -euse and recycle the roduct =. -eclaiming useful arts >. -eusable ac(ing materials 6. health and ha iness

So r*es of #!stes/ 3lass, a ers, garbageSs, food waste, automobile waste, dead animals, etc.. E > 8!ste #om uters, rinters, mobile hones, Wero% machines, calculators, Effe*ts of #!stes/ 1. $angerous to human life /. degrade soil ;. #admium in chi s, #athode ray tube , *C# cause cancer and other res iratory roblems. =. ,on biodegradable lastics reduce to%ic gases. -!*tors !ffe*tin' *ons meris!tion !n$ 'ener!tion of #!stes/ 1. *eo le over N *o ulation /. #onsum tion over 5 *o ulation Environment!" "e'is"!tion !n$ "!#s > Im&ort!nt &rote*tion !*ts 1. /. ;. =. >. 6. Hater Act 19D=, 19D8 Hater amendment Act , 198D, Air Act ,. 1981. Hild life Act 19D/ Forest Act 1980 and Environment Act 19D/. etc.

Iss es invo"ve$ in Enfor*ement of Environment!" "e'is"!tion/ 1. $rawbac(s of wildlife rotection Act /. $rawbac(s of Forest Act 1980 and ;. $rawbac(s of Environment Act 19D/. . ("i* A#!reness/ 4ur environment is resently degrading due to many activities li(e deforestation, overgra)ing, ra id industriali)ation and urbani)ation. O(=e*tives of & ("i* !#!reness 1. #reate awareness among eo le of rural and city about ecological imbalances, local environment, technological develo ment and various develo ment lants. ollution,

/. To organi)e meetings, grou discussion on develo ment, tree lantation rogrammes e%hibitions. ;. To learn to live sim le and eco5friendlily manner. Met%o$s to *re!te environment!" !#!reness 1. 2n schools and colleges /. Through mass N media ;. #inema =. ,ews a ers >. Audio 5 Cisual media 6. Coluntary organi)ations D. Traditional techniEues 8. Arranging com etitions 9. Geaders a eal 10. ,on N government organi)ations. #onclusions" There is a need to interlin( the social as ects to develo and moderni)e the technologies without losing traditional and human oriented social issues related to the environment.

UNIT > ? 0UMAN .O.ULATION AND ENVIRONMENT O(=e*tive/ To get a (nowledge on human o ulation and human rights To educate the students on value education To eEui the students towards the modern technology with res ect to human health. .o& "!tion $ensit)"

environment and

,umber of individuals of the o ulation er unit area or er unit volume. *arameters affecting o ulation si)e" 1. <irth rate or ,atality /. $eath rate or &ortality ;. 2mmigration =. Emigration .o& "!tion Gro#t% The ra id growth of the globalSs o ulation for the ast 100 years from the difference between the rate of birth and death. #auses of ra id o ulation growth" 1. The ra id o ulation growth is due to decrease in death rate and increase in birth rate /. Availability of antibiotics, immuni)ation, increased food roduction, clean water and air decreases the famine5related deaths ;. 2n agricultural based countries, children are reEuired to hel arents in the field that is why o ulation increases in the develo ing countries. C%!r!*teristi*s of &o& "!tion 'ro#t%/ 1. E% onential growth /. $oubling time ;. 2nfant mortality rate =. total fertility rate >. -e lacement level 6. &aleBfemale ratio D. $emogra hic transition V!ri!tion of &o& "!tion (!se$ on !'e str *t re 1. *yramid sha ed N 2ndia , <angladesh, Ethio ia, /. <ell sha ed N France, +!A, +L ;. +rn sha ed 5 3ermany, 2taly, and .a an. .o& "!tion E<&"osion The enormous increase in o ulation due to low death rate and high birth rate. C! ses/ &odern medical facilities, life e% ectancy, illiteracy, Effe*ts/ *overty, Environmental degradation, 4ver Ne% loitation of natural resources ,Treat, #ommunal war -emedy"5 Through birth control rogrammes. -!mi") #e"f!re &ro'r!mme/ O(=e*tives/ !lowing down the o ulation e% losion

4ver e% loitation of natural resources Family lanning rogramme" 4b'ectives@ -educe infant mortality rate Encourage late marriages 2m rove womenSs health #ontrol of communal diseases[ Environment !n$ % m!n %e!"t%" 1. *hysical 1a)ards N -adioactive and +C radiations, 3lobal warming, #hlorofluro carbons, ,oise etc. /. #hemical 1a)ards N #ombustion of Fossil fuels, industrial effluence, esticides, heavy metals, ;. <iological 1a)ards5 <acteria, Ciruses, *arasites 0 m!n ri'%ts/ 1. 1uman right to freedom /. 1uman right to ro erty ;. 1uman right to freedom of religion =. 1uman right to culture and education >. 1uman right to constitutional remedies 6. 1uman right to eEuality D. 1uman right against e% loitation 8. 1uman right to food and environment 9. 1uman right to good health. V!" e e$ *!tion/ Ty es" 1. Formal education /. Calue education ;. Calue 5 based environmental education 4b'ectives 1. To im rove the integral growth of human beign /. To create attitudes and im rovement towards sustainable lifestyle. ;. To increase awareness about our national history our cultural heritage, constitutional rights, national integration, community develo9 ment and environment. =. To create and develo awareness about the values and their significance and role >. To (now about various living and non5 living organisms and their interaction with environment. Ty es of values" 1. +niversal values /. #ultural values ;. 2ndividual values =. global values >. ! iritual values

0IV AAIDS A2$! is the abbreviated form for AcEuired 2mmuno $eficiency !yndrome caused by a virus called 12C. Effects@ 1. $eath /. Goss of labor ;. 2nability to wor( =. Gac( of energy 8om!n !n$ *%i"$ #e"f!re/ 4b'ectives" 1. to rovide education /. To im art vocational training ;. To generate awareness =. To im rove em loyment o ortunities >. To restore dignity, eEuality and res ect. -ole of information technology in environment" Remote sensin'/ #om onent5 A latform, aircraft, A balloon, roc(et, and satellite. Functions" 1. 4rigin of electro magnetic energy /. Transmission of energy ;. 2nteraction of energy =. $etection of energy >. *re rocessing of data 6. $ata analysis and inter retation D. 2ntegration and other a lications. A lications" 2n agriculture, forestry, land cover, water resources $ata <ase5 #ollection of inter related data on various sub'ects. A lications" 1. &inistry of environment and forest /. ,ational management information system ;. Environmental information system

3eogra hical information system" A lication" Thematic ma s are su er im osed using soft wares. 2nter retation of olluted )ones To chec( un lanned growth and related environmental roblems

!atellite data" 1. 1el s in roviding reliable information and data about forest cover /. *rovide information about forecasting weather ;. -eserves of oil , minerals can be discovered. H4-G$ H2$E HE<" #urrent data. A lications" 1. 4nline learning /. $igital files or hotos, animations on environmental studies. -ole of information technology in human health" The health service technology involves three systems 1. Finance and accounting /. *athology ;. *atient Administration N clinical system. A lications" 1. $ata regarding birth and death rates /. To monitor the health of the eo le effectively ;. The information regarding the outbrea( of e idemic diseases. =. 4nline #onsultation >. $rugs and its re lacement.. #onclusion" 3aining in5de th (nowledge regarding human health, human rights and role *layed by modern technology to the environment.