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Yevgeny Sergeevich Zyryanov, head of the cutting laboratory at Seversky Tube Works


A brilliant solution


TOm eriXOn, President Sandvik COrOmant

Change, specialization and perseverance

WE LIVE IN A TIME of rapid change and specialization, and in order to progress, a company must embrace both with perseverance. New challenges confront us daily in machining new materials, in finding customized solutions and in achieving optimal performance. Progress comes in meeting these challenges, and as the new president for Sandvik Coromant I am determined to facilitate this. The aerospace industry is already operating under extreme demands, with challenging

METALWORKING WORLD is a business and technology magazine from AB Sandvik Coromant, 811 81 Sandviken, Sweden. Phone: +46(26)266000. Metalworking World is published three times a year in American and British English, Czech, Chinese, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Swedish and Thai. The magazine is free to customers of Sandvik Coromant worldwide. Published by Spoon Publishing in Stockholm, Sweden. ISSN 1652-5825. Editor-in-chief and responsible under Swedish publishing law: Pernilla Eriksson. Account executive: Christina Hoffmann. Editorial manager: Johan Andersson. Art director: Erik Westin. Technical editor: Christer Richt. Sub editor: Valerie Mindel. Coordinator: Beate Tjernstrm. Language coordination: Sergio Tenconi. Layout, language editions: Jessica Bladh. Prepress: Markus Dahlstedt. Cover photo: Jeremy Nicholl Please note that unsolicited manuscripts are not accepted. Material in this publication may only be reproduced with permission. Requests for permission should be sent to the editorial manager, Metalworking World. Editorial material and opinions expressed in Metalworking World do not necessarily reflect the views of Sandvik Coromant or the publisher. Correspondence and inquiries regarding the magazine are welcome. Contact: Metalworking World, Spoon Publishing AB, Kungstensgatan 21B, 113 57 Stockholm, Sweden. Phone: +46(8)4429620. E-mail: Distribution inquiries: Beate Tjernstrm, Sandvik Coromant. Phone: +46(26)266735. E-mail: Printed in USA. Coromant Capto, CoroMill, CoroCut, CoroPlex, CoroTurn, CoroThread, CoroDrill, CoroBore, CoroGrip, AutoTAS, GC and iLock are all registered trademarks of Sandvik Coromant.

Progress comes in meeting these challenges.

materials and an ever-higher degree of specialization. Japanese company Mitsubishi Heavy Industries faced this situation when it chose the difficult-to-manufacture material Waspaloy for its combustion cases for aircraft turbofan engines. Sandvik Coromant worked with the company to find the optimal process. Some six years after the first tests, the production line was implemented. Read the full story on page 6. development elsewhere in the automotive industry, in power generation, in the oil and gas industry, even in medicine. Germanys Mayer Feintechnik knows firsthand the tough quality demands of the global medical industry. Even though the company was experiencing considerable price pressure from its customers, it needed to make

heavy machine investments and turned to Sandvik Coromant representatives for help. Read more about this successful cooperation on page 31. No industry will escape the challenges of change and specialization. No one can overcome these challenges on his own. At Sandvik Coromant we take seriously the responsibility of perseverance to work closely and continually with our customers to find optimal ways to use our tools in every solution we suggest and to make sure that solution is implemented to the utmost benefit of the customer. I wish you pleasant reading!

P.S. 1: The global nuclear power

industry is predicted to double in capacity by 2030. Check out what this could mean for you on page 14.

Get your free copy of Metalworking World. Email your address to
Metalworking World is issued for informational purposes. The information provided is of a general nature and should not be treated as advice or be relied upon for making decisions or for use in a specific matter. Any use of the information provided is at the users sole risk, and Sandvik Coromant shall not be liable for any direct, incidental, consequential or indirect damage arising out of the use of the information made available in Metalworking World .

P.S. 2: Sandvik Coromant is one of the

exhibitors at the Swedish pavilion at the huge Expo 2010 Shanghai, which opens in May. Meet us there!


metalwOrking wOrld #1 2010

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries makes combustion cases for aircraft turbofan engines.


The frame of an airplane contains a number of challenges.

Metalworking News.....4 Japanese engineering that helps us fly high...6 Future homes on the water..................11 Nuclear power is back, bigger than ever..........14 Tiny piece, great achievement................20
Great but complex
Machining composites is very different from machining other materials. Now there are a number of new cutting tools as well as optimized processes available in this area.

Modern cowboys and greener ethanol.........26 How to double your output fast................31 Metalworking Outlook..........................36 What challenges hide in an airplane frame?............................38


32 26

Windy solutions
New disc milling cutters and hobs, modern indexable carbide inserts and the best technical support are all crucial for success in todays wind power industry.

Faster yet so precise

Thread whirling is an important milling operation when manufacturing bone screws. Now manufacturers can make the bone screws in a single-pass milling operation.

From difficult to efficient

Titanium is a key structural material in aircraft frames. But since titanium doesnt allow secure machining by frontal attack, other techniques have to be used for optimal efficiency.





CoroMill 690, perfect for titanium milling.



The aero industry leads the way.

Tom Erixon, new president of Sandvik Coromant, doesnt think the global financial crisis is over yet. You have to be prepared to change, he says.
IN SEPTEMBER, IN THE middle of the economic crisis,

Tom Erixon became president of Sandvik Coromant. A realist, Erixon believes the metalcutting industry will have to struggle for a while yet. This crisis came faster than anything we had seen before, he says. And we still havent seen anything of the structural transformations that normally follow a deep recession. I think during the next year or so we will see more companies going bankrupt as well as mergers and other changes. Still, he says, he prefers to see the situation for Sandvik Coromant as a challenge. Within all organizations, there is always room for improvements, Erixon says. This is a reminder that to develop, a company needs to be open to change. Erixon was born in Helsingborg, in southern Sweden, but he has lived and worked in Spain, the United States, Britain and Denmark. I moved up to Sandviken when I joined the Sandvik Group in 2001, he says. Living here suits me and my family well. Its close to the outdoor activities we all enjoy, but it is also close to Stockholm and, through Arlanda Airport, to the world at large. Looking beyond the current crisis, Erixon sees a world of rapid changes and specialization. For a company to survive, it needs to adapt to new demands, and we can already see the signs of those demands today, he says. Erixon points to two factors he sees as crucial in the metalcutting industry. First, a strong presence in Asia is needed, he says. They have the best growth when it comes to production as well as sales. Second, most manufacturers need to be prepared to work in exotic new materials that are difficult to machine, he says. This is already a reality within the aerospace industry, where the importance of various composites is growing steadily. But we can see the same pattern within other sectors. Traditional materials will of course continue to be

TOM ERIXON AGE: 49 years LIVES: Sandviken, Sweden FAMILY: Wife and three children Background: Master of law degree from Lund University, Sweden, and a MBA degree from IESE, Barcelona, Spain. Worked at executive positions within the Boston Consulting Group before joining the Sandvik Group in 2001. Leisure activities: Enjoys cross-country skiing, golf and opera and is a passionate wine collector.


the mainstay for the worlds manufacturers for a long time to come. But when the change comes and it will come you need to be prepared. Erixon hopes he can help Sandvik Coromant focus more on customized work. As time goes by, we can see manufacturers being more and more specialized within their own sectors, he says. This calls for Sandvik Coromant to work in an even more customized manner than we do today.

A boost for composite research

R&D. Composite use is forecast to increase significantly during the coming years. To better accommodate this trend, Sandvik Tooling, including Sandvik Coromant personnel, has set up the Research and Technology Center for Composites in Britain. The goal is to develop knowledge and tooling solutions for machining this class of materials. Composites represent a considerable challenge in terms of tool life, productivity and part quality control. We aim to help understand and provide solutions to these challenges through knowledge development and tooling developments, says Francis Richt, project manager, composites and advanced materials. The center provides material machinability knowledge based on the material manufacturing process and machining operation. It is a focus for continued Francis Richt. development in the areas of substrate, coating and geometry effects as these evolve with the development of composite materials. We will also support manufacturers by conducting machinability trials to meet specific quality and productivity targets, Richt says. Read more about composite manufacturing on page 12.

Welcome machining 2.0

NEW TECHNOLOGY. As the level of accuracy in simulation increases, virtual machines are becoming an important part of the manufacturing process. German machine tool manufacturer DMG, a pioneer in this field, has now equipped the Sandvik Coromant Productivity Center in Sandviken, Sweden, with one of its virtual Mats Allard. machines. The DMG virtual machine integrates geometry, kinematics and dynamics of the real machine and the functionalities of CNC and PLC in a single continuous virtual process chain. With a virtual machine, all activities and processes can be safely planned and verified. Avoiding collisions and recording all functions that are on the screen allows the highest measure of safety in planning and implementation, as well as new opportunities for training. Whether NC programs are made available from a CAM program or created directly on the CNC controls, you can see in advance how your processes will function later on the shop floor, says Mats Allard, manager, virtual machining at Sandvik Coromant. Simulations of manufacturing processes arent new to the industry. We have been working with simulation software for a long time and have 8,300 solids of our tools available on our website, Allard says. But we have to ensure that we are able to provide manufacturers with solids and other kinds of product data in new environments such as virtual machines.

it is 40 years since Sandvik Coromant released the first coated cemented carbides?



 Die&Mold China, May 1115, Shanghai MMTS, May 1719, Montreal, Canada  Farnborough Airshow 2010, July 1925, Farnborough, U.K. IMTS 2010, Sept. 1318, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.  AMB, Sept. 28Oct. 2, Stuttgart, Germany  TATEF, Oct. 1217, Istanbul, Turkey  JIMTOF2010, Oct. 28Nov. 2, Tokyo, Japan

The Sandvik Coromant booth at IMTS 2008.


teXt: CarOl AkiYama

phOtO: ken straitOn

Located about an hours drive from Nagoya, a city in the heartland of industrial Japan, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Nagoya Guidance and Propulsion Systems Works (NGPSW) represents the traditional values of corporate Japan. Company spirit is fostered by a lunchtime relay race with crowds of workers cheering on their teams. A family-like atmosphere is promoted with a huge cafeteria where everyone dines together the highestpaid employee next to the floor workers and everyone brings his or her own tray to the kitchen. Yukio Kamimura, the senior engineer of the production department, wears the same blue overalls as the rest of the factory crew, but on his right arm is a band acknowledging that he is a distinguished employee. In November 2009 he visited the Imperial Palace in Tokyo to be granted a Yellow Ribbon Medal of Honor from the Emperor of Japan. The award is the countrys highest recognition of professional contribution to the betterment of the nation. For Kamimura, it was not one specific achievement but rather his 45 years of contribution to developing the aerospace industry in Japan that garnered him the prize. When I first began machining HRSA materials 30 years ago, nobody really knew what to do, he recalls. We had to figure 6

NAGOYA, JAPAN. Combustion cases for aircraft turbofan engines are extremely complex to manufacture. But Japans Mitsubishi Heavy Industries has managed to improve the manufacturing process repeatedly. Its way to success: fruitful partnerships.
engineer from NGPSW received the accolade. I think its a clear indication from the government that the aerospace industry is one that they are giving attention to and that our company has been instrumental in the development of this sector in Japan, which has a relatively short history [in the field], says vice president Fumiaki Tominaga.
NGPSW DEVELOPS, manufactures and repairs various parts of gas turbine aircraft engines in joint programs with industry giants such as Ceramic milling Pratt & Whitney, Rolls-Royce and General cutters offered an impressive Electric. In particular, the facility specializes improvement. in the production of heat-resistant engine parts. All the combustion chambers of large-size commercial Pratt & Whitney everything out by ourselves. Among engines are manufactured here. Kamimuras contributions was the NGPSW is also responsible for the early technical development of development and manufacture of machining C1 aircraft pistons, the heat-resistant parts of the which were long and asymmetrical Geared Turbofan PW 1200G, a within 0.002 inch of concentricity. new type of engine for the This type of advanced machining upcoming Mitsubishi Regional Jet skills eventually led to the efficient (MRJ). production of turbine discs and In 2005, NGPSW embarked on combustion cases. an important risk-sharing partnerYukio Kamimura, senior ship with Rolls-Royce to create WHAT MADE KAMIMURAS award engineer of the combustion cases for the Trent even more impressive was that it production department. 1000 series of turbo engines for the was the second year in a row that an

Hiroyuki Yoshida, manager of the production department, looks through the combustion case.

applications such as high-temperature engine parts. But it is also extremely difficult to machine. In the aerospace industry, materials are going to continue to get more difficult to machine in order to improve the mechanical property at higher temperatures, says Tominaga. So overcoming this challenge was an important step in staying ahead with this trend.

A joyful cooperation. Hiroyuki Yoshida, manager of the production department (left), and vice president Fumiaki Tominaga.

Boeing 787 aircraft. Because of the necessity to withstand extreme heat, the combustion chamber is an extremely delicate part of the engine, explains Hiroyuki Yoshida, manager of the production department. The manufacture of this part requires a high level of technology expertise. We were entrusted with this project after a proven track record of more than 20 years making turbine blades and discs. Waspaloy was chosen as the material for the combustion cases because of its excellence in

solution. Combustion cases have many parts, which makes the milling process both difficult and time-consuming, he says. In addition, our tools wore out quickly. We tried using the ceramic inserts we already had, but the wear was too great. We needed a better solution to fulfill our production goals. NGPSW talked to various toolmakers, but it was Sandvik Coromant that finally came up with the solution it needed. Other companies recommended their products, but Sandvik Coromant worked with us closely to find the optimal performance level of their tools and to fulfill our objective of rough milling to 40 hours in a cycle, elaborates Yasuhiro

Setup of cutting heads at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Nagoya plant No. 5.

When I first began machining HRSA materials 30 years ago, nobody really knew what to do.

This is a major breakthrough

At Nagoya Guidance and introduction of the Propulsion Systems CC6060 ceramic grades Works (NGPSW), the of round inserts that we manufacture of jet engine experienced a major combustion cases from breakthrough. Waspaloy is a complex Because of the high procedure requiring a speed required to mill significant number of Waspaloy, all other types turnmill operations to of HRSA ceramic inserts remove large amounts of lasted at most a minute materials. We had been Toshikazu Kawamukai, a tool life too short to Sandvik Coromant working with NGPSW fulfill MHIs production Japans Aerospace SDC requirements. But the experimenting with manager. ceramic tools for about new SiAlON ceramic seven years, says CC6060 inserts lasted Toshikazu Kawamukai, Sandvik three minutes. The grade has Coromant Japans Aerospace SDC excellent notch wear resistance and manager, but it was not until the allows machining at higher depths of cut, says Kawamukai. The ability of the CC6060 to maintain performance at higher feed rates and in longer continuous cuts made it ideal to machine Waspaloy and other hard materials. NGPSW is keen to work with Sandvik Coromant to develop the usage of the CoroTurn HP for the machining of the Trent XWB series, Kawamukai says. Because of the infusion of the high-pressure coolant jet, CoroTurn HP can help increase tool life, get better chip breaking and provide more secure and continuous machining, he says. We are currently working on how to best utilize this tool to produce the ideal solution. 1. The cutting data of CoroMill 210 on casing at NGPSW: Vc=6682 ft/min, ap=0.03 in, fz=0.02 in/tooth. 2.  Data on CoroTurn SL70 used on rough ceramic turning: This has been developed mainly for jet engine components such as discs and casings to provide secure and productive machining. 3.  Ceramic cutter information: Current cutting data: Vc=2,625 ft/min, ap=0.06 in, fz=0.003 in/tooth. These cutters were developed specially for casing components.



A combustion case in Waspaloy is machined. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries employees with the combustion case.

Sueyoshi, an engineer from the production department who worked directly on this project. Yoshie Narita represents Sandvik Coromant distributor Sanwa Seiki, which oversaw the implementation of the solution from the beginning. He made almost daily trips to NGPSW and to the Sandvik Coromant Productivity Center to monitor the process. Good results do not come right away, says Yoshida, recalling that it took almost six years from the time that tests were first conducted in 2001 to implementation on the production line in 2007. But everyone associated with Sandvik Coromant responded quickly to our questions and provided all the support we needed. Narita adds, It was a long project, but when we reached our goal, it truly felt like a team victory.
THE SUCCESS IN machining the Trent 1000

Rush hour. Every now and then the companys employees run a noontime relay race at the plant grounds in Nagoya.

combustion cases was pivotal in the relationship between NGPSW and Sandvik Coromant, but it was not the beginning. The companies had had a relationship for more than 20 years. When we find a technical solution together with a client, it forms a strong relationship between the companies, says Noriyuki Matsumoto, Nagoya branch manager at Sandvik Coromant Japan. We had the opportunity to take members of NGPSW to Sweden and show them our research on ceramic cutting as well as our full range of products. NGPSW is now working on the Trent XWB, the new series of turbofan engines

from Rolls-Royce, and Sandvik Coromant is again providing essential solutions. Sueyoshi says, During our turning process, there was too much vibration. I consulted Sandvik Coromant, and they pointed out that vibrations came from having a weak tool holder. We are now conducting tests using the CoroTurn SL 70 with Coromant Capto in order to resolve the problem. For the rough milling of Trent 1000, we mostly used the high-feed CoroMill 210 cutter because we can quickly do facemilling and also make holes, he continues. But we have already pushed it to its maximum level. For the upcoming Trent XWB, we need to improve the conditions more. Sandvik Coromant tools are known to be stable, but we use them under difficult conditions. Therefore we need support.
WHEN I AM fACED with a machining problem, I cant solve things by myself, Sueyoshi says. I can think up new methods, but I have no guarantee they will actually work. Sandvik Coromant provides realistic guidelines, and

Yasuhiro Sueyoshi, engineer in the production department, worked directly on the combustion case project.



The Nagoya Guidance and Propulsion Systems Works (NGPSW) is an operational facility of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, a Japanese industrial giant with sales of 3,375.6 billion yen ($38 billion) in 2009. NGPSW has been in the aerospace engine business since 1920. Production output stands at JPY 225.6 billion ($2.5 billion). It has almost 2,000 employees. The main plant covers 4,112,000 square feet.

The nished nozzle skirt of an LE-7A rocket engine is prepared for delivery.


Providing support, helping to figure out the best way to use the tools, is what sets Sandvik Coromant apart.

Nagoya Guidance and Propulsion Systems Works (NGPSW) wanted to cut down milling time for the manufacture of Trent1000 jet engine combustion cases in Waspaloy.


to improve the machining of the new we can think through solutions series of Trent XWB jet engines. together. Providing support, helping GMATTs goal is to strengthen to figure out the best way to use the Japans aero-engine manufacturing tools, is what sets Sandvik Coromant industry with advanced applications apart. in order to succeed in the world, From the experience of manufacsays Yoshida. We will implement turing the Trent 1000 combustion the new techniques we developed cases, Yoshida felt strongly that more with Sandvik Coromant to the Trent research on the machining of HRSA Yoshie Narita, Sanwa XWB and PW 1200G engines. In must be done in a more expansive Seiki representative. addition to GMATT, NGPSW has way. At the end of 2007, he created been collaborating on an application developthe Global Manufacturing Technology Team ment project with Rolls-Royce at the Ad(GMATT). This virtual research group vanced Manufacturing Research Centre in involves NGPSW, major universities and Britain that also involves Sandvik Coromant. machine toolmakers and tooling suppliers in Efforts like this are necessary, says Japan. Sandvik Coromant is an essential Tominaga, because optimum solutions are partner in this group. found when all parts of the puzzle come Since 2008 GMATT has conducted tests with ceramic milling and high-pressure coolant together to make a bigger picture. 10

and a ceramic milling cutter with CC6060 inserts, removing large amounts of metal in a short time. MEDIUM OPERATION: CoroMill 300 with round inserts, allowing for low cutting forces, reduced notch wear and higher feed rates. FINISHING OPERATION: CoroMill 390 ensured secure machining with a stable tool life and no vibration with required surface quality.

The machining time of the rough surface was cut down from 6070 hours to 40 for one cycle, resulting in more than 300 hours of time saved per month. NGPSW was able to produce 10 combustion cases per month.

teXt: jOhan anderssOn phOtO: WaterstudiO.NL


Koen Olthuis, 39, is the founder of the Dutch architectural rm Waterstudio.NL, which specializes in oating structures. In 2007 he was ranked No. 122 on Time magazines list of the most inuential people in the world.

Welcome, Water World!

Imagine a modern Venice, with skyscrapers hundreds of feet high and a network of shops, roads and streets all built on water. Or overcrowded coastal cities such as New York and Hong Kong finding new room to expand on the sea. This is Dutch architect Koen Olthuis vision. Water will definitely give new expansion possibilities to cities worldwide, he says. Olthuis visions have already become reality in some 100 houses that hes built on or close to the waterline. So far his constructions are a mix of modern houseboats and waterhouses and even amphibious houses, in the Netherlands and abroad. For instance, he has constructed houses that will float if the water rises. Others, like the one in the picture, are constructed on river shores or other flood-risk areas. An additional 1,000 or so are planned, including the New Water, a new district in the city of Westland, the Netherlands. The New Water includes the first floating apartment complex. As a Dutchman, Olthuis has always been aware of the threat from the ocean. Roughly a third of the Netherlands lies below sea level, and the Dutch have spent the past 1,000 years or so battling the sea. Olthuis wants to take a different tack. The threat of rising water levels and climate change, in combination with increased urbanization,

Dutch architect Koen Olthuis would have us walk and live on water.
is forcing us to rethink our relationship with water, he says. Olthuis sees a wide application for his buildings in areas where frequent storms and flooding cause continual hardship. Floating structures are not just a luxury alternative for people who want to enjoy living near the water, he says. They are a solution to the very real problem of climate change effects.



teXt: christer richt

CHaLLENGE: To provide the tools and processes to improve the rapidly expanding area of composite machining.

SOLUtiON: A new approach to machining, including dedicated tools and the latest application strategies.

The next step in composite machining

MACHINING COMPOSITES IS very different from machining metals, and machining one type of composite is different from machining another composite. Moreover, the range of composite materials is broader than that of metals. This has daunting implications for machine shops that are beginning to manufacture parts made of composites as well as challenges for shops that are already working with composites. Machining composites needs a reassessment of methods, tools, setup and in some cases even machinery and fixturing. In fact every new composite material entering the machine shop needs a new approach in machining. The cutting action in composite materials is quite different from that of metals in that the cutting edge does not generate chips through shearing, as with the majority of metals. The edge breaks off the composite material to be removed, often cutting the epoxy resin and fracturing or cutting the fibers in the process. The general principle of machining composites is to use extra-sharp cutting edges that have sufficient clearance in order to give a clean cut and minimize the tendency for the tool to rub against the workpiece. Tool wear needs to be absolutely minimized, as even minor geometrical changes to the edge can rapidly lead to excessive heat generation and edge

For milling composites, the CoroMill 590 facemill is equipped with PCD inserts for high demands on tolerances and surface nish. It is capable of high cutting data with minimal splintering of bers in dry machining ideal when dust extraction (see picture) is in place and when the machining is last in line followed by assembly.

individual processes to suit and optimize operations and the composite materials in question. An economic calculation should determine what solution is the most favorable in situations where the material removal rate is important but not the main factor. Hole and edge quality combined with satisfactory hole cost and cost per foot will affect productivity more when it comes to composite machining. The finish achieved in one operation can reduce or eliminate secondary operations, contributing to improved tool life and reduced machine downtime. In the continually evolving world of composite machining, use of dedicated cutting tools for a particular type of composite is essential. It is also essential to establish the right parameters for the operations at hand and to achieve the correct setup.

breakdown and if not addressed can affect the all-important quality levels.
WHERE VARIOUS TOOL geometries are needed to suit the varied character of the composite material, cutting tools need to cut easily, generating minimal thrust forces. Achieving successful performance, security and results requires establishing

operation in composites, is particularly challenging because the material can splinter or even split into separate layers (delamination) at the entry and exit of the hole. Achieving the necessary surface finish requires extra effort to obtain satisfactory cutting action between the fiber layers and the matrix. As impact resistance and heat resistance improve in



When edging and Sturtz milling is part of the composite-machining solution, CoroMill 390 endmill with PCD-tipped or -coated precision inserts is especially effective in composites with a high-fiber content. To edge and trim composite parts, carbide or diamond inserts or solid carbide cutters are effective for achieving high-quality results.

The composite material

A composite is produced when two materials, each with different individual characteristics, are combined to form a material with a certain property. Fibers, whiskers, particles or woven materials are dispersed in a matrix where they add stiffness and strength. Structural composites are made up of laminates or sandwich layers. A laminar composite has stacked sheets cemented together in a way that the strength orientation varies with successive layers. The main matrix materials are organic materials, metal and ceramic, and the reinforcement may be a continuous or discontinuous material of carbon or some inorganic material. Carbon fiber, aramid fiber and carbonaramid fiber reinforced-plastic composite materials are common airframe materials. The fibers are bonded in the matrix material such as an epoxy resin. Applications for composites are growing rapidly, and thus the development of materials is also growing. Composites solutions are applicationspecific. Solutions can include one of the CoroDrill geometries selected or adapted to the material and operation. Due to the variation in materials in different components, three geometries have been developed, including an all-around drill CoroDrill 855, to arrive at optimum processes that deliver hole quality to meet the highest demands. The CoroDrill 856 is designed to minimize delamination tendencies at hole entries and exits, particularly in resin-rich composites. But drilling fiber-rich materials requires a geometry that will reduce splintering such as the new CoroDrill 854 drill, with similarities to a geometry used for aluminum.

composites, machining must also evolve. Specially adapted polycrystalline diamond (PCD) tipped or coated tools have the best tool life, as diamond stands up to the wear of various carbon fiber and stacked materials, including titanium. Demands on flat machined surfaces are often high for composite components, as are those on edged and trimmed features, demanding innovative approaches with suitable indexable inserts and diamond-coated solid carbide tools. Engineered PCD cutters are a solution to most milling operations, where vein-PCD and brazed PCD tools are designed with various flute designs to meet application demands. Improvements include achieving better surface finish by applying a particular tool geometry in the best possible way. This may also entail transporting dust while further reducing splintering and fraying tendencies.
cD 854

In addition to developing cutting tools that will lift performance in composite machining, Sandvik Coromant is also focusing on the development of optimum processes in this area. A range of new drills and milling cutters is improving performance in the use of composite materials. Carbide drills have been designed with diamond coatings suitable for a number of applications as well as with vein-PCD technology. Several new drill geometries have been developed to date for making high-quality holes in various carbon fiber reinforced (CFRP) materials. For milling, edging and trimming composite parts, endmills and facemills with specially developed PCD inserts and coated solid carbide provide new advantages. Both standard and engineered products form solutions for the present and future in drilling and milling composites.

cD 855

cD 856




teXt: paul redstOne


ENErGY. Once derided and discounted, the nuclear power industry is now back. Manufacturers that want to catch the train need to prepare themselves for the extreme demands and toughto-manufacture materials in this rapidly growing sector.



Growing pressure to reduce CO2 emissions and increased energy demands are driving a renaissance in nuclear power.

A few years ago, nuclear power was a pariah industry widely considered to be in terminal decline. But with world energy demand predicted to increase by 44 percent by 2030 and growing pressure to reduce CO2 emissions, its future now looks decidedly rosier. Nuclear renaissance is a well-used phrase these days. Manufacturers that supply vital components to the industry are certainly experiencing growing order books. And if the more optimistic predictions are correct, there will be major implications for the metalcutting industry. Leading the way in aggressive nuclear plans is China, with 35 new reactors planned and 90 proposed by 2030, followed by India, with 23 reactors planned and 15 proposed. But big things are also under way in Europe, which relies on nuclear power for 34 percent of its electricity, more than double the global average. Europes expansion is spearheaded by the United Kingdom, where the government has just given the green light to 10 sites for new reactors. The country currently has 10 nuclear power stations, so the move represents a major increase. Four plants are already in the planning stage. John McNamara, head of communications at the U.K.s Nuclear Industry Association, says the move will help revitalize many other aspects of British industry, not least metalcutting. Britain is planning the first fleet of new nuclear power stations in Europe, he says. This will mean a massive build program over the next 10 years Britains biggest building project following the preparations for the 2012 Olympics.

From left: Tore Andersson, Klas Gran Bjrklund, Thomas berg (Sandvik Coromant) and Jan Bostrm.

No margin for error

High-precision work is an everyday thing for Swedish contract manufacturer GenerPro, part of the Leax Group and a leading specialist in large generators and turbines for the power generation industry. A recent project to supply subcontractor Alstom with a generator rotor for the TVO nuclear power plant in Finland proved the value of its partnership with Sandvik Coromant. Tore Andersson, an industrial engineer at GenerPro, says: For this rotor we had to drill holes to a depth of 5.3 meters [17.4 feet], crossing through the rotor. Previously, we hadnt gone deeper than 3.7 meters [12 feet]. We successfully drilled four holes in two rotors. Hole straightness accuracy to within four millimeters [0.158 inch] was needed at the end point, but we actually achieved 2.5 millimeters [0.098 inch], which is excellent. The size of the rotor created special challenges. When drilling such deep holes you would normally rotate the piece to ensure the best possible hole straightness, Andersson says. On a piece this big, with a rotationally asymmetrical hole, thats not possible, and the hole must be drilled at an angle that puts extremely high demands on the drilling process. There is no margin for error; the piece weighs 80 tons and represents considerable value. The solution was based on Sandvik Coromants deep hole drilling system with CoroDrill 800. The new thing, Andersson says, was the dedicated drill head design with an extra guide pad. This and specialist support were why we succeeded so well.




In 2008, nuclear power accounted for 14 percent of global electricity generation, down from the 1617 percent that had been consistent for the 20 years up to 2005. But projections have been revised upward. In 2008, global nuclear power capacity was predicted to increase by 27 to 100 percent by 2030.
Source: International Atomic Energy Agency Energy, Electricity and Nuclear Power Estimates for the Period to 2030.



There will be a major push now, McNamara says, as many of the U.K.s power stations are nearing the end of their service life. Over the next 10 to 15 years, Britain will lose around one-third of its total power generation capacity, he says. Demand is increasing by around 2 percent per year, and new build is needed to avoid an energy gap. The first new nuclear power station will be operative in 2017, and the intention is to bring another one online every 18 months. Developing an effective supply chain is an important focus, McNamara says. There is a skills gap, as we have not built anything new since the early 1990s, so firms with specialist capabilities for the nuclear power

Meeting nuclear needs

In addition to deep hole drilling in generator shafts, Sandvik Coromant offers tool technologies for a number of other applications within the nuclear power industry. In turbine shaft and turbine wheel production, Coromant Capto and the CoroTurn SL modular adapter system, in combination with damped blades for long overhangs and hockey stick grooving tools, have solved a number of manufacturing problems. The CoroBore boring system is well suited to large casings. In the blade machining area, the new exchangeable-head milling cutter CoroMill
CoroTurn SL modular adapter system.


If you dont have nuclear, you can forget your climate change credentials.
John McNamara, head of communications at the U.K.s Nuclear Industry Association.

316 is creating interest among blade manufacturers. For roughing, the round-insert milling cutter CoroMill 300 is a productive solution. Per Forssell, program manager for power generation at Sandvik Coromant, says: We closely monitor the development of new, more advanced, high-alloyed workpiece materials. This has led to the high-pressure coolant technology CoroTurn HP, which improves chip control and productivity. Our technical specialists have extensive experience and application knowledge and are dedicated to supporting customers to achieve their targets.
CoroMill 316 exchangeblehead cutter is well suited for the machining of turbine blades.

industry will be in great demand, he says. Companies that have stopped working with nuclear will be encouraged to return to the industry, and there will also be a need for new players. Those who get involved now will have many opportunities in the wider European and global expansion. Despite the undeniable expansion, nuclear power The major metalworking applications within a nuclear remains a relatively small percentage of the global power station include manufacturing of turbines and energy mix (renewable sources now generate more generators. Its complex and precise work, says Per electricity, for example) and may not increase its overall Forssell, program manager for power generation at share significantly. According to United Nations figures, Sandvik Coromant. renewables in 2008 overtook fossil fuels in attracting There are extremely high quality demands on power generation investment, with the biggest growth components, he says. There are also a lot of advanced coming from China, India and other developing materials involved, such as heat-resistant countries. But coal, with its widespread super-alloys, which can be tricky to work availability, still remains the fastest-growing with and often require long machining energy source. times. McNamara says that one of the key drivers Another challenge is the sheer scale of the for nuclear growth is the pressing issue of equipment. Everything is bigger in the new, climate change. CO2 reduction targets are more powerful reactor designs, Forssell increasingly aggressive, while round-thesays. The electrical generator rotor shaft, for clock power demands are increasing. And example, is made from a single piece of while the intermittent nature of renewables metal. It might weigh 80 [metric] tons. There means that wind farms and solar power plants John McNamara. is a lot of machining involved, after which currently deliver at best 30 to 40 percent of the piece may be reduced to something like 60 tons. generating capacity, a nuclear power station can When all the electrical components are added, its back continuously perform at more than 90 percent of up to 80 tons again. capacity. High reliability is an essential prerequisite, Forssell If you dont have nuclear, you can forget your adds. The industry has great potential, he says. The climate change credentials, McNamara says. Renewawinners will be stable companies with the resources to bles are expanding, but without nuclear its currently make a long-term commitment and work to demanding impossible to satisfy growing baseload demand while regulations. Trust is paramount. reducing emissions.


teXt: Turkka kulmala

CHaLLENGE: How can the wind power industry increase the productivity and cost-efficiency of gear milling operations?

SOLUtiON: Upgrade machining methods and replace high-speed steel tools with modern cemented carbide tools.

Switching to high gear

THE DEMAND fOR greener energy and concerns about climate change are making wind energy increasingly topical. Indeed, wind power is a rare bird in todays unforgiving economic climate. While the 30 percent growth rate of recent years has diminished to 1822 percent, long-term growth still remains strong. The main challenge in the wind power industry how to keep pace with demand is very different and much more positive than the challenges facing many other fields. In wind energy, the focus is on increasing productivity and fulfilling the stringent quality requirements. The gearbox, the link between the rotor, the main shaft and the generator, is one of the most critical components in a wind turbine. A typical gearbox contains several geared parts such as the ring gear, planetary gear, sun gear and slow gear wheel. IN ADDITION, wind turbines include various rings with gears such as slewing rings, a type of component consisting of a gear and a bearing to control the pitch angle of the blades and to orient the nacelle appropriately in relation to the wind. In gearbox production, quality in practical terms means consistency and tight tolerances. Generally the gearbox is the most

This hob cutter with indexable inserts increases the productivity in gear cutting.

vulnerable component in a wind turbine, and gearbox failure can result in serious availability issues and high repair costs. Thus gearboxes require the best possible quality without compromising productivity. The gears in a wind turbine gearbox are commonly made in a two-stage process: milling in the roughing stage and grinding in

the finishing operation. Any inconsistencies during the gear milling process will make grinding more difficult.
IN RECENT YEARS gearbox manufacturers

have invested heavily in modern machine tools. However, powerful new machines often stretch the capabilities of conventional



Case study: Gear hobbing with carbide indexable hob vs. HSS hob

Module 16 Wind Power planetary gear, 1st/2nd cut, hob diameter 11.8 inches Cutting speed Feed per revolution Total time of hobbing cycle

460/525 ft/min 0.06/0.13 in/rev 102 minutes

Module 16 Wind Power planetary gear, 1st/2nd cut, hob diameter 11.8 inches Cutting speed Feed per revolution Total time of hobbing cycle 164/164 ft/min 0.06/0.13 in/rev 298 minutes

The results speak for themselves: The productivity increased by two-thirds and a consistent, secure operation was accomplished. The customer felt that the investment in the new machine was a success.

high-speed steel (HSS) tooling to the limit, making it difficult to fully utilize the potential of efficient machinery. This is a good example of the interdependence of all factors in a machining process. Increasing the overall performance is rarely possible by a single improvement without overall optimization. In addition to inferior performance, HSS tools involve a great deal of logistical effort, handling and regrinding, which all add up to loss of time and higher total costs. A strong solution to the problems of gear milling is a modern tool with a high number of advanced indexable carbide inserts. Each additional insert increases the potential cutting data and productivity. Indexable inserts also solve the logistical problems related to HSS tooling and provide in-house control over productivity.

In 2010 and 2011 new products from Sandvik Coromant will include disc milling cutters and hob milling cutters, which will bring the benefits of advanced carbide inserts to an operation traditionally dominated by conventional HSS tools. While modern cemented carbide inserts are strong contenders for productive gear milling, choosing the optimal tool, insert and grade is not simply a matter of picking up the most impressive tool catalog.
A MORE PRUDENT course is to look for a

inserts as well as methods, and all backed up by full support from experienced professionals. As the productivity improvement case illustrates (see box), such solutions can make a real difference in the productivity of a given machining operation.

In the wind power industry, continuing strong demand necessitates a focus on both high productivity and high quality. New disc milling cutters and hobs, modern indexable carbide inserts and comprehensive support from experienced specialists make an effective solution to the challenges of gear component manufacturing.

dedicated partner with advanced application knowledge and a good understanding of the customers challenges, requirements and goals. Ideally a tooling partner should be able to offer a total solution for a specific wind turbine component the necessary tools and



teXt: Nick HOldswOrth phOtO: jeremY nichOll


Seversky Tube Works, located in the forested foothills of the Ural Mountains near Ekaterinburg, is Russias biggest steel pipe production factory. It is part of the Pipe Metallurgical Company (TMK), one of the leaders in the global pipe business. Maintaining this leading position, however, is not simply about focusing on massive capital projects. Its also about providing its customers with pipe products of the highest quality. Yevgeny Sergeevich Zyryanov, head of Seversky Tube Works cutting laboratory, knows this well. Zyryanov is particularly proud of a small solid carbide cutting tool he designed together with Sandvik Coromant engineers to create the pressure-tight threaded connection required for the casings used in gas fields. This tiny component not much larger than a coin and weighing about 0.7 ounce plays an important role in the oil and gas industry.
THE SPECIALIZED insert, which has three cutting teeth and a special geometry for easy disposal of the steel chips, is used for cutting thread in cold-resistant, heavy-alloyed steel pipes used in pumping gas in Siberia.

POLEVSKOY, RUSSIA. Yevgeny Sergeevich Zyryanov, head of the cutting laboratory at Seversky Tube Works, develops new types of threaded joint casings to meet the demands of the market. Sometimes all thats needed is one small insert.
These high-performance pipes require premium-class threaded connections. The specialized threads prevent gas pumped at high pressures from escaping and are essential for safe and accident-free gas exploration, production and transportation. Until Zyryanov designed the tool for cutting these high-performance threads on Severskys own gas-tight connections, Russian oil and gas giant Gazprom had to buy its pipes from overseas suppliers. component that costs around $40, Gazprom can purchase the pipes from Seversky Tube Works, taking advantage of the transportation cost savings resulting from buying domestically. Zyryanov talks about his job in the midst of the cavernous (650 by 3,000 feet) hangar that houses the cutting laboratory at Seversky. Zyryanovs words are all but drowned out by the cacophony of hundreds of steel pipes being moved along processing lines. Were always scanning the market, he says. There are many companies that produce metalworking tools, and we are constantly testing products from different




Age: 48 Lives: Polevskoi, Sverdlovsk region, Russia Family: Wife, Natalya, an accountant at the Seversky Tube Works, and two grown daughters Yelena, an engineer in Severskys R&D department, and Olga, a university student studying personnel management. Education: Graduate of Urals Technical University, Ekaterinburg, metallurgy department with a specialty in steel tube production. Interests: Freshwater fishing.


White-hot pipes move through the production process. Seversky Tube Works plans to begin working with new, higher grades of steel that have a high chrome content.




Seversky Tube Works is Russias top producer of hot-rolled and electric-welded steel pipes, producing more than a million tons of round and profiled steel pipes a year. The company is located in Polevskoi, in the Sverdlovsk region, an area known for its long metalworking tradition. Major clients for Severskys hot-rolled pipes include Russias top oil and gas companies, Gazprom, Lukoil and TNK BP, as well as industrial clients around the world. Seversky Tube Works produces 320,000 metric tons (352,800 U.S. tons) of steel pipe a year in diameters ranging from 6.6 to 13 inches for the gas and oil industries. In addition the company produces 305,000 tons (336,200 U.S. tons) of electric-welded pipes a year for the automotive and construction industries and pipelines in diameters of 0.4 to 21 inches.



Yevgeny Sergeevich Zyryanov confers with Viktor Berezov, head supervisor in the cutting shop.

Quality and price are the key to what we do. We consider Sandvik Coromant our top partner because it offers both.

headquarters in Sweden to fine-tune it until everyone was satisfied. I usually visit the Seversky Works two or three times a month to discuss the plants needs for cutting inserts and to provide information on how we can help with any technical or production questions they have, says Leshukov.
THE SEVERSkY TUBE Works started in 1739, and grew up

companies. Weve worked as partners with Sandvik Coromant for 11 years now, and the quality and reliability of their tools is what makes them the best. The tools are hard-wearing and versatile. And of course, it is very important for us to work with partners that have their offices in Russia. Vladimir Leshukov, regional representative at Sandvik Coromant in Ekaterinburg, worked closely with Zyryanov to resolve the precise technical details required to create the specialized insert, liaising with engineers and designers at the Sandvik Coromant 24

with the town and the local metalworking industry. Today many of the Severskys 8,000 factory workers come from families who have worked at the plant for generations. Zyryanov is no exception. His father, grandfather and great grandfather all worked at Seversky, and he himself has worked there for 25 years, ever since his graduation from Ekaterinburgs Urals Technical University in metallurgy. His wife, Natalya, is an accountant at the works, and daughter Yelena is an engineer in the research and development department. Zyryanov enjoys the creative challenge of finding

The key to success

A hot pipe is shifted into position for cutting as it moves through the production process.


solutions to thorny technical problems. We have plans to begin working with new grades of steel that have a higher chrome content, he says. That will place new demands on quality for the cutting tools we use. The oil and gas industry is always progressing, and it is our job to come up with solutions to the challenges we are given by our customers.
SEVERSkY TUBE WORkS customers include Russias biggest oil and gas companies Gazprom, Lukoil and TNK BP as well as companies across Europe, the Middle East, America and Asia so attention to detail and customer service is everything. The Seversky Works has recently modernized its steelsmelting facility, and plans for the future include a massive modernization of the pipe rolling facility. With the adoption of new technologies the company hopes to be able to make a major qualitative and quantitative breakthrough in oil and gas pipe production and an essential reduction in the industrys impact on the environment. Quality and price are the key when choosing a partner, says Seversky Managing Director Mikhail Zuev. Thats why we consider Sandvik Coromant our top partner in thread-cutting tools.

The triangular coated carbide insert used at the Seversky Tube Works to cut specialized high-performance gas-proof threads for cold-resistant heavy-alloyed steel gas pipes goes by the name thread cutting plate 4125. The number refers to the grade of steel the tool is designed to work on. The tiny coin-sized insert measures 0.9 inch on a side and has a width of 0.24 inch and three cutting teeth. It weighs about 0.7 ounce. The insert is designed to cut thread in a patented high-tight pipe connection of premium class. The customers specification was demanding, calling for a tool made with high accuracy that was both hardwearing and capable of giving top performance through some 200 cutting cycles before needing replacement. The first challenge in designing the tool was to secure the necessary geometry of the cutting edges in order to produce accurate and precise pipe threads. says Yevgeny Sergeevich Zyryanov, head of Severskys cutting laboratory. The second challenge, Zyryanov says, was to reduce the number of thread-cutting cycles necessary, in order to make the cutting process easier and less time-consuming. The third was figuring out how to fix the insert to the turning tool on a pipe-threading machine. With the help of Sandvik Coromant engineers those challenges were overcome. Vladimir Leshukov, the local

representative for Sandvik Coromant in Ekaterinburg, recalls: We worked closely with Yevgeny Sergeevich, liaising with Sandvik Coromant engineers in Sweden to come up with an insert that had sufficient and smart geometry with a stable, accurate mounting in the turning tool on the pipe-threading machine and specific innovations such as the special chip-forming geometry behind the cutting teeth to ensure that waste chip was removed without risk of damaging the threads being cut. Slightly rounded edges for the cutting edges, suggested by Anatoly Khromov, who works at Sandvik MKTS in Moscow, helped improve cutting durability. Everyone in the cutting laboratory gave some input, says Zyryanov. Weve ended up with an insert that does a necessary job and does it well. It is made with a high degree of accuracy, and it lasts twice as long.

The customized inserts.



teXt: henrik ek

phOtO: martin adOlfssOn


It is the true all-American tough-guy profession. Metalworking World traveled to Hereford, Texas, to meet the modern-day cowboy and found a town working to make life a little greener.



Modern cowboys on their daily ride to check on the animals: Ciro Fraire (left) and Ramon Tovar.

Wet distillers grain is a byproduct of ethanol production.

Hereford, Texas, is the self-proclaimed beef capital of the world. The town is named for a famous breed of beef cattle, and it has around a million head of cattle on feed. That works out to 60 animals for each resident. The town, situated a few miles southwest of Amarillo, is part of the Great Plains. The ground is flat as far as you can see, and the presence of cattle is unmistakable. Endless fields are covered by them, and the smell is inescapable. It also seems every man in Hereford wears the famous Texas 10-gallon cowboy hat with pride. This isnt a business, its a way of life, says cowboy Rex Reynolds. I couldnt see myself doing anything else. Fellow cowboy Rob Levnons agrees. I started when I was 6 years old, he says. Our job is to ride around and check on the animals. The sick ones are the ones moping around and being snotty. We take them to a special area where they are looked at. Reynolds and Levnons make their living riding horseback on one of the nations largest feedyards, the

This isnt a business, its a way of life. I couldnt see myself doing anything else.
Bob Josserand, feedyard owner and the mayor of Hereford.

Bar G, which accommodates 130,000 head of cattle. It is owned by Hereford local Johnny Trotter, who himself started out as a cowboy. Its the only way the job can be done, he says. Every animal is looked in the eye every day. Weve got 25 cowboys, give or take, starting at 5:30 a.m., riding three horses a day, going into all the 1,200 pens, looking at all the animals. Thats the kind of attention we give them. And if one is sick, we take it aside and make it feel better. Its the cowboy way. Trotter says some people have been trying to switch from horses to vehicles of various kinds for years.


But it wont work, he says. The cowboys here in Hereford are dressed just as youd expect in jeans, boots and the ubiquitous 10-gallon hat. But despite the appearance of an ordinary Texas town, things are not ordinary in Hereford. You wont find wildcat oil drillers here running roughshod over the environment. In fact, its not even a stretch to say the town is in the vanguard on green issues. But then again, we never had oil here, says Sheila Quirk, who heads the city-funded Hereford Economic Development Corporation, by way of explaining the towns green predilections.
THE TOwN RECENTLY invited two ethanol plants into the community. The first, owned by White Energy, is already fully operational and fits nicely into the master plan of a green alliance between the farmers and the ethanol industry. The second, being built by Panda Energy International, is on hold because of the current recession. In Johnny Trotters feedyard, the cattle are fed a diet

With some 1 million cattle on feed, Hereford, Texas, is the selfproclaimed beef capital of the world. Feedyard owner Johnny Trotter.

The ethanol plant allows us to compete with the northern states that have got a lot of corn.
that includes about 10 percent of what is called wet distillers grain a byproduct of ethanol production. Weve been on the ethanol byproduct for two years now, Trotter says. Were probably one of the biggest consumers of wet distillers grain in the country, and its a consistent product. It also happens to be perfect for cattle feeding. The ethanol plant allows us to compete with the northern states that have got a lot of corn, says Bob Josserand, another local feedyard owner and the mayor of Hereford. If we hadnt had the ethanol plant and the wet distillers grain, we probably would have seen the loss of some cattle feeding to the northern yards.

Sheila Quirk, head of the Hereford Economic Development Corporation.

area around Hereford is well suited to the beef industry in many ways. The

temperature is good, and the lack of moisture is beneficial. The more mud and water the animals stumble around in, the more energy they use and more muscle they build, Josserand explains. The market wants fatty cows that simply eat and build up fatty body mass without burning any of it. A wet farm is therefore a bad farm. Also, a main freight railway that runs from Chicago to Los Angeles passes through here. But having a main source of feed produced nearby is a huge step towards a more efficient business.


One step better

White Energy has been running the first ethanol plant in Hereford, Texas, since 2007. The company has said it located the plant in Hereford because the area is a stronghold for the cattle industry. We have an economic advantage in production here because we are able to market all of the co-products at 35 percent dry matter and not incur the energy costs associated with drying the wet grains to 90 percent dry matter, says Dane Noyce, who markets the co-products for White Energys Hereford location. Most ethanol plants are forced to dry their co-products to lessen the cost of freight to end users. In simple terms, the ethanol production process starts with corn going through a hammer mill. It then enters the liquefaction process where water and heat are added and the resulting mixture is fermented, a process that takes about 56 hours. After fermentation a solution that contains about 15 percent alcohol is transferred to the beer well and from there to distillation where it is heated to 158 degrees Fahrenheit, the temperature at which alcohol becomes gas. The alcohol is then cooled to a liquid state, and sieves are used to separate any remaining water from the liquid. After distillation the remaining mash is processed in centrifuges where the wet distillers grain is separated from the liquid fraction. Noyce explains that in the Hereford area both feedyards and dairies use wet distillers grains in their cattle rations, so the company sells a majority of this product within a 75-mile radius of the town. White Energy has no plans to burn manure to fuel its plant, as Panda Energy International, its competition in the area, plans to do when its plant is complete, Noyce says. Its not a proven theory, he says, but youve got to appreciate the idea. He suggests that making use of the methane gas might be a better

NO MATTER HOw GREEN the initiatives in Hereford may

sound, people in the beef business do want to make a profit. The beef business, like many others, has soured in the past few years. Josserand says the main issue is that people dont seem to spend money on prime cuts of beef anymore. The high-priced steaks, sold to steak houses and fine restaurants, are less in demand today. So in order to keep this agriculture-dependent community in blossom, smarter practices are needed, such as fueling an ethanol plant with manure. Panda Energy International, in its yet-to-be-completed ethanol production facility, plans to burn manure to fuel its plant. Construction is currently on hold as the banks pulled their support during the recession, but the idea lives on. Manure is a problem since we have such a concentration of cattle, says Josserand, who estimates he spends from $300,000 to $500,000 annually to collect and ship manure to become fertilizer. We calculated it would reduce our cost to $50,000 if Panda were to take it instead. Corn becomes ethanol, a clean energy source, and its byproduct becomes feed for the local beef industry, which in turn produces manure to then fuel the plant thats a complete ecosystem for you. Yes, were doing our part, says Trotter, adding that his industry isnt given the credit it deserves. Since the cattle industry is so independent, were scrutinized by the government, and so we are kind of just being quiet and accepting the blame for being a burden to the environment. But I think the story needs to be told. in Hereford is being joined by a huge influx of dairy farms. And as the cattle popula-

Dane Noyce markets the co-products for ethanol producer White Energys Hereford location.

concept. Methane has the attention of environmentalists, and reducing the volume in livestock production would be perceived as beneficial. If we could someday develop a closed system with a feedyard, an ethanol plant and a methane digester, well, that would make a lot of sense, Noyce says. Dont be surprised if you see a new, groundbreaking solution here in Hereford first.


tion grows, the town must continue to strive for ever-greener solutions. More stringent environmental rulings are coming, says Trotter. But we just have to learn to live with it. Sheila Quirk already has a new project planned: wind turbines. Were working very aggressively to get wind turbines and transmission lines, she says. Were trying to become more independent from gas and oil. We have class-four winds right here, which is good.


teXt: jOhan anderssOn

CHaLLENGE: To increase quality and productivity in the manufacture of medical components.

SOLUtiON: Provide continual innovation with machining solutions and new grades.

Thread whirling makes high-quality medical parts more productive

Of all the precision machining challenges, making medical components represents the pinnacle of the art. Today Sandvik Coromant offers impressive tooling solutions that are essential to medical component manufacturing. The companys thread whirling solution is one of them, offering a complete solution for bone screws. One benefit of this solution is that it is a single-pass milling operation, thus offering significant productivity improvements while enhancing overall quality. A thread whirling tool is basically a ring with inserts mounted on the inner diameter. A machine-mounted attachment carries the tool and rotates it at a high speed relative to the slower rotating workpiece. The ring is positioned slightly off center from the part so that a single insert engages the work per rotation. The thread angle of inclination is set by the angle of the cutter ring to the workpiece. The thread profile is determined by the design of the insert. The thread whirling process enables bone screws to be produced in a huge variety of lengths and diameters. This is advantageous to bone screw manufacturers, which typically must develop custom threads to accommodate human bone requirements. Human bone has a hard outer shell and a softer, sponge-like core. Bone screws need to be hard enough and sharp enough to penetrate the outer shell, but their thread form must be able to resist pulling out the bones softer core. Thread whirling is an efficient, productive technique that produces high-quality threads. Common materials used are 316 LVN stainless steel and titanium. None of these are straightforward to cut because of the bone screws profile, which requires sharp angles, long thread lengths and large differences between the root and head diameters. The thread whirling capability offered by Sandvik Coromant is complemented by insert grade enhancements. This latest development is backed by a deep knowledge of biomaterial manufacturing and its machining requirements through working with Sandvik Bioline and related specialists in the medical components industry. Consequently Sandvik Coromant has a specific program of development for this sector that encompasses all of its small-part manufacturing requirements.
Thread whirling with inserts attached.

The extension of the 1105 for CoroCut XS is suitable for smaller diameters (0.0390.393 inch) as required by bone screws and medical implants. For one customer, use of this insert grade increased productivity by 59 percent.

Small improvements make a big difference. In one back-turning operation for a dental screw, a change in insert grade resulted in significant savings.
MATERIAL: 316 LVM, CMC 05.11 COOLANT: Oil INSERT: MABR 3010 GRADE: 1025 CUTTING SPEED: 233 ft/min FEED: 0.001 in/rev TOOL LIfE: 150 pcs SAVINGS: $1,900

MABR 3010 1105 371 ft/min 0.001 in/rev 1,700 pcs

Thread whirling is an important milling operation that ensures high-quality manufacturing of bone screws for medical applications. The thread whirling solution offered by Sandvik Coromant enables medical component manufacturers to make bone screws in a single-pass milling operation while improving overall component quality and productivity.



Production manager Karl-Richard Curdt works on the new multi-task machine.

teXt:TOmas Lundin phOtO: Bernhard Classen


GttiNGEN, GErMaNY. In early 2009 German manufacturer Mayer Feintechnik installed a new multi-task machine. Now the huge investment has paid off with doubled productivity. Automation is the only way to survive global competition and to continue to grow, says CEO and part-owner Frank Neuschulz.


Mayer Feintechniks latest investment is a Mori Seiki NT 4250 multi-task machine.

The new machine has reduced production time by around 50 percent.

Achim Ludewig is German manufacturer Mayer Feintechniks best turner. The spiky-haired veteran works at the far end of the factory with the new Mori Seiki NT 4250 multi-task machine. The machine, installed in early 2009, integrates turning and milling without having to set up the workpiece. Its a challenge, Ludewig says with a cheeky smile as he pats the machine. There are a thousand and one ways to program it. Sometimes I think of a solution at home in the bathroom while Im in the middle of shaving. The machine is worth every single euro we paid for it, says CEO and part-owner Frank Neuschulz. But you have to have employees like Achim Ludewig who like to solve problems and are interested in it and who are also doing extra training alongside their 32

normal work hours. You also need a partner who helps to get it right from the start so that you avoid having to improvise and make improvements afterward, he says.
MAYER FEINTECHNIk IS a manufacturing company with 45 employees situated in Gttingen, Germany. It was founded in 1951 by Willy Mayer, who in the early years manufactured interior fittings for model trains. Almost a third of its sales today come from medical technology, an industry that in Germany alone has revenues of $25 billion. The rest is divided between the areas of laser technology, measurement technology and instruments for the optical industry. Practically all its customers are among the top five world leaders in their markets.

They are discriminating customers who demand high quality, great flexibility and the ability to develop at the same rate they do themselves, says Neuschulz. In 2004 he took on a 50 percent share in Mayer Feintechnik. The company was then already out in front. When Mayer Feintechnik introduced Japanese CNC machines in the 1970s, many competitors hadnt yet discovered the potential of CNC technology. Since Neuschulz came into the company the rate of modernization has been further increased by annual investments of around $1.4 million. The goal is to reduce the cost of staff from 35 percent of sales to 25 percent. In the next stage, a seven-day week

will be introduced at the new machine. In a downturn many companies try to reduce their level of investment, says Neuschulz. For us that is not an option. A crisis is an opportunity. We continue to invest and to raise productivity permanently. At the same time we are turning over every stone to make us more productive and more flexible.

Rdiger Volle (left) and Achim Ludewig (right), machine operators, change a drill head on the new machine.

economic crisis would be as deep as it has been, or the price war as brutal. Instead of the expected drop of 20 to 25 percent in sales, demand has dropped by about 50 percent compared with the spring of 2009. At the same time, global price competition has increased. But Mayer Feintechnik has still succeeded in gaining orders for new products by using new technology. When it comes to products we were already manufacturing, we have been able to reduce manufacturing time with help from the likes of Sandvik Coromant, he says. But its been difficult, Neuschulz says, as he holds up a complex turned part made from high alloy special steel. This pressure sensor is something we have been manufacturing for many years, he explains. One day a customer rang and said the price in the new contract could only be half what it was.

Never needed to experiment

The challenge: To halve manufacturing and setup times, raise quality and build more flexibility into production. The solution: Invest in an integrated turning and milling machine, NT 4250 DCG/1500 SZ, from Japanese manufacturer Mori Seiki equipped with the tool holder system Coromant Capto. Mayer Feintechnik makes precision instruments, specializing in parts for the medical technology industry and for companies in measurement and laser technology. Instruments include a fixed angle rotor for laboratory centrifuges with extremely high demands on roundness. Centrifuges today can reach speeds of up to 25,000 revolutions per minute. But the trend is for speeds of closer to 100,000 rpm. According to Mayer Suppliers who want to Feintechniks CEO compete in this market and part-owner have to invest in new Frank Neuschulz, machines. the reason Mayer The machine that Feintechnik chose Mayer Feintechnik Coromant Capto is purchased in March that it is one of the 2009 is an integrated only modular tooling horizontal milling systems that can be center with speeds of used for both up to 12,000 rpm and Alexander Duschek, turning and milling sales engineer of a turning center with tasks with a Sandvik Coromant. 4,000 rpm. It is fed by precision of 0.002 a portal robot and a rod loader and millimeters (0.000,079 inch). stands on a special base that Preparation for the investment prevents vibrations from disturbing was undertaken at machine and the sensitive measurement tool distributor PWK Knbbers instrument. training center in Kassel, Germany. It can machine workpieces with Machine operators and production diameters of up to 3.15 inches and managers from Mayer Feintechnik, lengths of up to 59 inches. along with Sandvik Coromant and PWK Knbber, ran through all the tool and application possibilities long before the machine was delivered. The advantage of this was that Mayer Feintechnik never needed to experiment but instead could get started as soon as the machine was in place, explains Alexander Duschek, sales engineer for Sandvik Coromant. Says Neuschulz: Making the most of the multi-task machine also requires stable, high-performance tools, and here nothing beats Sandvik Coromant, which has such a comprehensive range of turning and milling tools. Using Sandvik Coromants high-pressure coolant tools improved both the volume of chips and the cutting data.




Manufacturing of the xed-angle rotor. With the new multi-task machine, the rotor can be machined in one setup instead of ve!

Frank Neuschulz, CEO and part-owner, shows the xed-angle rotor for laboratory centrifuges.

improve quality, Neuschulz says. In the future we are planning to offer our customers finished products with certificates of quality. The customer will no longer have to carry out its own quality controls for the part and can sell its finished product immediately.

Thanks to an investment in a machine with three turrets and three machine shifts, Mayer Feintechnik was able to accept orders of 5,000 units each year. The company then succeeded in reducing the production time from nine minutes and 52 seconds to six minutes and 17 seconds.
BUT THE COMPANYS latest investment is the multi-task machine NT 4250. It was acquired in September 2008 and delivered in March 2009. From the start it has exceeded all expectations. One of the critical reasons for the success, says production manager Karl-Richard Curdt, was that, working with Sandvik Coromant and experts at the machine and tooling distributor PWK Knbber, we made sure it was right from the start. Neuschulz explains: You cant buy a Porsche and put rims on it that can only cope with going 100 kilometers [about 60 miles] an hour. Thats why we chose Coromant Capto. It isnt the cheapest on the market, but it is definitely one of the very best. One of Mayer Feintechniks most important

products is a fixed-angle rotor for laboratory centrifuges. The rotor works with up to 25,000 revolutions per minute and is subjected to enormous centrifugal forces. Thus the part must be perfectly counterbalanced, a factor that mainly depends on its roundness. With the old technology there were five work stages. The workpiece needed to be turned four times and drilled once. Each time it had to be set up again and moved between different machines.

of 2/100ths of a millimeter (0.0008 inch) was high, but not good enough for future challenges, and the customer had to counterbalance the rotor after each use. With the new hybrid machine, everything happens in a single process, cutting production and setup time in half. Besides the time savings, however, the tolerance can now be reduced to less than 1/100th of a millimeter (0.0004), which will save the customer a complete machining stage. As well as the shorter manufacturing times, above all the machine has the ability to

manufacturers today are cutting back on the number of subcontractors by up to 70 percent and at the same time still making them compete on price, Neuschulz says. It is even more important that every investment is planned correctly. No one can afford to invest wrongly today. Torsten Neumann at tool distributor PWK Knbber agrees. Many customers buy expensive machines, but they invest too little in preparation, he says. Others use tools that are less than optimal. Then they complain when the tools dont work the way they thought they would. And then it is much more difficult to correct the faults. In the future, says Neuschulz, we will generate growth only if we have strong partners and can carry out continuous improvements. For us Sandvik Coromant is one of these strategic partners.

Mayer Feintechnik was founded in 1951. The company has 45 employees and annual sales of $6.1 million. Precision parts for the medical technology industry make up 30 percent of its sales. The rest is divided between laser technology, measurement technology and optical technology.



tEXt: turkka kulmala

CHaLLENGE: To improve the productivity of titanium milling.

SOLUtiON: Make use of a proven overall solution to achieve superior security and reliability.

Cost-efficiency through security

The superior strength-to-weight ratio of titanium makes it a key structural material in aircraft frames and, increasingly, also in landing gears. The share of titanium in the weight of a typical commercial jet is increasing, and fleet modernization pressures are boosting long-term demand. The key to efficient titanium milling is productivity. But titanium does not allow secure machining by frontal attack. Its low thermal conductivity along with a tendency to chemically react with the tool material forces the metal cutter to look for a back door. The first priority is to establish security and reliability; cost-efficiency will follow. High security can be achieved by a proven solution, including the machine, process, optimized tools, programming techniques and cutting data. For the machine tool, the crucial requirements are stability and sufficient power output, even at low rpms. A good titanium tool has an open, sharp geometry and high edge toughness. The new coated S30T and S40T insert grades from Sandvik Coromant have a fine-grained cemented carbide substrate with excellent hot hardness. Modern carbide solutions generally outperform conventional HSS tooling. Involving NC programmers early on in the design process supports security and predictability goals, avoiding unnecessary entries and exits and working toward continuous feed and radial engagement. Copious coolant supply is a standard procedure in titanium milling, and a high-pressure system should be used to improve productivity and tool life. In CoroMill 690 this is facilitated by threaded holes for coolant nozzles. The range of cutting data is very wide. Under difficult conditions cutting speed can be as low as 82 to 98 feet per minute, but in optimal finishing conditions rates of 656 to 820 feet per minute can be achieved.


An HSS tool was replaced by a CoroMill 690 cutter and an S30T carbide insert grade. Cutting data Old solution Cutting speed 68.9 ft/min Feed 3 in/min Metal removal 2.26 in3 New solution 148 ft/min 6 in/min 9.03 in3

CoroMill 690 is facilitated by threaded holes for coolant nozzles.

Achieving a good productivity rate is the fundamental goal in titanium milling. The best productivity rates will be achieved by first aiming at good process security and reliability by means of advanced NC programming and optimized tools.

Productivity increased by 30 percent, and annual savings amounted to almost $23,000.



Professor of orthopedic surgery at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg, Sweden: 1. Why is precision vital for bone screws? Bone screws need to have a perfect fit, as they are part of the mechanical constructs used in surgical fracture treatment. Such mechanical constructs may include plates and rods, and the screws are connected to these as well as to the bone. 2. What could happen if the bone screw isnt made with high precision? It might be impossible for the orthopedic surgeon to achieve adequate fracture fixation due to a poor fit between various components such as plates and screws. Also, the fixation of the screws in the bone tissue is dependent on exact definition. 3. How does a surgeon insert a bone screw? Bone screws can be used in stabilizing a fractured bone. The surgical technique when putting screws in bone depends on the type of the fracture that is being treated. Understanding biomechanical as well as biological principles is important for the successful healing of a fracture that is surgically treated in this way.

Ariane 5 taking off on a space mission.

Rocket science made easy

SPACE INDUSTRY. The European space rocket series Ariane 5 is designed to deliver payloads of satellites and other spaceships into geostationary transfer orbit or low earth orbit. However, as with all components for the space industry, making pieces for the rocket is a huge challenge for any manufacturer. Serre, a small company located in the Rhne province in southern France, had to face two problems when manufacturing brackets for the Ariane 5s booster rockets. First, with the difficulties inherent in working in Inconel 718 (48 HRC), it couldnt meet the deadlines from SKF Aerospace, the supplier of products and solutions for aerospace, which manufactures attachments assemblies for boosters. The Sandvik Coromant team had a look at the process, and they proposed that we use Sialon technology for turning and milling the component, says Director Alexandre Serre. The new tools reduced the turning cutting time fivefold and increased productivity by 50 percent. As for the milling operation, cycle time was reduced by two-thirds. We invested in a new milling machine, an OKK VMO, distributed by the company Halbronn. The technical cooperation helped us to decrease downtime and make this project with SKF more sustainable, and it eased the process significantly. The solution we worked on with Sandvik Coromant is now used in applications for customers other than SKF. The Ariane 5 rocket will be the mainstay of French space rocket manufacturer Arianespace through at least 2015.

A boost for nuclear power

Recently, Sandvik Materials Technology secured several orders for steam generator tubes that will be used in nuclear power plants in the United States and China. These tubes are among the most advanced we supply, says Cecilia Hgglf, marketing manager within the Tube product area. The demands are stringent both on product quality and quality assurance. We have put a lot of effort into leading the development of the nondestructive examination of the tubing. In addition to steam generator tubes, Sandvik Materials Technology also produces zirconium-alloy cladding tubes (zirconium is a metal specially developed for use in nuclear fuel applications), strip, tube, bar and welding products for a number of key components. Read more about the rise of the nuclear power industry on page 14.



Capturing CO2
R&D. CO2 capture and storage is a blanket term for various methods of capturing CO2 and preventing it from entering the atmosphere.
About a third of all carbon dioxide emissions derive from the fossil fuels used to generate electricity. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a new technology to prevent these emissions from entering the atmosphere.

One storage option is to store the CO2 in the oceans, but this presents various issues, both scientic and legal.

CCS is already used in several commercial projects in the oil and gas and chemical industries. Many pilot projects are in place in power plants, and plans are under way to launch CCS into full use by 2020.

Thus far, underground geological formations are being used to store the CO2 depleted oil and gas elds, coal reservoirs and aquifers in saline formations.

CCS faces some challenges. The cost of the capture process is high, the safety of storage must be proven and the capacity ensured, and some regulations must be put in place.

Smart ambition
EVENTS. Last fall, Sandvik Coromant US held a new kind of technology event at its Productivity Center in Schaumburg, Illinois. Some 175 people from the automotive, aerospace and power generation industries attended the event, which focused on increasing productivity and learning about new machining technologies. For years to come, technology will be the key to manufacturers profitability, says Productivity Center manager Robert Page. Sandvik Coromant ran two sessions on how to work smart. One session was for new cutting tool solutions for rotating products and one was for turning. In another presentation, Mike Lynch, president of CNC Concepts, explained how to use improvement programs to get more out of an investment. Page sees Smart Events taking place year after year. We will offer manufacturers a resource for the latest technical solutions in the metalcutting industry, he says. Events such as the one in Schaumburg are a way for the industry to share knowledge. Contact your local Sandvik Coromant representative for information on events close to you.


A Smart Event is a new way to share knowledge.



teXt: jOhan anderssOn illustratiOn: kjell erikssOn


To manufacture the components of an airplane frame efficiently, you need both the right programming techniques and optimized tools that can handle the challenging demands. Here are eight examples of tools that give you the best results for structural components in an airplane body.

CoroMill 345


The slat track, a component on the leading edge mechanism, is normally made of high-alloy steel and stainless materials. CoroMill 345 with eight-edged insert supplies coolant to each insert pocket, which ensures good chip evacuation for the best performance when machining demanding materials.









CoroMill Plura
The vertical tail in composite materials offers great challenges regarding edging. CoroMill Plura endmills in PCD (vein and brazed) and diamondcoated carbide cutters can be engineered to suit most applications, reducing splintering of fibers and increasing metal removal rates.


CoroTurn SL and Silent Tools

Manufacturing of landing gear components needs productive and flexible solutions. Silent Tools boring bar products are designed to prevent vibrations. Combined with CoroTurn SL cutting heads, Silent Tools products can be used in a broad range of applications including the use of high-pressure coolant for internal machining. The result can be measured in performance and process stability.




Want to learn more? Visit

CoroDrill 854, 855 and 856

Some of the main challenges when manufacturing a wing box in composite materials are the various drilling operations. CoroDrill 854, 855 and 856 have been designed with optimum hole quality in mind. They can be made as PCD (vein, pin and brazed) or as carbide drills with diamond coating.


CoroMill 210
The most difficult feature on the engine mounts on the pylons is the deep slot in the center. The high-feed cutter CoroMill 210 offers a light and fast technique with an excellent metal removal rate. This versatile tool can also be used for face milling, continuous ramping and plunging.








CoroMill 690


The fuselage contains several structural components produced in titanium. The landing gear beam is one example. CoroMill 690 has been developed exclusively for long-edge titanium cutting. Its unique insert-locking design and threaded nozzles enable high metal removal rates with high security.






CoroMill 790
Components such as the wing rib show many of the challenges in aluminum manufacturing, but the new dedicated geometry in CoroMill 790 makes it ideal for just that. The inserts are secured by a unique design, eliminating the possible consequences of high radial forces generated at high speeds.

S30T and S40T



The carriage on the trailing edge is normally produced in titanium. S30T and S40T are developed to cope with the tough demands of titanium milling where the thermal, chemical and mechanical loads on the cutting edges come close to every known cutting tool materials limits.



Our tools come with an extra feature: us.

When it comes to finding smart tooling solutions, theres no substitute for world-leading expertise. The yellow coat is your guarantee that youll get both the worlds finest tools and the know-how to make the most of them. With thousands of proven milling solutions, we have the experience to help you cut cost per part produced, increase machine utilization and improve product quality in everything from helical interpolation to plunge milling to roll-in-roll-out methods. Sound interesting? Visit our website at or get in touch with someone in a yellow coat at 1800SANDVIK.

Think smart | Work smart | Earn smart.

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