JUST IN TIME Vocabulary

Vocabulary Elizabeth Chesla N EW YOR K JUST TI ME IN ® ® Copyright © 2004 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conven-tions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Chesla, Elizabeth L. Just in time vocabulary / Elizabeth Chesla.—1st ed. p. cm. ISBN 1-57865-507-4 (pbk.) 1. Vocabulary—Study and teaching. I. Title. LB1574.5.C44 2004 372.44—dc22 2003019051 Printed in the United States of America 987654321 First Edition ISBN 1-57685-507-4 For more information or to place an order, contact LearningExpress at: 55 Broadway

8th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com ABOUT THE AUTHOR Elizabeth Cheslais the author of 501 Vocabulary Questions, TOEFL Exam Success, Reading Comprehension Success, Write Better Essays,and contributing author of GMAT Exam Success, ACT Exam Success, GED Exam Success,and many other writing and reading guides and test-preparation books. She teaches English language arts at Seton Hall University and lives in South Orange, New Jersey. v

Introduction ix Pronunciation Key xiii 1 Study Skills 1 2 Determining Meaning from Context 16 3 Using Prefixes and Suffixes 38 4 Latin Word Roots 60 5 Greek Word Roots 79 6 Homophones and Other Commonly Confused Words 99 7 Magnificent Modifiers 117 8 Versatile Verbs 137 9 Foreign Words and Phrases 157 10 $5 Words 175 Appendix A: Prefixes, Suffixes, and Word Roots 195 Appendix B: Additional Resources 205 CONTENTS vii

You are justa few weeks—perhaps even just a few days—from taking a big exam that will test your vocabulary, and you haven’t begun to study. Perhaps you just haven’t had the time; after all, your schedule is filled with work, family, and other obligations. Or perhaps you have had the time, but you have procrastinated; vocabulary has never been your strong suit. Maybe you have waited until the last minute because you simply need a refresher course, not an exhaustive review. Or maybe you didn’t even realize that your test included a section on vocabulary, and now you have only a short time to prepare. If any of these scenarios sound familiar, then Just in Time Vocabularyis the right book for you. Designed specifically for last-minute test preparation, Just in Time Vocabularyis a fast, accurate way to build your essential vocab-ulary skills. With over 350 commonly tested words, this workbook will help you review the vocabulary words and skills you already know and teach you other words and strategies that you will need for the exam. In just ten short chapters, you will get just the essentials, just in time for passing your big test. THE JUST IN TIMETEST-PREP APPROACH At LearningExpress, we know how important test scores and an educated vocabulary can be. Whether you are preparing for the PSAT, SAT, GRE, GMAT, or a Civil Service exam, or you simply need to improve your fun-damental vocabulary skills fast, our Just in Timestreamlined approach can work for you. Each skill-building lesson includes: • 35–40 commonly tested vocabulary words • a brief Benchmark Quiz to help you assess your knowledge of the words and skills in the chapter • a brief lesson covering an essential vocabulary skill and word definitions • specific tips and strategies to use as you study and during the exam

• a 25-question practice quiz followed by detailed answers and explanations to help you measure your progress Introduction ix J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY x Our Just in Timeseries also includes the following features: • Extra Helpsidebars that refer you to other Learning-Express skill builders or other resources that can help you learn more about a particular topic • Glossarysidebars with key definitions • Rule Booksidebars highlighting the rules that you absolutely need to know • Shortcutsidebars with tips for reducing your study time—without sacrificing accuracy • Cheat Sheetsidebars with tips and rules-of-thumb for last-minute test preparation • A Complete Vocabulary Listof all the words in each chapter •A Pronunciation Keyto reference as needed No vocabulary book can cover all of the words you mightcome across on a standardized test, and here we have limited our list to just over 350 words. But this book is not just about building your word base; it is also about building those essential skills that can help you determine the meaning of words you don’t know. The vocabulary words in this book have been care-fully chosen to reflect not only what you are likely to see on an exam, but also what you are likely to come across regularly in books, newspapers, lec-tures, and other daily activities. HOW TO USE THIS BOOK The ten chapters in this book are divided into two sections. Chapters 1–5 present specific study and vocabulary skills while chapters 6–10 are word list

beginning with Chapter 1. and use study aids such as flashcards. While each chapter can stand on its own as an effective vocabu-lary skill builder. • Chapter 2: Determining Meaning from Contextreviews how to use context to figure out the meaning of vocabulary words. create a study plan. • Chapter 6: Homophones and Other Commonly Confused Wordsreviews homophones and frequently confused word pairs such as incredibleand incredulous. this book will be most effective if you complete each chap-ter in order. books. . • Chapter 7: Magnificent Modifiersreviews 40 essential adjectives. " E O I NTRODUCTION xi Here is a brief outline of each chapter: • Chapter 1: Study Skillsreviews fundamental study strategies including how to budget your time. • Chapter 3: Using Prefixes and Suffixesreviews how to use word beginnings and endings to determine meaning. so you can sharpen your study and vocabulary skills before you focus on building your word base. • Chapter 4: Latin Word Rootsreviews common Latin word roots and how to use your knowledge of word roots to determine meaning. • Chapter 8: Versatile Verbsreviews 35 verbs you are likely to come across on exams as well as in newspapers. and other texts. • Chapter 9: Foreign Words and Phrasesreviews 35 foreign terms you should know. • Chapter 5: Greek Word Rootsreviews common Greek word roots and how to use them to determine meaning.chapters.

. That way. unhappy hw whether. a hat. preacher d day. review as much as possible. fact a˘ ago. scare. Your big test may be just a short while away. middle . cheer f fan. chart. treat. but you are taking the steps you need to prepare . Review the words from each chapter you have completed before you move on to the next. crib ch church. dependable. clear. fog h heed. puddle. Depending upon how much time you have before the exam. farm air bare. carry.• Chapter 10: $5 Wordsreviews 35 words that are less common in everyday usage but that often appear on standardized tests. Think positive. regular. you will continue to reinforce your knowledge of the words you have already covered before you add more words to your vocabulary. tree eer ear. stuffy. bed e egg. . rabbit. nowhere i it. day b bat. heaven. relief g go. father ahr car. walk. draw ay stage. cherry e˘ end. pedal ah palm. shaken. live. trickle ee eat. head. just in time. fair aw ball. blame.

score. sliver. live . toll m more. how p pan. listen. sew ohr aboard. strengthen. horse ow out. put. coin. dear s sun. pull v vail. house. rice sh share. trot o˘ office. measure ur her.ı˘ stencil. boat. pop r rain. fox. cash t tip. sky j jug. shut u˘ supper. pot th three. hedge k kitten. paper. track l lost. shaken. slim n no. noodle. man ng sing. super oor pour. come. sure or for. cure. edible ı ¯ icy. mutter. father. fishing. breathe u cup. coarse oi oil. tire. delicious. summon. frank o odd. coy oo ooze. breath th this. dinner. scorn. tragic. marry. turn. trolley. finger. worry uu cook. advisor oh oak. salmon.

or even one week to get ready. But the “Just in Time” solution is exactly that: “just in time. treasure Adapted from the Oxford American Dictionary. First. You might be feeling panicky that you will never have enough time to learn what you need to know. two weeks. 1980). yarn.w want. When you put these four factors together. There are four main factors that you need to consider when creating your study plan: what to study. where to study. when to study. aware. If you have three weeks. you can create a spe-cific plan that will allow you to accomplish more—in less time. please zh division. Pronunciation Key xiii JUST IN TIME Vocabulary I f you haveleft studying for that big test until the last minute. . you need a plan. yesterday z zebra.’’ This means that with the help of this book you can use your available time prior to your test effectively. to get ready for your test just in time. and how to study. Heald Colleges Edition (New York: Avon Books. you may be feeling that your only option is to cram. hazy. quaint y you. This chapter will help you put together a study plan that max-imizes your time and tailors your learning strategy to your needs and goals. you can create a plan that avoids anxiety-inducing cramming and focuses on real learning by following the simple steps in this chapter.

If you did not do as well as you antic-ipated you might. do not be alarmed and certainly do not despair. You can accomplish this by looking over the Table of Contents to see what looks familiar to you and by answering the Benchmark Quiz questions starting in the next chapter. Some questions to ask yourself when you review your wrong answers: • Did you get the question wrong because the vocabulary word was totally unfamiliar? • Was the vocabulary familiar but were you unable to come up with the right answer due to the question context? In this case. Because you have limited time. It is important to carefully analyze your results. when you . ◗Establish a Benchmark In each chapter you will take a short. You also need to know exactly what is covered on the test you will be taking. you will be able to avoid studying the material you already know. You need to have a good measure of your Study Skills 1 1 J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 2 ability in vocabulary. ten-question Benchmark Quiz that will help you assess your skills. Considering both your abil-ity and the test content will tell you what you need to study. Look beyond your score. A Benchmark Quiz is only practice. you need to be very efficient in your studies. and consider whyyou answered some questions incorrectly.WHAT TO STUDY Finding out what you need to study for your test is the first step in cre-ating an effective study plan. Once you take a chapter Benchmark Quiz and analyze the results. The pur-pose of the quiz is to help you focus your efforts so that you can improve. This will allow you to focus on those areas that need the most attention. This may be one of the most important steps in creating your study plan.

◗Targeting Your Test For the “Just in Time” test-taker. if you got eight out of ten questions right (not counting lucky guesses). For exam-ple. But if you got five out of ten questions wrong. There are three important aspects that you should know about your test before developing your study plan: . you will need a thorough review of the chapter. it is important to focus your study efforts to match what is needed for your test. You don’t want to waste your time learning something that will not be covered on your test. • Or did you make a lucky guess? A lucky guess means that you don’t know the word and you will need to learn it. Third. it will tell you how much you need to study. circling choice awhen you meant to circle choice b. you will determine which category of words you need to study in-depth. it can tell you what you know well. that is which subjects you don’tneed to study. Not all right answers are created equally. First. STU DY SKI LLS 3 Your performance on the Benchmark Quiz will tell you several impor-tant things. “I knew that!” • Did you answer incorrectly because you read the question care-lessly? • Did you make another careless mistake? For example. • Did you simply know the right answer? • Did you make an educated guess? An educated guess might indicate that you have some familiarity with the word.read the right answer it will often make perfect sense. You might even think. Next. and which words you simply need to refresh your knowledge of. Second. look at the questions you got correct and review how you came up with the right answer. you might only need to brush up on certain vocabulary words. but you probably need at least a quick review of the definition.

Conversely. First. then you should set your sights on achieving a score of 550 or better. you should ask your instructor specific questions about the upcoming test. Or. These tests—which have been created to match the test that you will take—are probably the best way to learn what will be covered. ◗Matching Your Abilities to Your Test Now that you understand your strengths and weaknesses and you know what to expect of your test. some exams are pass or fail. You might be better served by concentrating on solidifying your grasp of the main material covered on the exam. you need to consider both factors to determine what material you need to study.• What material is covered? • What is the format of the test? Is it multiple choice? Fill in the blank? Some combination? Or something else? • What is the level of difficulty? How can you learn about the test before you take it? For most stan-dardized tests. if there will only be a few questions out of a hundred that test your knowledge of a subject that is your weakest area. You should also know how your score will affect your goal. and the median verbal score of students accepted at your college of choice is 550. If you can expect to find ques-tions of this type on your test. The important thing to remember is that you want to maximize your . if you are taking the New York City Police Officer exam. For example. there are sample tests available. For example. If your test is non-standardized. you can focus your efforts simply on achieving a passing score. In this case. you might decide not to study this subject area at all. will cover this material. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 4 But be sure to consider how much of the test. look at the subject area or question type with which you have the most trouble. then this subject might be your first priority. you know that you need to get a perfect or near-perfect score to get a top slot on the list. if you are taking the SAT exam.

If you are trying to fit studying in between family obligations. Be sure to pick a place . and you don’t want to study material that you don’t need to know. You need to determine what type of study environment works for you. For many people studying at home is a good solution. You don’t want to study material that you already know. Chores that have piled up. The place should also be convenient and conform to your schedule. WHERE TO STUDY The environment in which you choose to study can have a dramatic impact on how successful your studying is. For example. children or younger siblings who need your attention. are just some of things that might interfere with studying at home. Home is always open and you don’t waste any time getting there. the library might be ideal in many respects. but that you most need to know. for some people the noisy coffee shop is the ideal environment. but it can have drawbacks. or television that captures your interest. you might find that working from home offers too many opportunities for distraction. if it takes you an hour to get there and it closes soon after you arrive you are not max-imizing your study time. If home is not a good environment for quiet study. secure place that is free from distractions. Studying at home is a good solution if you have a room that you can work in alone and away from any distractions. or a coffee shop are places you can consider. Or maybe you have roommates who will draw your attention away from your studies. If you chose to study in a noisy coffee shop at a small table with dim lighting. ◗Consider Your Options Your goal is to find a comfortable. You will make the best use of your time if you study the material that you know the least. the library.time. it may take you two hours to cover the same material you could read in an hour in the quiet of the library. a reading room. That is an hour that you don’t have to lose! However. However.

Ideally. you should be sure that you are not paying attention to what’s on in the background. Light that is too dim will strain your eyes and make you drowsy. you will need to enlist the help . while others will be distracted without some sort of background noise. Which noise level allowed you to work the fastest? ◗Light You will need to have enough light to read comfortably. A stuffy room will make you sleepy and a cold room is simply uncomfortable. If you are studying outside your home. For example. bring along an extra sweater if your local library is skimpy with the heat. studying in bed is probably more conducive to sleep than concentrated learning. Classical music can be soothing and might help you relax as you study. You will need a comfortable chair that offers good back support and a work surface—a desk or table—that gives you enough space for your books and other supplies. If you think you work better with music or the tel-evision on. STU DY SKI LLS 5 ◗Noise Everyone has his or her own tolerance for noise. Some people need absolute silence to concentrate. Experts suggest that the best light for reading comes from behind and falls over your shoulder. then try the same amount of work with noise.that is relatively quiet and which provides enough workspace for your needs. ◗Comfort Your study place should be comfortable and conducive to work. Too bright and you will be uncomfortable and tense. Try reading a chapter or doing some problems in silence. but you can dress appropriately. Make sure your light source falls on your book and does not shine in your eyes. ◗A Little Help When you have settled on a place to study. the tempera-ture should be a happy medium between too warm and too cold. While your bed might be comfortable. you may not be able to control the tem-perature.

Mark a piece of paper in fifteen-minute intervals from the time you get up to the time you generally go to bed. But there may be other downtime in your workday when you can squeeze in a short study session.of your family and friends—especially if you are working at home. Or you can review flashcards on your bus ride. you should rethink your routine. if you spend an hour at the gym on the stationary bike. if you still don’t have the time you need. The cooperation of your family and friends will eliminate one of the greatest potential distractions. However. if you work from nine to five. When you look at your schedule closely. you will probably find you have more time than you thought. Be sure they know that when you go to your room and close the door to study. but you probably have more time available than you think. You will want to set aside a stretch of time when you plan to study in your designated study place. do not simply block that time off as unavailable for study. Lunch is an obvi-ous time. you could record some study material on a tape or CD. If your friends all go to the same coffee shop where you plan to study. Fill in each fifteen-minute interval. You could also listen to this tape while you walk the dog. Can you ask your significant other . If you drive to work. But you can also be creative and find ways to study for short bursts during your normal routine. ◗Analyze Your Schedule Your first step in finding time to study is to map out your day-to-day sched-ule—in detail. For example. Write down your daily routine at work and see when you might have some time to study. you will also need to ask them to respect your study place. For example. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 6 WHEN TO STUDY Finding the time in your busy schedule may seem like the greatest hurdle in making your “just in time” study plan. you do want to be disturbed. It just takes a little planing and some creativity. you can read while you cycle.

Use the small spurts of time you have found in your schedule to review with flashcards. and become stressed-out by the testing environment. cheat sheets. You will add over six and a half hours to your schedule without completely aban-doning your fitness routine. Not only will you be tired when you study. say four hours. once you consider your goal. Use this time to learn new material or take a practice quiz and review your answers. You will probably find that you can set aside one block of time during the day during which you will do the bulk of your studying. A sleep-deprived test-taker is more likely to make careless mistakes. Do you have a short attention span? Then you will do better with a schedule of several shorter study peri-ods. you should build a schedule with longer blocks of time. If you plan to do most of your studying in one block of time. Does it take you some time to get into material? If so. you will be sleep deprived by the time of the test. plan to study when you are most energetic and alert. Neither very long study sessions nor very short (except for quick reviews) sessions are an efficient use of time. Remember any changes you make to your schedule are short-term and a small sacrifice. . ◗Time Strategies Now that you know when you have time available you need to use that time to the best advantage. lose energy and focus. cut down to three days a week for forty-five minutes. Also consider your learning style and body rhythm when you make your STU DY SKI LLS 7 schedule. Whether you are a morning person or a night owl. and other tools. No matter your style. avoid extremes.to take on a greater share of the household chores for the few weeks you need to get ready for your test? Is there some activity that you can forgo for the next few weeks? If you normally go to the gym six days a week for an hour and a half. Skip-ping sleep is not a good way to find time in your schedule. Make sure your schedule allows for adequate rest and study breaks.

you will need methods that will help you to remember not to memorize the material. Do not sacrifice sleep in order to make time to study. Experts have shown that stu-dents are more likely to retain material if they take some time to digest it. And. Most people need about eight hours of sleep a night. All these techniques—using the right tools and methods—will help you make the most of your study time. Eat three nutritious meals a day. The key word is healthy. . you are not working effi-ciently.be sure you leave time to take a study break. but too much caffeine will make you feel jittery and tense. If you have ever pulled an all-nighter you know that by four in the morning you can find yourself reading the same page several times without understanding a word. for example—can give you a boost. so don’t skip meals. Adequate rest and good nutrition will allow you to be focused and energetic so you can get more work done in less time. HOW TO STUDY How you study is just as important as how long—especially if your time is limited. Caffeine can have a similar effect. but that sugar rush is fol-lowed by a crash that will leave you feeling depleted. You will also need to understand your learning style so that you can select the best study method. A little caffeine—a morning cup of coffee. and keep healthy snacks on hand during a long study session.Sugary snacks J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 8 might make you feel energized in the short term. Eat Right. perhaps most important. You will need to be in a good physical and mental state. ◗Sleep Well. A five.or ten-minute break to stretch your legs or eat a snack will revive you and give your brain time to absorb what you have learned. Hunger can be a distraction. and you will need to use the right tools for the job. and Relax Does your idea of studying hard include images of staying up into the wee hours and living on fast food and caffeine until the big test? Even though it may seem like you are working hard when you study around the clock and put aside good eating habits in order to save time.

Visualize a soothing place. you will have a rested. If your anxiety about the upcoming test is getting the better of you. Inhale deeply through your nose and feel your stomach inflate. but as anxiety mounts your muscles tense. Pre-exam anxiety can also get in the way of effective studying. Work from your toes to your head systematically.You may not even notice it. Your chest should remain still. It is the slow exhalation that helps you relax. energized. so make sure you take your time releasing your breath. This tension can interfere with your concentration. But there are other tools that you will need to make your study session the most productive. You may tense your neck and shoulders. Sit up straight. or your jaw. Pausing during a study session to take three deep breaths is a quick way to clear your mind and body of tension so that you can better focus on your work. your toes. smells. Close your eyes and conjure up the sights.Tension can affect your ability to concentrate. and relaxed brain—the most important tool you need to prepare for your exam. deep breaths can drain the tension from your body. Taking long. Release the tension held in your muscles by purposefully tensing then relaxing each muscle. ◗The Right Tools for the Job If you follow the steps above. Really try to feel like you are there for five uninterrupted minutes and you will return from your mini vacation ready to study.Taking a break to mentally visit a place that you find relaxing can be reinvigorating. and sounds of your favorite place. Place one hand on your stomach and the other on your chest. try these simple relax-ation techniques: Breathe!Sounds simple. Exhale slowly through your mouth and feel your stomach deflate. and it is. Be sure that you have all the supplies you need on hand before . Tense and relax your muscles. Being over-caffeinated is not the only potential source of tension.

work on suffixes. if you have difficulty remembering prefixes. rather than simply having time set aside to study for the test. practice prefixes. you could study a different word part on certain days of the week: On Monday. you will find that your understanding of prefixes. To help make studying more pleasant. When you begin to see the large topic as smaller units of information that are connected. This will give you specific tasks to accomplish each day. on Friday. and word roots. suffixes. select supplies that you enjoy using. and word . Breaking down the work into manageable chunks will help you plan your studying and motivate you to get started. You will also use these small chunks of information to build your study plan. This seeming mountain of work can generate anxi-ety and even cause you to procrastinate further. For example. try reviewing Latin roots. you will develop a deeper understanding of the subject. Here is a list of supplies that you will need: • a notebook or legal pad dedicated to studying for your test • pens • pencils STU DY SKI LLS 9 • pencil sharpener • highlighter • index or other note cards • paper clips or sticky note pads for marking pages • a calendar or personal digital assistant (which you will use to keep track of your study plan) ◗Break It Down You may be feeling overwhelmed by the amount of material you have to cover in a short time. on Wednesday. “Learn all word parts” might seem like an overwhelming task. and so on. but if you divide the work into smaller pieces. suffixes. It will also help you organize the material in your mind.you sit down to study.

c. especially if they use colored markers. even if you don’t reread them. A kinesthetic learner would answer c. and a. and b. but one style might be more dom-inant. People absorb information in dif-ferent ways.roots improves with practice and patience. When visual learners study.their faces (names are hard to remember).their names (faces are hard to remember). Here are some questions that will help you identify your dominant learning style: 1. Visual learners like to read and are often good spellers. you remember them mostly by a. A visual learner would answer a.In class you like to a. c. ◗Your Learning Style Learning is not the same for everyone. auditory. Experts have identified three main types of learners: visual.repeat the word aloud several times. Flashcards often appeal to them and help them learn. and c.listen intently to every word.take notes. c. b.their actions and mannerisms. a.picture the word in your mind. b. .trace out the letters with your finger. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 10 2. c. they often benefit from graphic organizers such as charts and graphs. b.sit up close and watch the instructor. Most people use a combination of all three learning styles. which will help them form images in their minds as they learn words or concepts. Understanding how you learn will help you develop the most effective study plan for your learning style. and kinesthetic. you most likely a. 3. An auditory learner would answer b.If you have to remember an unusual word. b.When you meet new people.

They tend to learn best by doing rather than observing. • Ask questions. because using their bodies helps them remember things. Auditory learners will benefit from saying things aloud as they study and by making tapes for themselves and listening to them later. They also like being read aloud to. making notes. although they may have a distinct preference for one style over the others. Choose methods of interacting with the text that match your dominant learning style. Using study methods that suit your learning style will help you to reallylearn the mate-rial you need to know for the test. and marking passages instead of simply reading the words on the page. Making up rhymes or other oral mnemonic devices will also help them study. Determine which is your dominant style. Oral repetition is also an important study tool. but be open to strategies for all types of learners. ◗Remember—Don’t Memorize You need to use study methods that go beyond rote memorization to gen-uine comprehension in order to be fully prepared for your test. Kinesthetic learners like to stay on the move. They often talk to themselves and may even whisper aloud when they read. Kinesthetic learners may want to walk around as they practice what they are learning. They often find it difficult to sit still for a long time and will often tap their feet and gesticulate a lot while speaking. It is important to remember that most people learn in a mixture of styles.When you study a word list. as is making flashcards. .Auditory learners. One of the most important learning strategies is to be an active reader. Taking notes is an important way of reinforcing knowledge for the kinesthetic learner. ask questions such as. by contrast. like oral directions and may find written materials confusing or boring. and they may like to listen to music as they work. Interact with what you are reading by STU DY SKI LLS 11 asking questions.

• Flashcards. It might be helpful. Hearing words and their definitions read aloud can clarify their meanings for you. Review the flashcards until you can state the meaning of each word without looking at the other side. If you take an hour and a half to actively read the same chapter. to explain to a friend how a pair of synonyms are similar as well as how they slightly dif-fer in meaning or degree. reading aloud can help aid in comprehension. but highlighting key concepts that you can return to when you review.Making notes as you read is another way for you to identify key similarities and differences among words and to put definitions into your own words. you will also need methods to review what you have learned.Write each word on one side of an index card and its definition. Be sure you are not just coloring. which will help you remember what you have learned. • Make notes. • Read aloud. • Highlight. and perhaps a sample sentence on the other. You are also putting the information into your own words. that is time well spent.“What do these words have in common? How are they different?” Asking yourself questions will test your comprehension of the mate-rial.Especially for the auditory learner.Using a highlighter is another way to interact with what you are reading. Just making the cards alone is a . you have wasted that hour. for example.Try to relate new vocabulary to words you already know. Writing down these connections can also help you memorize definitions. synonyms. Reading actively is probably the most important way to use your study time effectively. • Make connections. If you spend an hour passively reading and retaining little of what you have read. you will not only be learning new mate-rial. However. This can be especially helpful when you are learning definitions. Putting vocab-ulary definitions into your own words helps you to understand these processes more clearly.

or some juicy gos-sip. ◗Studying with Others Studying in a group or with another person can be a great motivator. songs. Then. and the more comfortable you will be actually using them—which is the key to making them part of your permanent vocabulary. Devel-oping your own mnemonics will help you make a personal connec-tion with vocabulary and help you recall it during your test. review.If you commit to working with someone else you are .way of engaging with the material. as it can be easy to wander off the subject at hand and on to more interesting subjects such as last night’s game. BIV. • Mnemonics. you have a portable review system. the sooner you will learn their meanings. especially when it comes to building vocabulary.Write down the meaning of words you come across in your other reading and test preparation. The key is to choose your study partners well and to have a plan for the study session that will keep you on track. review. • Review. • Keep a word list. You reinforce your knowledge of words and definitions by writing them down. It can also be a distraction. There are definite advantages to studying with others: Motivation. Just writing down the words and their definitions will help seal them in your memory and you will have a great word list to review as you expand your vocabulary.Repetition is the key to mastery. which stands for Red Orange J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 12 Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet—the colors of the rainbow. The more you review the words in this book and on your word list. Some familiar mnemonics are “i before e except after c” or ROY G.These catchy rhymes. and acronyms are tools that help us remember information. when you have made a stack of cards. Flashcards are perfect for studying with a friend and for studying on the go.

Some study partners can be overly competi-tive. Shared expertise. STU DY SKI LLS 13 Too much fun.You can draw encouragement from your fellow test takers and you won’t feel alone in your efforts.Organizing a study group can take time. If you are spending a lot of time making phone calls and sending e-mails trying to get your study group together. .As you learned from your practice questions. or if you have to travel a distance to meet up with your study partner. you have certain strengths and weaknesses in the subject. but by offering yourexpertise you will build your confidence for the upcoming test. Not only will you get help. you may be motivated by some friendly competition. Time and convenience. Solidarity. always trying to prove that they are better in the subject than you. This can lead to stress and sap your confidence. Weigh the pros and cons of studying with others to decide if this is a good strategy for you. Also. it may be because you spend more time socializing than studying. you can each benefit from your partner’s strengths. This companionship can help reduce test anxiety. Be wary of the overly competitive study partner. Sometimes it is bet-ter to study with an acquaintance who is well-matched with your study needs and with whom you are more likely to stay on task. this may not be an efficient strategy.more likely to follow through.If you usually hate studying but really look forward to getting together with your best friend to study. There are also some disadvantages to studying with others: Stress of competition. If you can find a study partner with the opposite strengths and weaknesses.

Any number of things can happen to your J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 14 well-thought-out study plan—and some of them probably will. or a personal digital assistant to build your plan. now you need to put all four factors together to build your study plan. to 9:00 P. JUST IN TIME You have thought about the what. . to 9:00 A. soccer practice may go late.M. When you have created your study plan. You can also plan how to study in your schedule. You may need to reconsider some of your other commitments and .M. Assign one chunk of material to each of the longer study sessions you have planned. study Chapter 4 flashcards.M. For example. make notes.M. The most important thing to remember when you get off track is not to panic or throw in the towel. Then for Tuesday 8:30 A. Your study plan should be as detailed and specific as possible. you might write for Monday 6:00 P. and have broken the material down into smaller chunks. Now you need to fill in the details. You have also figured out what you need to study. ◗Building a Study Plan You will need a daily planner. ◗Staying on Track Bear in mind that nothing goes exactly as planned. You can adjust your schedule to make up the lost time. You may need to stay late at work. a calendar with space to write. and how. you may get a nasty cold. You will need strategies for coping with life’s little surprises.: Read Chapter 4. The key to a successful study plan is to be as detailed as possible.JUST THE FACTS . you then need to follow through. and create set of flashcards. You have already determined the time you have free for study. . when. or your child might need to go to the doctor. You may need to combine some chunks or add some review sessions depending on the number of long study sessions you have planned in your schedule. where. (your com-mute time).

Breathe. • Keep the television off. There are the obvious distractions such as socializing. and will do what they can to help you stick to your plan. • Enlist the help of your friends and family. Make sure they know how impor-tant this test is to you. such as getting sick.Just as you have asked your friends and family to respect your study space. you can also ask them to respect your study time. They can all eat up your time and throw off your study plan.” “Maybe I’ll just study for an hour instead of two so I can watch the season finale of my . They will then understand that you don’t want to be disturbed during study time. and the telephone. television. The good news is you can do a lot to keep these dis-tractions at bay. This way you won’t eat up your study time answering phone calls—even a five-minute call can cause you to lose focus and waste precious time.If you know that you have the tendency to get pulled into watching TV. There are also less amusing dis-tractions such as anxiety and fear. • Use the relaxation techniques discussed earlierin the chapter if you find yourself becoming anxious while you study. “I’ll never get through what I planned to study tonight. • Banish negative thoughts.” “I’m so mad all my friends are at the movies and I’m stuck here studying. Or you may need to forego one of your planned review sessions to learn new material. You can always find a few extra minutes here and there for your review. or visualize a soothing place. This way you won’t be tempted to push back your study time to see how a program ends or see “what’s coming up next.Negative thoughts—such as. don’t turn it on even beforeyou plan to study. that are unavoidable. tense and relax your muscles. ◗Minimizing Distractions There are some distractions.see if you can borrow some time for studying. Many others can be minimized.” • Turn off your cell phone and the ringer on your home phone.

Posi-tive visualization is a much more powerful motivator than negative imagery. Your study plan suddenly clashes with a very compelling distraction. especially for flagging enthusiasm. ” and so on. Here are some strategies to help keep you motivated: • Visualization. Or you may simply be tired from a long day at work or school or from taking care of your family and feel like you don’t have the energy for three hours of concentrated study.Remind yourself of what you will gain from doing well on the test. • Rewards.Rewards for staying on track can be a great motivator. however. . look back at your plan and remind yourself of how much you have already accomplished. I can watch the tape of my show.You can use your study plan to provide positive feedback. As you work toward the test date. perhaps watch your favorite TV program or have a spe-cial treat—whatever it is that will motivate you.” “I want to study because I want to do well on the test so I can . and friends to help you stay motivated. . You can also enlist the help of study partners. Your plan will provide a record of your steady progress as you move forward. family. STU DY SKI LLS 15 ◗Staying Motivated You can also get off track because your motivation wanes. You may have built a rock-solid study plan and set aside every evening from 6:00 to 9:00 to study. Then. Take some time to visualize how your life will be positively changed if you accomplish your goal. Simply answer your negative thought with something positive—“If I study the full two hours. Some-times just noticing your negative thoughts is enough to conquer them. Let the people in your life know . spend time visualizing how awful your life will be if you fail. • Positive feedback. your favorite team makes it to the playoffs. Do not. When you accomplish your study goal.favorite show”—interfere with your ability to study effectively.

about your study plan and your progress. When you are finished. Explicitmeans: a. take a few minutes to take this ten-question Benchmark Quiz. Before you begin learning and reviewing context clues. A complete list of all of the vocabu-lary words in this lesson is provided at the end of the chapter. use the context of the sentence to determine the meaning of the italicized word. Your Benchmark Quiz analysis will help you determine how much time you need to spend on using context as well as the specific words you need to learn in order to increase your vocabulary power. As the slogan says. complex. I n this chapter. At the end of the day. They are sure to applaud your efforts. . BENCHMARK QUIZ For each question below. The fact that you bought this book and have taken the time to create a well-thought out study plan shows that you are committed to your goal. Determining Meaning from Context 2 16 DETE RMINING MEAN ING FROM CONTEXT 17 1.Make sure the directions are very explicitso that no one makes a mistake. youwill be your prime motivator. now all that is left is to “Just do it!” Imagine yourself succeeding on your test and let the excitement of meeting your goal carry you forward.you will review one of the most fundamental vocab-ulary skills: how to use context to determine meaning. check the answer key carefully to assess your results. These questions are similar to the type of questions that you will find on important tests.intricate.

b.fruitful.clearly and fully stated. b.to close down temporarily. e.radical. Benignmeans: a.useless.harmless.to be full of.to enjoy the benefits of.stubborn. To teemmeans: a.ambiguous or implied. c. d. c.insane. c. 3. d. d. e.chronologically ordered.to be under close scrutiny.The hotel is teeming with security personnel because the leaders of several countries are here for a summit meeting. Jensen applied for the job anyway because it was his dream position. b.Although it was futilebecause he didn’t meet half of the requirements. without expressing opinions. Futilemeans: a. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 18 .factual. e.dangerous. nearly overflowing. e. b.Karen was relieved to learn that the chemicals in her well water were all benign. 4. c.undisturbed.of local origin. 2.natural. d.to lose business due to circumstances beyond one’s control.

to support wholeheartedly. To thwartmeans: a.exciting. b. To garnermeans: a.create. b.complex.Ilka has always emulatedher older brother. e.Everyone loved Ilona’s idea. c.Although the plot of the film is admittedly trite.5.to feel a strong bond with.demonstrate. 6. and she quickly garneredenough support for her proposal to present it to the committee. d.to be more successful than. d. b.Cy’s attempt to finally complete the marathon was thwartedwhen he twisted his ankle in the twenty-third mile. b.to regard as inferior.to injure seriously. 7. or outdo. e.tragic.propose. c.withhold. . imitate.gather.overused.to prevent from accomplishing.original. 8.to strive to equal. Tritemeans: a. d. e. so it is no surprise that she is also pursuing a career as a neuroscientist. c. To emulatemeans: a. the characters are so endearing that the movie is highly entertaining despite the old storyline.

refreshingly honest.a mystery. although she’s lived here for years and everyone knows her. no one seems to know anything about who she is or where she came from. b.to set aside a long-awaited goal.an enemy. The context tells you that the directions need to be clear to prevent an error.Explicitmeans clearly and fully stated. An enigmais: a.arrogant. b.original. DETE RMINING MEAN ING FROM CONTEXT 19 9.to support actively. cutting edge. vain. it will help .bitingly sarcastic.an orphan. e. exact. BENCHMARK QUIZ SOLUTIONS How did you do on identifying context clues? Check your answers here. d.relentlessly funny. c. d. e.a newcomer. If the directions are clearly and fully stated. c.Sandra is truly an enigma.Aswad has such a caustic sense of humor that most people find his jokes upsetting rather than humorous.c. d.to be excessively competitive. and then analyze the results to figure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. ◗Answers 1. e.a stranger. Causticmeans: a. 10. b. straightforward.

or acquire. there is likely to be a great number of security officers in the hotel. If there is a meeting of several foreign leaders. e.’’ which indi-cates that the plot of the movie is overused. The sentence tells you that Ilona quickly found the support she needed to present her idea to the committee. Numerous security personnel typically surround the leader of a country. vain. Benignmeans not harmful or malignant. 5. Cy’s twisted ankle kept him from realizing his attempt to complete the marathon. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 20 3. Jensen’s application is useless because he does not meet the minimum requirements for the job. amass. 4. hopeless. b. 6. Futilemeans useless. it is logical to conclude that she would gather their support. to be present in large numbers. b. producing no result. c.Tritemeans repeated too often.ensure that no one makes a mistake. 7. overly familiar through overuse. . The sentence tells you that Ilka is pursuing the same career as her brother. Karen would logically be worried about chemicals in her water and relieved if she learned those chemicals were harmless. a. The key context clue is the phrase “the old storyline. To teem means to be full of. gentle. e. having a beneficial effect. 8. which indicates that she is trying to equal or outdo him through imitation. also since the sentence states that peo-ple loved Ilona’s idea. mild. d.To thwartmeans to prevent the accomplishment or realization of something. 2. To garnermeans to gather. Choice eis the only answer that makes sense in the context of the sentence.To emulatemeans to try to equal or excel. especially by imitation.

and it is a skill you can prac-tice every day.9. well done! You are already skilled at determining meaning from context. have a dictionary handy. Consider supple-menting your test preparation with some reading comprehension practice. JUST IN TIME LESSON— DETERMINING MEANING FROM CONTEXT SHORTCUT: BE AN ACTIVE READER Active reading is one of the most important vocabulary and reading compre-hension skill-building strategies you can employ. or a good book. Work through the quiz at the end of the chapter to check your progress. As you read the daily newspaper. Look up as many unfamiliar words as . but you need more practice to really sharpen this skill. a baffling problem or riddle. Causticmeans bitingly sarcastic. you know how to use context to determine meaning. thus choice ais the only option that makes sense. 10. Try LearningExpress’s 501 Reading Comprehension Questions. Study the lesson that follows carefully. 2nd edition. she remains a mystery. thus. but no one knows anything about her. able to burn or dissolve by chemical action. move on to Chapter 3. If you answered 1–3 questions correctly. If you answered 4–7 questions correctly. d. cutting. your favorite magazine. If your score on the practice test is equally high. Give the lesson a quick review and DETE RMINING MEAN ING FROM CONTEXT 21 do the practice exercise. a. The context tells you that people know who Sandra is.Enigmameans something that is puzzling or difficult to under-stand. BENCHMARK QUIZ RESULTS If you answered 8–10 questions correctly. and do the practice quiz on a separate sheet of paper so that you can do the exercise several times if necessary. The main context clue is that people find Aswad’s jokes upsetting rather than humorous. you have difficulty using con-text to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words.

you will continually expand your bank of vocabulary words—and the big-ger your word base. sincere speech—Arun tells people exactly what he thinks. d.you can so that your bank of vocabulary words becomes as large as it can be.readiness to judge or criticize others. " J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 22 GLOSSARY CONTEXT the words and sentences that surround a word or phrase and help convey its meaning Based on the context of the sentence. thus signifying that candormeans frank. sincere speech. This may sound like a contradiction.irritability. only bcan be the correct answer. Contextrefers to the words and sentences that sur-round a particular word and help fix its meaning. but sometimes he can be a bit toohonest. b. e. Ever since you were learning your first words. you have been determining meaning from context. By reading actively. Candormeans: a. but if you make a habit of taking the time to read carefully and actively. By reading carefully.frank. The speaker tells you that Arun is sometimes toohonest. and the less time you will spend looking up words.attitude. you will actually spend less time learning the meaning of new vocabulary words.comfort speaking in front of people. you will often be able to determine meaning from context. the more you will comprehend. notice how the context of the sentence below helps give the word candorits meaning: I admire Arun’s candor. RULE BOOK: USE IT OR LOSE IT . c. For example.

The first part of the sentence tells you that candor is a good thing (positive/negative) while the second part essentially restates the meaning of the word. and this can help you narrow down your answer choices on an exam. because the speaker admires Arun’s candor.When you are learning a new word. so that you can tell exactly what destitutemeans: extremely poor. There are four types of context clues that can help you: 1. Even if you can’t figure out exactly what candormeans.There’s really only one “rule” for building your vocabulary: Use it or lose it. you can tell from the context whether it is something positive or negative. The context also restates the meaning of destitute.Contrast 4. You can therefore eliminate choices cand e. Introduce them to members of your fam-ily. you will soon for-get what it means. you can assume that candor is a positive thing. so poor that he could barely afford to eat. The context clearly reveals that destituteis not a positive word.Positive/Negative 3. essentially defining the word within the sentence. Write new words down on a vocabulary list. then.Specific Detail This sentence. Use them in emails or letters to friends. Use the words you learn in your everyday communications as much as possible so they become a permanent part of your vocabulary. In this case. Here’s another example of a sentence that uses these two types of context clues: Hani suddenly found himself destitute.Restatement 2. it is not a good thing to be so poor one can barely afford to eat. uses two types of context clues: restatementand positive/negative. E DETE RMINING MEAN ING FROM CONTEXT 23 . if you don’t use it.

reading and watching television. you know the other answers are incorrect because Sarah didn’t do anything luxurious (choice a) and she didn’t do any work or chores (choices band e). She left her chores for another day and spent the afternoon lying on the couch. e. done her grocery shopping. How do you know what indolencemeans? From two more types of con-text clues: contrastand specific detail.luxury. You know that the assiduousSarah of Sunday was very different from the indolentSarah of Sat-urday (contrast). Again. There’s no mention of sleep in the paragraph.deep sleep. very busy on Sunday. b. you have two kinds of context clues: contrast and specific detail. while the second and third sentences confirm this with specific details. and by noon she had already cleaned her whole apartment. The answer is d.laziness.hard labor. Saturday. Now let’s look at the context in which assiduousis used. laziness. The first sentence suggests that indolenceis in contrast to working hard. c. she slept until noon. Read the fol-lowing paragraph as an example (but don’tlook up the italicized words!): Sarah had worked so hard for the past few weeks that she decided she owed herself a day of complete indolence. and left the dishes in the sink.household chores. ordered take-out so she wouldn’t have to cook. so choice cis also incorrect. d. But on Sunday. Thus you can determine that indolence means: a. You also know what the assiduousSarah does: she is very. she was back to her old assiduousself. Besides.There are two other types of context clues to watch for. The specific details tell you that Sarah did her best to laze around the house all day. cleaning and working around the house (specific . and paid her bills.

make sure you look at the surrounding words carefully and consider their denotations and connotations. if you were to look up the word playfulin the dictionary. but a quack is also an untrained or unqualified person who pretends to be a doctor. the context will often reveal a great deal about the connotation of that word. though. But all three of these words have different connotations and bring to mind different feelings. For example. the connotations of the surrounding words will usually tell you whether the vocabulary word is positive or negative. Assiduousmeans diligent. unremitting. GLOSSARY DENOTATIONa word’s exact meaning or dictionary definition CONNOTATION a word’s implied meaning or emotional impact When you come across an unfamiliar word. spiritedand mis-chievous. hardworking. Spiritedhas a positive connotation and mischie-vousa negative connotation while playfulis neutral in tone. when you are looking for context clues. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 24 For example. you would still be able to understand the main idea of the passage even if you did not know—or could not figure out—the meanings of indolence and assiduous. Each word also has a connotation—an implied meaning or emotional impact. even if it does not provide enough information for you to determine its denotation. ◗How Much Context Do You Need? In the passage about Sarah. your under-standing of a sentence or paragraph depends on your understanding of a particular word or phrase. A quack. But words also have another meaning beyond their denotationor dictionary definition. you might get a definition similar to that of two of its synonyms. Therefore. In some cases. for example. ◗Denotation and Connotation You already know that some words have more than one meaning. At a minimum. you can’t understand what inept . is the sound a duck makes. persevering.detail).

3rd edition. Reading Comprehension Success in 20 Minutes a Day. Sabina remains an utterly ineptdancer who simply stumbles across the dance floor. TIPS AND STRATEGIES . 2nd edition.means from the sentence below—it simply does not provide sufficient con-text. But you couldfigure out what inept means by breaking down the word into its prefix (in) and word root (ept). though. because the sentence provides almost no context at all: Sabina is an utterly ineptdancer. a careful look at the context will give you enough clues to interpret the definitions. That’s the subject of the next three lessons. you can’t even figure out if it is something positive or negative. EXTRA HELP If your Benchmark Quiz score was low (less than four correct answers) or you feel the need for more practice determining meaning from con-text. Is Sabina a gracefuldancer? An awkwarddancer? Or an accomplished dancer? You simply cannot tell from the context. Now we can tell through context that ineptmeans awkwardor clumsy. too. however. 501 Vocabulary Questionsoffers more practice. Meanwhile. Lesson 3 provides a lesson on determining vocabulary in context. Each of the 20 vocabulary lessons provides vocabulary in context exercises. here’s a sentence that does give you the context you need to determine the meaning of the word: Despite years of lessons. Sometimes you will find unfamil-iar words whose meanings are indecipherable without a dictionary. More often than not. you can find extra help in these other LearningExpress titles: Vocabulary and Spelling Success in 20 Minutes a Day. Being able to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words from their DETE RMINING MEAN ING FROM CONTEXT 25 context is an essential vocabulary skill. In fact.

From the start. • Be sure to look carefully at the context of the sentence itself and avoid bringing your own contextual meaning from your own expe-riences of colloquial language use. • Remember that you have a very powerful tool on a multiple-choice exam: the process of elimination. putting the word in the context of the sentence can help you determine whether an answer is right or wrong. • Look for introductory words and phrases such as unfortunately.Vocabulary-in-context questions are common on standardized tests. Here are some specific tips and strategies to use while preparing for and taking the exam: • Remember that determining meaning from context is a vocabulary skill you have been using all of your life. Often. or slang. This is something you knowhow to do. you can eliminate negative choices if the context suggests the word is positive. and specific detail. . surprisingly. Remem-ber the four types: restatement. how-ever. O J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 26 • Consider the tone and connotation of the other words in the sen-tence. there willbe some kind of context clue to help you determine meaning. At minimum. For example. These words often tell you whether the word is positive or negative and/or set up contrast clues. read the sentence with each answer choice substituted for the vocabulary word. this can often help you determine whether the vocabulary word is positive or negative. • On any vocabulary-in-context question on an exam. contrast. positive/negative. you can usually eliminate one or two answers that you know are incorrect. • To help you eliminate answers.

Tersemeans: a. cut 500 words from the 2.refuse.unable to be compared. . e. • If you have heard the vocabulary word before but aren’t sure what it means. use the context of the sentence to determine the meaning of the italicized word.descriptive. b. who was always one step of his creator.000-word article.unable to be accepted. Look for specific details that provide clues to meaning.Xiu’s timely joke served to diffusethe tension in the room. b. Diffusemeans: a. try to remember the context in which you heard it used before. Elusivemeans: a.concise. PRACTICE For each question below.unable to be avoided.elegant. 1.unable to be captured. d.unable to be forgotten.Victor Frankenstein spent the last years of his life chasing his elusive monster. e. c. 2. d. This may help you better use the context as it is presented on the exam. DETE RMINING MEAN ING FROM CONTEXT 27 3. and the rest of the meeting was highly productive.• Read carefully. c.innovative.factual. preferring a more tersewriting style.The editor.

guess.soften.to repeat.to express concisely. 4.I completely lost track of Tula’s point because she kept digressingto unrelated topics. Surmisemeans: a.create.The senator evadedthe question by changing the subject and accus-ing his opponent of misconduct.intensify. e. d.to regress. c. d.to escape or elude. b. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 28 . d.b. b.deny. d. e. Digressmeans: a.to answer indirectly.to change the tone. c. e. 5. c.to deviate.surprise. c. revert.to refuse to answer directly.confirm. e. Evademeans: a. but I would surmisethat it is because she is still upset about not being able to go to camp.believe.thicken. reiterate.to challenge.Samantha hasn’t said why she’s been so withdrawn lately. 6. stray. b.to deceive.

to reveal. intelligent. 8. and the jury found the defendant guilty on all charges. e. b.specific fact.obtuse. make public.thoughtful. c.Sunil honedhis public speaking skills by practicing in front of a mir-ror each day until he felt confident about his abilities. d.persuasiveness. c. d.to sharpen or improve.to do repeatedly.loosely related.questionable. Honemeans: a. Tangentialmeans: a. not intelligent. d.Marty kept interrupting the meeting with remarks that were not only tangentialbut downright irrelevant. 10.very important.The details can be worked out later.rude and obnoxious. Cruxmeans: a.to express clearly. which is that everyone should be held equally accountable. c. Incontrovertiblemeans: a. what’s important is that we agree with the cruxof my argument. b.to make a habit of.7. .overall tone. reasoning.logic. e. b. 9. e.main point.The evidence was incontrovertible.

informal speech.Adolfo often dresses in a rather eccentricway. b.standard.computer-related jokes. .to believe.to perceive. 12. uncommon. d.b. DETE RMINING MEAN ING FROM CONTEXT 29 11. e. Eleanor quickly discernedthat the underlying problem in their relationship was a lack of trust. status quo. b. d.insulting or derogatory language. 13.Ivan was writing an article for people who know nothing about computers.bright and cheerful. c.to deceive.peculiar. Eccentricmeans: a. c. d. e. b. e. Discernmeans: a. out of style. c.illegally obtained.After listening to the couple speak for a few minutes.slangy.to complicate. d.sophisticated vocabulary.outmoded. so he had to be sure he didn’t use any jargonthat would confuse readers.inconclusive. Jargonmeans: a.technical or specialized terminology. but his beliefs are as con-servative as can be.to state clearly. c.circumstantial.indisputable.

exhausting. angry speech.an escape. e.Although there are dozens of books about Jesse James.underpaid. thought the work was rather mundane.standard. b. Novelmeans: a. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 30 15. b.a nostalgic reverie. but Ted. c. 16.exceptional.radical. who had never been on a ranch. . 14.literary. c. Ted’s job seemed glam-orous and exotic. d.timely.dirty. c. d.To Hannah. who had lived on a ranch his whole life. Mundanemeans: a.an amusing anecdote. Outlawstands out among the others for its novelapproach to the subject.original.of the highest quality. d. 17.a long.e. Tirademeans: a. b. top-notch.Jorge’s constant flattery deludedSheila into believing that she was perfect.ordinary. e. e.a quiet discussion.Matthew launched into a tiradewhen he discovered that his roommate had once again borrowed something without asking—and broken it.

b. b.great success. b.gourmet cooking. 18. Warymeans: a.education. e. so he plans to apply to art school. b. cautious.opportunity.to deceive.habit or routine.to force. e. DETE RMINING MEAN ING FROM CONTEXT 31 19. d. he has a real penchantfor drawing.to remind.Remembering with fear the German shepherd who bit him long ago. hateful. and we ended up just ordering Chinese food.tender. e. Aidan gave the poodle a waryglance.Although Trevor is unsure of his talent. Debaclemeans: a.strong liking. vengeful. 20. . Penchantmeans: a.Deludemeans: a. c.My attempt to make a special anniversary dinner was a complete debacle. d.evil.total disaster. d. c.indifferent.to pressure.distaste. c. loving.guarded.to release. c.angry.

b.to reinforce.Caleigh hated the fact that I was her superior.to please. Jordan’s remark that Imani’s poem was “unusual” incensedher. d.to take over.positive. e.to burn.to anger. Underminemeans: a. 21. d. 22.uncharacteristic.to elevate.to scatter.slightly lower than usual.to criticize. Incensemeans: a. e.to weaken. and she was constantly trying to underminemy authority by openly challenging every deci-sion I made.d. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 32 23. 24.amateur behavior.outstanding.Although he meant it as a compliment. d. she was expecting an abysmalscore. we will only be able to give each one a cursoryreview. . c. e. e.to reinforce. b.Because of the large number of proposals we received.Because Candace neglected to study and stayed out late the night before her exam. c. c. and she stormed out of the room.extremely bad. Abysmalmeans: a. b.a lesson well learned.

d.performed on a computer.Tersemeans concise. who constantly escaped his grasp. Xiu’s joke softened the tension so that the meeting could be more productive.To diffusemeans to spread throughout. 5. 2. disperse. DETE RMINING MEAN ING FROM CONTEXT 33 ANSWERS 1.irrational.primary.Fernanda was in a pensivemood as she tried to determine the best way to resolve her difficulties. 25.thorough.Cursorymeans: a. The sentence tells you that Dr.done out of a sense of duty. d. d. to avoid . To evademeans to elude or avoid by cleverness or deceit. Frankenstein was never able to catch the creature.Elusivemeans evasive. deviate.indifferent. a. dramatically reducing its wordiness. The main clue is that the editor cut the article by 25%. to soften or make less brilliant. b. difficult to capture. b. detailed. 4.deeply thoughtful. a.light-hearted. e.joyous. b. 3. To digressmeans to turn aside.hasty and careless. d. The speaker loses track of the point because Tula keeps shifting from the main topic to unre-lated subjects. using no unnecessary words. Pensivemeans: a. eluding the grasp. c. c. e. to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking.

Eccentricmeans deviating from the conventional or established norm. Cruxmeans the central or critical point or feature. anomalous. he doesn’t know for sure. e.Jargonis the specialized or technical language of a specific trade or group. 6. c. make more effective. Marty’s comments are not only tangential but “downright irrelevant. or doing. because Samantha hasn’t explained her withdrawal. indicating that he wanted to improve his public speaking skills. 12. Incontrovertiblemeans indisputable. The context sets up a contrast .Discernmeans to perceive clearly. especially of a problem. he must avoid jargon. 7. to perfect. The main context clue is that the speaker isn’t con-cerned with the details but is focused on getting agreement on the main point. undeniable. 13. 8. of no substantive connection.” which means that they are at best loosely related to the topic.fulfilling. d. b. 9. answering. thus. Because Ivan’s readers are people who know nothing about computers. he cannot use terminology used by the computer-savvy. c. Eleanor is able to determine the problem through observing the couple. The senator avoids answering the question by changing the subject. To surmise means to infer based upon insufficient evidence.Honemeans to sharpen. Because the jury found the defendant guilty. Tangentialmeans only superficially relevant. you can infer that the evidence was indisputable. 11. though. to guess. b. b. a. to distinguish as being distinct. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 34 10. irregular. The speaker is guessing why Samantha is upset. The sen-tence tells you that Sunil practiced daily.

between eccentricand conventional. 14. e. Mundanemeans ordinary, commonplace, dull. The context sets up a contrast between Hannah’s impression of Ted’s job (glamorous and exotic) and Ted’s impression of his own job (ordinary, dull). 15. d.A tiradeis a long, angry, highly critical speech. The context sug-gests that Matthew is angry with his roommate, who has repeat-edly taken things without asking, and this time has even broken something. He is therefore likely to speak in an angry, critical way. 16. b.Novelmeans strikingly new, original, or different. The context sets up a contrast between the dozens of other books and Outlaw, which approaches the topic in a new way. 17. e. Deludemeans to deceive, make someone believe something that is wrong. Of course, no one is perfect, so the context makes it clear that Sheila is being deceived into believing something that is not true. In addition, there is no indication of force or pressure on Sheila; flattery is a softer, more subtle kind of persuasion. 18. a. A penchantis a strong liking or inclination for something. Trevor is unsure of his ability, but he plans to apply to art school any-way—this suggests that he enjoys drawing a great deal. 19. d.Warymeans guarded, watchful, cautious. Aidan’s past experience would logically make him cautious around dogs. DETE RMINING MEAN ING FROM CONTEXT 35 20. c. A debacleis a total defeat or failure, a sudden disaster or collapse. The fact that the speaker ended up ordering Chinese food for dinner—when an elaborate home-cooked meal had been planned—indicates that the speaker’s meal was unsuccessful. The other key context clue is the word attempt, which indicates that the dinner was a failure. 21. b.To incense is to make someone angry. The context sets up a con-trast between Jordan’s attempt to compliment Imani and her reac-tion (storming out of the room), which indicates that she was

angry or upset. 22. a. To undermineis to weaken or injure; to destroy in an underhanded way. The context tells you what motivates Caleigh’s behavior— she hates the fact that the speaker is her superior—so she attempts to weaken his authority by openly challenging his decisions. 23. d.Abysmalmeans extreme, limitless, profound; extremely bad. The context tells you that Candace did not study and did not sleep well the night before the exam; these two facts combined explain why she would expect a very bad score. 24. c. Cursorymeans hasty and superficial. The context suggests as con-flict between the number of proposals and the amount of time in which they can be reviewed. 25. b.Pensivemeans deeply thoughtful, especially in a serious or melan-choly manner. If Fernanda is trying to work out a problem, she is likely to be seriously thoughtful. The context does not allow for joyous, indifferent, or lighthearted response, and it suggests that she is rationally trying to think things through (determining the best response). J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 36 WORD LIST abysmal(a˘·biz·ma˘l) adj.1. extreme, limitless, profound 2. extremely bad. Related word: abyss. assiduous(a ˘·sij·oo·u˘s) adj.diligent, hardworking; persevering, unremitting. benign(bi·n¯n) adj. 1. gentle, mild, kind; having a beneficial or favorable nature or influence 2. not harmful or malignant. candor(kan·do˘r) n.frank, sincere speech; openness. Related word: candid. caustic(kaws·tik) adj.1. able to burn, corrode, or dissolve by chemical action 2. bitingly sarcastic, cutting. crux(kruks) n.the central or critical point or feature, especially of a problem.

cursory(kur·so ˘·ree) adj.hasty and superficial. debacle(di·bah·ke˘l) n.1. a sudden disaster or collapse; a total defeat or fail-ure 2. a sudden breaking up or breaking loose; violent flood waters, often caused by the breaking up of ice in a river. delude(di·lood) v.to deceive, make someone believe something that is wrong. Related word: delusion. destitute(des·ti·toot) adj.1. penniless, extremely poor 2. utterly lacking. diffuse(di·fyooz) v.1. to spread throughout, disperse, extend 2. to soften, make less brilliant; (di·fyoos) adj.1. spread out, scattered, not concen-trated 2. wordy, verbose. digress(di· subject in writing or speaking. discern(di·surn) v.to perceive clearly; to distinguish, recognize as being distinct. eccentric(ik·sen·trik) adj.deviating from the conventional or established norm or pattern; anomalous, irregular. elusive(i·loo·siv) adj. evasive, eluding the grasp; difficult to capture, describe or comprehend. emulate(em·yu˘·layt) v.to try to equal or excel, especially by imitation. enigma(e˘·ni understand; a baffling problem or riddle. evade(i·vayd) v.to elude or avoid by cleverness or deceit 2. to avoid ful-filling, answering, or doing. Related word: evasion. explicit(ik·splis·it) adj.stated clearly and fully; straightforward, exact. futile(fyoo·t˘l) adj.useless, producing no result; hopeless, vain. garner( ahr·ne˘r) v.to gather and store up; to amass, acquire. ·ma˘) n.something that is puzzling or difficult to res) v.to turn aside, deviate, or swerve; to stray from the main

hone(hohn) v.to sharpen; to perfect, make more effective. DETE RMINING MEAN ING FROM CONTEXT 37 incense(in·sens) v.to make (someone) angry. incontrovertible(in·kon·tro˘·vur·t˘·be˘l) adj.indisputable, undeniable.

indolent(in·do˘·le ˘nt) adj.1. lazy, lethargic, inclined to avoid labor 2. caus-ing little or no pain; slow to grow or heal. inept(in·ept) adj.1. not suitable, inappropriate 2. absurd, foolish 3. incom-petent, bungling and clumsy. jargon(jahr· or group 2. nonsensical or meaningless talk. mundane(mun·dayn) adj.ordinary, commonplace, dull 2. worldly, secular, not spiritual. novel(nov·e˘l) adj.strikingly new, original, or different. Related word: novelty. penchant(pen·cha˘nt) n.a strong liking or inclination (for something). pensive(pen·siv) adj. deeply thoughtful, especially in a serious or melan-choly manner. surmise(su ˘r·m¯z) v.to infer based upon insufficient evidence; to guess, conjecture. tangential(tan·jen·sha ˘l) adj. 1. only superficially relevant; of no substan-tive connection 2. of or relating to a tanget. teem (teem) v.to be full of; to be present in large numbers. terse(turs) adj.concise, using no unnecessary words, succinct. thwart(thwort) v.to prevent the accomplishment or realization of some-thing. tirade (t¯·rayd) n.a long, angry, often highly critical speech; a violent denunciation or condemnation. trite(tr¯t) adj.repeated too often, overly familiar through overuse; worn out, hackneyed. undermine(un·de˘r·m¯n) v.1. to weaken or injure, especially by wearing away at the foundation 2. to destroy in an underhanded way. wary(wair·ee) adj.guarded, watchful, cautious. When you comeacross unfamiliar words without context, breaking those words into their parts can help you determine their meaning. This lesson reviews prefixes and suffixes and how you can use them to add new words to your vocabulary—and better understand words you already know. Before you begin learning and reviewing pre-fixes and suffixes, take a few minutes to take this ten-question Benchmark o˘n) n.1. specialized or technical language of a specific trade

Quiz. These questions are similar to the type of questions that you will find on important tests. When you are finished, check the answer key carefully to assess your results. Your Benchmark Quiz analysis will help you determine how much time you need to spend on prefixes and suffixes as well as the specific words you need to learn in order to increase your vocabulary power. A complete list of the vocabulary words used in this lesson is provided at the end of this chapter. BENCHMARK QUIZ Choose the best answer to each question using your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes. Using Prefixes and Suffixes 3 38 USI NG PR E FIXES AN D SU FFIXES 39 1.Antecedentmeans: a.fighting against. b.looking after. c.coming before. d.under the authority of. e.recent. 2.Multifacetedmeans: a.two-faced. b.many sided. c.uniform. d.cut into parts. e.chaotic. 3.Circumspectmeans: a.relating to the circus.

b. e.speaking in a measured. b.Consensusmeans: a.to be uncertain.doubtful. exact tone. 5.one who doubts.to pressure. .a counting of individuals.To presagemeans: a.less than the norm. c. d. b. disappointing. a non-believer. c. e.to examine thoroughly.exactly as expected. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 40 7. d. d.haughty.Superciliousmeans: a.b.Dubiousmeans: a. 6. 4.put forth in writing. d. d. b.general agreement by a group.separate and dissimilar.uncertainty. e.to age gracefully.an individual opinion. with an air of superiority. e.to issue a warning. c.achieving what one intended to achieve.looking around carefully.to be slow to realize. questionable. e.to send a message. c. doubt.to doubt or question. c.in an uncomfortable position.to warn in advance.

Circumspectmeans .the process of testing for impurities. b.the act of making someone or something equal in status. ◗Answers 1. e.Agrarianmeans: a. The prefix ante-means before.relating to land or land ownership. and then analyze the results to figure out your plan of attack for mas-tering these topics. 9. circumstance. 3. d.one who becomes active or aware. or degree.Galvanizemeans: a. b. amount. c.Paritymeans: a. c. 10. e.the state of becoming active or aware. d. e. c. b. USI NG PR E FIXES AN D SU FFIXES 41 2. BENCHMARK QUIZ SOLUTIONS How did you do on remembering prefixes and suffixes? Check your answers here. Multifacetedmeans having many facets or aspects. b. c.incapable of making a decision. amount. complex.to cause to become active or aware. or degree.the act of making someone or something become active or aware. or degree.8. The prefix circum-means around.to make equal in status.one who is equal in status.to be active or aware.to cultivate. amount. amount.the state of being equal in status. the thing. or degree.to cause to become equal in status. e. d. Antecedentmeans that which pre-cedes. on all sides.to be out of date. amount. or event that came before.The prefix multi-means many. or degree.

value or degree. 8. 10. fraught with uncertainty. well done! You are already skilled at using prefixes and suffixes to determine meaning. haughty. Supercilious means with an air of superiority (as if one is above or better than another).cautious. 5. Be sure to set aside some time to carefully review the complete list of common prefixes and suffixes located in Appendix A. 7. or exceeding. amount. If you answered 4–7 questions correctly. c. to bring about. disdainful.means above. BENCHMARK QUIZ RESULTS If you answered 8–10 questions correctly. 9. If your score on the practice test is equally high. The verb suffix -izemeans to cause.means with. perhaps it has been a while since . Agrarianmeans relating to or concerning land and its ownership or cultivation. wavering. 4.The adjective suffix -ian means one who is or does. over. The prefix con. a. scornful. related to. The adjective suffix -ousmeans having the quality of. a. d. equivalence. you are familiar with some of the most common prefixes and suffixes and how to use them to determine meaning. Give the lesson a quick review and do the practice exercise. move on to Chapter 4. To presagemeans to indicate or warn of in advance. But you need more practice to really sharpen this skill. wary. an opinion or position reached by a group. foretell. watchful. If you answered 1–3 questions correctly. together.The noun suffix -ity means state of being. To galvanize means to stimulate or rouse into awareness or action. e. questionable. to predict. relating to. b. 6. The prefix pre-means before. Paritymeans having equality in status. Consensusmeans general agreement or accord.The prefix super. Dubiousmeans doubtful. d.

meaning before. the word prefixitself uses the prefix pre-. the easier it will be to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. For example. Thus the meaning of the root word. There are dozens of prefixes and suffixes in the English language. or perhaps English is not your primary language. but the job may be easier than you think.J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 42 you reviewed prefixes and suffixes. PREFIXES Prefixesare syllables attached to the beginning of words to change or add to the meaning of the root word in some way. This will help you more easily memorize the prefix and suffix meanings. Study the lesson that follows carefully. IF ENGLISH IS NOT YOUR PRIMARY LANGUAGE Learning prefixes and suffixes in another language may seem like a daunt-ing task. The good news is that you probably already know a majority of them and use them every day without even thinking about it. everyday examples have been provided for you. The more familiar you are with these fundamental word parts. you are already using the same prefixes and suffixes with simple words that you already know well. fix. This lesson will review some of the most common prefixes and suffixes so that you can use them to understand the meaning of new vocabulary words. changes: fix:to place securely or firmly prefix:something placed at the beginning of a word . Take extra time to learn the complete list of common prefixes and suffixes located in Appendix A. rather than the kind of vocabulary words you are likely to see on an exam. JUST IN TIME LESSON—PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES A good knowledge of prefixes and suffixes is essential to building an effec-tive vocabulary. and do the practice quiz on a separate sheet of paper so that you can do the exercise several times if necessary. Though prefixes and suf-fixes often appear in books like this with sophisticated vocabulary words. both in this chapter and in the appendix. In the prefix and suffix lists.

you can eliminate all but the correct answer in the question below: A polyglotis: a.someone who administers lie detector tests. USI NG PR E FIXES AN D SU FFIXES 43 Knowledge of prefixes can help you in many ways as you build your vocab-ulary and as you take your exam. including incontrovertibleand inept. evil. d.someone who is easily frightened. c. For exam-ple. Although you can’t determine meaning based on a prefix alone—you also need to know the root of the word—you canoften use a prefix to determine whether a word is positive or negative. but even eliminating two or three will be a great help. knowing that the prefix mal-means bad.someone who travels. which both use the prefix in-. to eliminate incorrect answers. . If you know that the prefix poly-means many. Choice dis the only answer that includes the idea of manyor multiple. GLOSSARY ROOT the main part of a word. e.to arrange. or wrong can help you significantly narrow down your choices in the following question: To malignmeans: a. For example. it is the only possible correct answer. Thus. meaning not—not disputable and not suitable or competent. the base upon which prefixes and suffixes are added PREFIXsyllable(s) attached to the beginning of a word to change or add to its meaning SUFFIX syllable(s) attached to the end of a word to change or add to its meaning You will not always be so lucky as to eliminate all of the incorrect answers.someone who is an expert in global issues. b. take the word polyglot. and to provide partial context for the meaning of the word.Several of the vocabulary words you studied in Chapter 2 used prefixes.someone who speaks many languages.

b.to speak badly about. c.to charm, enchant. d.to cast an evil spell. e.to flatter. With your knowledge of prefixes, you can eliminate choices a, c, and e, leaving you with a 50-50 chance of choosing the correct answer. If you recall any context in which you have heard the word malignbefore, you may be able to choose the correct answer, b. To malignis to say evil, harmful, and often untrue things about someone; to speak ill of. Below you will find a list of the prefixes for the vocabulary words in this lesson. For each prefix, we have provided two examples of words that use that prefix. With a few exceptions, these examples are not test-prep words; J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 44 rather, they are basic words that are probably already part of your vocabu-lary. This will help you remember the meaning of each prefix—and show you just how well you already know them. a, an:not, without amoral(not moral), atypical(not typical) ab, abs:from, away, off abduct(to take by force), abnormal (away from or apart from the standard) ante:prior to, in front of, before anterior(placed before), antedate(to proceed in time, come before) anti, ant:opposite, opposing, against antibiotic(substance that kills microorganisms), antidote(remedy for counteracting the effects of a poison), circ, circum:around, about, on all sides circumference(the outer boundary of a circle), circumstance(the condi-tions or state of affairs surrounding or affecting an event; a particular

incident or occurrence) co, com, con:with, together, jointly cooperate(to work together, comply), connect(to bind or fasten together) dis:away from, apart, reversal, not dismiss(to send away from, eject), disobedient(not obedient) ex:out, out of, away from exit(go out), expel(to drive out or away) in:not inaccurate(not accurate), informal(not formal) inter:between, among, within intercept(to stop someone or something between its starting point and destination), intervene (to come, occur, appear, or lie between two points of time or things) mal:bad, abnormal, evil, wrong malfunction(to fail to function properly), malpractice(wrongdoing, especially improper or negligent treatment of a patient by a physician) mis:bad, wrong, ill; opposite or lack of misbehave(to behave badly), misspell(to spell incorrectly) multi:many, multiple multimedia(the combined use of several media), multiple(having several or many parts or elements) neo:new, recent, a new form of neonatal(of or relating to a newborn child), neologism(a new word or phrase) non:not nonfiction(the genre of literature that includes all types of books other than fiction), nonsmoker(someone who does not smoke) USI NG PR E FIXES AN D SU FFIXES 45 poly:many, much

polygamy(the system of having more than one wife at a time), poly-syllabic(having three or more syllables) pre:before precaution(something done in advance to avoid risk), predict(to fore-cast, make known in advance) re:back, again rebuild(to build again after destruction), replace(to put back in its former position; to take the place of) sub:under, beneath, below subdue (to overcome, bring under control), submarine (a ship that can operate under water) super:above, over, exceeding superb (grand, magnificent, of unusually high quality, excellent), superman(a man with powers exceeding ordinary human capacity) uni:one unify(to form into a single unit, unite), unite(to join together, make or become one) A more comprehensive list of the most common English prefixes is located in Appendix A. After you have completed this lesson, make sure you review the list carefully and study any prefixes that are unfamiliar to you. SOUNDS LIKE . . . As you use your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes to determine meaning, see if you can recall hearing or using any words with similar roots or sounds. For example, when you were taking the Benchmark Quiz, you may have realized that agrariansounds like it shares a root word with agriculture—and it does. Even if you don’t know exactly what agriculturemeans, you might know that it has something to do with land and its cultivation. Thus you would have been able to more quickly narrow down the answer choices to b(to cultivate) and d(relating to land or land ownership). Once you real-ize that the suffix -iancalls for an adjective, not a verb, then you can elim-inate band choose the correct answer, d.

SUFFIXES Suffixesare syllables added to the end of words to change or add to their meaning. They often change a word’s part of speech, thereby also chang-ing how the word functions in a sentence. Suffixes tell you whether a word J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 46 is a person, place, or thing (a noun); an action or state of being (a verb); or a modifier, which is a word that describes (an adjectiveor adverb). PARTS OF SPEECH—A QUICK REVIEW The following table offers a quick reference guide for the main parts of speech. PART OF SPEECH FUNCTION EXAMPLES noun names a person, place, thing, cloud, Helen, car, or concept Elm Court, brush, valor verb shows an action, occurrence, go, jump, feel, imagine, or state of being interrupt adjective describes nouns and pronouns; white, oblong, ancient, can also identify or quantify; exhilarating tells what kind, which one, that (e.g., that dog) how many, how much several (e.g., several dogs) adverb describes verbs, adjectives, slowly, clumsily, never, other adverbs, or entire very, here, soon clauses; tells where, when, how and to what extent For example, look how the suffixes below change the word antagonistfrom a noun to an adjective to a verb (and don’t forget to notice the prefix, ant-): antagonist noun one who opposes or contends with another; an adversary, opponent antagonistic adjective opposing, combating, adversarial antagonize verb to oppose actively, contend; to provoke the

Only choices cand ddefine adjec-tives. you know that a word with this ending is probably a noun describing a state of being. a noun. nauseated or shocked. For example. just knowing suffixes won’t enable you to determine the full meaning of an unfamiliar word. dis-gusted. b. to honor with a sense of awe. such as equality(state of being equal).hostility of Likewise. depending upon its suffix: venerate verb to regard with deep respect or reverence.recurring illness. but it can help you determine the function of the word.extremely shy. zero in on its meaning. RULE BOOK: MOST OF THE TIME. you can eliminate answer choices that do not match that part of speech: Squeamishmeans: a. and eliminate incorrect answers on an exam. if you know that -ish is a common suffix for adjectives. revere venerable adjective worthy of deep respect or reverence. b. deserving of honor and respect venerator noun one who shows deep respect or reverence USI NG PR E FIXES AN D SU FFIXES 47 Again. and only choice dis correct. and another noun.to scream or squeal. if you know that the suffix -itymeans state of being. respectively. d. the word veneratechanges from a verb to an adjective to a noun. BUT NOT ALWAYS .the belief that animals have rights similar to humans. Choices a. e. Similarly. c. Squeamishmeans easily sickened.easily disgusted. and eare definitions for other parts of speech—a verb.

For each suffix. process. or state of adolescence(the state of growing up from childhood to adulthood. produces. including context (see Chapter 2) and word roots (see Chapters 3. we have again provided two examples of words that use that suffix. it’s important to remember that they are tools to use in conjunction with other vocabulary skills. makes. etc. vanquishand varnishboth end in -ish.) dentist(one who is trained and licensed to practice dentistry). Thus. 4. state or condition detection(the act of detecting). or process. materialism(the belief that the acquisition of material pos-sessions is the highest good) -ist:one who (performs. not adjectives. For example. and again. dependence(the state of being dependent) -ion:act or process. but look for other clues to meaning as well.While prefixes and suffixes are fundamental components of our vocab-ulary. state or doctrine of feminism(belief in the social. E J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 48 the transitional period between youth and maturity). -ence:action. pianist (one who plays the piano) -ity:quality. Here is a list of the suffixes you need to know for the practice exercises in this lesson. and economic equality of the sexes). use your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes. but they are both verbs. as you come across vocabulary words with common pre-fixes and suffixes. state. believes. ◗Noun Suffixes -ance. and Appendix A) to be sure you are on the right track. these examples are basic words that are part of your everyday vocabulary. practice. or degree . political. But most words that end in -ishare adjectives describing a charac-teristic. election(the act or power of electing) -ism:act.

Because the words are already so familiar to you. However. condition. -ian:one who is or does. or characteristic of a humanitarian). ethical(of or relating to ethics or morals) -an. you can quickly and accurately learn the most common prefixes and suffixes by remember-ing examples of words you already know. -ial. related to.equality(the state or quality of being equal). characteristic of humanitarian(one who is devoted to the promotion of human wel-fare. process. incredible (not credible. tending or liable to dependable(worthy of being depended on. trustworthy). politician(one who seeks or holds a political office) " USI NG PR E FIXES AN D SU FFIXES 49 . ical:having the quality of. function enclosure(the act of enclosing or state of being enclosed). the act or fact of failing to perform as expected or requested) SHORT CUT You may try to kill two birds with one stone by memorizing a difficult vocabulary word for each prefix or suffix. improbable) -al. such as cooperateand dismiss. ◗Adjective Suffixes -able. paralysis(loss of sensation or ability to move or function) -ure:act. relating to. -ible:capable or worthy of. you don’t have to worry about forgetting their meaning and you will be able to recall them eas-ily even while under the pressure of an exam. or characterized by practical(of or relating to practice or action. useful). unable to be believed. failure(the condition or act of not achieving a desired end. relating to. fidelity(the quality of being faithful) -sis:process or action diagnosis(the process of identifying the nature or cause of a disease or injury).

irritate (to cause annoyance or disturbance in. form into beautify(to make beautiful). annoyed) -ify. Here are some specific tips and strategies to use as you develop this skill and prepare for your test. exhibiting folly. cause to be or become deteriorate(to make worse. having the nature of cooperative (marked by a willingness to cooperate. to make impatient. servile (per-taining to or befitting a slave. relating to glorious(having or deserving glory. angry. in the man-ner of a fool) -ive:performing or tending towards (an action). abjectly submissive. or resembling a child). defensive(serving to defend or protect) -ous. fool-ish(devoid of good sense or judgment. to bring about colonize(to establish a colony). having the quality of. to make inferior in quality or character). damaged. pertaining to. sickening) ◗Verb Suffixes -ate:to make. famous). or destroyed. nauseous(causing nau-sea. -fy:to make. • Take the time to memorize the most common prefixes and suffixes. specify(to state explicitly or in detail) -ize:to cause to be or become. having the quality of dramatic(of or relating to drama. democratize(to make or become dem-ocratic) TIPS AND STRATEGIES A good knowledge of prefixes and suffixes is an invaluable asset when you are building your vocabulary and studying for an exam. theatrical). -ose:full of. realistic(of or relating to the representation of things as they really are) -ile:having the qualities of fragile (easily broken. frail).-ic:pertaining or relating to. slavish) -ish:having the character of childish(characteristic of. done with or working with others for a common purpose). . impair.

rather. determine the part of speech of each remaining choice. • Use words that you are very familiar with as examples when you study prefixes and suffixes. Although most words ending in -istare nouns defining a kind of person (one who does). • Remember that prefixes and suffixes alone do not create meaning. they change or add to the meaning of the root word. the easier it will be for you to remember the mean-ing of the prefix or suffix. you will be able to learn new words more quickly and better determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. Elitistis an example of an adjective with this ending. word roots. and context. • Once you have narrowed down your answer choices. including prefixes and suffixes.. Plug in that meaning with the prefix or suffix and see if it makes sense. not every -istword is such a noun. • Use your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes to eliminate incorrect answers. EXTRA HELP . all the time. Does it match the part of speech of the definition according to the suffix? • If you know the prefix or suffix but still aren’t sure of meaning. cooperate). Use as many vocabulary skills as you can to determine meaning. Check prefixes. Do not feel intimidated by the long lists in this chapter or in Appen-dix A. The more you narrow down your choices. • Remember that you use prefixes and suffixes every day.By memorizing these essential word parts. • Allow for exceptions. The more familiar the word is to you J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 50 (e. word roots (covered in the next two chapters).g. the better your chances of choosing the correct answer. try to recall another word with a similar root. and context if possible to confirm meaning. You already know much of this material.

e. O USI NG PR E FIXES AN D SU FFIXES 51 2. c. 3rd edition.to denounce or openly condemn.a transformation.to cause to denounce or openly condemn. of or like a condemnation.tending to change frequently. b.to reestablish a close relationship between. d.far beyond what is normal or reasonable. c. e. c. 1.belonging to a group. 3.Denunciationmeans: a.in a new location. c. very high. see Chapters 5 and 6 in LearningExpress’s Vocabulary and Spelling Success in 20 Minutes a Day. d.one who denounces or openly condemns another. b.capable of dramatic change. 4.to move away from.to transform. d.to undermine.beneath conscious awareness. b. e. PRACTICE Choose the best answer to each question. .one who has changed.If you would like additional review or further practice with prefixes and suffixes.to orbit. b.Exorbitantmeans: a.Metamorphosismeans: a.To reconcilemeans: a.the act of denouncing or openly condemning.critical.

7.intended to instruct.something ordinary or average. c.to multiply. biting in nature.organized according to rank. outdo. b.a complete equation. d.one-sided.to surpass. 5. d.repeated frequently to aid memorization. prioritize.under someone else’s authority or control. without distinction.insight.unrealistic. d. 9. c.Didacticmeans: a.to act forcefully. c. e. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 52 8.Subordinatemeans: a.Unilateralmeans: a. b.worthy of consideration.penetrating.understated.to preach.Incisivemeans: a. b. highly fantastical.capable of making moral decisions. d.a teacher or instructor. e.d. e. b. moralizing. . e. c.Intermittentmeans: a.badly handled.literal. 6. moralize.the act of penetrating.the process of instructing. e. hierarchical.to put before something else.

e.someone who lacks creativity. e.greatly varied.lasting a very long time. 12.to be wrongly or unevenly distributed. b.a number between one and ten. c.to be the subject of a sentence or conversation. d. 13.an evil person.a very naãve person. 10.an empire built by acquiring other territories. c.Miscreantmeans: a.the policy of extending an empire by acquiring other territories. b.gathered together in defiance or opposition. d.to conquer. constant.To subjugatemeans: a.one who acquires items from other empires.to establish contact.one who plants a garden. 11.someone who is unconventional. c.to be surrounded on all sides.to drive away from the source. e. c.relating to the acquisition of territories.to extend an empire by force. USI NG PR E FIXES AN D SU FFIXES 53 . e. b.the process of encoding a message. b. d. c.Perennialmeans: a.b. e.occurring at intervals between two times or points. d. villain.Imperialismmeans: a. bring under control.a person who is trustworthy and dependable. d.a newly elected official.

d.deserving thanks for one’s kindness. generous ruler. c. b. barely detectable.to be very small. giving charitably.willing to obey. 17. or deviates from the usual form.something that is irregular. 15.the management of domestic affairs. 18.to be generous with one’s time or money.regularity.a kind. c. especially in shame.to regret. easily managed or taught. b. c. e. d.Lamentablemeans: a.regrettable. b.Benevolencemeans: a.kindness.an unfortunate occurrence.to dig up. generosity.Docilemeans: a.to obey authority. mine. e.to carry out an ill-conceived or poorly planned course of action. b. d.a surprising collaboration. e. 16. abnormal. consistency. . e. b.excessive greed.obedience.to withdraw silently.Anomalymeans: a.one who domesticates animals.To coalescemeans: a. join together. the cooperation of unlikely individuals.discontent among a specific group within a larger population. c. d.to combine and form a whole.kind. unfortunate. c.14.

having little or no impact.to correct. 22. e.fundamentally different. c.to create a secret hiding place.one who feels regret. distinct or apart from others. d. b.to do something ahead of deadline.from the same origin.a surprising error.d.chosen from within. 23. b.teaching a lesson. d.to do something regrettable.erroneous.kept between or within members of a family. 19.an editor. e. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 54 20.exceeding expectations. c.Disparatemeans: a.to do something without telling anyone.not fathomable. b. e. c.a correction.that which occurred previously. d. incapable of being understood. c. .Inscrutablemeans: a.surrounded by smoke or fog. b. e.able to move across barriers.to go away secretly and hide. 21.Rectifymeans: a.To abscondmeans: a. e.Antipathymeans: a.to be opposed to. d.

The noun suffix -sismeans the process of.b. d.means out. a.the act of separating from the source.Neophytemeans: a. c.The noun suffix -tion means the act or state of. 24. to bring back to harmony. d. c. to openly con-demn or accuse of evil. e.a beginner or novice. 3. Exorbitantmeans greatly exceeding (far away from) the bounds of what is normal or reasonable. 2. character. but for choice bto be correct. someone who lives with another.an incorrect accusation. The prefix re-means back. The prefix ex.original. e.challenging. it would require the suffix -ist.not showing anxiety or excitement. b. a marked change of form.reversing a previous opinion or decision. again.a roommate. Metamorphosismeans a transformation. c. b. indifferent.a strong aversion or dislike.Nonchalantmeans: a. USI NG PR E FIXES AN D SU FFIXES 55 ANSWERS 1.ancient. 4. Denunciation means the act of denouncing. or function. out of.a person who refuses to compromise.something that comes from multiple sources. d. e. 25. away from. d. To reconcilemeans to reestablish a close relationship between.an examination of all aspects of an issue. c. unique. . especially in public. e.done with the intent of harming another. Choices band care both nouns.

below. not continuous. acute.The prefix uni-means one.The noun suffix -ism means state or doctrine of. Unilateralmeans one-sided. sharp. e. Choice ais the only adjective definition. The adjective suffix -ive means having the nature of.The prefix sub-means under or below. Didacticmeans intended to instruct. (2) subject to the authority or control of another.The adjective suffix -ialmeans having the quality of. promotes. beneath. having the quality of. 6. and choice ewould require the suffix -able/ible. being . 10. suitable for. Incisive means penetrating and clear. alternate. 12. tending to be excessively instructive or moralizing. Only choices band edefine a quality. biting. secondary. Perennialmeans lasting an indefinitely long time. Imperialism means the policy of extending rule of a nation or empire by acquiring other territories. b. (2) to make subservient. subdue. constantly recurring. an evil person. b. subdue. criminal. Notice also the verb suffix -ate. 13. related to. wrong.meaning action or process. periodic. The prefix sub-means under. 8. a. meaning one that performs.The prefix inter. The adjective subor-dinatemeans (1) of a lower or inferior class or rank. The prefix mis-means bad.means between or among.5. forever. a. To subjugatemeans to con-quer. bring under control. 7. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 56 11. or causes an action. Notice also the adjective suffix -al. b. evil. d. happening again and again or year after year.The adjective suffix -icmeans pertaining or relating to. As a noun it means one that is subordinate to another. and as a verb (notice the -ate suffix) it means (1) to put in a lower or inferior rank or class. c. Intermittent means occurring at intervals. 9. Miscreantmeans a villain. d.

25. 15. Coalescemeans to combine and form a whole. e. correct. inspiring grief or mourning. 16. Inscrutable means baffling.means not. d. 14. The noun suffix -encemeans state of. Disparate means fundamentally different or distinct. which means to be capable of. c. c.in a specified state or condition. down.The prefix neo-means new. Nonchalantmeans indifferent or cool. reversal. incapable of being understood. together. dissimilar. away from. recent. especially after wrongdoing. fuse. apart. not showing anxiety or excitement. a disposition to act charitably. 20. The verb suffix -ify means to make. unfath-omable.The adjective suffix -ilemeans having the qualities of. a.The prefix anti-means against. To abscond means to go away secretly and hide oneself. Neophytemeans a beginner or novice.The prefix a-means not. d. Anomalymeans something that deviates from the general rule or usual form. . 17. b. Lamentable means regrettable. USI NG PR E FIXES AN D SU FFIXES 57 23. 19. c.The prefix in. Benevolencemeans the incli-nation to be kind and generous. d. 21. b. To rectify means to make right. reading and willing to be taught. to join together. not. apart. The prefix non-means not. Docilemeans willing to obey. varied.means with. 18. or easily managed. Antipathymeans a strong aversion or dislike. a. 24. The adjective suffix -ablemeans capable or worthy of. 22. The prefix co. The prefix ab-means off. a new form of. The prefix dis-means away from. opposed to. one that is irregular or abnormal. without. a. Notice also the adjective suffix -able. unfortunate.

consensus(ko˘n·sen·su ˘s) n. wavering. a strong aversion or dislike 2.1. ready and willing to be taught 3.to go away secretly and hide oneself. agrarian(a˘· ownership or cultivation. a disposition to act charitably. antecedent(an·ti·see·de˘nt) n.to combine and form a whole. questionable 2.fundamentally different or distinct. tending to be excessively instructive or moralizing. dissimilar. intended to instruct 2.relating to or concerning land and its . antipathy(an·tip·a˘·thee) n. antagonist(an·ta an adversary.cautious. tractable 2.1.that which precedes. event that came before. to openly condemn or accuse of evil.the act of denouncing. varied. the thing.1.1. peculiar. especially after wrongdoing to avoid prosecution.the inclination to be kind and generous.something that deviates from the general rule or usual form. anomaly(a˘·nom·a˘·lee) n.general agreement or accord.one who opposes or contends with another. doubtful. fraught with uncer-tainty. wary. benevolence(be˘·nev·o˘·le ˘ns) n. fuse. willing to obey. one that is irregular. circum-stance. opponent. disparate(dis·pa˘·rit) adj. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 58 ·o˘·nist) n. circumspect(sur·ku˘m·spekt) adj. docile(dos·˘l) adj. to join together. easily managed or handled. watchful. didactic(d¯·dak·tik) adj. especially in public. rair·i·a˘n) adj. or abnormal. an object of aversion. coalesce(koh·a˘·les) v. dubious(doo·bi·u˘s) adj. denunciation(di·nun·si·ay·sho ˘n) n.WORD LIST abscond(ab·skond) v. an opinion or position reached by a group.

equality in status.having many facets or aspects. imperialism(im·peer·i·a ˘·liz·e ˘m) n. metamorphosis(met·a˘·mor·fo ˘·sis) n. miscreant(mis·kree·a˘nt) n. to coat with zinc to protect from rust 3. not continuous. alternate. or function. a beginner or novice 2. evil person.1.occurring at intervals. harmful and often untrue things about some-one. pitiable. exorbitant(i ·zor·bi·ta ˘nt) adj.one who speaks or understands several languages. inspiring grief or mourning 2. parity(par·i·tee) n. incisive(in·s¯·siv) adj. of plants. living for more than three years. inordinate and excessive. decorate.a villain. a marked change of form. unfortunate. lasting an indefinitely long time. not showing anxiety or excitement.1. or degree.1. unfathomable.a transformation. periodic. inscrutable(in·scroo·ta ˘·be˘l) adj. complex. adorn 2. to make beautiful by adding ornamentation. equivalence.baffling. lamentable(lam·e˘n·ta ˘·be˘l) adj. acute. amount. criminal. to expand a story by adding details that are interest-ing but often fictitious. neophyte(nee·o˘·f¯t) n. a recent convert to a belief. galvanize( al·va˘·n¯z) v.embellish(em·bel·ish) v.indifferent or cool. incapable of being understood. to stimulate by electric shock. to speak evil of. multifaceted(mul·tee·fas·e ˘·tid) adj.1. sharp.greatly exceeding the bounds of what is nor-mal or reasonable.1. happening again and again or year after year 3. forever 2.the policy of extending the rule or author-ity of a nation or empire by acquiring other territories or dependencies. value. polyglot(pol·i· lot) n. .to say evil. perennial(pe˘·ren·i·a˘l) adj. constantly recurring. to stimulate or rouse into awareness or action 2.penetrating and clear. character. nonchalant(non·sha ˘·lahnt) adj. regrettable. biting. intermittent (in·te ˘r·mit·e˘nt) adj. malign(ma˘·l¯n) v. deplorable.

sec-ondary 2. to bring oneself to accept. to bring back to harmony 2. 1. subjugate(sub·ju ˘· domination. Prefixes and suffixesattach to word roots—the base parts of words that typically convey the bulk of their meaning. group. venerate(ven·e˘·rayt) v.to indicate or warn of in advance. with an air of superiority. easily sickened. subject to the authority or control of another. unilateral(yoo·n˘·lat·e˘·ra ˘l) adj. the more you will be able to determine the mean-ing of unfamiliar words and the better you will understand words you already know. subordinate(su ˘·bor·d˘·nit) adj. to make compatible or consistent. espe-cially after a quarrel or estrangement. disgusted. (su ˘·bor·d˘·nayt) v. USI NG PR E FIXES AN D SU FFIXES 59 squeamish (skwee·mish) adj. performed or undertaken by or affecting only one side. disdainful.to regard with deep respect or reverence. come to terms with 3. vanquish. to make subservient.an omen.1. to honor with a sense of awe. reconcile(rek·o˘n·s¯l) v. foretell.1. etc. nation. n. to reestablish a close relationship between. n. bring under control or . This chapter reviews common Latin word roots. haughty. take a few minutes to take this ten-question Benchmark Quiz. supercilious (soo·pe˘r·sil·i·u˘s) adj. The more word roots you know. rectify(rek·t˘·f¯) v.presage(pres·ij) v. subdue. an intuition about what is going to occur. revere. These questions are similar to the ayt) v. to put in a lower or infe-rior rank or class 2. to predict.1.to conquer. subdue. nauseated or shocked. scornful. to purify or refine. prophesy or warning of a future occurrence. correct 2.one that is subordinate to another. to set right. person. Before you begin learning and reviewing Latin word roots.one-sided. of a lower or inferior class or rank.

d. self-satisfied.talkative. c.full of life. b. c.likes to pick fights. honest.is very clear and intelligible.friendly.is loosely held together. good natured.A lucidargument: a. tenuous. 2. e.errs repeatedly in its logic. A complete list of the vocabulary words used in this lesson is provided at the end of the chapter. When you are fin-ished. energetic. 3. Latin Word Roots 4 60 LATI N WOR D ROOTS 61 BENCHMARK QUIZ For each question below. d. Your Bench-mark Quiz analysis will help you determine how much time you need to spend on this area as well as the specific words you need to learn in order to increase your vocabulary power.frequently digresses.type of questions that you will find on important tests. use the Latin word root to determine the mean-ing of the italicized word.highly educated.is known to tell lies. c. but does not accept responsibility. b.truthful.frequently makes mistakes. check the answer key carefully to assess your results. loud. d.is contented to a fault. e.An amiableperson is: a.A complacentperson: a. b. 1. embellish the truth. .assigns blame to others.

4. b. c.to ignore it.expressed in a powerful and effective manner. antiquated. b. inedible.to solve it. 8. c.to analyze it.pick a fight with that person. d.truthfulness. e.love that person dearly.value or worth. b. d. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 62 6. . c.To exacerbatea problem means: a. chaotic. d.very old.charge that person with a crime.weight. c.not fit for consumption. trite.to worsen it. 5. e. b.To measure the veracityof something is to measure its: a. 7.To indictsomeone is to: a. e. e.dull.very isolated.e.is full of life. vivacious.stop or block that person from doing something.A quiescentplace is: a.Something that is eloquentis: a. d. b.circumference. hackneyed.to lessen it.tumultuous.life force.equally divided or apportioned.harm that person.

still. self-satisfied (pleased with oneself). Complacentmeans contented to a fault.refreshing. Lucidmeans very clear. 9. b. dangerous.A noxiousodor is: a.A person with equanimity: a.sacred. The root luc/lum/lus means light.is very stubborn. or bitterness of. To exacerbate means to make worse. intelligible. d. likeable. easy to understand. to increase the severity.The root acmeans sharp. b. and then analyze the results to figure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. good natured.nostalgic. Amiablemeans friendly and agreeable.tantalizing. c.unscented. bitter.has a violent temper. d.is even-tempered and composed. e.c. LATI N WOR D ROOTS 63 ◗Answers 1. d. c. 3. e. The root placmeans to please. d. . d. c. e.enjoys the company of others.The root ammeans love.harmful.is guilty of wrongdoing. violence. a. 2. 10.harmful. BENCHMARK QUIZ SOLUTIONS How did you do on identifying Latin word roots? Check your answers here. pleasing. at rest. 4.

patience and composure.The root vermeans truth. use words. a. The root quimeans quiet. at rest. even-temperedness. But you need more practice to really sharpen this skill. and do the practice quiz on a separate sheet of paper so that you can do the exer-cise several times if necessary.The root dic/dict/ditmeans to say. and persuasive manner. Eloquent means expressed in a powerful. speech. b. you are familiar with some of the most common Latin word roots and how to use them to determine meaning. BENCHMARK QUIZ RESULTS If you answered 8–10 questions correctly.The root loc/log/loqu means word. Quiescentmeans inactive. quiet.The root equmeans equal. truthfulness. e. 7. Noxiousmeans unpleasant and harmful. death. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 64 If you answered 1–3 questions correctly. perhaps it has been some time since you reviewed word roots. b.5. Equanimitymeans calmness of temperament. move on to Chapter 5. Give the lesson a quick review and do the practice exercise. fluent. To indictmeans to formally accuse of or charge with a crime. JUST IN TIME LESSON—LATIN WORD ROOTS Just as many Americans have their roots in other countries. The root nec/nic/noc/nox means harm. too. d. tell. If you answered 4–7 questions correctly. Be sure to set aside some time to carefully review the complete list of common Latin word roots located in Appendix A. do many . so. 8. 9. d. Veracitymeans truth. Study the lesson that follows carefully. Take extra time to learn the complete list of common Latin word roots located in Appendix A. 6. 10. even. If your score on the practice test is equally high. especially under stress. unwholesome. well done! You are already skilled at using Latin word roots to determining meaning.

Take. manualandmanufactureshare the Latin root man. the more roots you know. a thing yielded. For exam-ple. roots are the base to which prefixes and suffixes (and sometimes other roots) are attached to create a rich variety of meaning. respectively. most English words have been borrowed from other languages throughout the centuries. you will be more likely to recognize the roots and therefore more accurately determine mean-ing. As you break down unfamiliar words into their parts. are English words as well. Latin and Greek roots are themselves words. for example. You will also have a better understanding of the words you already know. the study of its origin and development On occasion. But most of the time. (often with reluctance). Notice how many different words can be created by adding different prefixes and suffixes to this root and how the different prefixes and suffixes change meaning: antecedent: that which precedes or comes before cessation: a stopping. GLOSSARY ETYMOLOGY the history of a word. surpass precede: to come or go before in time. The Latin roots errand pug. meaning to go. anonymousand synonymshare the Greek root nom/nym. yield. an acknowledgement or admission exceed: to extend beyond or outside of. meaning hand. In fact. to yield.meaning name. The two most important categories of roots to learn are Latin and Greek because so many English words are built upon Latin and Greek word bases. the Latin root ced/ceed/cess. and it is com-posed largely of words built upon root words from other cultures. Needless to say. stop. or importance predecessor: one who precedes or comes before another in time (as in . for example. meaning to make a mistake and a boxer. surrender concession: the act of conceding or yielding. rank. proper. place. the stronger your vocabulary will be. a bringing to an end concede: to acknowledge or admit as true. etc.of the words in the English language.

to stop or abandon before completion. Here are several words formed from another Latin root. not direct. cessmeans to go. retreat. per-forming or causing an action.to go together with others. Remember your prefixes from Chapter 3. continuous. stop. d.to yield to the decision of a superior.yielding readily under pressure. meaning .to move or go below the surface. to move back. meaning the act or state of. Now add the noun suffix -sion. itinerant. subliminal.to move or go back. you can also answer this question: Incessantmeans: a. move on. withdraw. plac. incessant means continuing without interruption.going between. b. ceaseless. recedemeans: a. c. a course of action or con-duct.to go forward blindly. ced means to go.holding an office or position) LATI N WOR D ROOTS 65 proceed: to go forward or onward. d. again. or among. Recedemeans c. retreat. stop. The correct answer is b. especially after an interruption. process Thus. Thus. e.traveling to many places or locations. e. Re-means back. advance procedure: the act or manner of proceeding. continuing without interruption. yield. or yield. and you get: recession:the act of withdrawing or going back With your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes. and the suffix -antmeans being in a state or condition of.not stopping. c. through. b. The prefix in-means not.

Below is a list of some of the most common Latin word roots. self-satisfied. pacify. I love Amy. Again. unconcerned placebo: an inactive. you might picture a pug dog in a boxing ring. free from disturbance or tumult complacent: contented to a fault. you might picture a stop sign with the root cedwritten on it instead of stop. to allay the anger of. meaning love: I amlove. you can come up with rhymes or short sentences to help you remember root meanings. For example. You could also picture a traffic light for the root ced/ceed/cess. or a yield sign with cessinstead of yield. especially by making concessions implacable: incapable of being placated or appeased. If you are an auditory learner. notice the rich variety of meaning created by adding dif-ferent prefixes and suffixes to the root word: placate: to appease. For example. to remember the root pug. You have already seen some of these roots in the words from the Benchmark Quiz . or a boxer with a pug nose. Similarly. inexorable placid: calm and peaceful. since the colors of the traffic light correspond with the three meanings of this root: go. the best way to memorize words is to create a picture in the mind associated with that word. especially visual learners. I love ham. stop. harmless substance of no medicinal value given to patients to reassure them or to members of a control group in experiments testing the efficacy of a drug J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 66 SHORTCUT: MAKE THE MOST OF YOUR LEARNING STYLE For many people. yield.to please. you could try one of these sentences for the root am.

tell. yield. make known in advance) . especially the American Civil War). predict (to foretell. rebel (to resist or defy authority) cast. sour. dict. acr:sharp. ceed. “my fault”) dic. dit:to say. romantic. affectionate). keenly perceptive) am:love amorous (inclined to love. COMMON LATIN WORD ROOTS ac. A more comprehensive list of the most common Latin and Greek word roots is located in Appendix A. use words dictate(to say or read aloud. exceed(to extend beyond or outside of. enamored (inflamed or inspired by love. make sure you review the list carefully and study any roots that are unfamiliar to you.). as with a beating. which once again are mostly everyday words that are already part of your perma-nent vocabulary. After you have completed this lesson. chast:cut caste (a social class separated from others by hereditary rank. acute(extremely sharp or severe. captivated) bel:war antebellum(before the war. etc. chastise(to punish severely. to rebuke) " LATI N WOR D ROOTS 67 ced. mea culpa(Latin. to issue orders or commands). stop antecedent(that which precedes).and this lesson. cess:to go. Review the list carefully. or ill natured). surpass) culp:blame culprit(person accused or guilty of a crime). pro-fession. taking note of the examples. bitter acid(something that is sharp.

volume or significance. maj. to make unfit or harmful to living things) mag. maximum(the greatest possible quantity or degree) man:hand manual(operated by hand). lus:light illuminate (to brighten with light. to amplify). neologism(a new word or phrase) luc. bubble. luv:to wash dilute(to make thinner or weaker by adding a liquid such as water. lut. hang over prominent(standing out. pollute(to make impure or unclean. log. translucent (almost transparent. nat. animated) loc. innate (possessed at . equidistant(equally distant) err:to wander err(to make a mistake). max:big magnify(to increase in size. eminent(towering above or more prominent that others. effervescent(bubbling up. nai: to be born native(a person born in a particular country). error(a mistake. as a carbonated liquid. even equate(to make or consider two things as equal). distinguished) nas. an incorrect or wrong action) ferv:to boil. lofty. enlighten). lum.equ:equal. to lessen the force or purity of). speech dialogue(a conversation between two or more people). projecting or jutting beyond the line or surface). ardent. conspicuous. burning. loqu:word. burn fervid(very hot. high spirited. vehement). manufacture(to make by hand or machinery) min:to project. allowing light to pass through diffusely) lug.

inherent) nec. death innocent (uncorrupted by evil. inborn. interchange) pug:to fight pug(a boxer). repugnant(highly offensive or distasteful. tic:to be silent tacit(not spoken. especially that gained through systematic study) tac. anxiety. aware). transpose(to reverse or transfer the order or place of. not dangerous or harmful). nox:harm. noc. science (knowledge. omnipotent(all powerful) J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 68 plac:to please placid(calm and peaceful). place). tranquil (free from disturbance. prerogative (an exclusive privilege or right belonging to a person or group) sci:to know conscious (knowing and perceiving. placate(to appease or pacify) pon. nic. calm. free from guilt. still).birth. taciturn(habitually untalkative. place deposit(to put or set down. hostile. pos. pound:to put. implied). or tension) rog:to ask interrogate (to examine by asking a series of questions). hateful) omni:all omnipresent(everywhere at once). reserved) ver:truth verdict(the findings of a jury in a trial. disposed to fight) qui:quiet quiet(making little or no noise. decision or judgment). verify (to confirm the truth of) . obnoxious(offensive.

especially on an exam. if you don’t know the meaning of amiable but you do know what enamored means. bright. brilliant. the meaning of the root bel is war. for example. and word roots. Similarly. outspoken). think of other words that sound like they might share a root word. strong) voc. your best strategy is to break it down into its parts and look for a familiar . the root ac means sharp. fights in a war. TIPS AND STRATEGIES When you are faced with an unfamiliar word in your reading or on an exam. distinct). The acute pain you felt in your ankle when you sprained it was very sharp. suffixes. call back. you can at least determine that amiable is probably a positive thing and that it probably has something to do with love or friendship. revoke(to cancel. reverse.vi:life vivid(evoking life-like images in the mind. For example. A rebel. withdraw) CHEAT SHEET: THE POWER OF ASSOCIATION Need more help memorizing word roots? Use the power of association. active. you will be able to accurately guess the meaning of many unfamiliar words. vok:to call vocal(of or pertaining to the voice. true to life. EXTRA HELP If you would like additional review or further practice with word roots. as you are learning roots and trying to determine the meaning of unfa-miliar words. LATI N WOR D ROOTS 69 Now you have the tools to really break down words and work out their meanings. forceful. bitter. 3rd edition. vigorous(energetic. see Lessons 7 and 8 in LearningExpress’s Vocabulary and Spelling Success in 20 Minutes a Day. tending to express oneself often and freely. and this will both dramatically expand your vocabulary and significantly improve your score on your exam. By memorizing common prefixes.

.word root. • Remember that you use common word roots every day. the easier it will be for you to remember the meaning of the root word. Here are some specific strategies for sharpening this skill and using it in a test situation. often with-out realizing it. equate). The more familiar the word is to you (e. If you don’t know or can’t remember the root word. • Remember the power of elimination on an exam. • Use words that you are very familiar with as examples when you study word roots. the better your chances of choosing the correct answer. 1. predict. b.g. Do not feel intimidated by the long lists in this chapter or in Appendix A. you will be able to learn new words more quickly and better determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. try to recall the meaning of another word with a sim-ilar root. foreign. • Use the power of association.kind.from another country. Look at all parts of the word and the context. You already know much of this material. By memorizing these word bases. Use words that create a vivid picture in your imagination. • Remember that word roots work with prefixes and suffixes—and sometimes other root words—to create meaning. The more you narrow down your choices. to determine meaning. if possible. There are more words built upon Latin roots than any other in the Eng-lish language. • Take the time to memorize as many Latin roots as you can. Use your knowl-edge of word roots to eliminate incorrect answers. O J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 70 PRACTICE Choose the best answer for each question below. . eager to help.A belligerentperson is: a.

Something that is luminousis: . e. b.burn or sting. d. d.blames others for his or her own faults. b. e. c.a punishment. LATI N WOR D ROOTS 71 6.a speech.deadly.large. d.a mistake. d.Something that is manifestis: a.receives the maximum benefit. c. 5. e.often speaks without thinking.cause harm or damage to. hostile. b.is all-knowing.is eager to please.A renaissanceis: a. d.loving. devoted. e. 2. 3.speak in a way that conceals the truth.eager to fight.To equivocateis to: a.bitter and angry.c.obvious. c.a lie.everywhere.calm or quiet. b. c. e.put something in its proper place. 4.a rebirth.Someone who is omniscient: a.newborn. especially by accident.

e. c.wash away. 10. e.A person who is culpableis: a.burning with anger.place side by side. e. e.excessive.silent. inoffensive.guilty. erode. e.bright.reserved.bubbling over with enthusiasm. c.deeply in love.be born again.clean. judging equally.fair. silent.dangerous or deadly. d.a.irrelevant. 8.even.overwhelm. d. b. b.energetic. d.a great warrior. 7. wandering from the main path or point. c. 9.Something that is innocuousis: a.capable.full of knowledge. equal.projecting over the edge. full of life. thoroughly washed.Someone who is reticentis: a. c. c. d. d. b.To juxtaposeis to: a.speak in a round-about manner. flood.harmless. b. . b.vocal. shining.

11.If there is amitybetween two nations. 13.is enlightened.A veritableautograph is: a.An acrimoniousrelationship is one that: a.abolish.equality. c. d.surrenders the rights of others.has a pleasing and lasting affect on others.very valuable.exists only in the imagination.is bitter or resentful. 15.has existed for a long time. b. e. e. b.worthless.is of great importance. b.fight. d.genuine.bitterness.is experienced through the life or action of another. c. d.war.enables a guilty person to be set free. e.is extremely friendly. c.a forgery or fake.rest quietly. there is: a. b. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 72 12. .A vicariousaction is one that: a. quarrel. b. d. c. revoke.know intimately.To abrogateis to: a. e.an autograph by a famous person.witness silently. 14. c.

trading of blame. rambling speech. .to give in to. e. sarcastic.nosy. b.combative.A magnanimousperson is: a. generous.to speak in a whisper.friendship. e. c. d. steady pace. 20. to want to be someone else. e.a wanderer. b.evil. 17.the act of seeing or shining.Something that is erratic: a. c.A pugnaciousperson is best described as: a. b.given to wordy.a place to stop.An edictis: a.d.talented.extremely talkative. e.to mask the truth.to wish to live another’s life.to call attention to.To acquiesceis to: a. e.someone with a sharp wit. d.a place to rest. c. d. comply with another’s wishes. c.highly noble.a formal proclamation or command. b. d.ruthless. 16. LATI N WOR D ROOTS 73 18.a state of danger or peril.moves at a constant. hobo. 19.

verbally abuse.to expand to so great a size as to outgrow.To feel fervoris to feel: a.burdened.a flood. 22.calmness. balloon. e.A delugeis: a. c.is cut or divided into equal parts. e.an inability to express oneself.pick a fight with.has good intentions. b. d.disturb the peace.A loquaciousperson: a.intense. is not discerning. light-hearted. . distend. 23. cut down. d. d. an overwhelming amount. tease. straying from the norm. c. c.to accept blame for another’s wrongdoing. c. d.carefree. c. e.an aggressive or hostile person. b.is unpredictable.believes in doing what pleases him or herself. but often ends up doing things that end up hurting others. d.a skillfully-told lie. e.tends to talk a great deal. in its proper place.is properly ordered. something hidden. as with guilt.To castigatemeans to: a. b. appropriate. punish harshly.tends to like everyone. 21.a mask.often has difficulty finding things. meandering.b. peace. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 74 24. fiery emotion. b.seems to be harmless but is actually very dangerous.

d. The root belmeans war. Manifestmeans clear and unmistak-able. feelings. the suffix -ousmeans having the quality of or relating to. cause to be. The root culpmeans blame.stands out above or surpasses others. showing an eagerness to fight. a. 3. thus. ANSWERS 1. The root luc/lum/lus means light.reflects the opinions. b. emitting light. the root sci means to know. etc. To equivocate means to use unclear or ambiguous language in order to mislead or conceal the truth. Culpablemeans deserving blame or censure for . a revocation. c. of everyone within the group.The root equmeans equal. The prefix re-means back or again. a. 5. The root nas/nat/naimeans to be born.Something that is preeminent: a. Belligerent means hostile and aggressive. e.is related to a specific branch of scientific knowledge. as the other answers cor-respond with different roots. knowing all things. Luminousmeans shining. brilliant. Omniscient means having infinite knowledge. The adjective suffix -entmeans in a state or condition. performing or causing a specified action. not quite doing either). diplomatic.is easily permeated by water. c.e. e. The root omnimeans all.is handled carefully and tactfully. 6. e. obvious. 4. the suf-fix -atemeans to make. The adjective suffix -ablemeans capa-ble or worthy of. the suffix -ance means state of. the root voc/vokmeans to call. Renaissancemeans a rebirth or revival. 2. LATI N WOR D ROOTS 75 7. The root manmeans hand. b. Thus. 25. someone who equivocates is “equally” lying and telling the truth (or rather. at hand. The correct answer can be achieved here through the process of elimination. c. full of light.a decree abolishing something.

The root mag/maj/maxmeans big. a. d. bitter. a formal proclamation or command issued by someone in authority. The prefix in-means not.The root tac/ticmeans to be silent. The prefix ab-means off.doing something wrong or harmful. Vicariousmeans felt through imaging what another has experienced. the suffix -atemeans to make. c. away. To juxtapose means to place side by side. An edictis an official order or decree. To abrogate means to abolish. Veritablemeans real. The root vermeans truth. The adjective suffix -ousmeans having the quality of or relating to. 13. a. 15. acting or suffering for another. d. a. a. The adjective suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to. Magnanimousmeans very noble and generous. The root rogmeans to ask. The noun suffix -itymeans state of being. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 76 . understanding and forgiving of others. 12. a. Amitymeans friendship. The root nec/nic/noc/noxmeans harm. The root vimeans life. Reticentmeans tending to keep one’s thoughts and feelings to oneself. 8. guilty. 9. The suffix -ablemeans capable or wor-thy of. innocuousmeans harmless. The root pon/pos/poundmeans to put. e. reserved. true. The adjective suffix -ousmeans having the quality of or relating to.The root ac/acr means sharp. place. away from. b. do away with. cause to be. use words. 17. genuine. blameworthy. 10. down. 16. The root ammeans love.The root dic/dict/ditmeans to say. the suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to. tell. silent. formally revoke. Acrimoniousmeans bit-ter and sharp in language or tone. a state of friendly or peaceful relations. untalkative. Thus. 14. 11. especially to compare or contrast. having no adverse or ill effects. death.

18. ardor. Erraticmeans moving or behaving in an irregular. The root errmeans to wander. The suffix -ormeans a condition or activity. to chastise (verbally abuse. or inconsistent manner. c.to abolish. b. degree. Pugnaciousmeans quarrelsome. hang over. opinion. bubble. 21. To castigatemeans to inflict a severe punishment on. consent without protest—thereby “quieting” the other to whom one gives in. etc.The root lug/lut/luv means to wash. The root fervmeans to boil. uneven. A delugeis a great flood or inundation. The root cast/chastmeans cut. Loquaciousmeans very talkative. Preeminentmeans greater to others in importance. Fervormeans zeal. combative. give in. intense emotion. e. inclined to fight.The root quimeans quiet. having the quality of. garrulous. consent without protest. LATI N WOR D ROOTS 77 WORD LIST abrogate(ab·ro ˘· ayt) v. 25. a. 24. c. The verb suffix -atemeans to make. coming before. burn. standing above others in its class.The root loc/log/loqumeans word. sur-passing—thus. give in. The adjective suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to. superior. 19. 20. . b. To acquiescemeans to comply. an overwhelming num-ber or amount. The adjective suffix -icmeans per-taining or relating to. significance. cause to be.The root pugmeans to fight. d. cut down) severely. 23. The root minmeans to project. The prefix pre-means before. do away with. The adjective suffix -ousmeans hav-ing the quality of or relating to. the suffix -entmeans in a state or condition. acquiesce(ak·wi·es) v. performing or causing a specified action. formally revoke. something that overwhelms.to comply. 22. speech. devi-ating (wandering) from the normal or typical course of action. d. or achievement.

to chastise . v. moving or behaving in an irregular.to use unclear or ambiguous language in order to mislead or conceal the truth.1.an official order or decree. vivid. fluent. and effective expression. guilty.1. erratic(i·rat·ik) adj. patience and composure. self·satisfied. proper. likable. concede(ko˘n·seed) v. and persuasive manner. a state of friendly or peaceful relations. to grant as a right or privilege. etc. good natured.expressed in a powerful. castigate(kas·t˘· severely. something that over-whelms. or bitterness of. opinion.1.to inflict a severe punishment on. pleasing. to increase the severity. a great flood or inundation 2. equanimity (ee·kwa˘·nim·i·tee) n. to overrun with water. blameworthy.to make worse. edict(ee·dikt) n.bitter and sharp in language or tone. unconcerned. to acknowledge or admit as true.friendship. a formal proclamation or command issued by someone in authority. complacent (ko˘m·play·se ˘nt) adj.acrimonious(ak·r˘·moh·ni·u˘s) adj. calmness of temperament. clear. ·zas·e˘r·bayt) v. deviating from the normal or typical course of action. (often with reluctance). contented to a fault. even-temperedness. deluge(del·yooj) n. eloquent(el·o˘·kwe˘nt) adj. amity(am·˘·tee)n. culpable(kul·pa˘·be˘l) adj.deserving blame or censure for being or doing something wrong or harmful. uneven. to yield. inundate 2. to overwhelm with a large number or amount.1. surrender 2. etc. belligerent(bi·lij·e˘r·e˘nt) adj. exacerbate(i lence. amiable(ay·mi·a˘·be˘l) adj. especially under stressful cir-cumstances. an overwhelming number or amount. equivocate(i·kwiv·o˘·kayt) v.hostile and aggressive.friendly and agreeable. swamp. showing an eagerness to fight. or inconsistent manner 2. vioayt) v.

under- manifest(man·˘·fest) adj.1. preeminent(pree·em·i·ne˘nt) adj. placid(plas·id) adj. sane or rational. to become apparent and visible. noxious(nok·shu ˘s) adj. easy to understand.greater to others in importance. emitting light.incapable of being placated or appeased. intelligible 2.harmless. ·nan·u˘·mu˘s) adj.to show or demonstrate clearly. garrulous. inexorable.fervor(fur·vo˘r) n. innocuous(i·nok·yoo·u˘s) adj. very clear. brilliant. placebo(pla˘·see·boh) n. magnanimous(ma standing and forgiving of others.very talkative.continuing without interruption. placate(play·kayt) v. especially by making concessions. loquacious(loh·kway·shu ˘s) adj.clear and unmistakable.having infinite knowledge. to allay the anger of. omniscient(om·nish·e ˘nt) adj.unpleasant and harmful. degree. not likely to upset or offend. pacify. surpassing. very noble and generous. v. ceaseless. indict(in·d¯t) v. luminous(loo·m˘·nu˘s) adj.shining.an inactive. ardor.to place side by side.calm and peaceful. superior.zeal. having no adverse or ill effects. juxtapose(juk·sta ˘·pohz) v. especially to compare or contrast. implacable (im·plak·a˘·be˘l) adj. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 78 incessant(in·ses·a˘nt) adj.to formally accuse of or charge with a crime. knowing all things. bright. free from disturbance or tumult.to appease. harmless substance of no medicinal value given to patients to reassure them or to members of a control group in experiments testing the efficacy of a drug. unwholesome. or achievement. con-tinuous. significance. full of light. obvious. . intense emotion. lucid(loo·sid) adj.

renaissance.to be independent. T his chapter buildson your knowledge of word roots by review-ing some of the most common roots from the Greek language. e. renascence(ri·nas·e˘ns. dormant.To have autonomymeans: a. quiescent(kwi·es·e˘nt) adj. acting or suffering for another. vicarious(v¯·kair·i·u˘s) adj. d.to have a great deal of wealth.to be very brave.inactive.to have very strong opinions. When you are fin-ished.to have the ability to feel what others feel.truth.tending to keep one’s thoughts and feelings to one-self. at rest. untalkative.pugnacious(pu ·nay·shu ˘s)adj. 1. reticent(ret·i·se ˘nt) adj. combative. ri·nay·se ˘ns) n. c.real. veracity(ve˘·ras·i·tee) n. Greek Word Roots 5 . check the answer key carefully to assess your results. truthfulness. Before you begin learning and reviewing Greek word roots. genuine. courageous. A complete list of the vocabulary words used in this lesson is provided at the end of the chapter. self-governing. Your Bench-mark Quiz analysis will help you determine how much time you need to spend on this area as well as the specific words you need to learn in order to increase your vocabulary power.1. felt through imagining what another has experienced 2. BENCHMARK QUIZ Choose the best answer to each question. take a few minutes to take this ten-question Benchmark Quiz. veritable(ver·i·ta ˘·be˘l) adj. latent. silent. b. true. These questions are similar to the type of questions that you will find on important tests. reserved.a rebirth or revival. quiet.quarrelsome. inclined to fight.

d. suspension.79 J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 80 2. 5. c. cutting in two. bliss. 4.a harsh sound. c. e. e. hidden.a long-lasting illness.a state of timelessness. 3.a false name.an excessively long and critical speech. b. e.Something that is peripheralis: a. b. d.on the outer edge or boundary.a state of happiness.Empathymeans: a. c. d.A state of euphoriais: a.having a great love for others.a god or deity.being an overachiever. obsessed with success. .being the same as everyone else.a state of self-denial. b. b.great suffering.A pseudonymis: a. c. e.a matter of opinion.a state of disbelief.secret. d.a state of total control by an absolute ruler. 6.identifying with another’s feelings. b.dissecting.central.a strong emphasis on education. there is: a.In a state of anarchy.doing good for others.

c. GREEK WORD ROOTS 81 8.noisy and chaotic.is unable to tolerate those who are different.asserts his or her opinion in an absolute. e. d. d.has difficulty handling situations in which he or she must lead others.a tendency toward or preference for something.the worship of only one god.A state of pandemoniumis: a.the use of force to rule or control others. e. e. quiet. d.inspirational.has a distorted sense of realty.c.has no name. shrouded in mystery. b.calm.A person who is dogmatic: a. b.without love or compassion. .a widespread rumor. e. arrogant manner.has no definite shape.ruled by consensus. c.all-encompassing. b. e. generating hope.is secretive. d. c.has a strong resemblance to another.Something that is amorphous: a. b.is unable to speak or communicate. c. 10. complete.great respect for the individual.the end of innocence after witnessing or experiencing evil.the love of humankind. 9. d. 7.Philanthropyis: a.total lawlessness.

BENCHMARK QUIZ SOLUTIONS How did you do on identifying Greek word roots? Check your answers here. without. 8.means not. on the outer boundary. self-determination. disease. The root perimeans around. The prefix a. situ-ation. Euphoriameans a feeling of well-being or high spirits. principal. Empathy means understanding and identifying with another’s feelings.The root pas/pat/pathmeans feeling. The adjective suffix -icmeans pertaining or relating to. Autonomymeans personal or political independence. The root dog/doxmeans opinion. d. fake. c. especially a pen name used by a writer. A pseudonymis a fictitious name. 2. The adjective suffix -almeans of or relating to. The root nom/nym means name. political disor-der and confusion. well. b. suffering. 6. absolute. of or relating to dogma. Dogmaticmeans asserting something in a positive. not of central importance or relevance. The prefix a-means not. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 82 4. of no particular kind or character. a. 7. 5. a. anomalous. Anarchymeans the complete absence of government or control resulting in lawlessness. or motives. The root morphmeans shape. ruler. ◗Answers 1. self-government. without. The root eu means good. c. and then analyze the results to figure out your plan of attack for mas-tering this topic. 3.The root automeans self. The adjective suffix -ousmeans having the quality of or relating to. . Amorphousmeans having no definite form or distinct shape. shapeless. having the quality of. e. arrogant way. The Greek root pseudo means false. The noun suffix -ia identifies names or diseases. Peripheralmeans of or relating to the periphery or edge. The root arch/archi/archy means chief. a.

9. 10. a wild uproar. Study the lesson that follows carefully. The study of word ori-gins and development is called etymology. d. you are tracing the ety-mology or history of that word. the root demmeans people. If your score on the practice test is equally high. If you answered 4–7 questions correctly. Philanthropymeans love of humankind. GREEK WORD ROOTS 83 If you answered 1–3 questions correctly.The root panmeans all. Be sure to set aside some time to carefully review the complete list of common Greek word roots located in Appendix A. or an institution dedi-cated to this. a. perhaps it has been some time since you reviewed word roots. human. But you need more practice to really sharpen this skill. noisy confusion. you can also better understand words and more effectively build your vocabulary by learning about the history of words. everyone. move on to Chapter 6. The root phil means love. well done! You are already skilled at using Greek word roots to determining meaning. and do the practice quiz on a separate sheet of paper so that you can do the exer-cise several times if necessary. voluntary action intended to promote the welfare of others. you are familiar with some of the most common Greek word roots and how to use them to determine meaning. When you break down a word and identify a root word from another language. Take extra time to learn the complete list of common Greek word roots located in Appendix A. GLOSSARY . JUST IN TIME LESSON—GREEK WORD ROOTS Just as you can better understand a person by learning about that person’s past. the root anthro/andro means man. BENCHMARK QUIZ RESULTS If you answered 8–10 questions correctly. Pandemoniummeans a state of extreme disorder or chaos. Give the lesson a quick review and do the practice exercise.

For now. look at the number of words and the rich variety of meaning that comes from the Greek root chron. and a detailed etymological study will show you not only where a word comes from but also how its meaning has changed over time. For example. arranged in order of time of occurrence chronometer: an exceptionally accurate clock. however. meaning time: chronic: continuing for a long time. long-lasting or recurrent chronology: the arrangement of events in time. homogeneous(also spelled homogenous) means of the sameor simi-lar nature or kind. they are the bases to which we add prefixes. habitual. a precise instrument for measuring time . As you know from Chapter 4. Greek word roots work in exactly the same way as Latin roots. the focus of this lesson remains on learning some of the most common roots so that you can better determine meaning and succeed on your exam.ETYMOLOGY the history of a word. make a historical record chronological: relating to chronology. For example. kind ous: suffix meaning having the quality of. to record in chronological order. suffixes. having a uniform structure or composition throughout. and sometimes other roots to change and create meaning. the sequence in which events occurred J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 84 chronicle: a detailed record or narrative description of past events. look at the etymology of the word homogeneous: homo: Greek root meaning same gen: Latin root meaning birth. many different words can be built from a single root. related to Thus. on-going. the study of its origin and development Many words have a rich history.

of course. we can create even more words. which once again are mostly everyday words that are already part of your permanent vocabulary. For example. so you know that the definition should somehow express something negative or a lack of something. which has nothing to do with time. we can turn it into the noun synchronicity. custom. The prefix a-means not. . taking note of the exam-ples. c. means time. an adjective that means occurring or existing at the same time. be simultaneous By changing the suffix of synchronize. A more comprehensive list of the most com-mon Latin and Greek word roots is located in Appendix A. thus doubly eliminating choices a. without. The root chron. and d. Here is a list of some of the most common Greek word roots. make sure you review the list carefully and study any roots that are unfamiliar to you. and d.two people born at the same time. d. a person. e. which is the state or fact of being synchronous. The suffix -ismmeans a state or doctrine of. c. to occur at the same time. The correct answer is b. an anachronismis something that is placed into an incorrect historical period. This effectively eliminates choices a.the quality of being timely or punctual.something that is out of date or placed in the wrong time period.synchronize: to cause to occur at the same time or agree in time. Thus. Now use your knowledge of prefixes.someone who has too much time on his or her hands.a temporary state of confusion or disorder. You have already seen some of these roots in the words from the Benchmark Quiz and the lesson thus far. this rules out choice e. Review the list carefully. and roots to answer the following question: An anachronismis: a. b. c. suffixes. or idea that is out of date. After you have completed this lesson.

the sequence in which events occurred) cli. andro:man. courage. seeing with one’s own eyes) card. or cause to do so. human android(a very human-like machine or robot. slant. one who creates plans for build-ings). especially one used as a burial place). clin:to lean toward. the process or skill of communicating in or deciphering coded messages) dem:people . especially one made of biological materials). to give support.GREEK WORD ROOTS 85 COMMON GREEK WORD ROOTS anthro. slope. cryptography (secret writing. archy:chief. autopsy(examination of a dead body to determine cause of death. recline(to lie back or down) cryp:hidden crypt (an underground vault or chamber. cour:heart cardiac(of or relating to the heart). cord. hearten) chron:time chronic(continuing for a long time. principal. bend incline(to lean. long-lasting or recurrent). having inherent power of action or motion). habitual. archi. on-going. to have a tendency or disposition toward something). monarchy(a state ruled by a monarch (a sole and absolute ruler. encourage(to inspire with hope. or confidence. anthropology(the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings) arch. ruler architect(one who plans or devises. such as a king) auto:self automatic(operating without external influence or control. chronology (the arrangement of events in time.

excessive hyperactive(highly or excessively active). homophone (a word that sounds the same as another but has a different meaning) hyper:over. width). to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking) dog.democracy(government by the people through elected representa-tives). dyslexia (an impaired ability to read) J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 86 eu:good. other heterosexual(a person sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex). epidemic(a widespread outbreak of a disease affecting many people at the same time) di. well eulogy(a verbal or written tribute. or swerve. dia:apart. obstinate). heterodox(disagreeing with or departing from accepted beliefs) (h)omo:same homogeneous(of the same or similar nature or kind. dox:opinion dogged(stubbornly unyielding. deviate. dogma(a system of prin-ciples or beliefs. through diameter(a straight line passing through the center of a circle. having a uniform structure or composition throughout). euthanasia(the act of painlessly ending the life of someone suffering from a terminal illness) (h)etero:different. abnormal dysfunctional (impaired or abnormal in function). digress(to turn aside. a prescribed doctrine) dys:faulty. thick-ness. hyperventilate(to breathe excessively and abnormally fast) morph:shape . especially one praising someone who has died).

path:feeling. are those tricks such as rhymes that we use to help us remember things. you can picture the letters EU on a well. sympathy(sharing another person’s feelings. To remem-ber that eumeans good or well. synonym(a word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another) pan:all. everyone panorama(a complete view in every direction). harmony.metamorphosis(a transformation. Use them to remember the meaning of word roots. For example. disease compassion(deep awareness of and sympathy for another’s suffering). again. Philloves to help others. you can use the following catchy sentences to remember these roots: My name is Nom. nym:name nominate(to name as a candidate). to remember that the root dog/doxmeans opinion. All the eggs are in the pan. a marked change of form. pat. Here’s a trick to remember the difference between hetero(different) and homo(same): homohas the same number of letters as same. charac-ter. or function). all the gods of a people or region) " GREEK WORD ROOTS 87 pas. use pictures to help you remember words. He is hidden in the crypt. If you are a visual learner. as you know. agreement . pantheon(a temple dedicated to all the gods. feeling pity or tender-ness toward another’s pain or suffering. For example. Archieis a good ruler. nom. suffering. polymorphous(having or assuming a variety of forms) SHORTCUT: USING MNEMONIC DEVICES Mnemonic devices. you can imagine a dog explaining his opinion on an important issue.

a systematic investigation of questions about knowledge. Use association to remember root meanings and to determine the meaning of unfa-miliar words. CHEAT SHEET: ASSOCIATE AND ELIMINATE Remember the power of two key vocabulary test strategies: association and elimination. theology(the study of god and religion) Now you have a larger store of word roots in your vocabulary—and a greater ability to break down unfamiliar words and use their roots to deter-mine meaning. That way. a large orchestra) theo:god atheist(one who denies the existence of a god or supreme being). Keep reviewing common word roots as well as prefixes and suffixes as you prepare for your test. the more accurately you will be able to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and achieve a higher score on your exam. pediatrician(a physician specializing in the care of infants and children) peri:around perimeter(the outer limits or boundary of an area). existence. symphony(a long and complex sonata for an orchestra. even if you guess. education encyclopedia(a comprehensive reference work on a wide range of subjects). and ethics) phone:sound phonics(a method of teaching reading by training beginners to asso-ciate letters with their sound values). Use elimination to narrow down your answer choices on an exam. periscope(an opti-cal instrument that provides a view of an otherwise obstructed field) phil:love bibliophile(a lover of books). The more familiar you are with these word parts. philosophy(love and pursuit of wisdom.between two people) ped:child. . you have a much better chance of guessing the correct answer.

the easier it will be for you to remember the meaning of the root word. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 88 • Take the time to memorize as many Greek word roots as you can. It is likely that you already know a lot of this material.TIPS AND STRATEGIES Many words in the English language come from Greek word roots. The more you narrow down your choices. see Lessons 7 and 8 in LearningExpress’s Vocabulary and Spelling Success in 20 Minutes a Day. incline.g. Use words that create a vivid picture in your imagination. Do not feel intimidated by the long lists in this chapter or in Appendix A. Look at all parts of the word and the context. democ-racy). • Use the power of association. If you don’t know or can’t remember the root word. 3rd edition. • Use words that you are very familiar with as examples when you study word roots. the better your chances of choosing the correct answer.. Here again are some specific strategies for using your knowledge of word roots to build your vocabulary and improve your score on an exam. EXTRA HELP If you would like additional review or further practice with word roots. • Remember that you use common word roots every day. • Remember that word roots work with prefixes and suffixes—and sometimes other root words—to create meaning. . • Remember the power of elimination on an exam. you will be able to learn new words more quickly and better determine the meaning of unfamil-iar words. to determine meaning. The more familiar the word is to you (e. if possible. Use your knowl-edge of word roots to eliminate incorrect answers. often with-out realizing it. try to recall the meaning of another word that sounds like it or shares the same root word. By memorizing these word bases.

3.is so dependent upon others he or she has difficulty functioning alone. e. b.A euphemismis: a.does not accurately represent his or her constituents.believes him or herself to be a god. unique. c. c. b.a highly fatal disease.A nominalleader: a.is very sensitive to noise.does not have any education. .a name with an ancient origin. e. c. O GREEK WORD ROOTS 89 2. c. b.Someone who is apathetic: a.is unable to function due to excessive wear and tear. d. b. d. d. 1.is conspicuously out of place.is mislabeled or misnamed.something rare.a theory of education in which humanities should be emphasized over the sciences. e.does not accurately represent reality.implements policies similar to his or her predecessor.a nice word to replace something offensive.Something that is unorthodox: a.PRACTICE Use your knowledge of word roots and prefixes and suffixes to choose the best answer to each question.lacks the strength to do what is right or good.does not have any real power.does not conform to traditionally held beliefs. 4.

b.an imaginary place filled with terror and oppression. e. especially one through a mountain.has difficulty determining his or her position on important issues.a congenital disease of the heart.a copy or duplicate. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 90 8.a world traveler.a well-wisher.is related to royalty.an uneven or twisted path.a musician.meets at the same time each week. e. d. e. c. 6. c.A heterogeneousgroup: a.a cure-all.is prone to excessive spending.someone who frequently exaggerates. c. e. c. b.A panaceais: a. e.a disfigured person. destitute.shows a lack of concern or emotion. d.An automatonis: a.is poor. .a school devoted to religious training. d.d.a secret lover.a malfunctioning machine or appliance.A dystopiais: a.A person who is peripatetic: a. b. 9. 5. 7.an incision made by slicing diagonally through something. d.is in good health.walks around from place to place.a robotic person. both emotionally and physically. b.

a long detour.b. d.a coincidence.a self-destructive behavior.a heart-warming story. d. e.shares the opinion of the majority. b.a token of support or encouragement. b.an unexpected test result. c. something that happens at the same time.is well-rounded and efficient. c. c.is composed of very different people.A diatribeis: a. 12.is round or spherical in shape.a large group of like-minded people. cutting verbal attack. e. d. especially one in which family members are reunited. c.donates money to numerous charities. .a bitter. b.a great exaggeration.Someone who is pedantic: a.has a secret meaning.Something that is cryptic: a.is designed for very young children.tends to favor one person over others although all have equal qualifications.a similarity or sameness.is known by name. 11. d.is the group that determines the rules or regulations that others must abide by.enjoys playing music. especially with others. e. b.refuses to listen to the opinions of others. 13. c. 10.A hyperboleis: a. e.

When there is discordbetween two people.a formal statement of one’s beliefs.a mutual respect. there is: a.a shared opinion or belief. something that prevents something from working properly.dutifully records events in a diary or journal. especially one who is dead. d. d. c.a lack of agreement or harmony. e.A proclivityis: a. d.changes his or her name frequently.all sides are equal.a deeply loving relationship. 15.Someone who is a misanthrope: a. 17.an unlikely friendship or cooperative effort between two or more people.is obsessed with a celebrity.d. b. b. GREEK WORD ROOTS 91 14.a regulation or rule that all must abide by.the government is run by a few powerful people.You have an oligarchywhen: a. b.there is widespread discontent among the members of an organization.tends to side with the majority or winning side. c.a natural tendency or inclination.loves meeting new people or having new experiences. e.there is a revolution in teaching methods or in a curriculum.an inability to respect the differences between them.is constantly trying to show how much he or she knows. c. e.dislikes or distrusts most other people. 16. b. e.an impairment. c. . d.

there is an overabundance of material. b. d.stem from an unknown or hidden source. e.A paradoxis something that: .something that is required in order for something else to take place. c.reduced to the smallest possible amount. 20. clamor. the elevation of a person to a divine status.an immature or childish person. a copy or forgery. etc. the core.something tangled or twisted. c.Anthropomorphicmeans: a. 21. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 92 19.affect a great many people over a very large area. b.e.A cacophonyis: a. d.a harsh or jarring sound. 22. e. e.a refusal to acknowledge similarities between two people. b. supplies.a tribute to a deity.functioning independently.A pandemicflu would: a.attributing human characteristics to an animal or object.a belief in the supremacy of human beings. d.cause great suffering to an individual who contracts it. e. 18. d. a prerequisite.a glorification.something fake. c.named after an ancestor. ideas. etc. b.last a long time and tend to recur frequently. c.be annoying but essentially harmless.a means of removing obstructions without causing damage to the existing structure.a medical doctor specializing in hereditary diseases. a complex or intricate design or shape.An apotheosisis: a.

you feel: a. 2.passion. well. GREEK WORD ROOTS 93 25. e. e.has a beneficial effect. c.is highly offensive.A dichotomyis: a. b.a trick or sleight of hand. d. c. synergy. not orthodox.a. 23.a chamber in the heart. c.If you feel a disinclinationtowards something.a universal principle or belief. c.religious figures.a strong connection. c. especially saints.human populations.something used to diagnose personality disorders.seems to contradict a generally accepted opinion. 24. b. e.has a three-dimensional shape or form.abnormal behaviors.reluctance.types or systems of government. e. especially on health. Unorthodoxmeans breaking with convention or tradition. d. b. ANSWERS 1. d.Demographyis the study of: a. The noun suffix -ismmeans state . something cunning or deceitful. The root dog/doxmeans opin-ion.The root eumeans good.disease.discomfort. d. nonconformist.pity.a tool used to bend something that is straight. b. against. b.a cutting or dividing into two parts. The prefix un-means not.

The root automeans self. Peripateticmeans walking about from place to place. A dystopiais an imaginary state in which the condition of life is extremely bad. a story describing such a state. having the quality of. Thus. 5. The adjective suffix -icmeans per-taining or relating to. or diseases. a cure-all. having the quality of. The root dysmeans faulty. Nominalmeans of or relating to names. a. 6. The adjective suffix -icmeans pertaining or relating to. 4. indifferent. a nominal leader is a leader in name only and has no real power. The root nom/nymmeans name. Apatheticmeans feeling or showing a lack of interest. A panaceais a remedy of all ills. The prefix a-means not. evils. so small as to be trivial or insignificant. A euphemism is a mild or inoffensive word or phrase substituted for one that is considered harsh or offensive. An automatonis someone who acts or responds in a mechanical or robotic way. 8. b. The adjective suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to. abnormal. c. the adjective suffix -almeans of or relating to. the Latin root gen means birth. concern. 7.The root hypermeans over. suffering. difficulties. not real. . terror. excessive. Heterogeneousmeans consisting of ele-ments or parts that are dissimilar. other. c. without. 10. unresponsive. or emotion. The root perimeans around. The Greek root heteromeans different. disease.or doctrine of.The root panmeans all. a. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 94 9. or oppression. everyone. itinerant. 3. A hyperboleis a figure of speech using exaggeration for emphasis or effect. d. unrelated. The root pas/pat/pathmeans feel-ing. d. a self-operating or auto-matic machine. kind. not of the same kind or nature. existing in name only. a robot. b. The noun suffix -iaidenti-fies names or diseases. as from deprivation.

The root cryp means hidden. Discordmeans a lack of agreement or harmony among persons. d. reversal. Proclivitymeans a natural tendency. Oligmeans few. a.The root ped means child. mysterious.11. everyone. forward. ill. The adjective suffix -ic means pertaining or relating to. an acrimonious denunciation. an exalted or glorified ideal. The prefix mis-means wrong. b. disposition. ruler. 13. A misanthropeis one who hates or distrusts mankind. through. The adjective suffix -ic means pertaining or relating to. the root demeans people. secret. An oli-garchyis a form of government in which the power is in the hands of a few people.The root arch/archi/archy means chief. GREEK WORD ROOTS 95 19. tiresome focus on or display of learn-ing. A cacophonyis a loud. The root card/cord/cour means heart. clamor. bend. e. having the quality of. having the quality of. The noun suffix -itymeans state of being. 17. A diatribemeans a bitter. The root diameans apart. discor-dant sound. education. not. abu-sive verbal attack. b. . The noun suffix -sismeans the process of. occult. or things. 16. having the quality of. or inclination.The prefix dis-means away from. apart. The root phonemeans sound. tension resulting from such disagreement. especially of rules or trivial matters. jarring. 12. Crypticmeans having a hidden or secret meaning. 18. The adjective suffix -icmeans per-taining or relating to. groups.The root theomeans god. a. din. hidden. An apotheosisis a deification. human. The root cli/clin means to lean toward. 15. c. principal.The prefix pro-means for. predisposition. 14. The root anthro/andromeans man. d. Pedantic means marked by a narrow. A pandemicis an epidemic affecting a wide geographical area and affecting a large portion of the population. The root panmeans all. b. 20. d.

J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 96 WORD LIST amorphous(a˘·mor·fu ˘s) adj. a self-contradictory assertion. such as size. or the result of an action or process. state. something that is placed into an incorrect historical period 2.1. human. Demog-raphymeans the study of the characteristics of human populations. or emotion. The root dog/doxmeans opinion. anomalous. 24. indifferent. The root anthro/andromeans man. unwilling-ness. Anthropomorphicmeans attributing human characteristics. shapeless 2. motivations. unresponsive. 23. bend. the complete absence of government or control resulting in lawlessness 2. a lack of inclination. a. The noun suffix -graphymeans writ-ing about or representation of a specific subject or object. condi-tion. and economic standing. through. having no definite form or distinct shape. not.The prefix dis-means away from. d. or behavior to animals or inanimate objects. The noun suffix -tionmeans action. apathetic(ap·a˘·thet·ik) adj.feeling or showing a lack of interest. or idea that is out of date. A paradoxis a statement that seems to be contradictory or absurd but may nonetheless be true. The prefix para-means beside. of no particular kind or character. the root morphmeans shape. Disinclinationmeans a mild dislike. 25.1. The noun suffix -ymeans condition. anachronism(a˘·nak·ro ˘·niz·e˘m) n. having the quality of. a. A dichotomyis a division into two usu-ally contradictory parts or kinds. reluctance. custom. apart.21. reversal. or quality. motivations. .1. The root di/diameans apart. anthropomorphic(an·thro ˘·po˘·mor·fik) adj. or behavior to animals or inanimate objects. The adjective suffix -ic means pertaining or relating to. births. The root cli/clin means to lean toward. a statement contrary to received opinion. political disorder and confusion. mortality. concern. c. anarchy(an·a˘r·kee) n. or quality of. state. 22. growth. process.The root demmeans people.attributing human character-istics. a person. b.

a precise instrument for measuring time.relating to chronology. jarring. cryptic(krip·tik) adj. mortality.apotheosis(a˘·poth·i·oh·sis) n. cacophony(ka˘·kof·o˘·nee) n.loud. an acrimonious denun-ciation. arranged in order of time of occurrence. a lack of inclination. asserting something in a positive.the arrangement of events in time. diatribe(d¯·a˘·tr¯b) n. chronological(kron·o˘·loj·i·ka˘l) adj. long·lasting or recurrent. a self·operating or automatic machine. autonomy(aw·ton·o˘·mee) n. discord(dis·kord) n.division into two usually contradictory parts or kinds. discordant sound. on·going. secret. the sequence in which events occurred.the study of the characteristics of human populations.an exceptionally accurate clock. . clamor. groups. chronic(kron·ik) adj. occult.a bitter.1. GREEK WORD ROOTS 97 disinclination(dis·in·kli·nay·sho ˘n) n. automaton(aw·tom·a˘·to˘n) n. dichotomy(d¯·kot·o˘·mee) n. chronicle(kron·i·ke˘l) n.1. a lack of agreement or harmony among persons. absolute.1. v.a detailed record or narrative description of past events. abusive verbal attack. chronometer(kro˘·nom·i·te ˘r) n.deification. continuing for a long time. or things. mysterious. or reluctance. chronology(kro˘·nol·o˘·jee) n. tension resulting from such disagreement 2. self-government. hid-den. such as size.having a hidden or secret meaning. self·determination.a mild dislike. births.to record in chronological order. and economic standing. dogmatic(daw ·mat·ik) adj.someone who acts or responds in a mechan-ical or robotic way 2.personal or political independence. din. an exalted or glorified ideal. make a historical record. demography(di·mo ·ra ˘·fee) n. a robot. a harsh or jarring sound or combination of sounds. growth. unwillingness. habitual 2.

of or relating to dogma.understanding and identifying with another’s feel-ings. pandemic(pan·dem·ik) adj. dystopia(dis·to·pi·a˘) n. panacea(pan·a˘·see·a˘) n. a story describing such a state.1. euphoria(yoo·fohr·i·a˘) n.. or diseases.consisting of elements or parts that are dissimilar.a feeling of well·being or high spirits.a mild or inoffensive word or phrase substituted for one that is considered harsh or offensive.one who hates or distrusts humankind. existing in name only. a self·contradictory assertion 2. of or relating to a name or names 2. euphemism(yoo·fe ˘·miz·e˘m) n. heterogeneous(het·e˘·ro ˘·jee·ni·u˘s) adj. I’ve told you a million times.1. paradox(par·a˘·doks) n. pandemonium(pan·de˘·moh·ni·u˘m) n. or oppression 2. not of the same kind or nature. passed away. n. evils. empathy(em·pa˘·thee) n.of the same or similar nature or kind. misanthrope(mis·an·throhp) n. e. hyperbole(h¯·pur·bo˘·lee) n.a state of extreme disorder or chaos. as from deprivation. so small as to be trivial or insignificant. a ahr·kee) n.g.a figure of speech using exaggeration for emphasis or effect. situation. oligarchy(ol·˘· the hands of a few people. widespread. a cure·all.a form of government in which the power is in . a wild uproar.1.. existing everywhere. terror. an imaginary state in which the condition of life is extremely bad. homogeneous(hoh·mo˘·jee·ni·u˘s) adj. nominal(nom·˘·na˘l) adj. noisy confusion. e.arrogant way 2. difficulties.an epi-demic affecting a wide geographical area and affecting a large portion of the population.a remedy for all ills.1.g. unrelated. a statement that seems to be contradictory or absurd but may nonetheless be true. or motives. not real 3. having a uniform structure or composition throughout.

tiresome focus on or display of learning. When you are finished.a fictitious name. especially of rules or trivial matters.breaking with convention or tradition. take a few minutes to take this ten-question Benchmark Quiz. peripheral(pe˘·rif·e˘·ra ˘l) adj. proclivity(proh·kliv·i·tee) n. especially a pen name used by a writer. be simultaneous.marked by a narrow. Before you begin your study of commonly confused words. an institution dedicated to this. disposition. Do you knowwhen to use acceptinstead of except? Ensureinstead of assure? Incredulousinstead of incredible? Using the right word can make the difference between confusion and clarity—and have a huge impact on your exam score. itinerant. This chapter briefly reviews some of the most common homophones and then focuses on commonly confused words that you are likely to encounter on your exam. Your Benchmark Quiz analysis will help you determine how much time you need to spend on this area as well as the specific words you need to learn in order to . predisposition. nonconformist. to cause to occur at the same time 2. peripatetic(per·i·pa˘·tet·ik) adj. or inclination. These questions are similar to the type of ques-tions that you will find on important tests. not orthodox. synchronize(sin ·kro˘·n¯z) v. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 98 philanthropy(fi·lan·thro ˘·pee) n. not of central importance or relevance.1.statement contrary to received opinion. pseudonym(soo·do˘·nim) n.walking about from place to place. on the outer boundary 2.a natural tendency. check the answer key carefully to assess your results. to cause to agree in time 3.1. voluntary action intended to promote the welfare of others. unorthodox(un·or·tho ˘·doks) adj. love of humankind 2. to occur at the same time.1. of or relating to the periphery or edge. pedantic(pi·da˘n·tik) adj.

Once again. Luna has come up with an (ingenious/ingenuous) solution to the problem.Jillian met with a lawyer to see if her landlord could be (persecuted/ prosecuted) for his negligence regarding her apartment building. Homophones and Other Commonly Confused Words 6 99 J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 100 BENCHMARK QUIZ Choose the correct word in the parenthesis to complete each sentence. 6.Reina is in (eminent/imminent/emanate) danger and needs our help right away.It was a grueling six-hour (ascent/assent) from our camp to the top of the mountain.Here is a list of the books the school librarian would like to (censor/ censure/sensor) because she feels they are inappropriate for children. 10.The checks were (disbursed/dispersed) this morning.Please (precede/proceed) with caution through the construction zone. 5. A complete list of the vocabulary words used in this lesson is provided at the end of the chapter. 1.Lilin (alluded/eluded) to problems with her boss.increase your vocabulary power. 7. 4.We will (waive/wave) the late fee because of your extenuating cir-cumstances.Xiu is coming this afternoon to determine the (extant/extent) of the problem. BENCHMARK QUIZ SOLUTIONS How did you do on identifying the correct word? Check your answers here. 8. and . 2. but she didn’t say anything directly. 9. 3.

you seem to be familiar with some of the most common homophones and frequently confused words. impending. Be sure to set aside some time to carefully review the commonly confused word sets listed in this chapter. 7. To waiveis to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily. 6. etc. To censoris to forbid the publication.An ascentis an upward slope. advance. Give the lesson a quick review and do the practice exercise. 9. ingenious. prosecuted. remarkably clever.To prosecuteis to bring a criminal action against (someone).To disbursemeans to pay out.). If your score on the practice test is equally high. or degree to which some-thing reaches or extends. Ingeniousmeans marked by inventive skill or creativity. move on to Chapter 7. HOMOPHON ES 101 3. But you need more practice to really sharpen this skill. imminent.Imminentmeans about to occur.To proceedmeans to go forward or onward. distance. advancement. move on. showing inventiveness and skill. If you answered 4–7 questions correctly. waive. censor. standard procedure. distribution. 8. ◗Answers 1. 5. If you answered 1–3 questions correctly. well done! You are already famil-iar with some of the most common homophones and frequently confused words.then analyze the results to figure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. or other public dissemination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. a movement upward. alluded. 4. you need to learn how to differ-entiate between homophones and other commonly confused words in order . 10.Extentmeans the range. extent. to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule. especially after an interruption. relin-quish. penalty. BENCHMARK QUIZ RESULTS If you answered 8–10 questions correctly. proceed. disbursed. 2. ascent.To alludemeans to make an indirect reference to.

great and grate. it is also illogical. you can see that something is wrong: the writer has confused two different homophones. If so. and bear/bare. the written version is not only incorrect. many of which you already know by heart. A homophone is exactly what its two Greek roots suggest: homo phone same sound It is a word that sounds the same as another but has a different meaning.to build an effective vocabulary and communicate clearly. this chapter will help you get them straight. others that you may still find confusing. Take extra time to learn the commonly confused word groups in this chapter and use the source listed in Extra Helpat the end of the chapter for more review and practice. for example. and do the practice quiz on a separate sheet of paper so that you can do the exercise several times if necessary. Nightand knight. but because you see the words on paper. As a result. are homophones. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 102 JUST IN TIME LESSON— COMMONLY CONFUSED WORDS Imagine that you are reading a story to a child and you come across the fol-lowing sentence: The night sleighed the dragon. Indeed. as are slayand sleigh. the written sentence means something very different from what the writer intended and what the child understands. GLOSSARY HOMOPHONEa word that sounds the same as another but has a different meaning and spelling Spelling and grammar tests will often ask you to determine the correct homophone for a given context—whether you should use whetheror . There are dozens of homophones. Study the lesson that follows carefully. Chances are the child would have no trouble understanding what you read.

or even the GRE General test. the PSAT exam. they aren’t likely to appear on the vocabulary section of a test like the Postal Worker exam. you may con-fuse your readers with sentences that are at best incorrect and at worst unintelligible. So take some time to review the homophones in the listing on the following page. It is very important to know your homophones and use them correctly.weatherin a sentence. Confusing Words Quick Definition accept recognize except excluding access means of approaching excess extra adapt to adjust adopt to take as one’s own affect to influence effect (noun) result effect (verb) to bring about all ready totally prepared already by this time all ways every method always forever . or pieceor peace. Although homophones like fartherand furthermay be confusing. The rest of this lesson will review the kind of commonly confused words you are more likely to encounter on your exam. HOMOPHON ES 103 COMMON HOMOPHONES AND OTHER FREQUENTLY CONFUSED WORDS The following listing shows some of the most common homophones and other frequently confused word pairs along with a brief definition of each word. Then go on to the rest of the lesson. for example. Otherwise.

having no interest in envelop surround envelope paper wrapping for a letter farther beyond further additional immigrate enter a new country emigrate leave a country imply hint. suggest infer assume.among in the middle of several between in an interval separating (two) assure to make certain (assure someone) ensure to make certain insure to make certain (financial value) beside next to besides in addition to bibliography list of writings biography a life story breath(noun) respiration breathe (verb) to inhale and exhale breadth width J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 104 Confusing Words Quick Definition capital (noun) money capital (adjective) most important capitol government building complement match compliment praise disinterested no strong opinion either way uninterested unengaged. deduce .

she or they whom substitute for him.loose not tight lose unable to find may be something may possibly be maybe perhaps overdo do too much overdue late personal individual personnel employees precede go before proceed continue proceeds profits principal (adjective) main principal (noun) person in charge principle standard HOMOPHON ES 105 Confusing Words Quick Definition stationary still. not moving stationery writing material than in contrast to then next in time their belonging to them there in a place they’re they are weather climate whether if who substitute for he. her or them your belonging to you you’re you are .

which is related to the definition of a wave.Remember teemfrom Chapter 2? This is a commonly tested vocabulary word and a homophone. Waivemeans to give up (a right or claim) volun-tarily. penalty. They don’t sound the same because they have very distinct prefixes. But the prefixes are attached to the same root. which is the definition of its homophone wave. Take disinterested and uninterestedas an example. you might encounter questions that use the definition of a familiar homo-phone as a distracter. The correct answer is c. But you should know what teemmeans and make it part of your vocabulary as you prepare for your exam. c.to swell up or rise to the surface. If you don’t know the meaning of waive.). Chances are you won’t confuse teemwith team. etc. e. or d. These answer choices are tempting because they sound familiar.COMMONLY CONFUSED WORDS—THE NEXT LEVEL Now it’s time for the more sophisticated sets of commonly confused words— groups of two or three words in which at least one is a good candidate for a vocabulary exam. you might be tempted to choose a. d. That is. Here is an example: To waivemeans: a.to violate a rule or law. . Another important reason to review homophones like team/teem and waive/waveis to avoid a trap sometimes set by the test developers.to signal with an up and down or back and forth movement. Not all commonly confused words are homophones.to return to the original starting point. here’s a pair of words you should already be familiar with: team/teem. You need to be able to recognize the familiar homophone and recall its definition. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 106 standard procedure. however.to relinquish a right or claim. b. to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule. relinquish. For example. since teamis such a familiar word.

Only cuealso means a signal. showing inventive-ness and skill. only unin-terestedhas this meaning. not cunning or deceitful. You can use this difference to remember key words in the definition of each word: ingenious:inventive ingenuous: unable to mask feelings Similarly. such as a word or action. sincere 2. The only difference in the spelling of these words is the i/u. ingenuous:1. art-less. unmeans not. for example: ingenious:marked by inventive skill or creativity. However. espe-cially when the words seem so much alike? The key is to capitalize on the differences in the words. free of selfish motives or interests—a different word entirely. you simply need to memorize. how do you remember these differences in meaning. mnemonic devices come in especially handy. although queueis used far more often than cuefor this mean-ing. Take the commonly confused pair ingeniousand ingenuous. the difference between disinterestedand uninterestedis the pre-fix. You already know many homophones and commonly confused words inside and out. Some commonly confused words are particularly puzzling because the words not only sound similar. The ones you don’t know. apart. HOMOPHON ES 107 . unable to mask feelings. but they also have similar meanings. Thus many people assume that both words mean the same thing: notinterested. against. Use this to help you remember the meaning: a disinterested person is distanced from the situation and is therefore impartial. Take the homophones cueand queue. and when it comes to frequently confused words. lacking sophistication or worldliness. for example. not.and the prefixes seem to have essentially the same meaning: dismeans away from. Disinterestedmeans impartial or unbiased. Queuemeans an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of pro-grams awaiting processing on a computer. remarkably clever. Both mean a line of waiting peo-ple or vehicles. The question is. reversal. given to prompt or remind someone of something—and this is its most common usage. frank.

WORD LIST allude(a˘·lood) v. smoke. censor(sen·so ˘r) v. appraise(a˘·prayz) v. (in information processing) an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of pro-grams awaiting processing. The list includes the vocabulary words from the Benchmark Quiz and lesson. advancement.1.Here is a list of 25 commonly confused word sets that include important vocabulary words for your exam. .1.to forbid the publication. to be incomprehensible to. sensor(sen·so ˘r) n. v. or skill 2. a hint or suggestion 2. etc. censure (sen·shu ˘r) n. to evaluate 2. n. films.1. politically.a device that receives and responds to a stimulus such as light. or otherwise objectionable. meeting acceptable standards.to make an indirect reference to. condemn. given to prompt or remind someone of something. such as a word or action.to give notice or information to.1.to criticize strongly. inform. to escape from or evade. a signal.agreement. especially by cleverness. an upward slope 2. concurrence. a line of waiting people or vehicles. distribution. apprise(a ˘·pr¯z) v. to establish value or estimate the worth of. rebuke.1. ascent(a ˘·sent) n. adequate. conforming to what is socially or morally suitable or correct 2. queue(kyoo) n. sufficient. a queue.1. assent(a˘·sent) n. cue(kyoo) n. consent.an official who reviews books. escape the understanding of. a movement upward. elude(i·lood) v. a rebuke or condemnation. dar-ing. to remove what is considered morally. or other public dissemination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. to make aware of. etc.expression of strong criticism or disapproval. decent(dee·se ˘nt) adj. a line of waiting people or vehicles 2.

character. disperse(di·spurs) v. distinguished. lofty. free of selfish motives or interests. standing above others in quality. etc.towering above or more prominent than others. n.1. disburse(dis·burs) v. disseminate.illegal. to distribute widely. contrary to accepted morality or convention. depreciate. the act of descending or moving downward. the range. emanate(em·a˘·nayt) v.not interested. elicit(i·lis·it) v.to express disapproval of. distance. SHORTCUT: A STITCH IN TIME SAVES NINE You may think that you don’t have the time to come up with rhymes or other mnemonic devices to remember the meanings of these commonly . disinterested(dis·in·te ˘·res·tid) adj.to come or issue forth. uninterested(un·in·te ˘·ris·tid) adj. to separate and scatter in different directions. to deduce or derive by reasoning. extant(ek·sta ˘nt) adj. disagree 2.1.1. to call forth or draw out. not extinct. as from a source. a down-ward slope or movement 2. to cause to do so 2.about to occur. to provoke 2. dissent(di·sent) v. extent(ik·stent) n. a wide and open space or area..still in existence. lineage. illicit(i·lis·it) adj.impartial or unbiased. to think or speak of as being of little worth. imminent(im·˘·ne˘nt) adj. impending. depreciate(di·pree·shi·ayt) v. to diminish in price or value.to pay out. reputation.1. forbidden by law. to withhold approval or assent. to belittle. to belittle.1.1. to lessen the worth of 2.descent(di·sent) n. having no care or inter-est in knowing. hereditary derivation. eminent(em·˘·ne˘nt) adj. destroyed or lost. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 108 deprecate(dep·re ˘·kayt) v. or degree to which something reaches or extends 2. to differ in opinion. nonconformity.1. a difference of opinion 2.

to intrude in other people’s affairs. activity. interfere. feign(fayn) v. incredible(in·kred·˘·be˘l) adj. frank. horde(hohrd) n. not cunning or deceitful. unable to mask feelings. lacking sophistication or worldliness.to collect and lay up.a brief or furtive look. sincere 2. not genuine or real. religious or political beliefs.1. peek(peek) v. activ-ity. cache. fake. the pointed top of a mountain. n. mettle(met·e˘l) n. the sharp end of something tapering to a point 2. ingenious(in·jeen·yu˘s) adj. adversary. " HOMOPHON ES 109 fain(fayn) adv.1.an enemy. summit 3. a vast multitude. harass.courage. ingenuous(in·jen·yoo·u˘s) adj. unwilling to believe.skeptical.a large group or crowd. fortitude. to give the false appearance of. But spending the time now to create something you can easily remember can save you a great deal of time later on by drastically reducing your review time. hoard(hohrd) n. show-ing inventiveness and skill. to oppress.confused words—you have too much studying to do. to cause annoyance or irritation. persecute(pur·se ˘·kyoot) v.1. to provoke or arouse. foe(foh) n. the highest possible point of devel-opment.to glance quickly or peer at furtively.marked by inventive skill or creativity. astonishing. gladly. especially because of race. or opponent. it will also help you build a stronger and more accurate vocabulary because you will be able to accurately remember the meaning of a word. or sexual orientation. artless. remarkably clever. implausible. Plus.to pretend. faux(foh) adj. to vex or create resent-ment 2. incredulous(in·krej·u˘·lu ˘s) adj. or mistreat. spirit.artificial. or intensity. to amass and store in secret.1. . beyond belief 2.to reach its highest point or maximum development. or intensity n. meddle(med·e˘l) v.a hidden store or stock. pique(peek) v. v. peak(peek) v.with joy.

degree. to lift. move on.prosecute(pros·e˘·kyoot) v. penalty.to be full of. put in an upright position 2. especially after an inter-ruption.1.1. precede(pri·seed) v. to carry on. to order a medicine or other treatment. obliterate. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 110 prescribe(pri·skr¯b) v. quantity.1. to level to the ground. waive(wayv) v. to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily.1. TIPS AND STRATEGIES . or strength.1.to come or go before in time. to be present in large numbers. team(teem) v. practice. especially of the hand 3. a back-and-forth or up-and-down movement. demolish completely 2.to join together so as to form a team. the act of raising or increasing 2. to issue commands. wave(wayv) v. teem(teem) v. a surge. etc. relinquish 2. n.1. rush. a ridge or swell on the surface of a body of water 2. order something to be done.a group organized to work together.). continue. intensity. proceed(pro˘·seed) v. or impor-tance. 2nd edition—it gives you 40 prac-tice questions on the most common homophones. EXTRA HELP Need more practice with homophones and other commonly confused words? Try Chapter 11 on homophones in LearningExpress’s 1001 Vocabulary and Spelling Questions.to prohibit. dictate 2. n. advance. forbid by law. raze(rayz) v. n.to go forward or onward. an increase in salary. rank. raise (rayz) v.1. to increase in size. to signal with an up and down or back and forth movement of the hand. make higher. standard pro-cedure. or sudden great rise.1. to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule. dispense with. place. a cooperative unit. to bring a criminal action against 2. to move up and down or back and forth. undulate 2. proscribe(proh·skr¯b) v. to erase.

especially when you have a limited amount of time to prepare for an exam. Or teach them to someone else. Use this key difference to help you remember the O HOMOPHON ES 111 difference in meaning as well. for example. the more likely you are to find a key for you to remember the differences between them. For example. and appraisemeans to evaluate. rhymes will be more effective. review. • Pay attention to details.Homophones and other frequently confused words can be particularly chal-lenging. you will remember which word has which meaning. Teaching something to another per-son is one of the most effective ways to master that material. The more carefully you read each defi-nition and the closer you look at the spelling of each word. • Review. differs from mettleonly by a d instead of a t. review. For example. create pictures that will help you remem-ber word meanings. you might remember that meddlewith a dis something you don’t want to do unless you want to annoy others. • Remember to make the most of your learning style. For example. Meddle. and use them to help you remember the words and their meanings. • Usethese words. Here are some specific tips and strategies to help you make the most of your study time: • Spelling is often the key to distinguishing between commonly con-fused words. appraisehas the word praisein it. if you are a visual learner. If you use these words in your everyday writing and conversations. and then review them again. . You can associate praise with a good evaluation. Use flashcards or other study strategies to review these commonly confused words until you have them mem-orized. Use whatever study or memorization techniques work best for you. If you are an auditory learner.

Then you can remember that proscribeis a (written) law that prohibits something.Helen entered the room right on (cue/queue). • Don’t forget to use word parts to remember meaning. for example. he is very anxious to learn more about you. 2. but believe me. have the root scrib/script. 8. 10.Jackson may act as if he is totally (disinterested/uninterested) in you.You are sure to be (censored/censured/sensored) if you make such wild accusations about your colleagues.I am having the jewelry I inherited from my grandmother (appraised/apprised) to find out how much it is worth.• Use your ears for the commonly confused words that aren’t homo-phones.I have always admired Don’s (meddle/mettle). The pond was (teaming/teeming) with tadpoles after the frog eggs hatched. 11. 9. 5. PRACTICE Choose the correct word in the parenthesis to complete the sentence.The boy would (fain/feign) sleep rather than attend another evening piano recital given by his sister. meaning to write. he seems to be afraid of no one and nothing. Adele rushed . 3.The documentary really (peaked/peeked/piqued) my interest in the Civil War. 1. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 112 4.Anita’s (faux/foe) mink coat looked so real that a group of teenagers accused her of cruelty to animals.A (hoard/horde) of angry parents attended the school board meeting and demanded that the superintendent step down.With just a few hours to go before the big ceremony. 6. 7. Both prescribe and proscribe. and use the difference in pronunciation to help you further differentiate between the words.

20. 19. let’s eat here.I’m just going to (peak/peek/pique) in the baby’s room to make sure she’s okay.around (prescribing/proscribing) orders left and right. but nothing would (elicit/illicit) a response from the child. I think he’s telling the truth. and soon it was no longer even noticeable.The odor quickly (disbursed/dispersed) through the room.Huang decided to (raise/raze) the stakes by increasing the reward. I think this is a bad decision.As soon as I get off the phone. 26.I don’t like Igor because he is constantly (meddling/mettling) in things that are none of his business. 17. Tomorrow the city is going to (raise/raze) the building that I grew up in. 18. I must (decent/descent/dissent). don’t worry me with things that mightgo wrong in the future.Stop (persecuting/prosecuting) me just because I often disagree with you. 14. 22. I will (appraise/apprise) you of the situation. 27. 25. 12.Although Oscar’s story sounds (incredible/incredulous). 16. 24.This looks like a (decent/descent/dissent) restaurant. 13.Although you all seem to agree.We have enough to do dealing with (extant/extent) problems regard-ing the excavation.Jing-Mae gave her (ascent/assent) to the proposal. 15.I tried everything.The Euro has (deprecated/depreciated). but .Dixie is so (ingenious/ingenuous) I don’t think she could lie if her life depended on it. but the dollar is up. HOMOPHON ES 113 21. even though she did not entirely agree with the plan.The thief managed to (allude/elude) the police for several days. 23.

ANSWERS 1. . 37.A good manager is always careful not to (deprecate/depreciate) an employee in front of others.What seemed like an (elicit/illicit) relationship between Lotta and one of her employees turned out to be a harmless friendship. 30. Rajita decided to (prescribe/proscribe) television viewing except on weekends. because Chapter 12 lays the foundation for what is discussed in Chapter 11. to be present in large numbers. every-body respects him. 38. 29.The (cue/queue) for the movies was all the way to the end of the block and around the corner.He is the most (eminent/imminent/emanate) judge in this state.A strange odor is (eminenting/imminenting/emanating) from Professor VanBuren’s laboratory.When we cleaned out the attic. 40.In the final scene. 36. teeming. 39. the hero defeats his life-long (faux/foe) in a deadly battle. We need a (disinterested/uninterested) third party to mediate this conflict. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 114 35. 32.Georgio had to (fain/feign) excitement when he opened his presents so his parents wouldn’t know he’d already searched their room to find out what he was getting.Jillian thought her landlord should be (persecuted/prosecuted) for his refusal to maintain her building. 31.I think Chapter 12 should (precede/proceed) Chapter 11. When the children began neglecting their homework and chores. 28.Inessa couldn’t believe Hitta was guilty and remained (incredible/ incredulous) even after hearing all of the evidence.To teemmeans to be full of. 34. we discovered that Grandma had a (hoard/horde) of extra cash hidden in an old trunk. 33.they finally caught up with him in Reno.

A hordeis a large group or crowd.Assentmeans agreement. intensity. 18.Mettlemeans courage. a vast multitude. degree. rebuke. to increase in size. 3. condemn. to establish value or esti-mate the worth of. beyond belief.To censureis to criticize strongly. 14. To raiseis to lift. persecuting. concurrence. fake. or mistreat. gladly. (2) meeting acceptable standards. This sentence uses the second meaning. horde. Uninterestedmeans not interested. (2) to deduce or derive by reasoning. incredible. given to prompt or remind someone of something. sufficient. to belittle. quantity. 13. dictate. censured. harass. To elicitmeans (1) to call forth or draw out. order something to be done. not genuine or real. decent. 7. to lessen the worth of. To appraisemeans to evaluate. This sentence uses the first meaning. fain. A cueis a signal. 9. such as a word or action. make higher. 4. 12. It also means to think or speak of as being of little worth. especially because of race. religious or political beliefs. This sentence uses the second meaning. adequate. 16. elicit. cue. to provoke. It also means to order a medicine or other treatment. assent. 17. To depreciatemeans to diminish in price or value. Decentmeans (1) conforming to what is socially or morally suitable or correct. (2) to provoke or arouse.Fainmeans with joy. 5.Fauxmeans artificial. piqued.To prescribeis to issue commands. or sexual orientation. prescribing.To piqueis (1) to cause annoyance or irritation. 10. raise. astonishing. uninterested. . mettle. HOMOPHON ES 115 11.2. 8. 6. 15. faux. spirit. consent. to vex.To persecuteis to oppress. having no care or interest in knowing. depreciated.Incrediblemeans implausible. appraised. a hint or suggestion. or strength. fortitude.

obliterate.To deprecateis to express disapproval of. to belittle. 31.To dissentis (1) to differ in opinion. escape the understanding of. an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing.To peekis to glance quickly or peer at furtively. or skill.Extantmeans still in existence. (2) to distribute widely. interfere. This sentence uses the first meaning. 29. . apprise. to give the false appearance of. 21. peek. disagree. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 116 26. 23. dispersed. (2) to be incomprehensible to. To apprisemeans to give notice or information to. This sentence uses the first meaning. To eludeis (1) to escape from or evade. deprecate.To meddleis to intrude in other people’s affairs. waive. disseminate. (2) to withhold approval or assent. (2) in infor-mation processing. (2) lacking sophistication or worldliness. 22. to make aware of. ingenuous. This sentence uses the first meaning. to belittle. This sentence uses the first meaning. or cause to do so. as it also means to think or speak of as being of little worth. 27.To emanateis to come or issue forth. 24. as from a source.To disperseis (1) to separate and scatter in different direc-tions. meddling. unable to mask feelings. raze.19. daring. To razeis (1) to level to the ground. (2) to erase. 20. queue. elude. dissent.A queueis (1) a line of waiting people or vehicles. extant. inform. 25.Ingenuousmeans (1) not cunning or deceitful. However. This sentence uses the first meaning. demolish completely. feign. depre-ciate.To feignis to pretend. 28. 30.To waive means to voluntarily give up your right to something. not extinct. deprecateis more often used than depreciatein this context. artless. destroyed or lost. Depreciateis also a correct answer. emanating. 32. especially by clever-ness. frank sincere.

places.. illicit. 34. check the answer key carefully to assess your results. Countless times throughoutthe day.To precedemeans to come or go before in time. 1. incredulous. standing above others in quality. unwilling to believe. precede. 40. 37. proscribe. rank. 38. adversary. etc. take a few minutes to take this ten-question Benchmark Quiz. or importance. Your Bench-mark Quiz analysis will help you determine how much time you need to spend on reviewing modifiers as well as the specific words you need to learn in order to increase your vocabulary power.33. forbid by law. foe.To proscribemeans to prohibit. Illicit means illegal. 39. lofty. Before you begin learning and reviewing modifiers. place. 35.Incredulousmeans skeptical. a cache. Magnificent Modifiers 7 117 J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 118 BENCHMARK QUIZ For questions 1–5. disinterested. eminent. These questions are similar to the type of questions that you will find on important tests. When you are fin-ished. hoard.Something that is hatefulis: . you call upon your pool of adjectives to describe the people. distinguished. Eminentmeans towering above or more prominent than others. 36. Disinterestedmeans impartial or unbiased. and things around you. character. This chapter presents 40 mag-nificent modifiers to help you build your vocabulary and improve your score on the exam. free from selfish motives or interests. or opponent. choose the best answer to complete each statement.A hoardis a hidden store or stock. reputa-tion. forbidden by law. contrary to accepted morality or convention.A foeis an enemy.

not able to be understood.concise.Someone who is intrepidis: a.timid. d.extremely friendly.odious.volatile. suited for a king. d.easily influenced or swayed. 3.sweet. d.detestable. e. e. to the point.latent. c. .droll. 4. e.Something that is succinctis: a.transitory. b. succulent.distinct. c. b. 2.easily copied or mimicked. lasting only a short time.indifferent. b. standing out from others.not able to be penetrated.Something that is imperviousis: a. b. e. b.steadfast.virulent. d.stoic. impassive.timid.dangerous.a genius.paltry. c.imperial.fearless. c. c. royal. e. 5.Someone who is very hesitantand shyis best described as: a.a. d.

dormant b.Your ______ support over the years has enabled me to achieve the success I enjoy today.surreptitious 9.Raheeb was ______ enough to remain silent during Angelica’s tirade.resplendent c. a.volatile 8. but she is con-vinced his love for her is simply in a/an ______ stage. a. 6.austere c.facetious 7.Casey says he is completely through with LeeAnn.pivotal b.fervent d. choose the word that best completes the sentence.MAGNIFICENT MODIFIERS 119 For questions 6–10.prudent c.diffident b.furtive e.steadfast d. He always acts in such a ______ manner that I believe he’s hiding something. a.zealous e.I don’t trust Carl. a.pivotal .furtive e.strident e.scintillating d.egregious c.lax b.droll d.

6. fearful. d. 3. (2) . Succinctmeans expressed clearly and precisely in few words.virulent J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 120 BENCHMARK QUIZ SOLUTIONS How did you do on identifying magnificent modifiers? Check your answers here. c. This sentence uses the second meaning. exercising good judgment. This sentence uses the second meaning.paltry e.Imperviousmeans (1) incapable of being penetrated. Timidmeans lacking confidence. shy. a. unswerving. 5. 4. a. hesitant.Odiousmeans contemptible.On his trip through the Amazon. inactive. 8. (2) firmly loyal and constant. b. c. or courage. resolute.10.garrulous c. con-cise. at rest. ◗Answers 1. undaunted. brave. Steadfastmeans (1) firmly fixed or unchanging.egregious d. judicious. hateful. d. Dormantmeans (1) lying asleep or as if asleep. e.Furtivemeans (1) characterized by stealth or secrecy. surrepti-tious. 9.Prudentmeans careful and sensible regarding one’s actions and interests. (2) not able to be influenced or affected. detestable. Intrepidmeans fearless. b. and then analyze the results to figure out your plan of attack for mas-tering this topic. a. Tyrell was bitten by a/an ______ insect and had to be hospitalized. (2) suggesting a hidden motive. 2. 7.adroit b. terse. conviction. shifty.

inactive but capable of becoming active. latent. If you answered 1–3 questions correctly. Study the lesson that follows carefully. what most sentences do is describepeople and places. The English language is rich with adjectives to describe everything from personally traits to cooking techniques. injurious or infectious. acrimonious. Be sure to set aside some time to carefully review the adjectives listed in this chapter. Virulentmeans (1) extremely poisonous. from faraway places to intellectual achievements—all the people. JUST IN TIME LESSON—MAGNIFICENT MODIFIERS While every sentence must contain a subject and verb. If you answered 4–7 questions correctly. Well-chosen adjectives make your communications more effective and inviting by adding . MAGNIFICENT MODIFIERS 121 BENCHMARK QUIZ RESULTS If you answered 8–10 questions correctly. see the sources listed in Extra Helpfor more review and practice. move on to Chapter 8. it’s time to expand the number of adjectives in your vocabulary and add some more sophisticated modifiers to your word base. and things around us. but you need more of these magnificent modifiers in your permanent vocabulary. Give the lesson a quick review and do the practice exercise. (2) bitterly hostile or hateful. and do the prac-tice quiz on a separate sheet of paper so that you can do the exercise sev-eral times if necessary. places. If your score on the practice test is equally high. Perhaps that’s why you are likely to find more adjectives than any other part of speech on a vocabulary exam. objects and actions. temporarily quies-cent. well done! You are already famil-iar with many of these magnificent modifiers. This sentence uses the first meaning. e. This sentence uses the second meaning. feelings and ideas. if you think about it. you know some of these use-ful adjectives. 10. Also.

however. The third sentence. but not much. thing. definition. place. because it is the nature of a glance to be quick. paint vivid pictures for your readers and listeners. gives you a real description by adding the word furtive. furtive glance. . you have no idea what sort of glance he gave.color. wistful glance? A scornful glance? A sympathetic glance? We don’t know. Notice how the right adjective pinpoints meaning and expresses ideas clearly and concisely in the following examples: a question a clever question a scintillatingquestion Scintillatingmeans brilliantly clever and animated. a mistake a really bad mistake an egregiousmistake Egregious means conspicuously and outrageously bad or offensive. which means characterized by J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 122 stealth or secrecy. In the second sentence. shifty. or situation and express the exact connota-tion you wish to convey. In the first sentence. the possibilities are endless. for example. Consider. He gave me a quick glance. flagrant. Nowyou can picture exactly what sort of glance he gave. everything hinges on this magnificent modifier. An extensive vocabulary enables you to pull up the precise word to describe a person. He gave me a quick. suggesting a hidden motive. and elicit specific emo-tions as you express yourself to others. They enable you to clarify and quantify ideas. how much the right adjectives enhance the following sentence: He gave me a glance. surreptitious. you get some information from the adjective quick. Was it a longing. and detail.

but you will also come across them frequently in newspapers and textbooks. and strength.commonplace. abundant. but he’s really just a great big teddy bear.skillful.1. deter-mination. the words fearless. I know my dad seems austere. and things around you. sim-ple. I was expecting something original and exciting. undaunted. dex-terous. but each word has a different connotation and expresses a dif-ferent degree of fearlessness. unadorned. clever. banal(ba˘·nal) adj. diffident(dif·i·de˘nt) adj. but the film turned out to have a banal storyline and mediocre acting. in your daily correspondence and conversations. deft. MAGNIFICENT MODIFIERS 123 WORD LIST adroit(a˘·droit) adj. Each definition includes a sample sentence to show you the word in context. plentiful. but now he’s as gregarious as can be and is usually the life of . trite. as well as risk-taking ability—it is the most power-ful of these three words. very plain. she should have your trousers fixed in no time. to understand more of what you read. Priya is a very adroit seamstress. severe or stern in attitude or appearance 2. for example. The shipwrecked couple found a copious supply of coconut trees and shellfish on the island. while intrepid suggests fearlessness.a fearless girl an undaunted girl an intrepid girl Here. suggests fearlessness combined with determination. or adept in action or in thought.large in number or quantity. Undaunted. Learn these adjectives well to improve your test score.lacking self-confidence. shy and timid. and to more accurately and colorfully describe the people. and intrepidall mean essentially the same thing. Alan used to be so diffident. austere(aw·steer) adj. obvious and uninteresting. copious(koh·pi·u˘s) adj. places. The 40 adjectives defined in this chapter appear regularly on vocabulary exams.

The geology students made a surprising discovery: the volcano believed to be dor-mant was about to erupt. inactive. if you know this word) dormant(dor·ma˘nt) adj. For example. or styles 2.conspicuously and outrageously bad or offensive. jocular. before you know it. transitory. cleverly amusing.humorous and witty. . SHORTCUT: FIND A SYNONYM While it is important to know the full definition of a word to fully grasp its meaning. it’s time to go back to school again. temporarily quiescent.lasting only a very short time. lying asleep or as if asleep. latent. facetious(fa ˘·see·shu ˘s) adj. Summer always seems so ephemeral. selecting or employing elements from a variety of sources. " J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 124 ephemeral(i·fem·e˘·ra ˘l) adj. egregious(i· ree·ju ˘s) adj.amusing in an odd or whimsical way. choose a synonym that accurately conveys the mean-ing of the word. You’re sure to meet someone interesting at the party—Marieka always invites an eclectic group of people to her gatherings.1. Enid was fired. droll(drohl) adj. droll story—the children will love it! eclectic(i·klek·tik) adj.the party. flagrant. when you have a lot of words to learn and only a short time to learn them. inactive but capable of becoming active. consisting of elements from a variety of sources. After her egregious accounting error cost the company thousands of dollars. focusing on synonyms can really help. After carefully read-ing each definition. you can remember these words with their synonyms: banal = trite copious = plentiful diffident = shy (ortimid. at rest 2. and memorize that synonym. systems.1. This is a wonderful.

burn. zealous 2. Aunt Midge is as garrulous as they .happening by accident or chance. this goes against her gregarious nature. a fortuitous event can be either fortunate or unfortunate. Jude’s facetious reply angered his teacher but made his classmates laugh. suggesting a hidden motive.1. (It is also closely related to fervid. gregarious( re˘· air·i·u˘s) adj. impervious(im·pur·vi·u˘s) adj. garrulous( come. having or showing great emotion. SHORTCUT: USE WORD PARTS Remember to use word parts to help you determine and remember meaning. Wei chose a small. For example. fortuitous(for·too·i·tu ˘s) adj. Celeste has stopped attending and throwing parties. and this tells you that impervious means notpervious. a word you know from Chapter 4. surreptitious 2.) The prefix im-in imperviousmeans not. tending to form a group with others of the same kind. fervent(fur·vent) adj. Harriet’s furtive glance told me I had bet-ter keep quiet about what I had just seen. shifty. so be prepared to listen for hours.1. In its true sense. exclusive resort for her vacation—only to find that the ex·boyfriend she wanted to get away from had also chosen the same resort.talkative. occurring unexpectedly or without any known cause. characterized by stealth or secrecy.1. Note:Fortuitousis commonly used to mean a happyaccident or an unexpected but fortunateoccurrence. seeking and enjoying the company of oth-ers. not able to be influenced or affected.1. Tessie’s fervent belief in Omar’s innocence sustained him during his years in prison. extremely hot. Since her divorce. which means to boil. however.sportive. sociable 2. furtive(fur·tiv) adj. incapable of being penetrated 2. fervent has the root ferv. ardent. Hadley is such a diehard libertarian that he is impervious to any attempts to change his beliefs. burning. By a stroke of fortuitous bad luck. ar·u˘·lu ˘s) adj. bubble.

paltry(pawl·tree) adj. We are at a pivotal point in the negotiations and must proceed very carefully. . resplendent(ri·splen·de˘nt) adj. chances are they will have a lot of trouble once they enter school. judicious. not taut or rigid.1. meticulous(me˘·tik·yu˘·lu ˘s) adj. con-temptibly small in amount 2. undaunted. so her recent bout of poor choices and boisterous behavior tells me she is very upset about something. Hunger had made the caveman intrepid.fearless. odious(oh·di·u˘s) adj. brave. dazzling. If parents are too lax with their toddlers. " MAGNIFICENT MODIFIERS 125 lax (laks) adj.intrepid (in·trep·id) adj. prudent(proo·de˘nt) adj. Clarissa has always been very prudent. crucial. Zachary found the work in the slaughterhouse so odious that he quit after one day and became a vegetarian.1. where the children must follow a long list of rules and regulations. lenient 2. hateful.being of vital importance. latent (lay·te ˘nt) adj.extremely careful and precise.contemptible. flaccid. exercising good judgment. Julian’s latent musical talent surfaced when his parents bought an old piano at a garage sale and he started playing. lacking in importance or worth. Walton couldn’t believe the billionaire offered such a paltry reward for the return of his lost dog. insignificant. slack. the wrong move now could ruin everything. Tibor was awed by the meticulous detail in the painting— it looked as real as a photograph. pitiful. detestable.careful and sensible regarding one’s actions and interests. and he faced the mammoth without fear. paying great attention to detail.present or in existence but not active or evident. lacking in rigor or strictness. pivotal(piv·o˘·ta ˘l) adj.having great splendor or beauty. wretched or contemptible.

indifferent. done. dis-cordant. abjectly submissive. strident(str¯·de˘nt) adj. I have always been a staunch believer in the power of positive thinking. Note:As a verb.expressed clearly and precisely in few words. I had planned to leave the dinner party early. firm and constant in principle or loyalty. spurious(spyoor·i·u˘s) adj. sparkling. Cole’s eloquent and succinct essay on the power of positive thinking won first place in the essay contest. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 126 stoic(stoh·ik) adj. servile(sur·v¯l) adj. unswerving. con-cise. terse. Oscar knew he was in big trouble.firm and steadfast. counterfeit.unpleasantly loud and harsh. succinct(su ˘k·sin kt) adj. staunch(stawnch) adj. not genuine or authentic. pertaining to or befitting a slave or forced labor 2.1. unswerving.seemingly unaffected by pleasure or pain. resolute 2. grating. firmly fixed or unchanging. Michael’s stoic manner is just a façade. or obtained through stealthy. Sanjay stood for a long time on the deck. made. shrill. When he heard the strident tone of his mother’s voice. watching a resplendent sun-set over the mountains.false. bril-liantly clever and animated. who had believed she was doomed to play the role of a servile wife to a domineering husband. marked by or acting with . stanchor staunchmeans to stop the flow of blood. slavish. scintillating(sin·t˘·lay·tin ) adj. finds the courage to break the engagement and marry the man she truly loves. clandestine. shining brilliantly 2.brilliant.1. The climax comes when Yolanda.1. or fraudulent means 2. steadfast(sted·fast) adj. but the conversation was so scintillating that I stayed until 2:00 in the morning. Ian’s surreptitious manner makes me believe his support for you is spurious and that he has a hidden agenda. underneath he is every bit as emotional as you and I. surreptitious (sur·e˘p·tish·u˘s) adj. The captain held a steadfast course despite the rough seas. impassive. firmly loyal and constant.1.

For example. acrimonious. or associations .stealth or secrecy. virulent(vir·yu ˘·le ˘nt) adj. hes-itant. indeed. shy. words can be every bit as virulent as the sting of a scorpion. The stock market has been so volatile lately that I have decided to invest in bonds instead. timid(tim·id)adj. changeable. volatile(vol·a˘·til) adj. characterized by extreme intensity of emo-tion or forcefulness of expression or conviction 2. vehement(vee·e˘·me˘nt) adj. fickle 2. conviction. marked by great force. MAGNIFICENT MODIFIERS 127 CHEAT SHEET: MORE MNEMONICS It’s advice worth repeating: Take the time to create rhymes. eager. inconstant.lacking confidence.On the other hand. CHEAT SHEET: MIX AND MATCH To help you remember this grab-bag of important adjectives. staunchand steadfasthave nearly the same meaning. fervent and zealous. earnest. They say that the pen is mightier than the sword. timidand intrepid are opposites. bitterly hostile or hateful. images. fervent. garrulousand reticent (from Chapter 4) are also antonyms.1. explosive. The star-crossed lovers met surreptitiously because their par-ents did not approve of the relationship. vigor. zealous(zel·u˘s) adj. You can also use words from other lessons. varying widely. vehementand stoicand timidand diffident. or energy. dormantand latent. The senator vehemently denied any wrongdoing and main-tained her innocence throughout the investigation. Adele was so timid she could barely muster the courage to look another person in the eye.1.filled with or marked by great interest or enthusiasm. so do furtiveand surreptitious. and you could similarly pair diffidentand gregarious. or courage. extremely poisonous. match them up in pairs that will help you remember their meaning.1. too—for example. fearful. injurious or infectious 2. (in chem-istry) evaporating readily. likely to change suddenly or violently 3. Shalom was such a zealous student that he begged his teacher to assign him extra projects. unstable.

Use words from this chapter and/or other chapters in this book to reinforce what you have already learned. Ted. you might remember volatileby . One of the main functions of adjectives is to create emotional impact. you need to be prepared to see a lot of them on your exam. Simi-larly. • Remember to use mnemonic devices and associations to help you remember meaning. but you may find zealor zealot—and you can accurately guess the meaning of these words by knowing what zealousmeans. etc. • Use synonyms to help you remember meaning.) to remember what timidmeans. • Use the context of the sentences provided with the definitions to help you understand these adjectives and memorize their meanings. or group words into synonym or antonym pairs. • Watch for words that use the same base as these adjectives. TIPS AND STRATEGIES Because adjectives are so important in our communications. taking special care to note the connotation of the word. suffixes. Snakes can be very surreptitiousanimals. Here are some specific tips and strategies to help you as you prepare for your test.that will help you remember the meaning of these adjectives. Tom.) who is extremely shy. For example. Tom. • Remember to look for familiar prefixes. Surreptitiousbegins with the snake’s ssound and has reptiin the word. For example. etc. perhaps you know someone named Tim (or Tina. Ted. you may not see the word zealouson your exam. stealthily sneaking up on their prey. The sentences help reinforce meaning and convey the words’ con-notations. and word roots as you study and use this knowledge to better understand words and determine meaning. you can associate surreptitiouswith a snake. For example. • Pay attention to adjectives as you come across them in your read-ing. which sounds like reptile. You could use “Timid Tim” (or Tina.

futile b.lax d. 16. 9.abundant b.stealthy 3.Which word is an antonymof pivotal? . To help you prac-tice the words in this lesson and review words from earlier in the book. 13. 19. You will find many of these 40 magnificent modifiers within these chapters along with dozens of other practical and commonly tested adjectives.Which word is a synonymof banal? a. or Chapters 3.Which word is an antonymof copious? a. Cross out any answers that you know are incorrect and use these other strategies to help you narrow down the remaining choices. 3rd edition.associating it with a volcano that is about to erupt.erratic e.severe 2. • Don’t forget the power of elimination. some of the exercises below use vocabulary words from earlier chapters. choose the synonym or antonym as directed.fortuitous d. and 24 in 501 Vocabulary Questions. 1. For questions 1–15. PRACTICE By now you have learned and reviewed over 200 words.scanty c.trite e.flawed c. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 128 EXTRA HELP Want to learn more adjectives? Check out Lesson 15 in Learning Express’s Vocabulary and Spelling Success.

intermittent c.multifaceted d.diligent b.benign 7.a.Which word is a synonymof ephemeral? a.terse d.ingenious c.Which word is an antonymof adroit? a.pensive b.reluctant d.apathetic c.inept e.nominal 6.pedantic d.loquacious b.Which word is a synonymof garrulous? a.wary e.peripheral c.Which word is a synonymof succinct? a.circumspect .tangential e.fervid c.vital b.supercilious O MAGNIFICENT MODIFIERS 129 5.loose 4.cryptic e.transitory b.

voluntary d.disinterested c.explicit e.rigorous J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 130 11.pugnacious b.Which word is an antonymof volatile? a.Which word is an antonymof lax? a.abysmal d.illicit 9.innocuous e.inscrutable 12.caustic d.Which word is an antonymof fervent? a.d.steadfast c.quiescent e.eclectic .Which word is a synonymof servile? a.Which word is a synonymof dormant? a.lucid 10.veritable b.cursory e.destitute c.droll e.eloquent 8.fundamental d.implacable c.indifferent b.paltry b.

An egregiouserror is: a.caused by many people.excruciating e.deadly. c.energetic c. d.Which word is a synonymof resplendent? a.b.Which word is an antonymof virulent? a.pungent 15.uniform e. choose the answer that best reflects the meaning of the italicized vocabulary word to complete the sentence.retroactive For questions 16–35.luminous d.indolent d.incontrovertible c.elusive b.lamentable c. 16.regrettable e.droll b.violent d.tedious 14.submissive d.intrepid 13.innocuous b.Which word is a synonymof paltry? a.harmless and easily overlooked.extremely bad.educational e. . b.dubious c.

21.spend most of his time eating and drinking. d. d. c. b.At a party. b.extremely valuable.If a critic calls a new musical droll.in pristine condition.A stridentsound is likely to: .a counterfeit. c. e.get tickets if you like musicals of the whimsical.relatively worthless. d. it’s a pathetic production.e. amusing sort. b.pays great attention to detail. 20.is careless and sloppy.tell crude jokes and offensive anecdotes. MAGNIFICENT MODIFIERS 131 17.deserves a promotion. a gregariousperson would: a.the only one of its kind. b. e.is always late. e.bring your children.avoid going at all costs.A meticulousemployee: a. 19.argue vehemently with other guests. you should: a. 18. because the musical is best for younger audiences. it’s a spectacular musical.meet a lot of people and talk comfortably with others.If you have a spuriouscoin in your collection. laughable. e.get tickets if you like musicals that deal with serious or historical subjects.receives an extravagant salary. c.buy tickets immediately. c. the coin is: a.humorous.sit quietly in a corner. d.

d. e. b.be caused by a large group of people.very dangerous.arrogant and disdainful of others. b.is very small. clandestine. . c.a genius. c.very opinionated and readily sharing those opinions. you can expect her to be: a. c. b.be very disturbing and annoying.be soothing. 24.outlandish and eccentric. cramped.highly publicized.is plain. e.make you want to dance.under qualified for the position. you can expect that person to be: a.brilliantly clever and funny. c.is crowded with fancy furniture. 22.extremely talented. b. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 132 23.feels like a prison.A surreptitiousmeeting is: a. e.lull you to sleep.extremely eager and enthusiastic about her work.If someone is described as having a scintillating personality.painfully shy.is spacious. draperies. e.a. b. expansive.secret. and knick-knacks. 25. d. c. pleasant to hear. undecorated.If your new coworker is described as zealous. d.An austereroom is one that: a. d.unwilling to do her share.

A vehementdefense would be: a.d. MAGNIFICENT MODIFIERS 133 29.very neat and tidy. witty.is not to be trusted. d.constantly annoying. biting. c. c.tangential. d. e.very nosy. d.has little to offer. b.clever.If your new roommate were diffident. irrelevant.A facetiousremark is: a. c. e. b.incisive. b.very shy.of great political importance. b. . he or she would be: a.half-hearted. 27. occurring by chance.was a former enemy.is firmly loyal. d. e.focuses on the early work of various artists.sarcastic.the opposite of you.includes many different kinds of music from many different artists. e.focuses exclusively on one kind of music or one artist.A staunchally: a. 28. 26.offers only limited support. 30.accidental. c.focuses on music that reflects the dominant culture.includes only records that are over 50 years old. profound. e.An eclecticrecord collection: a.grossly offensive.

c.shows little emotion. casual.is highly contagious. e. e. c. 32. b. reflects good judgment. c.A prudentdecision is: a. b. d. 33. e.forced and insincere. b.fiery. passionate.lacks self-confidence.b.is rare. occurs very infrequently. c.based on insufficient or incorrect information.A stoicperson: a.has a profound impact on a large number of people. e. 31.occurs at regular intervals. b.low-key. d. d.cannot be traced to its source. 34.unwise.sensible. d.changes his or her mind frequently. c.made without fear or hesitation.extremely convincing and effective.is easily irritated. relaxed. d.is a great celebration.A latentinfection: a.is unsteady or unstable.is virulent.happens by chance.exists in the body but does not yet show symptoms.made without regard to others.is not treatable by conventional means. e.A fortuitousevent: a. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 134 .

d. e. Ferventmeans (1) having or showing great emotion.Dormantmeans (1) lying asleep or as if asleep. such as spiders. Peripheral(Chap-ter 5) means (1) of or relating to the periphery or edge. ardent. b. succinct. a.35. b.seems to be frightened by just about everything. latent. abundant. c. 9. garrulous. trite. latent. d. (2) inactive but capable of becoming active. overly familiar through overuse. at rest. 7. or adept in action or in thought. Ephemeralmeans lasting only a very short time. a. transitory.is very timid. quiet. dormant.Pivotalmeans being of vital importance. ANSWERS 1. (3) incompetent. worn out. Terse(Chapter 2) means concise. Indif-ferent means having no particular interest or concern. 10. inactive. Inept(Chapter 2) means (1) not suitable. plentiful. con-cise. Loquacious(Chapter 4) means very talk-ative.has an exaggerated fear of someone or something. apathetic. a.has a long-standing fear of one person or thing. d.A person who is imperviousto fear: a. 5. at rest. crucial. intrepid. dex-terous. foolish. terse.seems to be afraid of nothing. 2. bungling and clumsy. lacks courage or conviction.Copiousmeans large in number or quantity. slack. temporarily quies-cent. d. hackneyed. 6. clever. Garrulousmeans talkative. 4. Succinctmeans expressed clearly and precisely in few words. Laxmeans (1) lacking in rigor or strictness. (2) not taut or rigid. flaccid. MAGNIFICENT MODIFIERS 135 . lenient. c. Trite (Chapter 2) means repeated too often. e. 8.Banalmeans commonplace. Quiescent(Chapter 4) means inactive. (2) not of central importance or relevance. using no unnecessary words. (2) absurd. inappropri-ate.Adroitmeans skillful. b. on the outer boundary. deft. 3. obvious and uninteresting.

or infectious. Spuriousmeans false. Stridentmeans unpleasantly loud and harsh. very plain. acrimonious. shrill. b. Resplendentmeans having great splendor or beauty. 16. having no adverse or ill effects. slavish. a. (2) simple. 17. flagrant. 23. Virulentmeans (1) extremely poisonous. 15. emitting light. 13. likely to change suddenly or violently. paying great attention to detail. (2) unstable. shining brilliantly. a. dis-cordant. (2) bitterly hostile or hateful. brilliant. Drollmeans amusing in an odd or whimsical way. 18.Gregariousmeans (1) seeking and enjoying the company of others.Egregiousmeans conspicuously and outrageously bad or offensive. d. insignificant. 12.Meticulousmeans extremely careful and precise. 21. (2) wretched or contemptible. (2) brilliantly clever and animated. not genuine or authentic. (2) deplorable. inconstant. c. (2) tending to form a group with others of the same kind. 20. dazzling. bril-liant. fickle. Lamentable(Chapter 3) means (1) regrettable. (2) abjectly submissive. Servilemeans (1) pertaining to or befitting a slave or forced labor. d. 19. e. 22. Steadfast(this lesson) means (1) firmly fixed and unchanging. unswerving.11. c. . contemptibly small in amount. injurious.Volatilemeans (1) varying widely. unfortunate. explosive. c. piti-ful. bright.Scintillatingmeans (1) sparkling. b. counterfeit. not likely to upset or offend.Paltrymeans (1) lacking in importance or worth. Luminous(Chapter 4) means shining. d. 14. sociable. Austeremeans (1) severe or stern in attitude or appearance. (2) firmly loyal and constant. pitiable. c. inspiring grief or mourning. b. full of light. res-olute. grating. changeable. unadorned. Innocuous(Chapter 4) means harmless.

30. c. b. a. a. eager.Staunchmeans firm and steadfast. Diffidentmeans lacking self-confidence.Prudentmeans careful and sensible regarding one’s actions and interests.Vehementmeans (1) characterized by extreme intensity of emotion or forcefulness of expression or conviction.J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 136 24. Before you begin learning and reviewing versatile verbs. made. firm and constant in principle or loyalty. occurring unexpectedly or without any known cause. fervent. e. a. impassive. there’s no doubt that you will also see plenty of verbs—the fun-damental building block of sentences. 29. c. judicious.Fortuitousmeans happening by accident or chance. (2) consisting of elements from a variety of sources. 33. 27. 25. jocular. 31. take a few minutes to take this ten-question . d. earnest. b. clandestine. d.Facetiousmeans humorous and witty. (2) marked by or acting with stealth or secrecy. While your vocabularytest is sure to be loaded with adjectives. Imperviousmeans (1) incapable of being penetrated. Zealousmeans filled with or marked by great interest or enthusi-asm. 28. (2) marked by great force. (2) not able to be influenced or affected. cleverly amusing. indifferent. 32. Stoicmeans seemingly unaffected by pleasure or pain. unswerving. 35. vigor. or fraudulent means. b. e. systems. 26. sportive. Eclecticmeans (1) selecting or employing elements from a variety of sources. or energy. exercising good judgment. Latentmeans present or in existence but not active or evident. Surreptitiousmeans (1) done. or styles. 34. shy and timid. or obtained through stealthy.

2.intimidate that person. Versatile Verbs 8 137 J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 138 BENCHMARK QUIZ Choose the answer that best expresses the meaning of the italicized word to complete the sentence.criticize that person. c.despise it.If you dauntsomeone.Benchmark Quiz. e. c. check the answer key carefully to assess your results. Your Benchmark Quiz analysis will help you determine how much time you need to spend on reviewing verbs as well as the specific words you need to learn in order to increase your vocabulary power. 1. These questions are similar to the type of questions that you will find on important tests.If you sanctionsomething.appreciate it. b. d.To abhorsomething is to: a.authorize it.accuse that person. When you are finished. e. you: a.apply for it. b.injure that person. b. d.encircle it. 3. .value it.offend that person. you: a. This chapter presents 35 versatile verbs to help you broaden your word base and improve your score on the exam.intensify it.

regard with awe.to regard with contempt or scorn. VE RSATI LE VE R BS 139 6. c. c. e. petition.cleanse it. d.expand it.scatter it. you: .c.Something that ebbs: a. b.cleanse it.wander about aimlessly. c. d. e.diminish it. 8. b.to draw or take away from. d. b.to fix firmly and securely. c. d.admire it.reconciles. b.If you appeasesomeone.deceives. 5.To purgesomething is to: a.opposes. e.to stubbornly refuse. 7.recedes. confirm.take by force.to make certain.strengthens. e. e.spread everywhere. d.damage it.To meanderis to: a.To detractmeans to: a.avoid it.ask for. 4.

competing. d.To abhormeans to regard with horror or repugnance.scorn that person.To ebbis to flow back or recede.deceive that person. b.attack that person. 4. detest.To purgemeans to free from impurities. c. d.feel indebted to that person.pacify that person.think highly that person. d.imitate that person. 2. you: a. d. 3.give praise to that person.To sanctionis to approve or permit.embarking. 9.distrust that person. e. e. c. as the tide. decline.To dauntmeans to intimidate. they are: a. a. b.conspiring.collaborating.If two people are vying. c. BENCHMARK QUIZ SOLUTIONS How did you do on identifying versatile verbs? Check your answers here.accuse that person of an unlawful act.arguing. to give official authorization or approval for. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 140 ◗Answers 1. and then analyze the results to figure out your plan of action for mastering this topic.a.If you disdainsomeone. 5. b. b. e. to fall back. 10. especially to rid of that . to make afraid or discouraged. e. c.

diminish. to wander about.They are . b. it’s time to expand the num-ber of verbs in your vocabulary and add some more sophisticated action words to your word base. If you answered 1–3 questions correctly. well done! You are already famil-iar with many of these versatile verbs.which is undesirable or harmful. camera. to mediate. to desire. . to strive for superiority or victory. pure.To detractis to draw or take away from. a. b. to believe. move on to Chapter 9. Study the lesson that follows carefully. to remove part of some-thing. JUST IN TIME LESSON—VERSATILE VERBS Lights. and .To appeasemeans to make calm or quiet. 6.To vieis to compete with or contend. Be sure to set aside some time to carefully review the verbs listed in this chapter. to exclaim. to still or pacify. to anticipate. Verbs express an action or state of being: to go. . move aimlessly or without a fixed direction or course. 8. to consider or reject as unworthy or beneath one’s dignity. BENCHMARK QUIZ RESULTS If you answered 8–10 questions correctly. you already know some of these important vocabulary words. Give the lesson a quick review and do the practice exercise. 9. 7. If you answered 4–7 questions correctly.To disdainis to regard with haughty contempt or scorn. the verb. to doubt. is king. ACTION! When it comes to parts of speech. If your score on the practice test is equally high. despise. to run. and do VE RSATI LE VE R BS 141 the practice quiz on a separate sheet of paper so that you can do the exer-cise several times if necessary. 10.To meanderis move on a winding or turning course. d. but you need more of these versatile verbs in your permanent vocabulary. as they say. to make or become clean. soothe. a. See the source listed in Extra Helpfor more review and practice.

Emilie wonderedwhere Kahlid had gone. Our most common one-word sentences are verb commands: Go! Stop! Wait! Hurry! Smile!Even in one-word sentences such as Yesor Tomorrow.” “When will you return?” “(I will return) tomorrow.part of every communication. Notice for exam-ple how much more precise and powerful the following sentence becomes when the right verb is used: Rachel really looks upto her aunt. the sentence no longer needs the word reallyto express degree. to venerate. Her mannerisms remindme of my grandmother. but he despisesseafood. Lester loves to fish. Because of their essential function. verbs are a particularly powerful part of speech. but he can’t standseafood. Here is another example: J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 142 Lester loves to fish. but he abhorsseafood. Because it is so strong. It is much more powerful than respectbecause it conveys a sense of awe and inspiration. stately. suggesting that one being revered is honorable. and the right verb can have tremendous impact. Lester loves to fish. verbs tell us what the sub-ject isor does: Hassan ishungry. the person or thing performing the action or existing in a particular state of being. Rachel reveresher aunt. Rachel really respectsher aunt. Thus.the verb is implied or understood: “Do you understand?” “Yes (I do). To reveremeans to regard with reverence or awe. even sacred. Rich rectifiedthe situation. .” Verbs always have a subject.

to regard with horror or repugnance. As the violent storm abated. The broader your word base. capitulate(ka˘·pich·u ˘·layt) v.to surrender under specific terms or agreed upon conditions. WORD LIST abate(a˘·bayt) v.to urge with gentle and repeated appeals or flattery. balk(bawk) v. to still or pacify. detest.to make calm or quiet. augment(aw ·ment) v. to understand more of what you read.to lessen in strength. I know Car-los abhors politics. but he balked when he saw that he would only be compen-sated for half of the value of his property. appease(a ˘·peez) v. subside. to wheedle. The only way to appease Lawrence is to concede that he is right. intensity. It is a much stronger word than despisebecause it connotes a hate so strong it sickens or disgusts. to give in. we began to survey the damage it caused.To abhormeans to regard with horror or repugnance. Valerie is quite adept at cajoling others to get what she wants. to stop abruptly and refuse to go on 2. cajole(ka˘·johl) v. soothe. or intensity. Arty tried to help Ann and Stan settle their differences. Learn these verbs well to improve your test score. The editor refused to capitulate to the demands .to increase in size. to obstinately refuse or oppose. Each definition includes a sample sentence to show you the verb in con-text. The 35 verbs defined below appear frequently on vocabulary exams. acquiesce.1. the more precisely you will be able to describe an action or state of being. and to more accurately express what people are and do. but you can also expect to encounter them regularly in your day to day communica-tions. enlarge. even if it’s something she hasn’t earned. but his interference only augmented the problem. Old man Jones was finally ready to capitulate and sell his land to the timber company. strength. and the more easily you will be able to choose a verb that conveys exactly the meaning and connotation you wish to convey. detest. abhor(ab·hohr) v. or degree. but he should still get out and vote.

SHORTCUT: MNEMONICS AGAIN . . Unfortunately. disdain(dis·dayn) v. this similarity can help you remember its meaning.to intimidate. especially in the pursuit of pleasure. you might associate ensconcewith a sconcethat you hang (fix securely) on the wall. Note:A dupe(n. A girdle is something that girds—it encircles or binds. to consider or reject (someone or something) as unworthy or beneath one’s dignity. AND AGAIN . to regard with haughty contempt or scorn. Don’t be daunted by Holden’s austere manner. to be extravagant and waste-ful. dupe(doop)v. It’s worth repeating yet again: As you prepare for your exam.of the sales team because she wanted to uphold her high grammatical standards. to make more certain. .1. Note:Disdain(n. AND AGAIN .1. encompasses. trick. to separate and scatter completely. . . VE RSATI LE VE R BS 143 daunt(dawnt) v.to draw or take away from. Abhor means to regard with horror or repugnance. to remove part of some-thing. images. take the time to create rhymes. a state of being despised. dissipate(dis·˘·payt) v.to strengthen or support with evidence or authority. or nearly so 2. .) is someone who is easily deceived. Charlene was duped into buying this lemon of a car by a . or associations that will help you remem-ber the meaning of these verbs.) means a feeling or showing of haughty contempt or scorn. corroborate(ko˘·rob·o˘·rayt) v. . I was humiliated by the way Angelica disdained every idea I proposed at that meeting. and only the very angriest protesters remained. confirm. despise 2. Both Irma’s and Ye’s statements corroborate Tia’s story. Helen’s slovenly appearance detracted from the impact of her otherwise brilliant presentation. to make afraid or discouraged. gullible. diminish. so she must be telling the truth. he’s really a very kind and understand-ing person.to deceive. to disperse to the point of disappearing. detract(di·trakt) v. The crowd dissipated when the riot police arrived. For example. squander.

sur-round 3. to mutilate. Disdainand dissipateboth begin with the prefix dis-. gibe. and the soldiers girded for battle. to encompass. The mining accident left Antol alive but severely maimed. from. to sneer at. decline. I hope Mark’s anger has ebbed. their respective . maim(maym) v. The negotiations had failed.to wound. mock. especially by depriving of the use of a limb or other part of the body. if you want your boss to treat you with respect. For example. meaning down. diminish. Lucinda languished in despair when Sven told her he’d fallen in love with another woman. to place or hide securely. ebb(eb) v. Once the spy was comfortably ensconced in his new iden-tity. conceal. away. I am eager for a reconciliation. Panji. humble. to remove part of something.to lie or creep with one’s face to the ground in a servile.1. weak 2. gird( urd) v. ensconce(en·skons) v. or fearful manner.1. to fall back.slick·talking salesman. to become languid. especially military confrontation 4. disfigure. remember to use word parts to help you learn and remem-ber meaning. to prepare for action. to flow back or recede. reversal. not. cripple. as the tide 2. disable. Thus. you’ve got to stop groveling and stand up for yourself. to encircle or bind with a belt or band 2. Hence its meaning: to draw or take away from.1. " J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 144 languish (lan strength. to exist or continue in a miserable or neglected state. apart. to lose vigor or feeble.1. he began his secret mission. to fix or settle firmly and securely 2. meaning away from. or injure. SHORTCUT: USE WORD PARTS Once again. · wish) v. detractuses the prefix de-. grovel( ruv·e˘l) v.

cen-sure 2. to reprove or reprimand. especially to rid of that which is undesirable or harmful. despise. to wander about. " VE RSATI LE VE R BS 145 rescind(ri·sind) v. The Olsens rescinded . move aimlessly or without a fixed direction or course. he purges the text of unnecessary words to make it more succinct.to free from impurities. alleviate. rescinduses the prefix re-. purge(purj) v. mitigate(mit·˘· the ayt) v. to criticize sharply. Similarly. permeate. to make or become clean. After weeks of being rebuked in front of his coworkers for minor infractions and imaginary offenses. mar(mahr) v. pure.1.to repeal or cancel. to be diffused or present throughout. After Leon writes a draft. meander(mee·an·de˘r) v. Ameer realized he was being persecuted by his boss. meaning back or again. I am sure that if you tell the headmaster the truth. pervade(pe˘r·vayd) v. trying to figure out how I could have made such an egregious mistake. and (2) to separate and scatter completely.1. or nearly so. to move on a winding or turning course 2. The strident sounds of Omar’s abysmal saxophone playing marred the serenity of the afternoon. Fear pervaded the classroom after Sally started a rumor that Mr. to impair or damage. to moderate force or intensity of. soften. the extenuating circumstances will mitigate the sever-ity of your punishment.meanings: (1) to regard with haughty contempt or scorn. rebuke(ri·byook) v. I meandered through the park for hours. to repress or restrain by expressing harsh disapproval. to void or annul. diminish. to con-sider or reject (someone or something) as unworthy or beneath one’s dignity. to make less intense or severe 2. Hence its meaning: to repeal or cancel.1.to spread everywhere. make defective or imperfect 2. to spoil the perfection or integrity of. to void or annul. Higgins would be their new teacher. to disperse to the point of disappearing.1.

vote. solicit(so ˘·lis·it) v.their offer to buy the house when they discovered the property was in a flood zone. roil(roil) v. while disdainand revereare opposites. Cy was touting the merits of the referendum as he solicited sup-port for Tuesday’s vote. Abateand ebb. especially with the goal of getting a customer. sanction(san k·sho ˘n) v.1. to stir up or agitate 3. petition 2. 2. to give official authorization or approval for. • You might grovelif you are servile. match verbs and adjectives together in pairs that will help you recall their meaning.1. hold in highest respect or estimation. to promote or praise highly and energetically. tout(towt) v. ratify. to solicit (customers. for example. to approach with an offer for paid sexual services. Here are several examples: • You abhorwhat is odious. have nearly the same meaning. every painting is an homage to Cezanne. The crowd was roiled by the speaker’s insensitive remarks. to ask for earnestly.1. votes. to venerate. to approve or permit. etc. • You might vacillateif you are timidor diffident. CHEAT SHEET: MIX AND MATCH SENTENCES To help you remember these important verbs andto review the wonderful adjectives from Chapter 7. • You might toutsomething about which you are fervent.to regard with reverence or awe. etc. it’s easy to see which painter she reveres most. you will be dauntedif you are timid. to seek to obtain by persuasion or formal application 3. revere(ri·veer) v. to anger or annoy.1. Note:The noun sanctionmeans (1) official authorization or approval (2) a penalty imposed to coerce another to comply or conform. to make a liquid cloudy or muddy 2. The city council has sanctioned our request to turn the empty lot into a community garden. You can also mix and match words from this and other chapters to create synonym and antonym pairs.) . When you look at Judith’s work. • You might disdainsomething that is banal. • You won’t be dauntedif you are intrepid.

J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 146 vacillate(vas·˘·layt) v. waver. to separate the good from the bad.to compete with or contend. • Pay attention to verbs as you come across them in your reading. fluctuate 2. Many verbs are similar in meaning but are differentiated by degree. course of action. to move or sway from side to side. be sure to read the definitions and sample sen-tences carefully to note their denotations and connotations.1. Denise vacillated for weeks before she decided to accept our offer. but maimis more severe than mar. etc. vie(v¯) v. to swing back and forth about an opinion. After the king’s half-brother usurped the throne.. TIPS AND STRATEGIES No sentence is complete without a verb.to seize. CHEAT SHEET: A MATTER OF DEGREE As you learn and review these verbs. Here are some specific tips and strategies to help you as you prepare for your test. maimandmarhave similar meanings. to strive for superiority or victory. to separate the grain from the chaff by using the wind or other current of air to blow the chaff away 2. • Use the context of the sentences provided with the definitions to help you understand these verbs and memorize their meanings. to examine or sift through to remove undesirable elements. he executed the king and queen and imprisoned the prince. To dissipateis stronger (more complete a disappearance) than to disperse(Chapter 6). take possession of. The two scientists were vying to be the first to find concrete evidence of extra-terrestrial life.in an especially brazen or persistent manner. by force and without right. winnow(win·oh) v. to be inde-cisive.1. The sen-tences help reinforce meaning and convey the words’ connotations. who was the rightful heir to the throne. . For example. Genevieve touted her eye cream as a wonder product because it removed her wrinkles after just ten weeks. usurp(yoo·surp) v. to wrongfully take over. and you can expect to see a lot of verbs on your exam. We have winnowed the list of applicants down to five highly-qualified candidates.

• Use synonyms to help you remember meaning. 1. Cross out any answers that you know are incorrect and use these other strategies to help you narrow down the remaining choices. some of the exercises below use vocabulary words from earlier chapters. For example. Use words from this chapter and/or other chapters in this book to reinforce what you have already learned. suffixes.taking special care to note their contexts and connotations. • Watch for words that use the same base as these verbs. you might rememberrevereby associating it with Paul Revere. If you know what pervademeans. and word roots as you study and use this knowledge to better understand words and determine meaning. VE RSATI LE VE R BS 147 • Use mnemonic devices and associations to help you remember meaning.gird . EXTRA HELP Want to learn more verbs? Check out Chapters 5 and 14 in Learning-Express’s 501 Vocabulary Questions. • Don’t forget the power of elimination. you can determine the meaning of its adjective form. • Remember to look for familiar prefixes. you may see the word pervasiveon your exam. For exam-ple. choose the best synonymfor each vocabulary word. PRACTICE To help you practice the words in this lesson and review words from ear-lier in this book. For questions 1–10. or group words into synonym or antonym pairs. You will find several of the 35 vivid verbs within these chapters along with dozens of other practical and commonly tested verbs. a revered figure in the history of the American Revolution.

vacillate a.intimidate c.duplicate b.ratify d.wind c.dupe a.fluctuate b.agitate d.repeal d.maim a.fluctuate 2.encircle e.surrender 3.a.conceal O J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 148 4.intensify c.scatter d.replicate b.rescind a.waver e.seize e.refine b.deceive e.promote 5.cripple b.oppose .destroy c.permeate c.

cajole a.venerate VE RSATI LE VE R BS 149 10.support b.emulate .acquiesce b.capitulate a.squander d.appease a.undermine e.wheedle c.censure d.evade d.allocate e.humiliate e.teem e.revere a.equivocate c.subjugate c.rectify 9.d.thwart 8.soothe e.undermine d.subside 6.embellish c.rebuke a.abscond b.defeat b.discourage 7.

frighten e.reject e.adore 14.elude e.recede b.placate d.permeate b.forbid c.wander d.hinder b.hoard For questions 11–20.praise d.castigate c.refuse 12.entertain .purge a. 11.enjoin e.defile e.reduce b.ridicule 13.relinquish c. choose the best antonymfor each vocabulary word.release b.b.sanction a.encourage c.daunt a.entice c.abhor a.enlighten d.

juxtapose e.condescend c.pique b.intensify b.damage d.surmise e.pervade 17.exacerbate c.persecute 19.weaken J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 150 16.indict d.revere d.coalesce 18.presage d.roil a.appease b.regulate c.disdain a.mitigate a.deluge e.beg e.15.digress c.abate a.dissipate a.diffuse b.vie .teem c.tout b.

d.meander e.revered 23.The bill _____ in committees for months.discern 20. a. he is always so pre-occupied with work.languished e.touted c.incense VE RSATI LE VE R BS 151 For questions 21–35.ensconced e.soliciting b.hone c.balked b.garner e.detract d. 21.roiled d.augment a. and we began to lose hope that it would ever be passed. choose the vocabulary word that best completes the sentence. a.groveled b.languishing c.winnow b.ebbed c. his ex-girlfriend— hoping that his humility would win her back.I am tired of constantly _____ for his attention.Chester _____ before his girlfriend—or rather.appeased d.winnowed 22.corroborating . a.

I could tell he was desperate for customers.d.tout 27. a.stooped c.augment b.balked b.I have come to _____ your support for my candidacy.cajole d.solicit e.dissipating 24.vying e.detract d.disdaining c.rebuking 25.rescind . it worked beautifully.usurping b.girding e.marred d.touting d.dissipate b. a. but once they did. a.It took days for the programmers to _____ out the errors in the pro-gram.capitulate c.duped J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 152 26.By the way he was _____ his business.Jonie had always wanted to go skydiving. a.corroborate c. but she _____ when she was actually up in a plane and would not jump.daunted e.

abhorred 31.girded 30.purged c.ebb d.augmented b.detracted b.maimed b.appease c. a. a.mitigated d.languished e.marred e.Since you lied to me.pervaded d.ensconced e.The rebels _____ the village and stole freely from the villagers’ .abhor b.marred VE RSATI LE VE R BS 153 32.detract 29. an atmosphere of distrust has _____ our entire relationship.corroborated c.rescind e.Ian’s political fervor will _____ now that his favorite candidate has been eliminated in the primary. a.winnow 28.e.The exquisite vase was _____ by a small crack on its handle. a.sanctioned c.winnowed d.The witnesses’ accounts all _____ the defendant’s story.

a.cajole b. especially military confrontation.roil c.To girdmeans to (1) encircle or bind with a belt or band. mock. a. .duped e.roiled 33. d. (3) prepare for action.capitulated d.meandered d.girded d.The river _____ through the valley. a.solicit d.homes.rescinded b.The hidden camera was safely _____ in the picture frame.cajoled c. a.dupe J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 154 ANSWERS 1.balked c.pervaded 35.groveled b.abated b.ebbed e.winnowed 34.ensconced c. gibe.usurped e.Yuri did his best to _____ me.daunt e. surround. (2) encompass. but I would not let him intimidate me. (4) sneer at.

pure. intensity. b.To dupeis to deceive. 13. c. soothe. a. 6. b. to mutilate. de-spise. (2) to consider or reject as unworthy or beneath one’s dignity. To disdainmeans (1) to regard with haughty contempt or scorn. subside. 11. cripple. 15. especially to rid of that which is undesirable or harmful. to void or annul. to make or become clean. acquiesce. to make afraid or discouraged.To purgeis to free from impurities. 8.2.To cajole means to urge with gentle and repeated appeals or flat-tery. 18. To appeaseis to make calm or quiet. detest. alleviate. to give in. d. 9. 10. diminish. disable. especially in the pursuit of pleasure. course of action. (2) to moder-ate the force or intensity of. To dissipatemeans (1) to separate and scatter completely. 5. 12. 14. waver. To abateis to lessen in strength. to still or pacify. c. 3. to venerate.To sanction means (1) to approve or permit. or injure. To rebukemeans (1) to criticize sharply. (2) to swing back and forth about an opinion. To vacillatemeans (1) to move or sway from side to side. e. especially by depriv-ing of the use of a limb or other part of the body. d. to reprove or reprimand. (2) to repress or restrain by expressing harsh disapproval. (2) to be extrava-gant and wasteful. fluctuate. to be indecisive. e. c. a. 4. To revere means to regard with reverence or awe. a. VE RSATI LE VE R BS 155 16. trick.To dauntis to intimidate. To maimmeans to wound. (2) to give official authorization or approval for. To rescindis to repeal or cancel.. or degree. dis-figure. censure. 7.To mitigatemeans (1) to make les intense or severe. hold in highest respect or estimation. e. c. or nearly so. wheedle. a. squander. ratify. to dis-perse to the point of disappearing. soften. . etc. To abhoris to regard with horror or repugnance. b. To capitulate is to surrender under specific terms or agreed upon conditions. b. 17.

etc. a. 22. . petition. decline. enlarge. To balkmeans (1) to stop abruptly and refuse to go on.To viemeans to compete with or contend. (2) to obstinately refuse or oppose. This sentence can use the first or second meaning. This sentence uses the second meaning. To grovelmeans to lie or creep with one’s face to the ground in a servile. a. as the tide.To languish means (1) to lose vigor or strength. d. This sentence uses primarily the second meaning. weak. (2) to stir up or agitate. c. 26. c. c. To tout means (1) to promote or praise highly and energetically. b. (2) to sep-arate the good from the bad. or fearful manner. d. (3) to anger or annoy. votes. To winnowmeans (1) to separate the grain from the chaff by using the wind or other current of air to blow the chaff away. 20. To roilmeans (1) to make a liquid cloudy or muddy. to examine or sift through to remove undesirable elements. a. To augmentis to increase in size. etc. (2) to fall back. confirm. to make more certain. To ebb means (1) to flow back or recede.. (2) to seek to obtain by persuasion or formal application. (2) to exist or continue in a miserable or neg-lected state. This sentence uses primarily the first meaning. especially with the goal of getting a customer. (2) to solicit (customers.To solicit means (1) to ask for earnestly. d. strength. This sentence uses the second meaning. to strive for superiority or victory. (3) to approach with an offer for paid sexual services.19. or intensity. vote. 27. 21. to become lan-guid. 29. humble. 25.To corroborate means to strengthen or support with evidence or authority. 23.) in an especially brazen or persistent manner. This sentence can use either meaning. e. feeble. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 156 28. 24.

30. c. To pervadeis to spread everywhere, permeate; to be diffused or present throughout. 31. e. To marmeans (1) to impair or damage, make defective or imper-fect; (2) to spoil the perfection or integrity of. The context clue small crackindicates that maris the appropriate word, not maim. 32. d.To usurpis to seize, take possession of, by force and without right; to wrongfully take over. 33. b.To ensconce means (1) to fix or settle firmly and securely; (2) to place or hide securely, conceal. This sentence uses the second meaning. 34. c. To meandermeans (1) to move on a winding or turning course; (2) to wander about, move aimlessly or without a fixed direction or course. 35. d.To dauntis to intimidate, to make afraid or discouraged. I f foreign words and phrases are all Greek to you, then this chap-ter will be especially helpful. Many foreign terms are regularly used in English communications, and you should be familiar with some of the most common foreign words and phrases for your exam. Before you begin learning and reviewing versatile verbs, take a few minutes to take this ten-question Benchmark Quiz. These questions are similar to the type of ques-tions that you will find on important tests. When you are finished, check the answer key carefully to assess your results. Your Benchmark Quiz analysis will help you determine how much time you need to spend on reviewing foreign words as well as the specific words you need to learn in order to increase your vocabulary power. This chapter presents 35 foreign terms for your review. Foreign Words and Phrases 9

157 J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 158 BENCHMARK QUIZ Choose the word whose definition best matches the description. 1.an innovative play that uses an experimental style a.apropos b.mélange c.avant-garde d.imbroglio e.vignette 2.the complete works of Shakespeare a.blasé b.milieu c.zeitgeist d.parvenu e.oeuvre 3.a meeting at 7:00 at La Grange restaurant a.par excellence b.rendezvous c.savoir faire d.façade e.debut 4.“work like a dog,” “sleep like a baby,” and other such overused sayings a.cliché b.bourgeois c.insouciant d.gauche e.ennui 5.an avid sports fan

a.gestalt b.hiatus c.mélange d.epitome e.aficionado FOREIGN WORDS AN D PH RASES 159 6.an artist’s first gallery showing a.ennui b.imbroglio c.parvenu d.debut e.façade 7.a temporary separation in a relationship a.blasé b.quid pro quo c.hiatus d.malaise e.liaison 8.a world-renowned celebrity wearing a disguise a.incognito b.imbroglio c.milieu d.oeuvre e.rendezvous 9.pretending not to be hurt by an insulting remark a.ad hoc b.gauche c.cliché d.façade

e.gestalt 10.someone who reports students’ questions and concerns to the dean a.aficionado b.liaison c.parvenu d.vis-à-vis e.epitome BENCHMARK QUIZ SOLUTIONS How did you do on identifying foreign words? Check your answers here, and then analyze the results to figure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 160 ◗Answers 1. c. Avant-gardemeans using or favoring an ultramodern or experimen-tal style; innovative, cuttingedge, especially in the arts or literature. 2. e. Oeuvremeans (1) a work of art; (2) the total lifework of a writer, artist, composer, etc. 3. b.The noun rendezvousmeans (1) a prearranged meeting at a certain time and place; (2) a place where people meet, especially a popu-lar gathering place. The verb rendezvousmeans to bring or come together at a certain place, to meet at a rendezvous. 4. a. A clichéis a trite or overused expression or idea. 5. e. An aficionadois a fan or devotee, especially of a sport or pastime. 6. d.A debutis a first appearance in or presentation to the public. 7. c. Hiatusmeans a gap or opening; an interruption or break. 8. a. Incognitomeans with one’s identity concealed; in disguise or under an assumed character or identity. 9. d.A façadeis (1) the face or front of a building; (2) an artificial or decep-tive front, especially one intended to hide something unpleasant.

Study the lesson that fol-lows carefully. for this case only. especially one that is secretive or adulterous. Many of the foreign words and phrases in this chapter have been adopted into the English language because there are no English words that express exactly the same meaning. b. you already know some of these important foreign words and phrases. but you need more of these com-monly tested terms in your permanent vocabulary. No single English word. and the more important it is to learn these words and their meanings. or technical terms. it’s time to expand the number of foreign words and phrases in your vocabulary. the more global our society becomes. legal. expresses the same idea as ad hoc. FOREIGN WORDS AN D PH RASES 161 If you answered 1–3 questions correctly.10. Be sure to set aside some time to carefully review the vocabulary words listed in this chapter. (2) a close relationship or link. If you answered 4–7 questions correctly. and do the practice quiz on a separate sheet of paper so that you can do the exercise several times if necessary. the more foreign words and phrases find their way into everyday use in the English language. you would need . pur-pose. one who maintains such communica-tion. well done! You are already famil-iar with many of these foreign words and phrases. which means for a specific. See the source listed in Extra Helpfor more review and practice. often temporary. Give the lesson a quick review and do the practice exercise.Liaisonmeans (1) a channel or means of connection or communi-cation between two groups. BENCHMARK QUIZ RESULTS If you answered 8–10 questions correctly. Indeed. If your score on the practice test is equally high. move on to Chapter 10. the foreign words and phrases you are about to review can appear in any context and have become part of our general English vocabulary. which tend to appear in specific contexts. for example. JUST IN TIME LESSON—FOREIGN WORDS Unlike business. To convey the same idea in English.

unrefined. German. also has an English synonym. you can expect to J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 162 encounter many of them on your exam. Other foreign words listed here may have Eng-lish counterparts but have become part of our language because of their par-ticular connotation or stylistic flair. awkward. The 35 foreign words and phrases defined in this chapter come from the French. but it was adopted into the English language nearly two centuries ago and therefore has lost its foreign flavor. lacking social graces or polish. be sure to pay extra attention to their spellings—many words have tricky vowel combinations—and their pro-nunciations. meaning not. and Greek languages. meaning to trouble. but again. Because they are used so frequently in everyday English communications. to understand more of what you read. Each definition includes a sample sentence to show how the word or phrase is used in context. . lacking cultivation or taste 2. Note:As you study these words. Be sure to say the words out loud as you memorize their meanings. another French word. but gaucheis different enough in sound and sense to warrant its inclusion and use in our language: gauche:1. by the way. without tact 2. insouciant. The French word gauche. is similar to the English word uncouth. Latin.at least three or four words. and to more accurately express yourself in your day-to-day com-munications. not showing anxiety or excitement Insouciant. and the prefix in-. Italian. for example. clumsy or awkward uncouth:1. clumsy. nonchalant. Nonchalantis also a French word. the foreign word carries a slightly different connotation and flavor: insouciant:blithely unconcerned or carefree. Because they are foreign words. you cannot be sure you are pronouncing them correctly simply by sounding them out. indifferent nonchalant:indifferent or cool. crude. comes from the Old French verb soucier. ungraceful Similarly. Learn these foreign terms well to improve your test score.

for a specific. for this case only. debut(day·byoo) n. FOREIGN WORDS AN D PH RASES 163 RULE BOOK: SAY IT AGAIN. hence also. suitable to what is being said or done. bourgeois(boor·zhwah) adj. or materialistic. often temporary. conforming to the standards and conventions of the middle class. Irina’s Carnegie Hall debut received rave reviews. cutting-edge. but his storylines are such clichés.a trite or overused expression or idea. cliché(klee·shay) n. uninterested because of frequent exposure or indulgence 2. Sal is such a Bruce Springsteen aficionado that he bought tickets to all ten Giants Stadium concerts. An ad hoc committee will be formed to investigate Stella’s allegations. especially in the arts or lit-erature. incidentally 2. Tito has an orig-inal and engaging writing style. SAM It’s important to know how to pronounce any word that you plan to add . Ada still maintains her bourgeois lifestyle.appropriate to the situation. by the way. but they were definitely apropos. apropos(ap·ro ˘·poh) adj. especially of a sport or pastime. avant-garde(a·vahnt· ahrd) adj. innovative.a first appearance in or presentation to the public.1. Yvette prefers the avant-garde style of writers like Donald Barthelme to the traditional narrative technique. using or favoring an ultramodern or experimental style. Chancey’s comments may have been disturbing.WORD LIST ad hoc(ad·hok) adj. adv.typical of the middle class. at an appropriate or opportune time. Although she won millions in the lottery. conservative. nonchalant. very sophisticated. purpose. aficionado(a·fish·yo˘·nah·doh) n. commonplace.a fan or devotee. blasé(blah·zay) adj.1. Quincy has traveled so much that he speaks of exotic places such as Borneo in a totally blasé manner. unconcerned 3.

de facto(dee·fak·toh) adj.1. he is really a deeply emotional person. ersatz(e˘r·za˘ts) adj. Einstein is the epitome of true genius. Waldo knew that the dish was made with ersatz truffles. Kobitu decided to take a long hiatus from the financial world and took a job as a middle school math teacher.Oedipus’s hubris leads to his downfall.a configuration or pattern of elements so unified as whole that it cannot be described merely as a sum of its parts. Antoine’s stoicism is just a façade.to your vocabulary. an artificial or decep-tive front. façade(fa ˘·sahd) n. or awkward. being an imitation or substitute.in reality or fact.a gap or opening. . the face or front of a building 2. ennui(ahn·wee) n. One of the fundamental beliefs of gestalt therapy is that we exist in a web of relationships to other things. gestalt( a e˘·shta ˘lt) n. a brief summary or abstract.overbearing pride or presumption. gauche( clumsy ohsh) adj. especially one intended to hide something unpleasant. an interruption or break.1. you may realize that you are already familiar with that term. especially one that is inferior. Though most of the guests couldn’t tell the difference. So say each word aloud several times as you study. In the Greek tragedyOedipus Rex. the de facto leader is the prime minister. a representative example or a typical model 2.artificial. Attila is so gauche that it’s embarrassing to be with him in public. and that it is only possible to understand ourselves in the con-text of these relationships. The king is only the nom-inal head of the country. without tact 2. something or someone that embodies a par-ticular quality or characteristic.1. Once you pronounce it. hubris(hyoo·bris) n. lacking social graces or polish. After he was laid off by the bank. epitome(i·pit·o˘·mee) n.boredom and listlessness resulting from something tedious or uninteresting. hiatus(h¯·ay·tu ˘s) n. and it’s especially important to do so if you are deal-ing with a foreign word or phrase. The tour guide’s façade of enthusiasm could not hide his ennui. actual.

After several tests. Constanta’s latest oeuvre is an avant-garde symphony featuring a cow bell solo. mélange(may·lahnzh) n.1. quintessential. In Shakespeare’s comedies.1. indifferent. noncha-lant. having the highest degree of excellence. the total lifework of a writer. etc. a channel or means of connection or com-munication between two groups.imbroglio(im·brohl·yoh) n. especially one that is secretive or adulterous. a close relationship or link.with one’s identity concealed. lee·a ˘·zon) n. The eclectic mélange of people at the party made for a scintillating evening. one who maintains such communication 2. Raheeb’s laissez-faire management style is not only popular with our employees but also very successful—employee sat-isfaction is high and profits are up for the third quarter in a row. I have been elected to be the liaison between the union members and management. malaise(ma˘·layz) n. incognito(in·ko ·nee·toh) adj. oeuvre(uu·vre˘) n. insouciant (in·soo·si·a˘nt) adj.being the best or truest of its kind. Julian’s insouciant attitude about his finances will get him in trouble someday. composer.a mixture or assortment. hoping to find some measure of privacy on her vacation. a work of art 2. noninterference by the gov-ernment in business and economic affairs. usually involv-ing a disagreement or misunderstanding. Bob Hope was an entertainer par excellence. beyond compar-ison.a confused or difficult situation.blithely unconcerned or carefree.a feeling of illness or unease. The milieu at the writer’s retreat is designed to inspire creativity. liaison(lee·ay·zon. .or adv. The star was traveling incognito. par excellence(pahr ek·se ˘·lahns) adj. in disguise or under an assumed character or identity. there is often an imbroglio caused by a case of mistaken identity. Wella finally learned the cause of her malaise: She was allergic to her new Siamese cat.environment or setting. E J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 164 laissez-faire(les·ay·fair) adj.hands-off policy. milieu(meel·yuu) n. artist.

For example.to bring or come together at a certain place. vignette(vin·yet) n. " FOREIGN WORDS AN D PH RASES 165 rendezvous(rahn·de˘·voo) n. especially a popular gathering place. a place where people meet. My job was to reconnoiter the party and let my friends know if it was worth attending.1. Clarissa and Ahmed planned a rendezvous in the park after lunch.a person who has suddenly risen to a higher social or economic status but has not been socially accepted by others in that class. of course. . reconnoiter(ree·ko˘·noi·te ˘r) v. The film is a series of interrelated vignettes rather than one continuous narrative.to make a preliminary inspection or survey of. especially to gather military information or prepare for military oper-ations.parvenu(pahr·ve˘·noo) n. savoir faire(sav·wahr·fair) n. a synonym for afi-cionadois fan. but they can go a long way in helping you remember meaning. Adele’s savoir faire makes her the quintes-sential hostess. but because he was “new money’’ in an “old money” town. an upstart. v. graceful tact. to meet at a rendezvous. a synonym for milieuis environment.a brief description or depiction.knowledge of the right thing to do or say in a social situation. SHORTCUT: FIND AN ENGLISH COUNTERPART Most foreign words and phrases have an English synonym that you can use to help you remember meaning. quid pro quo(kwid·proh·kwoh) n. Ronnel was nice enough. an equal exchange or substitution. I won’t agree to any deal that isn’t quid pro quo—it must be a win-win arrangement. These synonyms may not always completely capture the rich meaning of the word. a prearranged meeting at a certain time and place 2.a thing given in return for something. especially a short lit-erary sketch or scene or ornamental sketch in a book. he was a parvenu who struggled to be accepted by his wealthy peers.

and other day-to-day communications. referring or directing attention to 2. Although these words come from other languages. the general intellectual and moral outlook or attitude characteristic of a particular generation or period of time. TIPS AND STRATEGIES Foreign words and phrases that have been adopted into the English lan-guage are likely to appear on standardized tests and occur regularly in news-paper articles. • If you see a foreign word or phrase in a sentence. including French. incognito. After a few minutes of pandemo-nium.face to face. and Suki suddenly found herself vis-à-vis with the man of her dreams. Spanish. and Italian. the lights came back on.adv. use the context to help you determine meaning. • Use the context of the sentences provided with the definitions to help you understand these words and memorize their meanings. and word roots. The revolutionary zeitgeist of the sixties and seventies is in sharp contrast to the conservative zeitgeist of the fifties. The Romance languages. many prefixes and suffixes have the same meaning as in English. or the word may have English prefixes or suffixes added to foreign word bases. meaning bad. face to face with or opposite to. For example. use many of the same Latin word roots as the English language.vis-à-vis(vee·za˘·vee) adj. Here are some specific tips and strategies to use as you add these words to your vocabulary and prepare for your exam. textbooks. an Italian word. while the French word malaiseuses the prefix mal-. uses the Latin root gn/gnomean-ing to know. suffixes. zeitgeist(ts¯t· ¯st) n. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 166 • Foreign words often do not have the standard English suffixes that .the spirit of the times.1. wrong. • Remember to look for familiar prefixes. Look for clues to connotation as well as denotation. evil.

environment e. The more you hear how they sound.gauche . If a word has a prefix such as in-or non-. identify the English synonym for each vocabulary word. for example. • Once again. use the power of mnemonic devices and associations to help you remember meaning.milieu a. • Solidify these words in your memory by teaching them to someone else.actual c.arrogance d. 1. • Use all of the vocabulary knowledge you now have to eliminate incorrect answers on the exam. As you memorize these words. 3rd edition.quintessential b.upstart 2. the more familiar they will feel to you. you can find more review and practice in Lesson 8 of LearningExpress’s Vocabulary and Spelling Success in 20 Minutes a Day. be sure to note the part of speech of each word or phrase so you can use it correctly and identify its proper function in a sentence. you can often eliminate answers that do not express a negative.help you identify parts of speech. EXTRA HELP If you want extra help with foreign words and phrases. • Pronounce these words each time you go over their meaning. and the easier it will be to remember them. PRACTICE For questions 1–25. • Help yourself remember some of these words by finding a one-word English synonym whenever possible.

substitution e.fan d.upstart d.appropriate c.cutting-edge 5.bored d.nonchalant 6.uncouth b.tactful O FOREIGN WORDS AN D PH RASES 167 3.assortment c.opposition b.temporary e.meeting b.insouciant a.break c.hiatus a.trite e.mélange a.artificial 4.ill b.uneasy c.disguise d.parvenu a.survey b.indifferent e.interruption c.a.awkward .

boredom c.factual e.malaise a.opportune J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 168 9.par excellence a.setting e.prearranged d.unified e.carefree 7.unconcerned d.commonplace b.representative b.channel b.quintessential e.unconventional c.depiction d.innovative 10.non-interference 8.abstraction d.incomparable c.ennui a.lifework .avant-garde a.inspection c.blasé a.mixture b.polish e.opening 11.d.

misunderstand b.devotee b.gap c.aficionado a.deception 12.graceful e.epitome a.reconnoiter a.middle-class 14.describe c.sophistication b.imitation c.truthful d.attitude d.disagreement e.indulgence e.b.clumsy b.indifference d.pleasantry e.conceited c.uneasiness c.bourgeois a.exemplar d.moralize d.class FOREIGN WORDS AN D PH RASES 169 15.link .pride 13.investigate e.

meeting 20.conformity d.concealed e.hands-off d.rendezvous a.experiment d.preliminary d.pastime e.incorrect .configuration 17.appropriate b.discontent e.sketch b.artistic 18.trite c.undivided 19.vignette a.16.laissez-faire a.secretive c.relationship c.de facto a.inspection b.actual c.difficult b.self-satisfied e.apropos a.unique b.presentation c.intellectual d.

inadequate d.savoir faire a.exposure c.pragmatism b.sophistication 23.source 22.appropriation e.oeuvre a.e.reference c.incognito a.concern .compilation b.temporary b.government b.summation 24.hubris a.presumption d.diversion d.communication e.façade a.pretense e.underestimated J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 170 21.innovation d.misunderstood e.mistreatment c.tedious 25.disguised c.assumption b.

26.insouciant c.ersatz 28.a word to describe an account set up specifically for college savings a.when something is given in return for another thing of equal value a.degree e.cliché c.mélange b.ad hoc b.oeuvre e.parvenu FOREIGN WORDS AN D PH RASES 171 27.liaison e.a word to describe an inferior imitation or substitute a.bourgeois d.avant-garde .hubris d.façade 29.quid pro quo c.apropos b.tact d.par excellence d.imbroglio d.mélange b.confusion or chaos resulting from a misunderstanding a.hiatus c. choose the vocabulary word whose meaning best matches the description.c.zeitgeist e.judgment For questions 26–35.

a saying that is overused. or the elements of an ecosystem a.ad hoc 32.e.a phrase used to refer or direct attention to a.de facto c.rendezvous c.hiatus e.the first time an actor performs on Broadway a.milieu J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 172 33.cliché 34.ennui b.savoir faire b. hackneyed a.parvenu d.incognito 30.epitome 31.aficionado c.avant-garde b.oeuvre e.the relationship between a parasite and its host. for example.vis-à-vis e.vignette d.debut e.gestalt .milieu b.the general spirit or mood of a particular era a.hubris d.zeitgeist c.quid pro quo d.

unconcerned. b. (3) very sophisticated. beyond comparison. (2) nonchalant. cutting edge.Ennuimeans boredom and listlessness resulting from something .the person who maintains communication between two groups a. e. 2. FOREIGN WORDS AN D PH RASES 173 8. an upstart.b. (2) clumsy or awkward.aficionado b. nonchalant. without tact. 10. Insouciant means blithely unconcerned or carefree.Par excellencemeans being the best or truest of its kind.A hiatusis a gap or opening.vignette c. indifferent.liaison d. d. 5.epitome c. 7. Blasémeans (1) uninterested because of frequent exposure or indulgence. 6.malaise d. e. innovative.Milieumeans environment or setting. 9.A mélangeis a mixture or assortment. b. b. 4.blasé e. A parvenuis a person who has suddenly risen to a higher social or economic status but has not been socially accepted by others in that class. quintessen-tial.rendezvous e. 3. d. a.laissez-faire ANSWERS 1.gauche 35. Avant-gardemeans using or favoring an ultramodern or experimen-tal style. especially in arts or literature. having the highest degree of excellence. c. an interruption or break. c. Gauchemeans (1) lacking social graces or polish.

19. d.A façade is (1) the face or front of a building. com-monplace. 18. (2) an artificial or deceptive front. incidentally. As an adverb. or materialistic. hence also. b. suitable to what is being said or done. a representative example or a typical model. especially to gather military information or prepare for mili-tary operations. noninterference by the gov-ernment in business and economic affairs. (2) the total lifework of a writer. 13. Hubrismeans overbearing pride or presumption. 23. conservative. 20. especially a popu-lar gathering place. 15. etc. (2) at an appropriate or opportune time. A vignetteis a brief description or depiction. An aficionadois a fan or devotee. it also means (1) by the way. a. especially a short lit-erary sketch or scene or ornamental sketch in a book. a compilation. to meet at a rendezvous. 16. c. . (2) a brief summary or abstract. 11. The noun rendezvousmeans (1) a prearranged meeting at a certain time and place. d. (2) a place where people meet. actual. conforming to the standards and conventions of the middle class.To reconnoitermeans to make a preliminary inspection or survey of. b. An oeuvreis (1) a work of art.. composer. c. The verb rendezvousmeans to bring or come together at a certain place. e. 21.tedious or uninteresting. Epitomemeans (1) something or someone that embodies a partic-ular quality or characteristic. Aproposmeans appropriate to the situation.Malaiseis a feeling of illness or unease. a. especially of a sport or pastime. a. e.De factomeans in reality or fact. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 174 22. 17. artist. hence. a. Bourgeoismeans typical of the middle class. 12. Laissez-fairemeans hands-off policy. especially one intended to hide something unpleasant. 14. c.

Ad hocmeans for a specific. an equal exchange or substitution. d. especially one that is inferior. (2) face to face with or opposite to.Incognitomeans with one’s identity concealed. often temporary purpose. 32. b. 33. in disguise or under an assumed character or identity. for this case only. b. 26. (2) a close relationship or link. 28. 34.A debutis a first appearance in or presentation to the public. a. being an imitation or substitute. A clichéis a trite or overused expression or idea. c. 29. b.Quid pro quomeans a thing given in return for something. a.Vis-à-vismeans (1) referring or directing attention to. c. 25. 31. c. 30.24. especially one that is secretive or adulterous. Savoir faireis knowledge of the right thing to do or say in a social situation. one who maintains such communica-tion. e. take a few minutes to take this . graceful tact. e. you will learn these and many more “$5” words to help you develop a more sophisticated vocabulary and ace the most difficult questions on your exam. Before you begin learning and reviewing versatile verbs.Zeitgeistis the spirit of the times. 35. An imbrogliois a confused or difficult situation. 27. usually involving a disagreement or misunderstanding. What does hermeticmean? What is a juggernaut? What does it mean to be obsequious? In this final chapter. Liaisonmeans (1) a channel or means of connection or communi-cation between two groups. d. the general intellectual and moral outlook or attitude characteristic of a particular generation or period of time. Gestaltis a configuration or pattern of elements so unified as a whole that it cannot be described merely as a sum of its parts. Ersatzmeans artificial.

conducted in secrecy c.unwilling to compromise 2. certain c.to indoctrinate e.ten-question Benchmark Quiz.recklessly endangering others b.to underestimate the value of d.inculcate a.insight .uncontrollable b.an attempted but failed revolution e. 1. check the answer key carefully to assess your results.to convert d.insincere c.archaic a. $5 Words 10 175 J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 176 BENCHMARK QUIZ Select the answer that provides the meaning of the vocabulary word. These questions are similar to the type of questions that you will find on important tests.to undermine b.clandestine a. When you are finished.ancient d.without fail.an extended period of mourning 3. Your Benchmark Quiz analysis will help you determine how much time you need to spend on reviewing the $5 words you need to learn in order to increase your vocabulary power.

very emotional writing 8.to teem e.to recommend highly c.to feel obligated to others d.to worry 4.succor a.very precise and attentive to detail c.a brief summary or explanation 6.to reveal by degrees . bold e.terse d.evanescent a.e.desultory a.childlike b.vanishing like vapor e.imperceptible c.one who rebels against authority $5 WOR DS 177 7.assistance in a time of distress b.divided into equal parts d.without regard for rules or regulations b.punctilious a.to unknowingly mislead others d.a minor mistake e.obsessed with beauty b.laconic a.daring.an inability to trust others 5.overpriced b.to be addicted to sweets c.

assistance or relief in time of difficulty or dis-tress. d.so small as to be immeasurable 10. 4.to provide assistance or relief in time of difficulty or distress. .To inculcatemeans to teach and impress by frequent instruction or repetition. to indoctrinate. often in order to conceal an illicit or improper purpose. 2. Succormeans (1) n.a place to store grain 9.oscillate a.unconventional d.to absorb slowly e. ◗Answers 1. 5.to waver BENCHMARK QUIZ SOLUTIONS How did you do on identifying $5 words? Check your answers here. (2) v. tran-sitory. fleeting. Archaicmeans belonging to former or ancient times.aimless or haphazard e. b.only once c. d. characteris-tic of the past.having to do with money b.one who demands justice d.related to a previous occurrence c. c.pecuniary a.Evanescentmeans vanishing or tending to vanish like vapor. a.to deny e.heavily armed d.c. instill.Clandestinemeans conducted in secrecy. and then analyze the results to figure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. kept or done in private.to relinquish b. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 178 3.

vacillate. but you need to add some more advanced vocabulary words to your word base. as between two con-flicting options or opinions. . and do the practice quiz on a sep-arate sheet of paper so that you can do the exercise several times if necessary. 7. Laconicmeans brief and to the point. . congratulations—you have completed the last chapter and have added over 350 words to your vocabulary! If you answered 4–7 questions correctly. moving from one subject to another without logical connection.Desultorymeans aimless. very meticulous and precise. a. Give the lesson a quick review and do the practice exercise. If your score on the practice test is equally high. but you need more of these commonly tested $5 words in your permanent vocabulary. c. even if you are one of the most meticulous people you know. and you may never have . desultory. Some words just seem like they were made for vocabulary exams! The “$5 words” in this chapter represent the kind of advanced vocabulary terms that often appear on more difficult vocabulary tests. 10. terse. b. $5 WOR DS 179 JUST IN TIME LESSON—$5 WORDS Abstemious. well done! You are already famil-iar with many of these advanced vocabulary words.6. you already know some of these advanced vocabulary words. They are words that most people are not very familiar with. Study the lesson that follows carefully. 8. relating to.Punctiliousmeans extremely attentive to detail. For example. 9. e. Pecuniarymeans of. (2) to waver. BENCHMARK QUIZ RESULTS If you answered 8–10 questions correctly. concise. d. lugubrious. To oscillatemeans (1) to swing back and forth or side to side in a steady. uninterrupted rhythm. If you answered 1–3 questions correctly. haphazard. succinct. you may never have been called punctilious. you may have a strong basic vocab-ulary. or involving money. Be sure to set aside some time to carefully review the vocabulary words listed in this chapter.

Oscillateis a synonym of vacillate(Chapter 8). then. almost obsessive attention to detail: meticulous:extremely careful and precise. paying great attention to detail punctilious:extremely attentive to detail. such as college-level textbooks and professional essays. but verymeticulous. And fourth.heard something from the distant past characterized as archaic. very meticulous and precise A punctiliousperson. they do often appear on vocabulary exams as a way to measure the full extent of your vocabulary. Ascetic. and yes. you will understand more of what you read and hear. these advanced vocab-ulary words will help you pinpoint meaning and express the precise con-notation you wish to convey. . a word from Chapter 7. is not just meticulous. As with the words you learned in previous lessons. First. they do appear regularly in more sophisticated texts. Second. means austere. Several of them have words from previous chapters in their definitions or are synonymous with words from other lessons. An obsequiousperson is excessively servile(Chapter 7) while clandes-tineis a synonym of surreptitious(Chapter 7). but it expresses an even stronger. By knowing this distinction. For example. for example. Third. notice how many of these vocabulary words build on your exist-ing word base. laconicmeans terse(Chap-ter 2) or succinct(Chapter 7). you will be able to express yourself more effectively. during interviews and other important occasions. and vituperatemeans to censure(Chapter 6) severely or rebuke(Chapter 8) harshly. Though they may appear less often in our every day communications than the words in previous chapters. punctilious is a synonym of meticulous(Chapter 7). you will often impress others with your sophis-ticated vocabulary. But that doesn’t mean these words are not important or useful or even that they are not quite common in some circles. Indeed. you can choose the word that expresses the appro-priate degree. Adding $5 words like these to your vocabulary offers numerous benefits. knowing a lot of $5 words can help you take your exam score to a new level.

An epiphany. conveys the same basic idea but with the suggestion of brusqueness or abruptness. when it comes to your own communications. used with . suggesting brevity with a sense of polish or elegance. and adjectives—many of which use common suffix endings for their part of speech. using or consuming sparingly. a perceptive revelation. is a sudden. each definition in the list below includes a sample sentence to show how the word is used in context. each word carries its own specific connotation and leaves a slightly different impression. Other words in this lesson have meanings that are unlike any other word in this book and are often used in specific contexts. has the most positive connotation of these three words.1. Laconic. you should choose your words carefully. to understand more of what you read and hear. Once more. Terse. To gerrymander. terse. a manifestation of the divine. Thus. and succinct. although these words are effectively synonymous. Learn these words well to boost your test score. for example. There are nouns. on the other hand. and to more accurately express yourself in your day-to-day communications. means to divide an area into voting districts so as to give one party an unfair advantage. intuitive realization of the essence or meaning of some-thing. it is important to remem-ber that most words have their own unique connotation. Succinctis more neutral. So while exam questions will often ask you to identify synonyms such as laconic. The 35 upper-level vocabulary words in this chapter will help you develop a more sophisticated vocabulary and feel more confident when you see $5 words on your exam. WORD LIST abstemious(ab·stee·mi·u˘s) adj.J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 180 RULE BOOK: ALL SYNONYMS ARE NOT CREATED EQUAL Although some synonyms are interchangeable. meanwhile. verbs. for exam-ple. conveying a sense of compactness or tightness in how an idea has been expressed.

austere. After Vadeem gained 30 pounds. archaic(ahr·kay·ik) adj. and a serpent’s tail 2. keenness. a goat’s body. illusion. spar-ing in the indulgence of appetites or passions. spiritual life of the monks. To make their collection of fairy tales suit-able for children. not allowing oneself pleasures or luxuries. The poet Ben Johnson was a coeval of Shakespeare.aimless. Seduced by the chimera of immortality. judgment. (in Greek mythology) a fire-breathing she-monster with a lion’s head. The private investigator followed Raul to a clandestine rendezvous with a woman in sun-glasses and a trench coat.practicing self·denial. bowdlerize(bohd·le ˘·r¯z) v. coeval(koh·ee·va˘l) adj. contemporary. moving from one sub-ject to another without logical connection. The archaic language of Chaucer’s tales makes them difficult for many students to understand. censor. chimera(ki·meer·a ˘) n. haphazard. a vain or incongru-ous fancy. kept or done in pri-vate. he decided he needed a more abstemious diet. for many of the original tales included graphic language. .conducted in secrecy.to edit by omitting or modifying parts that may be considered offensive. she would make an excellent trial lawyer. Victor Frankenstein created a monster that ended up destroying him and everyone he loved.quickness. clandestine(klan·des·tin) adj. often in order to conceal an illicit or improper purpose. desultory(des·u˘l·tohr·ee) adj. the Brothers Grimm had to bowdlerize the folk tales they had collected. E $5 WOR DS 181 ascetic(a˘·set·ik) adj. eating and drinking in moderation. character-istic of the past. but he knew he could not handle such an ascetic lifestyle.1. Eli was attracted to the peaceful.belonging to former or ancient times.of the same time period. or insight. With Jonelle’s acumen. Ichabod’s desultory ramblings worsened as his disease progressed. a (monstrous) product of the imagination. acumen(a˘·kyoo·me˘n) n. and accuracy of perception.temperance or moderation 2.

" J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 182 gerrymander(jer·i·man·de˘r) v. transitory.a false notion or misconception resulting from incorrect or illogical reasoning 2. you can remember the meaning of gerrymanderwith a sentence such as Gerry was unfairly elected through gerrymandering. Y and Z will automatically follow.1. you can remember her-meticby associating it with a hermit.the act of gerrymandering. SHORTCUT: MNEMONICS ONCE MORE Combine your other study strategies such as flashcards with mnemonic devices that will help you remember meaning. a sudden. protected from outside influences. a perceptive revelation 2. For example. The elec-tion was rigged by gerrymandering that gave unfair advantage to the incumbent.epiphany(i·pif·a˘·nee) n.1. to contradict or call . impugn(im·pyoon) v. The hegemony of his country borders on imperialism.vanishing or tending to vanish like vapor. something that misleads. In the hermetic world of the remote mountain convent. evanescent(ev·a˘·nes·e˘nt) adj. a manifestation of the divine As I listened to Professor Lane’s lecture.to divide an area into voting districts so as to give one party an unfair advantage n. that which is deceptive or has a false appearance.predominant influence or leadership. The subject of the poem is the evanescent nature of young love. I had a sudden epiphany that I was in the wrong major. hegemony(hi·jem·o˘·nee) n. deception. the nuns did not even know that their country was on the brink of war.to attack as false or questionable. fleeting. The “slippery slope’’ fallacy argues that once X happens.Or. intuitive realization of the essence or meaning of something. who is likely to have limited outside influences. espe-cially of one government over others. having an airtight closure 2. fallacy(fal·a ˘·see) n. hermetic(hur·met·ik) adj.

often .to teach and impress by frequent instruction or repetition. CHEAT SHEET: WATCH FOR SHAPE-SHIFTERS By mastering the 350+ words in this book. (c) lacking nutritional value. succinct.a massive.brief and to the point. to indoctrinate. controlling. The movie’s trite and overly-contrived plot make it a jejune sequel to what was a powerful and novel film. terse. especially of one government over others hegemonic:leading or ruling. The adjective evanescent. and use your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes to determine meaning. instill.lacking substance. insipid or dull. The editorial impugned the senator’s reelection platform and set the tone for the upcoming debate. the noun hegemonycan become the adjective hegemonic: hegemony:predominant influence or leadership. childish. transitory. you may see the words in the same form that you have memorized from this book. inculcate(in·kul·kayt) v. fleeting evanescence:the state of being evanescent Likewise. hence: (a) lacking in inter-est or significance. meager. A shroud of fear covered Eastern Europe as the juggernaut of Communism spread from nation to nation. do be on the lookout for alternate forms. can become the noun evanescence: evanescent:vanishing or tending to vanish like vapor. predominant On your exam. jejune(ji·joon) adj. $5 WOR DS 183 laconic(la ˘·kon·ik) adj. overwhelmingly powerful and unstoppable force that seems to crush everything in its path. That’s because hundreds more words can be formed by adding or changing prefixes and/or suffixes on the words in these chapters. juggernaut (ju ·e˘r·nawt) n. concise. But. My parents worked hard to inculcate in me a deep sense of responsibility to others. (b) lacking in maturity. you are really expanding your vocabulary by closer to 500 words.into question. for example.

SHORT CUT: HAPPY COUPLES As you have already seen. Irina’s lugubrious tears made me believe that her sadness was just a façade. obsequious(o˘b·see·kwi·u˘s) adj. bowdlerizeand censor) or just useful associations. The obsequious manner of the butler made it clear that he resented his position. doctrine or cause. the myriad choices in the American supermarket were overwhelming. as between two conflicting options or opinions. relating to. belief. to swing back and forth or side to side in a steady.excessively dismal or mournful. it became . an immense number. Zse’s laconic reply made it clear that he did not want to discuss the matter any further. Pair up the words in this chapter with other vocabu-lary words to help you remember meaning. attentive in a servile or ingratiating manner. After a few minutes. vast amount. oscillate(os·˘·layt) v. machination(mak·˘·nay·sho ˘n) n. They can be synonym or antonym pairs (e. a crafty or cunning scheme devised to achieve a sinister end.too numerous to be counted.an indefinitely large number.of. uninterrupted rhythm 2.to the point of being curt or brusque. innumerable. often exag-geratedly or ridiculously so. such asinculcate and proselytize. pecuniary(pi·kyoo·ni·er·ee) adj. Macbeth’s machinations failed to bring him the glory he coveted and brought him only tragedy instead. n. To the refugees from Somalia. many of these $5 words have synonyms else-where in this book. the act of plotting or devising 2. Rosen was relieved to learn that his penalty would be pecuniary only and that he would not have to spend any time in jail.1.excessively or ingratiatingly compliant or submissive. myriad(mir·i·a˘d) adj.to convert or seek to convert someone to another religion. The rhythm of the oscillating fan put the baby to sleep.g. or involving money. proselytize(pros·e˘·li·t¯z) v. to waver.1. vacillate. fawning. lugubrious(luu· oo·bri·u˘s) adj..

the state of being or eating until excessively full. very meticulous and precise.1.1. the leaders and a select few enjoy a surfeit of wealth while most of the population lives in squalor.assistance or relief in time of difficulty or distress. CHEAT SHEET: BEGINNINGS. One of the reasons he excels as an editor is because he is so punctilious. an excessive amount or overabundance. sycophant(sik·o˘·fa ˘nt) n. nearness 2. don’t forget about word parts. v. succor(suk·o˘r) n. or disgust. AND ENDS As you review these words. glut 2. MIDDLES. surfeit(sur·fit) v.clear to Hannah that the purpose of the meeting was really to proselytize as many attendees as possible.to pro-vide assistance or relief in time of difficulty or distress. In many third-world countries. Toby’s seditious behavior nearly started a riot at the town meeting.extremely attentive to detail. Use prefixes. The propinquity of these two elements make them difficult to tell apart. similarity in nature. " J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 184 seditious(si·dish·u˘s) adj. Omar realized that one of the drawbacks of his celebrity was that he would always be surrounded by sycophants. proximity. a fawning parasite. overindulge. The Red Cross and other relief organizations provide succor to the needy during natural disasters.to feed or fill to excess.a person who tries to win the favor of influential or powerful people through flattery. suffixes. satiety. . and word roots to help you better understand and remember the words in this lesson.arousing to insurrection or rebellion. engaging in or promoting sedition (conduct or language which incites resistance or opposition to lawful authority). propinquity(proh·pin ·kwi·tee) n. punctilious(pun k·til·i·u˘s) adj. affinity. n.

it’s a craftyscheme. Create memorable rhymes.to criticize or rebuke harshly or abusively. • Review. • Read each definition and sample sentence carefully to fully under-stand each word and its connotation. is not just a scheme. • Remember all of the vocabulary tools you already have at your dis-posal. for example. slippery. You can group together words with the same or opposite meanings or words that share a particular association. review. to censure severely.unctuous(un insincerely k·choo·u˘s) adj. vituperate(v¯·too·pe˘·rayt) v. use the process of elimina-tion to help narrow down your answer choices. Use context (if available). After being vituperated by her boss for something that wasn’t even her fault. • Pay attention to connotation and degree. images. unpleasantly and excessively or earnest or ingratiating 2. you can tackle them with the same strategies you have been using all throughout this book. review the words in this book as much as you can. berate. greasy. prefixes and suffixes. • Make your study time doubly productive by matching the words in this lesson with words from other chapters. I left without test driving the car because the salesperson was so unctuous that I couldn’t trust him. Machination.1. one that suggests an evil purpose. or sentences that will help you recall meaning. TIPS AND STRATEGIES Though $5 words may seem intimidating. The more . Here are some specific tips and strategies to use as you countdown to your exam. containing or having the quality of oil or oint-ment. review. and word roots to help you determine meaning. In whatever time you have left before your exam. $5 WOR DS 185 • Remember the power of mnemonic devices to help you memorize new words. suave. Jin handed in her letter of resignation.

laconic J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 186 4.used or consumed sparingly or in moderation a.evanescent e. You will not only have improved your vocabulary just in time—you will have a rich vocabulary for all time.acumen 2. or involving money a.coeval d. PRACTICE For questions 1–20.you review them.unctuous 3.a sudden.pecuniary e.machination e. choose the vocabulary word that matches the definition.of. Come back to these chapters after your exam. 1. the more quickly they will become part of your permanent vocabulary and the more comfortable you will feel using them in your conversations and writing.abstemious b.hermetic c. relating to. intuitive realization of the essence or meaning of something a.lugubrious b.a crafty or cunning scheme with a sinister purpose . Make note of the chapters with which you had the most difficulty and set aside extra time for those words.sycophant d.ascetic d.epiphany c.archaic c.propinquity b. too.

proselytize c.hermetic d.surfeit e.sycophant .excessively dismal or mournful a.inculcate e.obsequious b.clandestine 6.juggernaut b.to provide assistance or relief in time of difficulty a.oscillate d.hegemony e.vituperate 7.gerrymander d.chimera b.fallacy c.gerrymander d.seditious c.machination 5.someone who tries to win the favor of the influential or powerful through flattery a.lugubrious d.impugn c. or cause a.jejune e.bowdlerize b.succor b.to seek to convert someone to another religion. belief.inculcate 8.a.coeval c.

fallacy e.succor d.juggernaut 9. insipid. and accuracy of perception or judgment a.e.epiphany 12.quickness.lacking substance.myriad b.pecuniary e.archaic c.the predominant influence or leadership.machinations c.propinquity e.protected from outside influences a.lugubrious d.hegemony b. childish.laconic 11.hermetic e.acumen d. keenness. meager.sycophant 13.desultory b.myriad d.seditious $5 WOR DS 187 10.propinquity c.belonging to former or ancient times a. especially of one government over others a.jejune b. or of little nutritional value .unctuous c.

abstemious b.pecuniary e.fallacy b.fallacy 15.hegemony d.surfeit c.seditious J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 188 16.chimera e.epiphany b.jejune c.arousing to insurrection or rebellion a.a massive.unpleasantly and excessively or insincerely ingratiating a.juggernaut e.seditious d. overwhelmingly powerful and unstoppable force that seems to crush everything in its path a.acumen 17.clandestine d.a false notion or misconception resulting from incorrect or illogical reasoning a.unctuous b.sycophant d.succor c.a.coeval .punctilious e.lugubrious c.obsequious 14.desultory b.

to contradict or call into question a.deception b.abstemious d. haphazard.jejune 18.denial . 21.surfeit $5 WOR DS 189 For questions 21–35.to divide an area into voting districts so as to give one party an unfair advantage a.evanescent e.vituperate d.hermetic e.to attack as false or questionable.illusion c.gerrymander 19. choose the best synonym for the vocabulary word.archaic c.succor c.inculcate d.c.laconic b.oscillate e.proselytize b.aimless. moving form one subject to another without logical connection a.bowdlerize b.desultory d.impugn e.clandestine 20.chimera a.impugn c.

eloquent e.pensive b.berate c.myriad a.insignificant c.appearance e.resistance 23.relinquish 26.fable e.daunting .vituperate a.d.inculcate a.instill e.uncompromising 25.innumerable d.abuse d.promote b.closure 22.assistance c.contradict d.legitimize c.affinity b.punctilious a.destabilize b.timely b.flatter d.disdain e.propinquity a.modify 24.

transitory b.coeval a.erratic d.malicious d.massive c.pleasantry c.erratic d.c.oscillate .meticulous e.proximity 29.courteous 31.contemporary e.timid 30.trite J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 190 27.exaggerated b.cooperative c.futile 28.dissension b.quiescent e.ascetic a.incessant b.austere c.surfeit a.evanescent a.overabundance d.surreptitious d.miscellaneous e.accommodation e.

pervasive e.obsequious a.ensconced b.laconic a.gauche b.abhor d.blasé d.censor c.appease b.impervious e.meandering c.a.clandestine a.surreptitious b.placate b.stoic c.virulent d.corroborate e.loquacious $5 WOR DS 191 33.winnow d.succinct d.rectify e.bowdlerize a.garner c.vacillate 32.fawning .amiable 34.noxious c.surmise 35.

12. a fawning parasite. 10. c. doctrine or cause. characteris-tic of the past. a.Jejune means lacking substance.e. insipid or dull (b) lacking in maturity. d. childish (c) lacking nutritional value. a perceptive revelation. often exagger-atedly or ridiculously so. the verb form means to provide assistance or relief in time of difficulty or distress.Hermeticmeans (1) having an airtight closure. (2) a crafty or cunning scheme devised to achieve a sinister end. b. or insight.Pecuniarymeans of. (2) a manifesta-tion of the divine.An epiphanyis (1) a sudden. hence: (a) lacking in interest or significance. (2) eating and drinking in modera-tion. 6. . Abstemiousmeans (1) using or consuming sparingly.A sycophantis a person who tries to win the favor of influential or powerful people through flattery. relating to. 4. intuitive realization of the essence or meaning of something. 8. Hegemonyis predominant influence or leadership. 13. Machinationis (1) the act of plotting or devising. a. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 192 7. judgment. 2. b.To proselytizemeans to convert or seek to convert someone to another religion. sparing in the indulgence of appetites or passions. c. b. belief. and accuracy of perception. (2) protected from outside influences. meager. e. 11. 9. Lugubriousmeans excessively dismal or mournful. or involving money. a. especially of one government over others. Acumenmeans quickness. The noun succormeans assistance or relief in time of difficulty or distress.mundane ANSWERS 1. keenness. b. 3. 5. used with temperance or moderation.Archaicmeans belonging to former or ancient times. d. d.

d. d. similarity in nature.To vituperatemeans to criticize or rebuke harshly or abusively. a. a (monstrous) product of the imag-ination. b. Propinquitymeans (1) proximity.A chimera is (1) (in Greek mythology) a fire-breathing she-monster with a lion’s head. vast amount. Unctuousmeans (1) unpleasantly and excessively or insincerely earnest or ingratiating.A juggernaut is a massive. 23. a. deception. c. very meticulous and precise. To gerrymandermeans to divide an area into voting districts so as to give one party an unfair advantage. e. berate. (2) that which is deceptive or has a false appearance. 21. (2) containing or having the quality of oil or ointment. to contradict or call into question. to censure severely. illusion. greasy. Desultorymeans aimless. d. instill. (2) affinity. d.To inculcateis to teach and impress by frequent instruction or rep-etition. overwhelmingly powerful and unstop-pable force that seems to crush everything in its path. 16. the act of gerry-mandering. something that misleads. 18. e. to indoctrinate. 25. As a noun it means an indefinitely large number. moving from one subject to another without logical connection. 17.Punctiliousmeans extremely attentive to detail.To impugn means to attack as false or questionable. nearness. an immense number. innu-merable. Seditiousmeans arousing to insurrection or rebellion. suave. The adjective myriadmeans too numerous to be counted. A fallacy is (1) a false notion or misconception resulting from incorrect or illogical reasoning. as a noun. 22. and a serpent’s tail. slippery. (2) a vain or incongruous fancy. engaging in or promoting sedition (conduct or language which incites resist-ance or opposition to lawful authority). . a goat’s body. a. $5 WOR DS 193 20. c. 15. b. 26. 24. 19. haphazard.14.

kept or done in private. PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLES a-. (2) the state of being or eating until excessively full. abscond ante. 35. d.27. When-ever possible. not allowing oneself pleasures or luxuries. satiety. overindulge. a. To oscillatemeans (1) to swing back and forth or side to side in a steady. off abnormal. b. and several examples of words with each prefix.To bowdlerizemeans to edit by omitting or modifying parts that may be considered offensive. often in order to conceal an illicit or improper purpose. 32. fawning. the examples include both common words that are already part of your everyday vocabulary andwords from the lessons in this book. c. vacillate. As a noun it means (1) an excessive amount or over-abundance. terse. uninterrupted rhythm. abs. an. Evanescentmeans vanishing or tending to vanish like vapor. 28. antipathy .not. their meanings. away. concise. without atypical. antagonist. anti. Laconicmeans brief and to the point. antecedent.from. anarchy. tran-sitory. (2) to waver. often to the point of being curt or brusque. b. 31. succinct. before antedate. abduct. 30. c.Coevalmeans of the same time period. amorphous ab-.prior to. austere. 195 PREFIXES The following table lists the most common English language prefixes. as between two con-flicting options or opinions. J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 194 33. against antidote. d. in front of. antebellum ant-.Obsequiousmeans excessively or ingratiatingly compliant or sub-missive. censor. opposing. 29.opposite. e. fleeting. 34. glut. Clandestinemeans conducted in secrecy. contemporary.Asceticmeans practicing self-denial. or disgust. attentive or servile in an ingratiating manner. a. The verb surfeitmeans to feed or fill to excess.

on all sides circumspect co-. into. inculcate (alsoil-. bicameral circum. into. reversal. and Word Roots APPENDIX A J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 196 PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLES dis. apart. miscreant. bilateral. incessant.not invariable.around.contrary. ir-) in.in. single. disinterested duo. misanthrope mono. im-.against. ir-) inter. ill.between. opposite or counterclockwise. impart.in. wrong. exclaim. impervious (alsoil-. lack of misspell. twice bisect. duality ex. circumference. consensus con. detract remove from.two duo. evil. opposite. among.bad. wrong malfunction. opposing. dethrone.bi. contra. abnormal. out of. jointly community.one. monocle . intermittent intra. within induct. together. reduce Prefixes.bad. away from expel.within.cooperate. not disperse. complementary counterpart de. contraindication contrasting counter. contrary. contradict.away from. countermeasure. im-. com-. malpractice. deactivate.do the opposite or reverse of. introduction mal. monogamy. within intervene. intravenous intro. with. about. during intramural.two. alone monologue.out. dismiss. within introvert. circumnavigate. malign mis. illicit. inept. duet. interact. exorbitant in. Suffixes.

back. neonatal. postpone.many.after.many.across. translucent tri. incomplete semiannual. and several examples of words with each suffix. postoperative behind pre. postpartum. partly. Whenever pos-sible. polyglot post.exceeding. fake pseudonym. a new form of neologism. triumvirate un. subdue. neophyte non. translate. subsequent. supporting. overstimulate poly. projecting pseudo. over. below subconscious. uninterested. semiconscious sub. thrice triangle.not unable. pseudoscience re. excessive overabundance. subjugate super. multiple multiple. nonchalant over. exceeding superhero. tricycle. beneath. multifarious neo. profess in front of (b) for. beyond. nonentity. unilateral APPENDIX A 197 SUFFIXES The following table lists the most common English language suffixes. NOUN ENDINGS SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES .false.above.half. surpassing. proclivity. their meanings. rescind semi.before precaution. uniform. in behalf of (c) forward. again recall. polytechnic. recent. supercilious trans. unorthodox uni.multi.(a) earlier.not nonconformist. precede. multimillionaire. before.under. proceed. prior to.three. reconcile. the examples include both common words that are already part of your everyday vocabulary andwords from the lessons in this book. much polyester. presage pro. later (than). through transmit. superficial.one unite.new.

dignitary. feminist. disinfectant. or degree clarity. or process. state or democracy. quality or degree happiness. marriage (b) house or place of (c) state. sensor -ion. criticism. being in a specified state or condition -ary thing belonging to or adversary. foreigner. does. or agent of an action or process -ness state. object. anarchist. eulogy . -ian of or relating to. -ence action or process. homicide -cy action or practice. rank -al action or process rehearsal. veracity -ment action or process. pediatrician. oral biology. embankment. amity. disposal. latency -ant. state. or performs builder. -ent one that performs. historian specializing in -ance. a person guardian. killing suicide. condition. persecution. entertainment. vacancy. theory. result. orphanage. -or one that is. dissident. makes. denunciation condition -ism act. amazement means. anachronism. legitimacy. -tion act or process.-age (a) action or process drainage. or science. supremacy quality of -er. reversal -an. believes. goodness -ology doctrine. theology. renaissance -ancy.) -ity quality. pesticide. miscreant or causes an action. benevolence. practice. readiness. imperialist produces. state of adolescence. -ency quality or state agency. promotes. imperialism state or doctrine of -ist one who (performs. library connected with -cide killer. etc. state or attraction.

activity laundry. squeamish -ive performing or tending towards sensitive. fearless. -ose. -ical having the quality of. listless be acted on (in a specified way) -ous. lacking. succor -sis process or action diagnosis. American. helpful. -ial. metamorphosis -ure act or process. inscrutable or liable to -al. adventurous. related to. agrarian characteristic of -ant. having fantastic. having the qualities of. dialysis. human. ephemeral to. wistful tending or liable to -ic pertaining or relating to. -ian one who is or does. having the nature of -less without. pensive (an action). condition. cooperative. peaceful. glorious. bookish. office or function exposure. unable to act or endless. servile -ish having the quality of Swedish. or characterized by -an. -ible capable or worthy of. censure -y state. relating educational. preeminent or being (in a specified condition) -ful full of. culpable. anarchy or place of business J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 198 ADJECTIVE ENDINGS SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES -able. futile. peripheral. legislature. archaic the quality of -ile tending to or capable of fragile. having the qualities of. quality. egregious relating to . incessant. full of. valor. empathy. tending flammable. activity candor.or written expression -or condition. chronic. of. -ent performing (a specific action) important.

more than one. to drive. enact. adhere. lengthen. alias. ag to do. colonize. to cause to be violate. around ambiguous. Remember that you use words with these roots every day. full of. ambivalent. to lead agent. desultory or inclined to VERB ENDINGS SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES -ate to make. amph both. rectify -ize to cause to be or become. form into beautify. their meanings. -fy to make. acr sharp. allure al. enamor amb to go. toward. There are over 150 roots here. emanate or become -en to cause to be or have. another alternative. Break it down into manageable chunks of 10–20 roots and memorize them section by section. to walk ambulatory. near adjacent. tending sleepy. mind. acute.-y characterized by. APPENDIX A 199 ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES ac. amphitheater anim life. soul. ali. to force. tolerate. cursory. preamble. agitate ad. frighten to be or have -ify. electrify. alien am love amiable. ambush amb. and several examples of words with those roots. Whenever possible. alter other. amity. acrimonious act. al to. spirit unanimous. but don’t be intimidated by the length of this list. synchronize to bring about WORD ROOTS The following table lists the most common word roots. bitter acid. exacerbate. plagiarize. animosity equanimity . the exam-ples include both common words that are already part of your everyday vocabulary and words form the lessons in this book. to come quicken.

concentric. apotheosis apt. capitulate cap. autonomy. incisive cla. to yield. clu shut. cour heart encourage. bonus cad. concede. cipit head. archi.annui. capit. clin to lean toward. incessant centr center central. bend decline. to decide chron time chronic. headlong capital. cret to grow creation. andr man. human anthropology. to have a certain quality befriend. cascade cant. cert. bon good benefit. cardiac. to judge. clamor cli. chant to sing chant. adept. intercept. ept skill. to get capture. bell war rebel. recant cap. emancipate card. bureaucracy cre. bemoan. anniversary. precise. proclivity cour. enclose. synchronize cis to cut scissors. perennial anthro. to trust incredible. recline. cip. to cry out exclaim. ruler hierarchy. cess to go. coincidence. critique. cracy to govern democracy. to ascertain. belligerent. cresc. carnage cast. cord. cent. proclaim. archychief. apocalypse. increment cred to believe. ceed. principal. incredulous . misanthrope apo away apology. cept to take. cursory crat. anarchy auto self automatic. automaton be to be. discern crim. inept arch. antebellum ben. preclude claim. monarchy. close closet. enchant. incursion. principal. discord carn flesh carnivore. to stop exceed. chronology. to separate. castigate ced. fitness. a course recur. benevolent. clam to shout. increase. chast cut caste. cret. autocracy. ability adapt. credit. cur running. crit distinguish. eccentric cern. to happen by chance accident. ennui year annual. belittle bel. clo. android. chastise. reincarnation. cid to fall.

error. fy fer to bring. dia apart. incubate. dyslexia epi upon epidemic. indolence. even equation. indignant. dubiety duc. epidemic. finite. well euphoria. to bubble fervor. obdurate dys faulty. to tell. fait. indubitable. durable. eulogy. dot. pain condolence. equivocate err to wander err. fam speak fable. affinity . to use words predict. pandemic di. fervid. docile dem people democracy. dow to give donate. affable fac. conducive dur hard endure. proliferate ferv to boil. abnormal dysfunctional. dystopia.cryp hidden crypt. dictionary. feign feit. dict. incumbent culp blame culprit. cryptography cub. to bear offer. dichotomy dic. factory. fig. epigram. euthanasia fab. exculpate J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 200 ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES dac. famous. dox opinion dogma. endow dub doubt dubious. equanimity. epigraph equ equal. indict dign worth dignity. induct. infidel fin end final. doc to teach doctor. cryptic. to make fiction. cumb to lie down succumb. coalesce. paradox dol suffer. fidelity. duct to lead conduct. endow. to carry. dit to say. disdain dog. trust confide. effervescent fid faith. acquiesce eu good. indoctrinate. transfer. dolorous don. fic. culpable. orthodox. erratic esce becoming adolescent. diatribe. through dialogue. to do.

lut. infringe frag. recognize. reflect. hyperextend. idiosyncrasy. kind generous. aggressive. genetics. gratitude. fring fus to pour confuse. gno to know ignore. hyperbole APPENDIX A 201 ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES id one’s own idiom. luminous lud. fluctuation. leg to select. adherent. creation. digress grat pleasing grateful. dejected. deluge mag. lum. other heterosexual. select. magnanimous . forbear fort chance fortune. junct to meet. gress to step progress. allude lug. lever. lus to play illusion. luv to wash lavatory. conjecture join. fortuitous fra. light. flux to flow fluid. eclectic lev lift. to choose election. ideology ject to throw. infusion. magnitude. anomaly hyper over. forestall. incognito grad. fraction. juxtapose jur to swear jury. max big magnify. to throw down eject. flexible flu. flammable. heterogeneous. homogenous gn. heterodox (h)om same homogeneous. race. superfluous fore before foresight. diffuse gen birth. to break fracture. lucid. junction. dilute. homonym. flam to burn flame. fortunate. inflammatory flect. maj. frac. log. ingratiate her. to join joint. excessive hyperactive. elude. rise elevator. abjure lect. lus light illustrate. hes to stick cohere. perjury. alleviate loc. loqu word. flex to bend deflect. loquacious luc.flag. inherent (h)etero different. speech dialogue. eloquent.

pauper. admonish. peas peace pacify. pu few. pronounce. moratorium mut change mutate. nym nat. omniscient pac. nominal noun. punishment. obsequious completely. oc. preeminent mis. diminish. remonstrate morph shape amorphous. apathetic pau. renaissance nec. po. monit to warn monitor. expedite. manufacture. nom.man hand manual. manifest min small minute. denounce nov. omnipotent. noxious. impede pen. pedantic ped. disparate. innocuous nom. everyone panorama. autonomy nown. nym. of. nown nounc. noxharm. intermittent mon. order economy. object. appease. path feeling. poor poverty. beside parallel. penance . to. impoverish ped child. panacea par equal par. education pediatrician. op toward. encyclopedia. morbid. mit to send transmit. pacifier pan all. parity para next to. obstruct. nou new novice. homonym. name nominate. pat. nunc to announce announce. imminent. antipathy. novel. nic. paradox pas. nai to be born native.rule. pod foot pedestrian. little. pov. immutable. remit. pandemic. nas. paragon. pun to pay. against. disease passionate. metamorphosis. over omni all omnipresent. permutation nam. taxonomy. anthropomorphic mort death immortal. minutiae min to project. nascent. neophyte ob. death innocent. noc. to compensate penalty. to hang over prominent. suffering. neo. noun.

to seek. poundto put. petition. to strive compete. for. compensate. sanction sal. surrogate. conquest. acquiesce rid. segregate. proselytize prob to prove. query qui quiet quiet. to pay depend. homophone. pos. scrip to write scribble. complex. seditious . ris to laugh riddle. to test probe. to jump assault. sacrament. impetuous phil love philosophy. derision rog to ask interrogate. cacophony plac to please placid. prescribe. peripheral. ridiculous.pend. sil. placebo. importune prehend. bibliophile phone sound telephone. to twist. punctilious poign que. philanthropy. pung. deplete. secr sacred sacred. to place expose. tranquil. pit to go. sault. ply to fold. to prick point. juxtapose port to carry import. insolent. to get. circumscribe se apart separate. quis to seek inquisitive. peripatetic pet. implicit to bend pon. abrogate sacr. desultory sci to know conscious. sanct. plic. impugn punc. probation. sultto leap. a lot proliferate. prise to take. comply. wrong perplex. profuse. permeate. pugnacious. complacent ple to fill complete. to seize surprise. component. plethora plex. to weigh. to point. science. reprisal pro much. apprehend. omniscient scribe. puncture. pervade peri around perimeter. reprobate pug to fight repugnant. pensive J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 202 ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES per completely. to tangle. pens to hang. portable.

to see perspective. dissuade tac. sustain. verisimilitude. apotheosis tract to drag. tic to be silent tacit. obsequious sed. sequ to follow consequence. dissident sens. survey. . assiduous. visionary voc. vigorous. steadfast sua smooth suave. sentiment. ut to use abuse. tension. to plan. spit to look. tenacious tend. to thin extend. speculation. veritable vers. intervene APPENDIX A 203 ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES er truth verdict. detract. utility. to plot subside. vert to turn revert. vicarious vid. benevolence 205 T his book hasgiven you focused practice and review of your vocabulary skills. to pull. versatile vi life vivid. tractable us. to be aware sense. tent. taciturn tain. volition. vent to come. theology. dissolution spec. usurp ven. ten. tenuous tent. to be in place static. persuade. If you need more practice. to stretch. sid to sit. vok to call vocal. spic. vis to see evident. to draw attract. sequel. equivocate vol to wish volunteer. sent to feel. sti to stand. tin to hold detain. circumspect sta. to move toward convene. advocate. aversion. these resources offer good places to find what you need to pass your test. obstinate. resolution. to free dissolve. sess. tenu theo god atheist. dissent sol to loosen. reticent. venture. tens.sec. to be still.

com:vocab-ulary puzzles and exercises with words ranging from junior high to college level. 3rd edition(New York: LearningExpress. 2002). Darling. Word Power(New York: Kaplan. 2000). “Vocabulary”—www.000 vocabulary words at the high school and college level.htm: vocabulary lessons and worksheets for grades 1–12. 1100 Words You Need to Know (Hauppauge. Charles. Meg. Merriam-Webster’s Vocabulary Builder(Springfield: Merriam-Webster. 501 Vocabulary Questions(New York: LearningExpress. 2002). Additional Resources APPENDIX B J UST I N TI M E VOCAB U LARY 206 GENERAL WEBSITES Vocabulary University. 2001). and Melvin Gordon. 2000). Laurie. 1999). Bill. 2003). Charles. Verbal Advantage: 10 Steps to an Impressive Vocabulary(New York: Random House. “Building a Better .freevocabulary. Vocabulary for Dummies(New York: Wiley. Bryson’s Dictionary of Troublesome Words(New York: Broadway Books.vocabulary. Edhelper.com.BOOKS 1001 Vocabulary and Spelling Questions.edhelper. 2nd edition(New York: Learning Express. NY: Barrons Educational Series. Capital Community College. Schneider. 2003). “Vocabulary”—www. Bryson. www.com:a list of 5. Vocabulary and Spelling Success in 20 Minutes a Day. The Oxford Essential Dictionary of Difficult Words(New York: Oxford University Press. 2001). Bromberg. Rozakis. 2001). Murray.com/vocabulary. Elster.

Inc. “Word of the Day”— www.wordsmith.com.com/cgi/display/wotd. WORD OF THE DAY WEBSITES “My Word A Day”—www.htm: tips for building vocabulary and quizzes for over 350 words. “A Word A Day”—www. Schmidel.org/awad. “Dictionary. Wordsmith.mywordaday. Lexico Publishing Group.Vocabular.com/learning/students/wordofday/.cfm:quizzes for selected SAT words.”—webster. links to other vocabulary-building sites.org.htm:Greek and Latin word roots and quizzes. “Merriam-Webster’s Vocabulary Builder”— www.nytimes. Oxford University Press.commnet.com/info/vocab/vocab.edu/grammar/vocabulary. The New York Times Company.com Word of the Day”— http://dictionary. Dyann. “Oxford English Dictionary Word of the Day”—http://oed. Merriam-Webster.m-w.com/wordoftheday/. “Quiz Hub: SAT Vocabulary Word Quiz”— quizhub. .reference.com/quiz/f-vocabulary.

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