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GEAR TECHNOLOGY INDIA

VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 - QUARTERLY

KARENG04277

FEBRUARY 2014

BANGALORE

Free Distribution

Taking BigGears Measure


IPTEX 2014: Exhibitor Previews
GEAR INDUSTRY PROFILE

TECHNICAL

Antonio Maccaferri

Ask the Expert


CROWNING SPUR TEETH SPECIFYING GEARS TO STANDARD WORKING WITH HIGH-TEMP GEAR MATERIALS

INsight

Design and Optimization of Planetary Gears

Will the Indian Economy Shake Its Inertia?

www.geartechnologyindia.com

THE JOURNAL OF GEAR MANUFACTURING

Gear up for higher reliability


with upgraded SKF Explorer bearings
A robust solution for harsh and demanding gearbox environments, upgraded SKF Explorer bearings enable a gear unit to transmit more torque, sustain higher external loads, or even be downsized to improve cost efciency. In addition, these bearings provide substantially longer life than other bearings. In fact, they have up to twice the rating life of original SKF Explorer bearings, especially under contaminated and poor lubrication operating conditions. With expertise in bearings, sealing, and lubrication solutions, SKF engineers can add value to the complete gear unit by enhancing reliability and performance, while improving the cost-effectiveness of the complete solution. Enhance gear unit reliability and improve performance Upgraded SKF Explorer self-aligning bearings have enhanced wear and contamination resistance, and are better able to run under tough conditions up to 100% longer bearing rating life. For more information, please visit skf.com or contact your local SKF representative.

The Power of Knowledge Engineering

GEAR TECHNOLOGY INDIA


16

contents

VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1

20

features
12 IPTEX 2014
A sampling of exhibitor offerings to be found at IPTEX. CEO dreams big SAMP and bigger Maccaferri Industrial Group. Big gears offer unique inspection challenge.

technical
26 Ask the Expert
Crowning Spur Teeth Hot Gears Specifying a Quality Gear

16 Interview with Antonio Maccaferri

20 Super-Sized Quality Control

36 Design and Optimization of Planetary Gears

Robust-design gearboxes for high load capacity and power density. The ABCs of bearings\

44 Introduction to Bearings 48 The Workhorse of Industry: The Induction Motor

VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1 GEAR TECHNOLOGY INDIA

contents

GEAR GLEASON MACHINES TECHNOLOGY INDIA AND TOOLING departments

VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1

www.wmtg.co.uk
Leading supplier of other used:

06 Publishers Page

IPTEX 2014: Go For the Weather, Stay for the Gear Show New equipment, software, etc. The who, what and where Upcoming shows, conferences, etc. Advertiser contact information Can Indias Economy Get it in Gear?

08 Product News

GEAR MACHINERY STANDARD MACHINE TOOLS


Call and ask for details or visit our website
Tel: +44 (0)1572 767922 Fax: +44 (0)1572 768321 Email: sales@wmtg.co.uk

50 Industry News

54 Events/Calendar 55 Advertiser Index 56 INsight

WESTMINSTER MACHINE TOOLS LTD


www.wmtg.co.uk

TOP TOOLS TECHNOLOGY

Precision Gear Cutting Tools

Top Tools is a long experience & established company Producing-Stockiest Complete Range of Precision Gear Cutting Tools since 1990. We specialize manufacture of standard & as per customer requirement In Different Profiles For Various applications
Gear Hob : Finish /Rough Spline/Serration Semi-Topping Pre-Grind / Pre- Shaving Sprocket / Timing Pulley Fine Pitch-Mikron, WormHob Rack / Milling Cutter Gear Shaper: Disc / Shank / Hub Ty Sprocket / Timing Spline / Serration Bevel Generating Tool WMW Blade & Accessories Gear Shaving / Broaches Spline Gauge / Dp-Mod Gauge

Accuracy: AA, A, B, C

GEAR TECHNOLOGY INDIA

VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 - QUARTERLY

KARENG04277

FEBRUARY 2014

BANGALORE

Free Distribution

Taking Big Gears Measure


IPTEX 2014: Exhibitor Previews
GEAR INDUSTRY PROFILE

TECHNICAL

Antonio Maccaferri

Address: 24/2nd Floor, Indu Ganesh CHS, Trimurty Soc.Rd. Sion- Chunabhatti -EastMumbai - 400 022. India.

TOP TOOLS TECHNOLOGY

Ask the Expert


CROWNING SPUR TEETH SPECIFYING GEARS TO STANDARD WORKING WITH HIGH-TEMP GEAR MATERIALS

Telephone: 91-22-234 15831 Mobile: 91-9323115831 91-9820182981 E-mail: toptools.shah@gmail.com toptools99@gmail.com

INsight

Design and Optimization of Planetary Gears

Will the Indian Economy Shake Its Inertia?

www.geartechnologyindia.com

THE JOURNAL OF GEAR MANUFACTURING

Photo courtesy of Klingelnberg


[www.GearTechnologyIndia.com]

GEAR TECHNOLOGY INDIA VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1

Gear Grinding in Swiss Precision


Since Reishauer Switzerland invented Continuous Generating Gear Grinding, we have constantly been pushing the performance of our machines to new heights: Higher productivity higher accuracy. Thats why the leading automotive companies rely on Reishauer.

Reishauer AG Zrich / Switzerland +41 44 832 22 11 info@reishauer.com www.reishauer.com

M/S. Proteck Machinery Pvt. Ltd. Chennai/India +91 44 249 531 77 mtdsales@proteck.co.in www.reishauer.com

VOLUME 3 ISSU E 1 - QUA

Taking Big G Measure ears


FEBRUARY 2014 BANGALORE

GEAR TECHNOLOG Y INDIA

RTERLY

GEAR TECHNOLOGY INDIA


Free Distribut ion

KARENG0427

GEAR TECHNOLOGY India is published quarterly by Virgo Publications, Bangalore (India) under license from Randall Publications LLC, Elk Grove Village, IL (USA). Randall Publications is also the publisher of GEAR TECHNOLOGY and POWER TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING magazines in USA. Virgo Publications has been established by one of the promoters of Virgo Communications and Exhibitions Pvt. Ltd., the organizers for IPTEXthe International Power Transmission Expo (a gear engineering event) for the purpose of establishing Indian editions of foreign technical journals.

Missing Something?
Ask the Expe

IPTEX 20 4 : Exhibitor 1 Previews

PUBLISHERS

Michael Goldstein, Publisher (USA) & Editor-in-Chief Anitha Raghunath, Publisher (India) Michael Goldstein, Publisher & Editor-in-Chief, publisher@geartechnology.com William R. Stott, Associate Publisher/Managing Editor, wrs@geartechnology.com Jack McGuinn, Senior Editor, jmcguinn@geartechnology.com Matthew Jaster, Senior Editor, mjaster@geartechnology.com

EDITORIAL STAFF

All of the back issues Anton of Maccafeio i rt Gear Technology Indiarr are available online.
GEAR INDU STRY PROF ILE
TECHNICAL

Design and Op of Planetary timization Gears


www.geartech nologyindia.com

CROWNING SPUR TEETH SPECIFYING STANDARD GEARS TO WORKING W ITH HIGH-TEM GEAR MATER P IALS

INsight

Will the Indian Shake Its Iner Economy tia?

ADVERTISING SALES (INTERNATIONAL) DESIGN

Michael Goldstein, Publisher & Editor-in-Chief Dave Friedman, Associate Publisher/Sales Manager David Ropinski, Art Director, dropinski@geartechnology.com Anitha Raghunath, Publisher (India) G. Raghu Randall Publications LLC 1840 Jarvis Ave., Elk Grove Village, IL 60007, USA Phone: +1-847-437-6604 Fax: +1-847-437-6618 publisher@geartechnology.com Virgo Publications Virgo House, 250, Amarjyoti Layout, Domlur Extension, Bangalore 560071. India Telephone: +91-80-25357028/29, 41493996/97. Fax: +91-80-25357028 gti@virgopublications.com Sri Sudhindra Offset Process, No. 27-28, 8th Cross, Malleshwararam Bangalore 560003 Karnataka, India

THE JOURNA

L OF GEAR MA

NUFACTURIN

ADVERTISING SALES (INDIA)

INDIA

HEAT TREAT AUDIT

2013

Q1

INDIA

DONE RIGHT
PROFILE:

MOTOR TECHNOLOGY FOCUS

2013

Q2

GLOBAL SALES AND HEADQUARTERS

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries India

WHO MAKES THE BIGGEST GEARS?

When a Good Gear Drive System Goes Bad

DC MOTOR PROTECTION
PROFILE:

Blaser Swisslube India

INDIA SALES AND REGISTERED OFFICE

TECHNICAL

TECHNICAL

Enhanced Induction Hardening of Gears and Components Morphology of Micropitting Progress in Gear Milling

INsight

The Involute Curve

Ask the Expert: Couplings Case Depth and Side-Face Carburizing Effects Real Savings with Synthetic Lubricants Optimal Gear Shaft Manufacturing
www.geartechnologyindia.com

INsight

Finding and keeping skilled employees

www.geartechnologyindia.com

THE JOURNAL OF GEAR MANUFACTURING

THE JOURNAL OF GEAR MANUFACTURING

October-December 2012

April-June 2012

INDIA
I N D I A S G E A R A N D P O W E R T R A N S M I S S I O N R E S O U R C E

I N D I A S G E A R A N D P O W E R T R A N S M I S S I O N R E S O U R C E

BUYERS GUIDE
GEAR MANUFACTURING POWER MACHINES, TOOLING TRANSMISSION AND SERVICES COMPONENTS FEATURE
Technical
Wear-Resistant Bearings Ask The Expert: Profile Shift

BIG2012?
For Cutting Tools
FEATURE POWER TRANSMISSION

INDIA

PRINTER

Metrology Basics

COMPONENTS
Technical
Analyzing Wear in HCR Gears Internal Clearance in Ball Bearings Point-Surface-Origin Macropitting Micropitting of Big Gearboxes

INsight INsight

GEAR TECHNOLOGY India is published in the interest of the members of the gear and power transmission industry in India, to improve communication and further update members of that industry on all the latest developments in the sector. The publishers have made every effort to ensure that the processes described in GEAR TECHNOLOGY India conform to sound engineering practice. Neither the authors nor publishers can be held responsible for injuries or damage sustained while implementing the technology published, which is informatory and not specific. GEAR TECHNOLOGY is a registered trademark of Randall Publications LLC, and application for registering GEAR TECHNOLOGY India as is a trademark of Randall Publications LLC is pending. The contents of this publication are Copyright Randall Publications LLC, 2013. All rights are reserved. For permission to reprint any portion of this magazine, contact the publisher at the USA Headquarters office, listed above. Advertising and subscription information is available at www.geartechnologyindia.com

No Small Measure

Help Wanted
w w w. g e a r t e c h n o l o g y i n d i a . c o m

w w w. g e a r t e c h n o l o g y i n d i a . c o m

www.geartechnologyindia.com
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GEAR TECHNOLOGY INDIA VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1

Download them for free at

[www.GearTechnologyIndia.com]

machines tools processes


complete solution for the gear and profile grinding from one source

gear centre KAPP KX 300 P


Flexible system and loading options for your special gear requirements. Roughing and nishing in one set-up or machining of several gears in one set-up for fast and precise results.

gear prole grinding machine NILES ZP 12


Direct drives in the rotary table as well as in the grinding and dressing spindle make the processing highly dynamic. The machine can be operated from the factory oor and, as is typical for NILES, is set up without the need for an elaborate foundation.

rotor grinding machine KAPP RX 120


The new and patented roughing process helps to reduce the grinding time by up to 45 %! Integrated in an automated machining cell, nished rotors can be deburred concurrent to the machining time.

visit us at the IPTEX: Hall 6 Booth D6

further information on our website: www.kapp-niles.com

publisher's page

IPTEX 2014:

Go For the Weather, Stay for the Gear Show


The weather in Chicago lately has been quite miserable. Like many cities throughout the United States,
weve had one of the coldest and snowiest winters on record. Today its fairly warm outside. And by warm, I mean todays high temperature is about 10C (14F), with a wind-chill factor of about 18C (1F). I would much rather be in Mumbai, where I see todays temperature is a balmy 29C (84F). But its not just the weather that makes me wish I were there. Its the gathering of gear and power transmission technology professionals coming to IPTEX 2014. IPTEX 2014 takes place February 27-March 1 in Mumbai. Now in its third installment, the show has quickly become a central meeting place to learn about the latest technology in gear manufacturing, as well as a terrific event for buyers of mechanical power transmission components. You can read about a number of the exhibiting companies in this issue of Gear Technology India. But to get the full experience, you really have to go to the show. This year, to make it even more worthwhile, the event is co-located with GRINDEX, which has a focus on grinding and abrasives technology. Hopefully the warm weather and IPTEX will combine to generate substantial new business for Indian companies in the gear and power transmission industries. Perhaps things will start to heat up in our industry. A substantial area of opportunity for Indian manufacturers continues to be exports, particularly now, given that key markets in Europe and North America have stabilized over the past year. If your companys products have potential demand overseas and you are looking for the right customers to buy them, then perhaps IPTEX would benefit you. In addition to attracting visitors from all around India, IPTEX also attracts key buyers from around the globe who are looking to do business with Indian companies.
Publisher & Editor-in-Chief Michael Goldstein

But if youre really interested in doing business with North America and Europe, take a look into our sister publications, Gear Technology (USA) and Power Transmission Engineering. Each of these magazines reaches a global audience, heavily concentrated in North America. Depending on your products, advertising in one or both of these could help attract the attention of new potential customers from markets where demand is growing and where your pricing could have significant advantages. If you manufacture products (such as machine tools or cutting tools) for use in gear manufacturing industries, please visit www.geartechnology.com/adinfo.htm to learn more about advertising in Gear Technology. If you manufacture mechanical power transmission products (such as gears, bearings, motors, speed reducers, etc.), please visit www.powertransmission.com/ adinfo.htm for additional information about advertising in Power Transmission Engineering. In any case, I wish all of you the best of luck for the coming year. Hopefully IPTEX will help provide the spark that ignites the flames of expanded business in the gear industry.

GEAR TECHNOLOGY INDIA VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1

[www.GearTechnologyIndia.com]

LMT THE PERFORMANCE TEAM

LMT TOOLS
With around 30 of the best quality and latest machinery in place and 60 well trained employees, LMT India is inclined towards developing and producing the best quality and efcient tooling systems for the precision tool industry. This facility will cater to the requirements from the various industries including automotive industry, die and mold industry, mechanical engineering industry, medical technology industry, aeronautics and aerospace industry.
LMT India Pvt Ltd Global Manufacturing Facility Plot No. A-40/1, Phase I, MIDC Chakan, Village Nighoje, Tal. Khed, Dist. Pune 410 501. Phone +91 2135 394900 sales@lmt-tools.co.in

GLOBAL MANUFACTURING FACILITY IN INDIA


The LMT Tools Division of the LMT Group has inaugurated its rst state of the Art Global Manufacturing Facility in India at Chakan, Pune. Spread over a 3 acre land, LMT Indias manufacturing facility is in line with the global standards in terms of aesthetic looks, techniques and technologies being used. The primary reason behind this expansion is Indias dynamic and fast growing market, proximity to customers production sites and the ability to supply the Asian market faster. This plant will cater to both domestic and international market needs.

www.lmt-tools.com

product news

EMAG

FOCUSES ON DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY IN HARDENING


Shorter model life-cycles and increasing demands on quality, accompanied by many technological innovations, are driving developments in high-tech industries such as automotive or aerospace manufacture ever harder. The effect this has on the production environment is best shown by the example of hardening. Many of their key components go through this process at one stage. It is a process that has to be not only highly accurate, but guarantee unvaryingly good component quality. It is for this reason that the specialists at Eldec have committed themselves wholeheartedly to the required standard of reproducibility. Their Mind modular hardening machines stand for exceptional precision and economic processes. Reproducibility is an inalienable word in automotive production. After all, the car as a product is reliant on the unvarying component quality of the drive shaft. In this context, the focus is on the indispensable hardening process. It is well to remember that during this process the components micro structure undergoes a change that considerably improves its stability. It is the reason why this key process has to guarantee constant reproducibility. Where Quality Matters The Eldec experts are very well aware of the fact that the interaction between key components such as inductors, generators and coolant systems and a multitude of other components such as indexing tables, spindle drive and control system is of the utmost importance. O ver the last three decades, t h e c o mp a ny w i t h h e a d q u a rters in Dornstetten, near Freudenstadt, G e r m any h a s further developed t he i r h ard e n i ng technology. And in 2013, Eldec became a part of the EMAG Group. Precision and the integrity of the production process are important to the Eldec experts, as Dr. Christian Krause, head of application technology, explains, We are frequently contacted by companies that require their components to be of exceptional quality. We can guarantee this with our system technology. At the centre of it is the Mind (Modular Induction) hardening machine, offered in the variants Mind, Mind-M and Mind-S and their different sizes. Generally speaking, using modular technology, the machines are configured to suit individual workpiece dimensions, hardness profiles and production requirements. The modular system ensures that only well-proven components are used. This increases machine stability and guarantees that the technology can be offered at an advantageous price-performance ratio. Engineering of the machine is, of course, greatly influenced by the workpieces to be hardened, explains Krause. Requirements are discussed in detail with the customer. This is followed by the gradual assembly of the Eldec Mind system, selecting the required key components: basic machine, energy source, inductor, coolant system and where required the automation components.

High Efficiency, Precision Dosing For every machine component, the machine builder relies on quality details and the accumulated know-how. The result is a machine that considerably improves the economic viability of the process. Example: Basic machine. The base is constructed of massive, high-precision welded components and includes the main column for the z-axis. The vibration-resistant construction ensures great machining accuracy. Depending on the clamping system used, Eldec machines can accommodate workpieces of up to 1,200 mm diameter. Example: generator. Available are micro-processor controlled single- or dual-frequency generators with a capacity of five to 3,000 kW. They are highly efficient and allow for the required energy to be adjusted with great precision. Their performance also adjusts itself automatically, and with equally great precision, to that of the inductor used. Example: inductor/tools. These are manufactured according to customer specification, using 3D-CAD software. They are of micrometric accuracy and made with the help of state-of-the-art machinery and experienced staff. Even the simplest performance data of the Mind technology from Eldec is bound to impress. For instance, a driving pinion is processed in as little as 14 seconds. The component is inserted into the indexing table of the machine either automatically (for instance by robot) or
[www.GearTechnologyIndia.com]

GEAR TECHNOLOGY INDIA VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1

manually. Depending on the workpiece, the hardening process takes between 100 milliseconds and a few complete seconds. After quenching, the hardened steel is gradually tempered. The machining cycle is completed with the subsequent cooling process. Of decisive importance to us is not just the enormous speed of the process, but also the precision of the hardening operation, explains Krause. For instance, on Eldec machines the variation in effective hardening depth is no more than 0.1 mm an extremely low value when it comes to hardening. Benefitting from the General Trends With this background, it is hardly surprising that Eldec is benefitting from the general trends in the automotive and aviation industries. The geometries of many components are becoming more complex and, at the same time, the pieces tend to get smaller. The hardening process has to keep pace with this development and guarantee the required quality despite more demanding basic conditions. With their Mind series of machines the Eldec machine builders have even lent more flexibility to the workflow by providing a suitable degree of automation. Their machines are now available in versions ranging from manually loaded stand-alone solution to fully integrated in-line hardening cells for the soft and hard machining of components. It is in the emerging markets in Asia in particular, where the highly flexible use of these machines scores heavily. Here, large automobile manufacturers put their faith in Eldec machines when they are building their new production facilities. In China, for instance, the production quality of components has to be on par, in every respect, with that in Europe or the United States. And we offer the hardening machine technology they need. It is a technology that impresses with its economic processes, concludes Krause.

For more information:


EMAG Holding GmbH Phone: +(49) 0 7162 17-267 www.emag.com

HANS-JRGEN GEIGER
Maschinen-Vertrieb GmbH

Metzingen / Stuttgart

MIKRON DMG | DISKUS TBT | HELLER ELB | NAGEL SCHAUDT KEHREN KARSTENS MIKROSA INDEX | ZEISS BOEHRINGER GILDEMEISTER SCHTTE AGIE | SCHULER Gear cutting machines: LORENZ | HURTH PFAUTER | KAPP KOEPFER | NILES LIEBHERR REISHAUER LINDNER KLINGELNBERG GLEASON WMW

High quality used machine tools from Germany since 1968.


Please visit our showrooms: 7000 sqm display area with more than 600 machines in best condition.

HANS-JRGEN GEIGER Maschinen-Vertrieb GmbH James-Watt-Strae 12 D-72555 Metzingen (Germany) Phone +49 (0) 7123 / 18040 Fax +49 (0) 7123 / 18384 E-Mail: geiger@geiger-germany.com

VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1 GEAR TECHNOLOGY INDIA

b-werk.de

www.geiger-germany.com

product news

Burri

RETROFITS REISHAUER GRINDING MACHINES FOR GEAR MARKET


Burri Werkzeugmaschinen GmbH Co. KG was founded in 2003 and has emerged as a world leader in the new grinding wheel dressing machines and in retrofitting the Reishauer gear grinding machines. According to Burri, the gear grinding machine after reconstruction is technically at par with a new machine and has an unbeatable price-performance ratio. Burri GmbH offers a 12-month warranty and a CE Declaration of conformity like a new machine. A typical retrofitted machine evolves through the following process: The old machines are completely dismantled, mechanically reworked and repainted. All scraped guides are replaced by standard linear guides and retrofitted with ball screw spindles and Heidenhain measuring systems. The grinding support holds a direct drive from the grinding servo motor to the grinding spindle, thus eliminating the mechanical troubleshooting components. The machine is fitted with a new profiling slide and dressing unit with water-cooled, speed-adjustable, built-in dressing spindles. The four measuring systems on the newly built dressing unit help the operator to store the set values and reduce the setup time. The workpiece spindle is designed as a water-cooled direct drive, thus eliminating the wear and tear of the gear box. The movement of the work slide is changed from hydraulic to servo movement. A new tailstock with quill preload in the control is also included. The machine receives a completely new control system with compact flash card on which hundreds of gear programs can be saved including USB interface, remote maintenance for troubleshooting and software update, dialogue guided user interface. All drives are equipped with water-cooled digital controllers with network recovery and servo motors. The new state-of-the-art control from B&R Automation has reduced the cabinet to a quarter of the original size. The hydraulics are only used for workpiece clamping and A-axis clamping. The machine hood, hydraulics and the electrical cabinet are fixed to the machine and can be transported without dismantling. The Acopos multi-drive system achieves very good energy efficiency and reduces the power consumption nearly to one third. The machines now have the advantage of auto fine balancing and a single centering system for the entire module range coupled with an automatic adjustment of the centering probe. The tooth flanks can be corrected on profile and lead through a user friendly software. The machine has been designed to reduce cycle and setup time. With the new control, the machine is very flexible and well suited for small, medium and large series. Burri India Pvt Ltd is a subsidiary unit of Burri Werkzeugmaschinen GmbH & Co KG and supports sales and service in India.

Igus

EXTENDS SELF-ALIGNING BEARINGS LINE


Plastic bearing expert Igus will be presenting their line of detectable self-aligning bearings for the food industry. The detectable bearings are an extension of the Igubal self-aligning bearings line from Igus, which includes a range of lubrication and maintenancefree rod-end bearings, clevis joints, flanged units, press fit and pedestal bearings. Both the housing and spherical ball are detectable by standard metal-detection systems to pick up even the smallest particles of the bearings were failure to occur. The bearings are easy to install, adjust to all angular misalignments, and can replace traditional metal bearings, which can weigh up to 80 percent more than Igubal. Igubal detectable bearings are dry-running, unaffected by dirt and dust, operate well in liquids and a variety of chemicals, and are corrosion resistant. They are suited to run in temperatures from -40 - 176F, and are able to absorb very high forces due to their vibration-damping properties. They also possess high levels of compressive strength and elasticity.

For more information:


Igus (India) Pvt. Ltd. Phone: +(91) 80-45127800 www.igus.in

For more information:


Burri India Pvt Ltd. Kedar.katre@burri.de www.burri.de

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GEAR TECHNOLOGY INDIA VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1

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SKF

RELEASES CARB BEARINGS FOR STEEL MILLS


SKF Carb toroidal roller bearings introduce robust non-locating bearing solutions engineered to withstand the tough operating conditions encountered in a wide range of rotating machinery applications in steel mills. These self-aligning bearings designed for radial loads exhibit very high load-carrying capacity, high running accuracy, low friction, and resistance to wear, resulting in reduced noise and vibration and promoting improved reliability and longer service life. Typical steel industry applications for these bearings include casters, large electric motors, gearboxes, fans, and others where nonlocating bearings must be specified. A Carb bearing (for radial loads only) in the non-locating, or float, position in combination with a spherical roller bearing (for combined axial and radial loads) in the locating, or held, position ultimately can deliver a highly efficient bearing arrangement to eliminate the influence of shaft contraction or expansion due to temperature fluctuations often associated with steel mill applications. Carb bearings integrate design features from several conventional bearing types to realize optimized capabilities and performance. They can accommodate misalignment (similar to a spherical roller bearing), adjust for axial expansion of a shaft (similar to a cylindrical roller bearing), and maximize load capacity due to long, self-guiding rollers (similar to needle roller bearings). All Carb bearings have further been upgraded to the SKF Explorer performance class characterized by high-quality steel and an improved heat treatment process to impart superior hardness and toughness for operation in the most difficult conditions.

For more information:


SKF Phone: +(46) 31 337 10 00 www.skf.com
VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1 GEAR TECHNOLOGY INDIA

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feature

IPTEX Exhibitors Preview


IPTEX 2014, the third International Power Transmission Expo, is dedicated to the gear and power transmission industries. India is rapidly turning into a global manufacturing hub, thanks to the countrys manufacturing and engineering capabilities, vast pool of skilled expertise and its size. These qualities offer it a strategic advantage for the manufacturing segment. A large number of international companies in varied segments have already set up a manufacturing base in India and others are following suit. Heres a rundown of some of the booths attendees should make sure to visit during their time at IPTEX 2014.

Gleason Corporation

Gleason will introduce its latest Analytical Gear Inspection System, the 300GMS, along with advanced tooling and global customer support services at IPTEX 2014. On display in Booth P3 will be: The Gleason 300GMS Analytical Gear Inspection System: For the complete inspection of automotive transmission gears and other smaller gears, gear cutting tools and non-gear parts. This latest addition to the GMS Series of inspection systems (with models available for gears up to 3,000 mm in diameter) was developed specifically to meet the needs of the worlds leading automotive, aerospace and other like-size gear producers for a faster, more economical solution for complete gear and even non-gear parts inspection. It is the first GMS to feature the new Windows 7-based Gleason GAMA 3.0 applications software suite which, like its GAMA 2.0 predecessor, offers users a highly intuitive user interface and simple input screens for programming of workpiece and cutting tool data. Those features, combined with ease of setup, a .NET control system, and movement optimization, reduce the cycle times required for the complete inspection of almost any gear or gear tool. The 300GMS also features a Renishaw 3-D probe head to provide maximum accuracy and flexibility for the complete inspection of all kinds of gears and gear-cutting tools and, in particular, finer pitch gears. The 300GMS is equipped with new ergonomically mounted operator workstations and an Advanced Operator Interface both designed to greatly improve the operators effectiveness at every stage of the inspection process. The Advanced Operator Interface puts a number of powerful tools right at the operators fingertips, including a weather station to record temperature and humidity, and video telephony, note pad and voice mail messaging capability, enabling the user to capture video, describe a particular programming issue and transmit it over the web to others in the customers organization or to Gleason for support. In addition, the 300GMS, like all the systems in the

Booth # P3

GMS family, offers users the ability to meet a variety of inspection tasks beyond just gear geometry on a single platform, including surface finish and form measurement and even prismatic (CMM) measurement. Visitors to Gleason Booth P3 will also have the opportunity to learn more about our local production of advanced Genesis Hobbing Machines, workholding and cutting tools along with our state-of-the art cutting tool re-sharpening and re-coating capabilities. They will also be introduced to a number of other significant products, technologies and services, including: a complete line of gear cutting solutions, advanced workholding solution, Gleason Global Services and the Gleason Connect Remote Service technology, which enables Gleason service specialists from anywhere in the world to quickly and cost effectively identify, diagnose, repair and monitor products, minimizing costly downtime.

For more information:


Gleason Works India Phone: +(91) 80-2852-4376 www.gleason.com

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GEAR TECHNOLOGY INDIA VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1

[www.GearTechnologyIndia.com]

Stresstech Group
Since 1983, Stresstech Group (from the foundation of American Stress Technologies, Inc.) has served the metal industry all over the world with solutions and high-tech instruments for non-destructive testing of the quality of components. Stresstech Oy- Finland (head office and manufacturing facility), American Stress Technologies, Inc. (AST) - USA, Stresstech GmbH- Germany & Stresstech Bharat Pvt. Ltd- India form the Stresstech Group. Stresstech Bharat Pvt. Ltd. (SBPL) is a fully owned Indian subsidiary of Stresstech Oy Finland and is the groups authorized service centre in India. The main products that will be presented during IPTEX 2014 include: Barkhausen noise analyzers, sensors and custom inspection stands. Barkhausen noise is utilized to study magnetic properties and thus the presence or absence of material defects and residual stress levels in various components like gears, bearings, camshafts, crankshafts, universal joints, piston pins, etc.

X-ray diffraction analyzers and inspection stands. X-ray analyzers use X-ray diffraction to measure residual stresses and retained austenite contents. Residual stress testing instrument based on hole-drilling. The Prism system is based on hole-drilling technique for measuring residual stresses. In short, this equipment is used for studying: grinding burns, heat treat defects, hardness changes, residual stresses, retained austenite contents, etc. or for controlling the quality of: grinding, heat treating, shot peening, machining of camshafts, crankshafts, ball bearings, gears, valves, rotors, turbine blades, cylinder blocks, cylinder heads, etc. As per customers requirement, the company can supply manually operated, semi-automatic and fully automatic non-destructive testing (NDT) equipment. They also serve to all types of metal industries by offering residual stress and retained austenite measurements with X-ray diffraction and Barkhausen noise analysis in addition to the equipment for sale.

For more information:

Stresstech Bharat Pvt. Ltd. Phone: +(91) 22 2500 1047 www.stresstechgroup.com

KISSsoft

India is a key market both in terms of supply and demand, paired with a good overall design capacity and a deep interest of the involved engineers in the fundamental theories. Hence, the need for and the interest in top level gear design software is very strong in India, possibly stronger than in any other emerging market, says Hanspeter Dinner, managing director at KISSsoft. KISSsoft has been answering this need for the last ten years. It is used by the leaders in two wheelers, cars and trucks, agricultural vehicles, industrial gearboxes and aerospace industry, be it for private entities, universities or government/defence establishments. Regular trainings and an experienced local support team ensure that the customers can benefit most from their investment in the software. Dinner notes a particular interest in their system software KISSsys, as the Indian engineers tend to look at the design process in a holistic manner, preferring to start their work on a system level. Recently, the highly detailed loaded tooth conVOLUME 3, ISSUE 1 GEAR TECHNOLOGY INDIA

Booth # A8

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IPTEX EXHIBITORS PREVIEW

tact analysis has created excitement as the Indian gear industry has been moving away from low tech to high tech products with increased power density. We also observe a shift from worm gears that have been very popular in India for a long time to more efficient planetary gears. Here, the dedicated planetary modules in KISSsoft, including fine sizing function for planetary sets and the loaded tooth contact analysis for planetary systems, are of great interest. We strongly believe in this market, it has been one great success story and we are dedicated to tailor the KISSsoft software also to the Indian gear engineers needs, he adds.

For more information:


Kadkraft Systems Pvt. Ltd. Phone: +(91) 20 30461527 www.kadkraft.com

Drake Manufacturing Services Co. Booth # A21

Drake Manufacturing Services Co. designs, builds and services state-of-the-art, precision CNC manufacturing systems for parts with form, index and helix such as threads, worms, gear teeth and racks. Drake provides machine solutions in the steering systems, power transmission, speed reducer, cutting tool, ball screw, linear motion and aerospace industries. The company recently announced the expansion of its local India support team. G. Rajasekhar Reddy will be on-hand at the Drake booth during IPTEX. Reddy has more than 20 years in the machine tool industry and has experience in thread gear and worm grinding requirements. Drakes established sales and service support continues with VMT Technologies in Bangalore.

For more information:


G. Rajasekhar Reddy Phone: +(91) 98 4527 8216 www.drakemfg.com VMT Technologies Phone: +(91) 98 4405 3743 vmtindia@vsnl.net

Shanthi Gears
Shanthi Gears is the unique gateway to a wide range of power transmission products which includes gears, gearboxes, geared motors and gear assemblies both standard and custom-made. With headquarters at Coimbatore, South India, they are in the business of designing, manufacturing and supplying various kinds of gears and gearboxes to almost all industries and applications for the past four decades. Market leaders in segments including abrasives, auto components, cycles, sugar, farm inputs, fertilizers, plantations, bio-products and nutraceuticals, the group has forged strong alliances with leading international companies like Groupe Chimique Tunisien, Foskor, Cargill, Mitsui Sumitomo, Morgan Crucible and Sociedad Qumica y Minera de Chile (SQM). The Group has a wide geographical presence spanning 13 states in India and five continents. Shanthi acts as consultants in the field of engineering design, advisors and purveyors of technical know-how and applied technology, solution providers and business process outsourcers in the field of engineering design and drawing, software programming etc.

For more information:


Shanthi Gears Phone: +(91) 422 2360987 info@shanthigears.com www.shanthigears.com

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[www.GearTechnologyIndia.com]

SFH 160/250 CNC


Horizontal Gear Hobbing machine Horizontale CNC-Wlzfrsmaschine
6- axes CNC controlled horizontal gear hobbing machine with excellent dynamic property, for precision gearing and having ability to machine helical gear up to 70 helix angle. Horizontale, CNC-gesteuerte 6-Achsen-Verzahnungswlzfrsmaschine. Die moderne mechanische Bauweise gewhrleistet ausgezeichnete dynamische Eigenschaften der Maschine bei der Anwendung leistungsstarker Werkzeuge bis 70.

SFH 160 CNC Max. Diameter of gear / Max. Raddiameter Max. Module / Max. Modul Max. Helix angle (*OPTION) / Max. Neigungswinkel (*OPTION) Max. Clamping length / Max. Klemmlnge 160 mm 4 mm 45 (* 75)

SFH 250 CNC 250 mm 6 mm

800/1250/2000/3000 mm

www.gearspect.com

gear prole

GEAR SAMPLE: INTERVIEW WITH ANTONIO MACCAFERRI


Q A
: What are the keys to success for a family-run business now in its third generation, operating on a global scale?

: SAMP is in fact only a part of the family business, the Maccaferri Industrial Group, which is an international company boasting a rich portfolio of activities ranging across the widest of sectors, from environmental engineering solutions to real estate and construction, from the food industry to tobacco, going through biotechnologies and the field of renewable sources of energy. One of the main keys to success can be found in the fact that our Group has always relied on a strong team of experienced managers and high-skilled professionals specialized in their own field, whereas family members take care of the strategy and coordination. : How has the gear industry evolved since you took over as President in 1995?

Q A
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: Surely the industry has dramatically changed, especially as far as internationalization and diversification on a global scale are concerned. For example, when I started in 1995 nobody could imagine that China would grow in such a spectacular way, to the point that today SAMP has three manufacturing plants in Shanghai, one for each business unit of the company (Samputensili, Sampsistemi and Sampingranaggi). Another important effect of the globalization was represented by the huge opportunities offered by the North American market. For this reason, in 2002 Samputensili started a strategic partnership with Star Cutter Company through the creation of the joint-venture Star SU LLC, the sole go-to-market organization based in Hoffmann Estates, IL, responsible for the sales and distribution of cutting tools and machine tools technology for the North American market. : What are your goals for SAMP in both the near-term and longterm with regard to being a supplier to the worldwide gear manufacturing community?

: We have always followed a global, international approach both as a company and as an industrial group. Our main goal has always been the satisfaction of our customers needs with high profes-

Q A

sional skills, capacity and quick actions driven by our will to constantly improve. By doing this, we have always worked hard in order to be close to our customers as a reliable manufacturing company, providing them with the support and service they need in a fast and comprehensive way. This approach had led us through the decades to the creation of a broad network of manufacturing facilities, such as the one in Brazil in 1974, the one in South Korea in 1995, the creation of our American joint-venture Star SU in 2002 and of a Chinese jointventure between Samputensili and STW in 2005. This has always been our philosophy and we will certainly continue to do so also in the years to come.

: What do you see as your major challenges in both the near and long term, both as a company and as a manager?

:O  ur major challenges will be represented by the continuously evolving technology, the ever
[www.GearTechnologyIndia.com]

Q A

growing competition amongst machine tool manufacturers and gear cutting tool manufacturers, as well as the features and new technologies that are specific to each market in which we are present and to each market that we serve. These are and will continue to be our major challenges both in the near and in the long term.

THE HISTORY OF SAMP


BY ANTONIO MACCAFERRI
The history of SAMP and its brands has always been eventful, and it represents a perfect example of company verticalization. At the end of the 19th century, in Casalecchio di Reno near Bologna, Italy, my grandfathers uncle began to use wire mesh to assemble gabions (boxes filled with rocks, concrete, or sometimes sand and soil) to repair dams destroyed by floods of the river Reno. At the beginning of the 20th century, he purchased a patent for a new type of wire mesh box gabion and started the industrial production of gabions for civil engineering use. As a consequence, in 1936 Gaetano Maccaferri, my grandfather, started out with a small workshop for the production of wire machinery. The production included wire drawing machines, looms for weaving metallic meshes and general mechanical parts. He called his company S.A.M.P., which translates from the Italian as Company for Precision Metalworking. Since it was difficult to find good quality gears at that time, he started manufacturing his own. During the Second World War, SAMP supplied the Italian air-force with precision gears, but the demanding quality requirements forced the company to produce its own highprecision gear cutting tools. For the same reason, the company was later to start developing its own tool grinding machinery, manufacturing equipment that set the standard at those times. With a wide range of quality gear cutting tools on board by 1949, SAMP decided to establish Samputensili, an ad hoc structure and trademark through which to trade these products. In the years that followed, this new company was to grow into a worldwide supplier of gear cutting tools and, later, also of grinding machines for cylindrical gears, shafts, worms, rotors and screw threads. The second spin-off of SAMP, Sampingranaggi, came into being in 1973, extending the companys gear production program to include bevel gear sets and highprecision gearboxes. Before long, Sampingranaggi was able to supcontinued on page 39

: What regions of the world are showing the most promise for growth for SAMP in gear manufacturing and why?

Q A

: We are closely following the evolution of China, South-East Asia, Brazil and South America in general. Of course, in terms of volume, Europe and the United States remain our most important markets for highquality gears and gearboxes, supplied by our business unit Sampingranaggi, and we expect these areas to recover very shortly. : What innovations, changes or trends do you see in the coming years that will impact the worldwide gear manufacturing community?

Q A

: The innovations we are experiencing around us are not real revolutions. More than anything else, we are seeing production centralizations, large companies merging together, especially in the automotive sector, and we believe that the average size of corporations in the future will continue to grow. : What are your goals for SAMP over the next five years? Do you have any plans on expanding in the near future, outside your existing operations?

: We will surely strive to remain among the market leaders and further increase our market penetration in those segments where we still are not a reference brand. At the moment we do not foresee the opening of new manufacturing plants, but we are working towards the creation of new sales
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gear prole

ANTONIO MACCAFERRI
is supported by 30 direct regional sales managers and eight service engineers. Our partnership with Star started in 2002 and was further extended in 2013 to include not only the sales organization, but also the manufacturing plants in the United States, the service center in Mexico and the Samputensili plant in Brazil.

Q A

and distribution offices in India and in South-East Asia.

: How have your customers demands changed in recent years? What is SAMP doing to accommodate those demands?

Q A

: Our customers are becoming more and more price-sensitive. In addition, we have experienced an increase in the request for technical support and production optimization, as a consequence of the internal restructuring that many companies have carried out over the past few years. In order to meet these needs, we have established new sales and technical capacities and have further expanded our network. In our main markets we are locally present with manufacturing plants to supply our customers with fast, reliable and excellent sales and after-sales service. : Tell us about your North American distribution, sales and service oriented representation.

Q A

: What do you see as your major challenges as a supplier to the gear industry?

: SAMP S.p.A. and SU America have a strategic partnership with Star Cutter Company through Star SU LLC (Hoffman Estates, IL) to sell our machine tools, gear cutting tools and tool services under the highly visible Star SU brand in North and South America. Star SU

Q A

: We are challenged to supply a broader range of support activities within customer facilities. We are managing this by extending full product support and manufacturing support activities with Star SU on-site engineers. Though challenging, this is a tremendous opportunity to supply these services as an added value proposition at a reasonable cost. :D  o you have any concerns regarding recruiting and retaining skilled workers in your workforce?

: In manufacturing, we are faced with the great challenge of making our business attractive to young, skilled engineers and technical people. This involves a great commitment to promote

Q A

and educate potential employees by our company and private industry, but it must also work in cooperative partnership through universities and high schools. Once we have recruited these young workers we need to have the right training available to them and growth plans in place to keep them.

: Are there any other subjects you would like to talk about?

:S  AMP is known to the world market not only for its high-quality and reliable gear manufacturing tools, but also for its wide range of grinding machines. At Samputensili we began producing machine tools some 50 years ago to improve the manufacturing quality of our gear cutting tool range. In particular, our horizontal grinding machines are amongst the finest machine tools for gear, rotor and screw manufacturing in the world. Our experience stems from our own manufacturing needs in terms of prototyping and in-house job shopping. Know-how matured in such a way has flowed directly into the end product, and this is what distinguishes our solutions from the rest. Our machines are extremely flexible and allow customers to
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continued from page 37

ply both single components and finished gearboxes. In 1997 SAMPs wire drawing machinery division took the name of Sampsistemi and, thanks to the acquisition of competing companies, it broadened its portfolio to include extrusion equipment for the manufacture of finished cables. In 2000, with the acquisition of the former Modul company based in Chemnitz (Germany), Samputensili added hobbing technology to its manufacturing program, becoming one of the few players in the world to offer a complete gear manufacturing program, covering both roughing and finishing operations. use both ceramic grinding tools and electroplated CBN grinding wheels. Therefore they represent the ideal solution both for prototyping/small batch production and for high-volume gear manufacturing. In 2002 Samputensili started a strategic partnership with Star Cutter Company through the creation of the joint-venture Star SU LLC, the sole go-to-market organization based in Hoffmann Estates, IL, responsible for the sales and distribution of cutting tools and machine tools technology for the North American market. In 2006 Samputensili, Sampsistemi and Sampingranaggi merged to form SAMP S.p.A, a new holding company which put together the three macro-sectors of its business:

Samputensili, global provider of complete solutions (machine tools, tools and services) for the production of gears; Sampsistemi, manufacturer of machines and systems for wire and cable production; Sampingranaggi, specialized producer of high-quality spur and bevel gears as well as complete gearboxes. Each of the three business units has its own technical department, sales force and after-sales service, whereas corporate services like human resources, procurement, IT, finance and administration are shared among the three divisions. In 2009 SAMP moved to a brand new plant in Bentivoglio (Bologna), Italy, which integrates all European manufacturing sites of the three divisions in one modern, state-ofthe-art plant.

For more information:

For more information:

Star SU, LLC 5200 Prairie Stone Parkway, Suite 100 Hoffman Estates, IL 60192 Phone: 847-649-1450 Fax: 847-649-0112 sales@star-su.com www.star-su.com Maccaferri Industrial Group www.maccaferri.it SAMP www.sampingranaggi.com www.sampsistemi.com www.samputensili.com

Star SU, LLC 5200 Prairie Stone Parkway, Suite 100 Hoffman Estates, IL 60192 Phone: (847) 649-1450 Fax: (847) 649-0112 sales@star-su.com www.star-su.com Maccaferri Industrial Group www.maccaferri.it SAMP www.sampingranaggi.com www.sampsistemi.com www.samputensili.com

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SUPER-SIZED Quality Control


A Guide to Improving Big Gears
Matthew Jaster, Senior Editor

Its not easy being big.

Maybe thats not exactly how the phrase goes, but its applicable, particularly when discussing the quality requirements of large gears. The size alone promises unique engineering challenges. Those involved in producing large gears continually strive to meet higher quality requirements, adapt to new testing methods and seek out ways to top their own manufacturing capabilities. Seems an awful lot needs to go right in order to achieve the quality requirements necessary to survive in the big gear business. In-shop inspections are mandatory, says Fabrice Wavelet, product line manager, Ferry Capitain. No customer can afford to put a gear into service that is

not 100 percent sure/sound. A mining company, for example, can do nothing without a functional driving system on its mill, as 100 percent of the ore is going through it. Failure is not acceptable. The quality of large gears takes technical expertise, years of experience and proper equipment, says William Quinn, business development lead, mill products at Rexnord. Improvements in materials, lubrication and gear quality levels have made positive impacts in the life of todays large gears. Modern gear cutting and grinding machines need to be met with equally advanced geometric inspection equipment. With higher accuracies of the gearing we can extend the lifetime of the equip-

ment, says Holger Fritz, product manager mill gearing, Hofmann Engineering. To be able to determine higher qualities, the measuring equipment has to be a minimum of one accuracy level higher than the item that is being inspected. This is a challenge for the future and were working hard to improve the inspection methods and one day might have a minimum big gear (above eight meters) quality level of AGMA 12. While its always good to improve the quality of large gears, the current requirements are already impressive thanks to ASTM A609 and ASTM E709 or E1444, adds Wavelet. The same requirements for a 3m gear and for a 10m gear makes the 10 m gear of a comparatively higher

Photo courtesy of Rexnord

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quality, simply because casting such a heavy part (more than 20 tons a segment, finished weight) has nothing to do with casting a 3-ton segment.

Tools of the Trade

Whats the best way to inspect these large gears? According to our big gear experts, its a combination of many different tools. Hofmann Engineering is using laser trackers for the dimensional inspection on big mill gears and portable CMM arms to determine the form on the involute and the lead line, Fritz says. For the pitch we use a special D&P pitch tester. But the ultimate test is still the mesh test of a precision ground mill pinion that is measured on a CMM together with the mill gear. Mill pinions are always measured on a gear CMM machine. He adds that before they even start machining at Hofmann they use ultrasonic units and magnetic particle units to determine the quality of the material or of the welds. Varying challenges exist depending on the inspection required; in-process nondestructive inspections can be done with relative ease in the manufacturing environment. Once the gear is in operation, the same type of nondestructive testing can take a significant amount of time from a couple hours to multiple days. Usually this involves shut down, removing guarding, and cleaning the area to be inspected of lubricant, Quinn says. Other operational inspections can be completed continuously or with ease, such as vibration monitoring, lubrication testing, and infrared temperature monitoring, says Quinn. In-process non-destructive testing is done primarily with magnetic particle inspection and ultrasonic inspection. Complex geometry in large gears can present challenges to ultrasonic inspection, but with skilled technicians and control processes we can overcome these. For field inspections, infrared thermometers and cameras, and multi-axis vibration monitoring equipment with read out capability make continuous monitoring relatively straightforward. More in depth field inspections of the gear may involve using a MAAG TMA gear checker to check pitch, magnetic particle inspection with a hand

Photo courtesy of Hofmann Engineering

yoke, and standard ultrasonic inspection equipment, Quinn adds. The development of UT Phased Array and of Eddy Current (classical or Phased Array) is of the highest interest for us. These techniques have been successfully used on site, allowing an interesting time saving compared to the classical methods, but they are not economical on large surfaces and in-process inspections for the moment, Wavelet says. The question regarding the most useful inspection cant really be answered as all the above mentioned inspections are necessary to prove that we manufactured a top quality gear, Fritz adds. Why are so many different inspection requirements necessary for big gears? The size of the items in question, Fritz says. Temperatures for example have a big impact on the final sizes and a temperature controlled environment is necessary. Also, large gears today imply large module and consequently, large rim thickness, particularly when talking about foundry. I suppose it is the same thing with forgings or plate; the main challenge is to maintain the high quality level required into such parts. For a gear module 36 in cast steel (something that was exceptional 10 years ago and usual today), the as-cast gear rim is easily wider than 220mm, considering both the machining stock and the riser deformations. Avoiding internal indications as small as 5 cm in this outer rim is the highest challenge a foundry is confronted with today, says Wavelet.

Such defects have to be avoided or the foundry undertakes the risk of having the part rejected. This is where the experience and the knowledge come into the equation, whether the gear is in steel or in ductile iron. The number of foundries capable of doing small gears (i.e. 3m) in cast steel or ductile iron is high throughout the world. The number of foundries capable of producing the largest and most powerful gears today can be counted on the fingers of one hand, Wavelet says. Although size matters, the inspection techniques (ultrasonic or magnetic particle) are identical for small and large gears as well as the quality requirements. These techniques are reliable and repeatable when used by qualified personnel. The type of products being made for narrow markets use in-house inspection people. This is what we do in Ferry Capitain. All our inspection personnel are qualified ISO 9712 / Cofrend level 2 (at least equivalent to ASNT level 2) for UT, MPI, dye penetrant test and radiography, although these two last techniques are not commonly used on gears. Use of classical techniques, rather than the UT Phased Array, for example, is still justified as this saves time in production, while the equipment is economical. We believe at Ferry Capitain that the new techniques, including UT Phased array, are of the most interest, but for expertise, not production control, Wavelet says. Magnetic particle inspection is still the industry standard for checking sur-

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SUPER-SIZED QUALITY CONTROL


updated and modified regularly to keep up with demand. Fritz at Hof mann Engineering believes AGMA standards cover most of the inspections. It would be good if they would have chapters about mesh test results, surface finishes and general guidelines for dimension tolerance. As a gear designer/manufacturer you know all about these things, but most third-party inspectors want to have some documentation/recommendation of an AGMA standard referring exactly to these points, Fritz says. AGMA 6014, and especially the next version, which should be issued sometime next year, addresses all the inspections and quality requirements large gears need to respect. We, at Ferry Capitain, have developed an intensive R&D program on materials and defects with the aim to be able to quantify the influence of surface or internal defects on the service life, Wavelet says. The number and concentration of indications do not matter to us as one defect is enough to ruin a complete gear and compromise the driving function of it. Then, the size of a unique defect, and its location, are the parameter to be considered. A better understanding of the nature of the defect and its influence on the service behavior is what we are working on today. Quinn at Rexnord agrees that the standards work but tweaks are in order. AGMA 6014 addresses magnetic particle, ultrasonic, as well as geometric inspections required during the processing of large gearing. The annex contains essential operational inspections and recommended frequency for large gears, recommending lube analysis, vibration monitoring, infrared alignment, visual inspection, gear joint tightness, pictures, contact pattern and root clearance. (But) the AGMA standard does not directly address nondestructive field inspection of ring gears, Quinn says.

face discontinuities; it is widely used and acceptance criteria are clearly defined by manufacturers and industry standards, adds Quinn. Ultrasonic inspection is the accepted method for checking subsurface discontinuities. Continuous temperature monitoring, lubrication testing, and vibration monitoring are still the most beneficial inspections that can be performed in the field. Monitoring these parameters over time and tracking deviations from baseline readings quickly allow a user to identify potential problems. One wonders how much time these techniques take from a quality control perspective. It really depends on the type of inspection being performed. In-process ultrasonic testing of our largest ring gears can take up to 7 hours; magnetic particle inspection of the teeth can run up to 3 hours per segment, Quinn says. Field inspections consisting of contact checks and root clearance measurements can take from 4 to 8 hours. More involved inspections are usually scheduled during planned shut downs and can last from a couple days to a week plus.

Pushing the Technology Forward

Big Gear Standards

One area that continues to play a vital role in the inspection process is the gear standards. Whether its AGMA, ISO, DIN or any others, they need to be

Whats next for inspecting big gears? What can the industry look forward to in the near future? Hofmann, Rexnord and Ferry Capitain all have ideas. The technology and the machines will grow, according to Fritz. I know of an eight-meter machine so far but I know that there are plans to build bigger machines. The challenge of big gear measurements will be to measure the much tighter tolerances of AGMA 12 or 13 on 15m gears, Fritz says. The development of computer-assisted are not economically viable for inshop inspection and for Eddy Current. It is thus probable Eddy Current will take over MPI in the close future, as this technique is easy, fast and reliable. As for

Photo courtesy of Rexnord

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UT Phased Array, the only question that inspection equipment manufacturers have to solve is the question of probes: they have to be reliable, economical and adaptable to all kinds of materials, surface finish and size, Wavelet says. Improvements in continuous monitoring system analysis will offer faster indication of distress, helping plant personnel to make necessary adjustments and avoid costly downtime. Condition monitoring/analysis systems allow the user to identify a problem in one area before it has an adverse effect on equipment in another. Eddy current inspection is likely to gain ground as a quick and thorough way to check for surface discontinuities in ring gears, allowing the user to log a permanent record (map) for future reference. Phased array will gain wider acceptance as an improved method for inspecting subsurface defects as acceptance criteria are established and validated in the large gearing industry, Quinn says. The technology is changing when it comes to inspecting large gears. Manufacturers of these components will be the first to tell you there are no shortcuts. Good news for those looking for the highest quality components for a massive application.

Photo courtesy of Ferry Capitain

Big or Small: Inspection is Key to Success


While Hofmann, Rexnord and Ferry Capitain know big gears, companies like Carl Zeiss, Wenzel and Klingelnberg know a little bit about inspecting them. Nowadays, large toothed gears are subjected to the same requirements as smaller toothed gears in stationPhoto courtesy of Klingelnberg ary transmissions or vehicle gearboxes. Beyond the quality of the gearing, inspections must be conducted on the surface of the tooth flanks and the dimensions and measurements of the workpiece must be analyzed as a whole, says Gunther Mikoleizig, product manager for precision measuring center, Klingelnberg GmbH. The actual inspection process for gears is quite simple, says Todd Woijoviets, technical sales engineer at Zeiss Metrology. The challenge comes when we look at gear standards. Manufacturers use different standards and different versions of the standard. This makes it difficult for everyone throughout the process because they must be up-to-date on all these standards and the changes between versions. Safety, of course, is always one of the key parameters for large gears. A precision test of all parameters on large toothed gears provides a higher level of safety for the components, says Mikoleizig. An ongoing analysis of the results of the gear measurement can also provide helpful supplemental information, such as how to define or simulate the running conditions for the transmissions. This in turn produces shorter production and development times. At Wenzel GearTec, the company manufactures traditional, horizontal arm gear testers called WGTs, which are capable of measuring gears up to 3,000mm in diameter (10 feet) and gantry-style vertical gear testers capable of measuring gears up to 4,000mm (13 feet) in diameter. The vertical gantry-style machines called LHFGear also have the advantage of being able to measure large geometric, CMM parts, such as large bearing profiles and gearboxes on the same system and are also advantageous when measuring large internal gears.

For more information:

Ferry Capitain Phone: +(33) 3 2594 0424 ferryby@ferrycapitain.fr www.ferrycapitain.com Hofmann Engineering Phone: +(61) 8 9279 5522 Mail.hofmann@hofmannengineering.com www.hofmannengineering.com Rexnord Corporation Phone: (414) 643-3000 www.rexnord.com

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SUPER-SIZED QUALITY CONTROL


Portable gear testers can measure some gear features such as the pitch of adjacent teeth or lead and profile of individual teeth, but cannot accurately measure diameters (reference diameters or dimensions over pins), planes, run-outs and other geometry, says Andy Woodward, president, Wenzel America Ltd. All Wenzel gear measuring machines offer a full software suite for any gear type and also for gear cutting tools. Barkhausen Noise Analysis (for measuring stresses or damage due to grinding burn) and surface finish devices can be added to any Wenzel system. As a manufacturer of precision measuring centers, including for large and heavy workpieces of up to 4,000mm outside diameter, Klingelnberg has been proactive in the development of equipment to test additional parameters within a clamping. This includes opportunities for measuring surface roughness or undertaking grinding burn tests. Measurement of the dimensions, shape and position of the drive components can also be undertaken, to delivPhoto courtesy of Klingelnberg er comprehensive measurements of all parameters for a workpiece, Mikoleizig says. Contact measurements are one of the best ways to inspect form and location of gear teeth. Plus with a Zeiss CMM, not only can you inspect the requirements of the gear but you can also inspect the housing of the gear, which is something that cannot be done with dedicated gear inspection equipment, Woijoviets says. The largest bridge type CMM Zeiss offers is a 2,000mm4,200mm1,500mm. T h e n w e m ov e i nt o a g a nt r y CMM. Our gantr y typ e CMMs have a measuring volume of up to 5,0007,0003,500. When Wenzel was presented the challenge of designing a CMM measuring solution for inspecting large ring gears and bearings for Liebherr Werk Bieberach GmbH, a German manufacPhoto courtesy of Wenzel turer of large construction cranes, the company designed and built a special CMM machine that combined their standard components and dual-arm measuring technology with the precision air bearing mechanics of the Wenzel WGT series of Gear Checkers. The inspection machine is capable of inspecting bearings and ring gears up to 6,000 mm (19.68 ft) diameter. The dual-arm machine design is similar to what Wenzel has applied in the automotive industry to measure car bodies and body components, Woodward says.

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In this design, the CMM measuring arms are each mounted to a table that is mounted on a large corresponding granite base. The measuring arms feature high accuracy linear guideways for the X-axis. The Y- and Z-axes feature finely tuned preloaded roller bearings providing minimum friction and operational wear. The base units are positioned opposite each other with a rotary fixture table in between. Both arms measure the large rings concurrently, and the metrology of each measuring arm is harmonized through the use of a specially designed calibration tool. The ring gears and bearings are located and clamped on the 2,200 mm (7.21 ft) diameter hydrostatic rotary table that can handle loads up to 100,000 lbs. The complete circumferences of the rings are inspected by a single inspection part program. Application software is also provided that can calculate the optimum fitting tolerance for inner and outer bearing components. So whats the moral of the story? Manufacturers of large and small gears can get technology that will make gear inspection easier and more user-friendly no matter the size requirements.

For more information:

Carl Zeiss Industrial Metrology Phone: (800) 327-9735 metrology@zeiss.com www.zeiss.com/metrology Klingelnberg GmbH Phone: (734) 470-6278 usa.sales@klingelnberg.com www.klingelnberg.com Wenzel America Phone: (248) 295-4300 inquiries@wenzelamerica.com www.wenzelamerica.com

Photo courtesy of Carl Zeiss

Photo courtesy of Wenzel

VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1 GEAR TECHNOLOGY INDIA

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ask the expert

Crowning Spur Teeth


QUESTION #1
When designing spur teeth, is there a formula/guideline/design guide for determining the amount of crowning? Response provided by Octave LaBath. In September 2005, I produced a spreadsheet comparing four references for crowning on parallel shaft gearing. I have since added a fifth reference: 1. McVittie, Don. Our Experts Discuss Hobbing Ridges, Crooked Gear Teeth and Crown Shaving, Gear Technology, March/April 1992, pp. 41-43. 2. Stokes, Alec. High Performance Gear Design, Machinery Publishing, 1970, p. 89. 3. Merrit, Henry Edward. Gear Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, 1972, p. 124. 4. Dudley, Darle, Ed. Gear Handbook, McGraw Hill, 1962, p. 5-24. 5. National Broach & Machine Division. Modern Methods of Gear Manufacture, Lear Siegler, Inc., p. 77.

References on Crowning:

based on the gears pitch, with crowning per flank commonly around .005/P to .01/P. Assuming a square pinion, the pitch diameter would be 2.000 inches.
Pitch Crown Pitch Crown 10 NDP (2.54 module), 20 teeth Minimum=0.005/NDP=0.0005" (0.0127mm) Maximum=0.01/NDP=0.0010" (0.0254mm) 20 NDP (1.27 module), 40 teeth Minimum=0.005/NDP=0.0003" (0.0064mm) Maximum=0.01/NDP=0.0005" (0.0127mm)

Example 4 (Dudley)

Example 1 (McVittie)

The amount of crown is critical, McVittie says, since too much total crown in the pair of gears will concentrate the contact into a narrow area of the face and lead to premature pitting failures. A reasonable rule of thumb is no more than .0003 to .0005 inch of crown per inch of face.
Face Crown 2.000" (50.8mm) Minimum=Face 0.0003=0.0006" (0.015mm) Maximum=Face 0.0005=0.001" (0.025mm)

In effect, crowning allows a rocking-chair-like action between the teeth when the shafts deflect into increasingly nonparallel positions, Dudley says. Heavy concentrations of load at the ends of the teeth are avoided. Dudley suggests that the ends of crowned gears are made .0005 to .0020" thinner at the ends as compared to the middle.
Crown Minimum=0.00025" (0.0635mm) Maximum=0.0010" (0.0254mm)

Example 5 (National Broach)

Therefore the tooth thickness of a 2.0" face width gear would be 0.0012" to 0.0020" less than in the center of the face width.

According to this handbook, Excessive crowning is as great an evil as no crowning. When the amount of crown is too great, effective face width is sacrificedIf the accumulated mounting errors or shaft deflection appear to call for gear tooth crowning in excess of 0.0005-in. per inch of face width on each tooth side, more rigid mounts, or stronger gear teeth should be considered.
Face Crown 2.000" (50.8 mm) Maximum=Face 0.0005=0.0010" (0.0254mm)

Example 2 (Stokes)

For any power gearing application, Stokes says, it is essential that perfect tooth contact is obtained. To allow for any misalignment in the mountings of the gears, or heat treatment distortion, it is usual to crown the tooth form, i.e., produce elliptoid teeth, thus eliminating any chance of end loading the gear tooth. According to Stokes, crowning is usually .0002 to .0003 inches crowning per inch of face width, with a maximum of .0005 inches per inch of face width.
Face Crown 2.000" (50.8mm) Minimum=Face 0.0002=0.0004" (0.010mm) Maximum=Face 0.0005=0.0006" (0.015mm)

Crown Magnitude

Example 3 (Merritt)

Symmetrical crowning is applied in order to avoid hard bearing at tooth-ends, which might otherwise occur as a result of errors of tooth alignment, says Merritt. According to Merrit, crowning can be

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GEAR TECHNOLOGY INDIA VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1

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Do YOU have a gear-related technical question? Get an answer by submitting it to our expert panel! Submit you question to Jack McGuinn, Senior Editor, via e-mail at jmcguinn@geartechnology.com

Gear Up Your Quality Control


Photo courtesy of Forest City Gear

Robot systems for quality control of surface treatment such as grinding and shot peening by Barkhausen Noise and X-ray stress measurements. RoboScan system automated inspection all surfaces with one set-up safe, fast and easy measuring, also on large and complicated parts instant feedback quantitative results for production control environmentally friendly

Discussion

I prefer the methods that have the amount of crown as a function of the face width. This eliminates References 3 and 4. The method given in Reference 2 seems to give too small an amount of crown. The Reference 1 method is similar to the method given in Reference 5, but has a tolerance range. There should be a tolerance on the amount of crown, so I like the method given in Reference 1 best. This reference actually mentions Reference 5. Octave LaBath enjoyed a 30-plus year
career at Cincinnati Gear. A Gear Technology technical editor and longtime AGMA member and contributor of his time and expertise to the association, he now heads up a consultancyGear Consulting Services of Cincinnati, LLCand can be contacted at octave@fuse.net.

For residual stress testing by X-ray diffraction

Xstress Robot reaches hard-to-reach areas handles complicated and large parts easily provides maximum exibility and easy positioning is fast and precise

Power Transmission Engineering Expert/ Technical Editor Octave LaBath with his gear apprentice Max, who also happens to be his grandson.

Stresstech Bharat Pvt. Ltd. Office No. B-8, Bhaveshwar Arcade, LBS Marg Near Shreyas Cinema, Ghatkopar (West), Mumbai 400 086. Maharashtra. India. Tel: +91 22 2500 1092, Fax: +91 22 2500 1047, info@stresstechbharat.in, www.stresstechbharat.in, www.stresstechgroup.com

VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1 GEAR TECHNOLOGY INDIA

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THE NEW 300GMS

THE PERFECT FIT FOR YOUR GROWING INSPECTION CHALLENGES

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3 Bevel Gear Solutions, Up to 2,500 mm 3 Cylindrical Gear Solutions, Up to 10,000 mm 3 Metrology Solutions, All Types of Gears, Gear Tools 3 Cutting Tools and Workholding Solutions, All Processes

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Gleasons 300GMS takes on the inspection challenges industry leaders in India face for automotive, aerospace and similar size gears. Its fast, affordable, and available with: 3 Next Generation GAMATM 3.0, Windows 7 fully compatible application and controls software 3 Advanced Operator Interface with dual display, voice, photo, video, QR Code, Bar Code, and environmental monitoring/recording 3 Surface nish measurement 3 Fine pitch measurement No other inspection system in its class puts so much performance in so compact a package.
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ask the expert

High-Temperature Gear Materials


QUESTION #2

Email your questionalong with your name, job title and company name (if you wish to remain anonymous, no problem) to: jmcguinn@geartechnology.com; or submit your question by visiting geartechnology.com.

What gear material is suitable for high-temperature (350 550C), high-vacuum (10 8 torr), clean-environment use?

Expert response provided by Dr. Philip Terry: From time to time, general questions arise concerning the maximum temperature at which gear materials can operateor specific questions about what material is suitable for a specific usually elevatedtemperature. When faced with these questions, gear metallurgists and material technologists usually look at the limits imposed by virtue of the previous thermal processing of the gear materials. Gears are rated (that is, the ability of the gear teeth to carry Hertzian contact stresses and bending loads) as a function of the hardness of the material and, in particular, the surface hardness of the tooth. The hardness of gear steels is typically achieved by through-hardening (quenching and tempering), nitriding or carburizing. In the production of through-hardened gears, the part is taken to a high temperature to austenitize the material, and then quenched in oil, water or other cooling medium to produce a hard, martensitic, metallurgical structure finally tempered to impart toughness and ductility. The tempering temperature is typically in the range 900 to 1,150F. Following this final temper, any exposure to temperatures at or close to the selected tempering temperature will reduce the hardness of the material and, consequently, lower the load-carrying capability of the material when used for gearing. Nitriding is also typically performed in the region of 900F, and so material intended to be nitrided is normally tempered at around 950F to avoid overtempering during the nitriding process. Nitrided gears are, therefore, constrained to running temperatures below 900F to prevent softening in service. The highest hardness material used in industrial gears and therefore the gears with the greatest load carrying capability are those which are surface hardened by carburizing. However the final tempering temperature used on carburized gears immediately prior to finishing is in the region of 375F, and although carburized gears have the highest known load capacity, this low tempering temperature restricts the temperature at which they can be used to around 300F. Below is a summary table based on ensuring that gear hardness does not drop as a result of exposure to high temperature in service based on a maximum temperature 50F below the final temperature used on the material during thermal processing.
Temperature limits for gear materials Process Temperature Limit F Through-hardened 850 Nitrided 850 Carburized 300

modated, lower limits can be imposed on the tempering temperature to ensure that parts will not soften due to overtempering in service. The temperatures quoted here are for the commercial alloys most frequently used for gear manufacture; other more specialized alloys exist which have been specifically designed for higher temperature applications such as the Pyrowear family of alloys for carburized parts. Some of these alloys are tempered after carburizing at 550F, thus extending their range of application up to 500F. The comments in this article refer to the temperature limits of the steel base material of gears, and do not discuss the issue of temperature limitations for gear lubricants, which need to be evaluated separately. Dr. Philip Terry was born and educated in the
U.K., receiving in 1972 his doctorate in materials science/fracture mechanics. He has decades of metallurgy-and-materials experience in various design and managerial capacities at companies such as British Steel Corp., Cameron Iron Works, and, for 15 years until his retirement in 2011Lufkin Industries. Terry has also been an invaluable AGMA member over the years, having served on or chaired many of its materials- or heat treat-related committees. He currently serves as the standing U.S. representative on ISO TC 60 WG 14 Metallurgy. Terry is now unretired, working as an independent consultant specializing in material selection, heat treatment, welding-and-fabrication, and failure analysis (Philip.terry@orange.fr).

The values shown in the table are typical levels; if details of a specific heat treatment cycle are known, and higher final temperatures are used, the limits can be raised to within 50F of the actual temperature. Similarly, if a specific service temperature needs to be accom-

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ask the expert

So Whats to Know About Specifying a Gear? Only Everything!


QUESTION #3
I am trying to specify a few .8 module metric gears and am being asked to include as many gear specifications as possible on our drawings. For example, one of the gears we need is a .8 module 40t gear, so my plan was to say this: Spur Gear: Teeth=40, Module=.8, PD=32, Circ Tooth Thickness=1.17 (using this to determine backlash, but there is probably a better way) For all other tolerances and design information, reference AGMA 2000-A88, Q8 (we found some stock gears that listed this number but dont really know what it means). I see so many different AGMA and ISO standards for gears and Im just not sure which one I need. We havent purchased any yet and dont want to until we know which one to use. Can you shed some light on this or point me in the right direction? I dont know why but this seems like a real mystery to us! Thank you!

Expert response provided by Rob Frazer, senior engineer at the Design Unit: The position that you find yourself in is very common. Gear technology is not a particularly difficult subject to understand, but it covers many fields of expertise and thus there are many elements that need to be appreciated and understood before a full specification can be prepared that will ensure that you get gears that are fit for purpose and meet your needs. To put it bluntly, if we dont specify gears properly we get the gears we deserve rather than the ones we actually need. This is a challenging task for people who do not regularly specify gears. Because we have no knowledge of your specific application for fine-pitch gears, the following guidance is generic for most gears and we will assume that specifying the geometry itself is sufficient and that the life and loading is evaluated separately. Gear standards, whether they are published by AGMA or ISO, are a very valuable source of reference material for gear designers. However these are written for people who have the relevant background gear knowledge and expertise to implement the procedures and, more importantly, interpret the results from applying the standard procedures. The AGMA information sheets and ISO Technical Reports are prepared by the expert working groups to provide guidance on implementing and understanding them. It is also of course important to ensure you are referring to the latest version of the standard. This is not helped by the fact that within AGMA and ISO publications, none fully address the specification requirements of gears. But before you try and specify gears starting with a blank sheet of paper, there are other options that should be explored first that, although apparently more costly, may save much of your time and potentially avoid costly mistakes: Employ a consultant to specify the gears for you. The benefits from this are that you will get a full specification that will provide you with the gears you need. The disadvantage is that you wont learn anything yourself and if you need to modify the design or experience quality problems, you will have to re-employ your consultant. Alternatively, you can seek a reputable gear supplier who is willing to provide the design and manufacturing expertise to supply gears that will meet your needs. You would need to specify life and duty cycle (load and speed) requirements; the drive element (e. g., electric motor specification); the load characteristic; size envelope; gear shaft and gear housing tolerances; manufacturing methods; environmental conditions (temperature and humidity); preferred materials; operating backlash; noise requirements; and annual quantities. Again, if you want to modify anything, you rely on the supplier for these design changes. The application in this example is not defined, but the 0.8mm module gears could potentially be supplied by a catalog gear supplier who specialize in small-pitch, standard geometry gears; your question implies that you have already considered this. A number of catalog gear companies offer a range of gears that may be suitable for your requirements. They can supply small quantities of gears but may also be suitable for larger volume manufacture and also provide
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GEAR TECHNOLOGY INDIA VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1

guidance on suitable geometry tolerances, tooth thickness tolerances to ensure the gears operate with acceptable backlash. Using off-the-shelf or modified catalog gears often provides the costeffective solution to prototype or small volume gear applications. There are many commercial software programs available that can assist you to design, analyze and specify gear geometry. These range considerably in terms of complexity and cost, but the best allow users to invoke ISO and AGMA accuracy standards, use standard proportion cutting tools, define and evaluate tooth thickness (for backlash calculations) and evaluate the gear pair using stress analysis standards such as AGMA 2101 or ISO 6336. Many programs provide graphics that enable the users to properly visualize the gear pair they are specifying. The most basic of these programs is a simple automated gear calculator, while the most sophisticated programs provide help and guidance when things are starting to go wrong (Fig. 1). But users need to understand what the programs are doing and thus it is recommended that proper training is obtained prior to use. Few people are provided with sufficient training in gear technology in college and university courses, but help and guidance is provided by the AGMA in their training program (www.agma.org). In the U.K. the British Gear Association (BGA) has an extensive seminar program that allows those new to the gear industry to attend a series of short courses to introduce them to gear technology (www.bga.org.uk). The strategy adopted by the Design Unit (at Newcastle University, U.K.) for specifying gears is Figure 1 Example of a software package used to develop a gear specication with that you provide unambiguous data relating to the built in warnings when you approach normal geometry limits (courtesy Dontyne Systems Ltd). geometry of the finished gear. Our policy is not to specify the details of the manufacturing procedure no ISO standard directly related to tooth thickness allowand thus a full gear specification comprises seven ance and backlash. elements: 5. A gear geometry accuracy specification is defined by ISO 1. The nominal basic macro gear geometry (module, tooth or AGMA tolerance classification standards. Two methods number, helix angle, tip diameter, root diameter, face are commonly used here: width, addendum modification coefficient). ISO 21771 a. The measurement of individual errors (profile, helix or provides formula for these parameters. tooth alignment, pitch errors, radial runout of the tooth 2. The specification of microgeometry corrections to the space and tooth thickness). AGMA 2015-1 (replaced tooth flank (tip relief, helix crowning) on gears that are AGMA 2000) specifies allowable limits for different toltransmitting significant amounts of power or have strinerance classes and is similar to ISO1328-1. Note that gent noise and vibration requirements. these do not provide guidance on which tolerance grade 3. Cutting tool geometry data (depth, pressure angle, cutting to pick. For most applications, precision-cut gears of tool tip radius used to cut the tooth root region, grinding grade 7 or better (lower grade number) are achievable, allowance or backlash allowance). AGMA 1003 and 1006 with molded, fine-pitch gears of grade 9 to grade 10 provide information of the proportions of tooth for finecommonly specified. The tolerances that are specified pitch gears and plastic gears. must consider power transmission, noise and tolerance 4. Tooth thickness data specifying the tooth thickness tolerbuild-up of the assembled gear assembly. The accuracy ances to ensure operating backlash is achieved when the of the gear is verified by measurement with CMMs or gear is manufactured and assembled. We normally define dedicated gear measuring machines and fine-pitch gears gear circular tooth thickness indirectly because measuring of 0.4mm module can be easily measured (Fig. 2). The a circular arc length is difficult. We use parameters such as process provides feedback to show that the gears comply dimension-over-pins or span size over several teeth. Refer with the accuracy specification and also identify what to ISO 21771 for tooth thickness calculations. AGMA 2002 has gone wrong with the manufacturing process. provides guidance on tooth thickness tolerances. There is
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ask the expert


b.

Figure 2 Klingelnberg P65 with a 0.5mm diameter probe Inspecting a 0.7mm module gear in accordance with ISO1328-1 (the minimum standard probe is 0.3mm diameter).

Figure 3 Frenco-dual ank roll tester for measuring composite Radial deviations in accordance with ISO1328-2.

The second method is the measurement of radial comDr. Rob Frazer is a senior engineer at the Design Unit, the Gear posite errors or dual-flank errors, and is commonly used Technology Centre at Newcastle University in the U.K. Frazer is head of the to control fine-pitch gear tolerances. The method involves U.K.s National Gear Metrology Laboratory and is responsible for gear design meshing a product gear with a precision-ground masand gear analysis within the Unit. He also serves as chair of BSI MCE-5, the ter gear (a minimum of 3 accuracy grades better than U.K. committee responsible for over 90 gear-related standards and is the U.K. representative on the ISO Gear Accuracy Committee (ISO TC60 WG2). the product gear) under light load with zero backlash, Frazer is actively involved in delivering the British Gear Associations training and recording the change in center distance as the gears seminar program in the U.K. rotate. AGMA 2015-2 and ISO 1328-2 both provide allowable tolerances for gears of 0.8mm module, and the quality grades mentioned GEARDATA GEARDATA above equally apply to this measurement Basic Geometry Basic Geometry method. This also provides a method of Number of teeth 40 Number of teeth 40 Normal module 0.800 Normal module 0.800 measuring tooth thickness by specifying Reference pressure angle 20.000 Reference pressure angle 20.000 upper and lower indicator limits based on Ref.helix angle (left) 0.000 Ref.helix angle (left) 0.000 Addendum Mod. coefcient 0.0000 Addendum Mod. coefcient 0.0000 maximum and minimum center distance Nominal tooth depth/Mn 2.400 Nominal tooth depth/Mn 2.400 values. Reference Data Reference Data 6. Material specification, including material Facewidth 5.000 Facewidth 5.000 Tip Diameter 33.600 Tip Diameter 33.600 type and where appropriate the range of Root Diameter 29.760 Root Diameter 29.760 acceptable hardness values and case depth Topping Topping Base helix angle 0.000 Base helix angle 0.000 requirements. Reference Diameter 32.000 Reference Diameter 32.000 7. The datum axis that is used to define the Base Diameter 30.070 Base Diameter 30.070 gear geometry and provide a functional Finished Tooth Thickness Finished Tooth Thickness Ball Diameter 1.440 Ball Diameter 1.440 location for the gears when in service. Dimension over balls (nom) 34.022 Dimension over balls (nom) 34.022 A typical realization of a gear specification is illustrated in Figure 4 for ISO 1328-1 grade 9 gears, assuming quality is controlled by helix, profile, pitch tolerances and tooth thickness, defined by dimension over balls or pins. An alternative specification using ISO 3128-2 for dual-flank testing measurement strategy is illustrated in Figure 5. In conclusion, the specification of gears requires a detailed knowledge of gear geometry, manufacturing methods, inspection methods, material and the functional requirements of the application. Every gear designer has his or her own preferred method, but asking the right questions, using the appropriate standards and support software ensures it is possible to specify gears reliably.
Dimension over balls (max) 34.022 Dimension over balls (min) 33.943 Flank Tolerances Reference axis datum bore A Accuracy Standard ISO 1328-1/95 Grade 9 Adjacent pitch tol 20 m Cumulative pitch tol 57 m Prole tol 21 m Helix tol 25 m Tool tip radius 0.312 Meshing Information Mating gear Centre distance nominal 32.000 Start of active prole dia 30.851 Contact ratio 1.714 Normal backlash max 0.160 Normal backlash min 0.100 Dimension over balls (max) 34.022 Dimension over balls (min) 33.943 Flank Tolerances Reference axis datum bore A Accuracy Standard ISO 1328-2/97 Grade 9 Single composite tol 11 m Total composite tol 56 m Tool tip radius 0.312 Meshing Information Mating gear Centre distance nominal 32.000 Start of active prole dia 30.851 Contact ratio 1.714 Normal backlash max 0.160 Normal backlash min 0.100 Material & Heat Treatment Through Hardened (V) Surface hardness 200 Hv Angles are in and distances inmm unless otherwise stated

Material & Heat Treatment Through Hardened (V) Surface hardness 200 Hv Angles are in and distances inmm unless otherwise stated

Figure 5 Example gear specication for ISO 1328-2 accuracy gears.

Figure 4 Example gear specication for ISO 1328-1 accuracy gears.


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GEAR TECHNOLOGY INDIA VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1

technical

Design and Optimization of Planetary Gears Considering All Relevant Inuences


Tobias Schulze
Gear Design Process
Light-weight construction and consideration of available resources result in gearbox designs with high load capacity and power density. At the same time, expectations for gear reliability are high. Additionally, there is a diversity of planetary gears for different applications. Gears with one or more stages and with one or more gearbox inputs and outputs are not uncommon. Furthermore, different kinds of teeth exist: e.g., spur and helical gears, and also double-helical gears are doable. For the mounting of shafts and gearings, roller bearings and sliding bearing are used (Fig. 1). All of these conditions require exceptional and robust design criteria, including maximum load and dynamic loads under different load situations. Experience with drivetrains with stiff foundations and constant, external loads is not directly applicable, due to unique boundary conditions, dynamic excitation of the structure, and changing influences by external conditions (Ref. 12). The product design process of a gear typically begins with the load calculation, followed by gear and component layout, to the point of structure analysis (Fig. 2). Only at a test bench, or in industrial use as a component in the whole drivetrain, can the quasi-static and dynamic behavior of the gear in actual conditions be verified. This long chain in the process does not allow for an efficient gear calculation especially considering the insecurities of the load assumptions and with that the inevitable, inaccurate stress of the single machine elements and resulting strains. In these cases the highly precise and, in part, standardized calculations of machine elements can only be applicable as far as the accuracy of the load assumptions allow. Any interactions of the single elements within the stressed gear (e.g., the influence of axle bending on the load dispersion of the gearing) are thereby lost. Furthermore, the gear must especially with flexible shafts, housing or dynamic excitation be understood as a sub-system of the drivetrain; only in this way can a realistic load gradient be constructed (Ref. 13). An evenly balanced calculation model for drivetrains that connects all concerned sub-disciplines (external conditions, drivetrain dynamics, structure dynamics, electrical phenomena and machine regulation) in a comparative model depth does not exist (Fig. 3). And yet, only such a balanced model allowing for all needed conditions can deliver the realistic and reliable statements on dynamic strains needed to make the safe design of drive components possible (Ref. 15). The resulting problems and damages cannot be fully explained through mere analysis of the single modules. In fact, the essential influences of the surrounding system components must be accounted for and included in the computation. Here arises the

Figure 1

Application of planetary gears (Ref. 13).

Figure 2

Classic product design process.


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GEAR TECHNOLOGY INDIA | November/December VOLUME 3, ISSUE 2013 1

real difficulty of finding the necessary system parameters to solve the respective question, which is why the product development process of the future is moving more and more to system analysis, rather than the design of single machine elements. Vital to gear development is continuous mostly software-supported analysis, result-conditioning and data maintenance to the point of supervision of the lifecycle of a gear. On one side, all calculations of the machine elements gear, axle, bearing, axlehub connection, screw connection, etc. are to be implemented following the current standards. These must be supplemented through detailed examination of load gradients and load distribution and to the point of optimization of single target parameters (mass, stiffness).

Gearbox Development and Calculation According to Standards

Especially for design concepts of planetary and spur gearboxes, the newest software development of DriveConcepts GmbH MDESIGNgearbox is established. This calculation software gives complete product information in the early phase of the product lifecycle (PLC). The calculation cannot replace measurements and test drives, but iteration steps can be reduced economically. The software allows for an intuitive and easy handling in the design process of the entire gearbox dimensioning

of the machine elements (shafts, bearings and toothings) all according to the existing standards (Refs. 57). For toothing: DIN 3990:1987 T1T6 ISO 6336:2008 T1T3, T5 and Technical Corrigendum 1:2008 Future work for toothings: Micropitting according to ISO/TR 151441 Scuffing according to ISO/TR 13989 1 and 2, AGMA 925 Gear mesh efficiency/loss factor HV and HVL The shafts of the gearbox are calculated according to: DIN 743:2008 T1T4 and Beiblatt 1, 2 Different calculations possible for the roller bearings: Lifetime LH10 according to DIN ISO 281:2009 Modified lifetime according to DIN ISO 281:2009, Beiblatt 1, 3 Advanced modified lifetime according to DIN ISO 281:2009, Beiblatt 1, 3 Lifetime according to ISO/TR 16281:2009 The software enables calculation of the system gearbox in one step, including a complete documentation into a PDF/A document, according to ISO 190051:2005 (Fig. 4).

Gear Optimization (Macrogeometry)

The following shows the gear optimization in some case studies: Load distribution. Next to the load distribution factor KH one of the important tasks of gear development is to optimize

Figure 3

Design process of a gear as a system.

Figure 4

User interface of MDESIGN gearbox with 3-D-GearDesigner and result page (Ref. 10).
November/December VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1 2013 GEAR | TECHNOLOGY GEAR TECHNOLOGY INDIA

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technical
the load distribution of each planet gear. This is done using a pure statistic model that determines load distribution factor K. The load distribution factor is defined as the ratio of the maximum tooth normal force to the median tooth normal force at the speed of zero. Dynamic factors are represented by the factor Kv. The median contact stiffness from the load gradient calculation is used for the analysis, as well as wheel body stiffness (sun, ring gear), bearing stiffness and bearing clearances (sun, planet, ring gear and planet carrier). The following deviations can be accommodated (Fig. 5): Single-pitch deviation sun and ring gear Tooth width variations planet gear Center distance deviation and planet carrier pitch deviations Displacement sun, planet carrier, ring gear The computation of the load distribution allows statements on suitable tolerances or tolerable location variations with exact knowledge of the real load for every single planet. These investigations allow, for example, single parameters to be analyzed with regard to their influence on the load-bearing capacity of the gearing (Fig. 6). Suitable construction parameters, as well as sensible tolerances of gearings and location variations, can be defined. Research on load distribution (K and KH) has shown that only a simultaneous optimization of load distribution on flank (KH) and planets ( K ) results in an optimal gear (Fig. 7). An effective instrument for a balanced load distribution is the use of optimized, flexible planet gear bearings. The impact is due to the targeted overlapping of bolt and bushing bending, with the goal of minimizing the tilt angle of the planet, which in turn is determined by the deformation of the bushing (Ref. 16). Stiffness optimization. The optimization of construction parameters with the goal of optimal stiffness of all relevant gear elements is probably one of the most complex development tasks in the design process. Typical is the description of the following variation analysis of a planet mount: the goal is a design with the least possible mass while retaining necessary stiffness requirements needed in view of the load gradient (Fig. 12). Both one-sided and two-sided samples can be considered; they can be constructed with a round or optimized outline (triangular, square) (Fig.8). The geometric parameters to be varied in such a study are shown (Fig. 9). Through the large amount of parameters it is necessary to use software programs
[www.geartechnology.com] [www.GearTechnologyIndia.com]

Figure 5

Computation model for load distribution KH.

Figure 6

Variation studies for load distribution KH

Figure 7

Variation studies for load distribution KH and KH.

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Figure 8

Variants of planet carriers: single-plate (left); double-plate (right) (Ref. 3).

Figure 9

Geometric parameters of planet carriers: single-plate (left); double-plate (right).

Figure 10 Optimization mass and design space.

with integrated FE solvers for calculating stiffness parameters; only i n this way can optimal configurations be found for the entire parameter area. Mass/design space optimization. Not only has the just-introduced stiffness optimization led the engineer to a number of detail problems; the search for a mass, construction-size optimized gear is a highly complex question due to the number of overlapping influences. Figure 10 shows the field of results of a variation study for a constant, given total gear ratio and defined load. The investigation can be used for improving present gear solutions, as well as for new designs. Using an existing design as an example, the following shows how great the potential can be (Fig. 11). At similar dimensions for the ring gear outer diameter d3 of gear Stage 2, one arrives at a mass savings by adjusting the ring gear diameter for Stage 1 and reducing the tooth width.

MDESIGNgearbox avoids the over-dimensioning of planet gears by pre-setting safety factors for the gearbox machine elements. The mass of the original is at mges 2,200 kg. All generated, optimized solutions arrive at a mass reduction in comparison to the actual gear. The mass, optimized preferred variation is shown (Fig. 12, right). In this example the mass savings amount to about 25 percent, in respect to the original design. At the same time the optimization of the construction space amounts to 15 percent (Fig. 3). In a second step the consideration of CAD geometry data of housings will be possible. Therefore the software imports a standard geometry format, generates finite element models, calculates stiffness matrices for the housing, and delivers this information to the design process of MDESIGgearbox (Fig. 14). Optimization of microgeometry. The calculation of load distribution in a planetary gear system essentially depends on the helix angle deviation between the contact flanks of the gear
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Figure 11 Variation study mass optimization: initial state (left); mass optimized gear (right).

Figure 12

Variation study design space: Initial state (left); spaceoptimized gear (right).

Figure 13 Savings potential: mass (left); design space (right).

Figure 14

Determining of stiffness matrices in 3-D-HousingDesigner.

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pairs; it can be understood as the sum of different influences. It is assumed that the effects are overlying independently, thus the sum of contact line deviation can be calculated with the single deviations (Ref. 11). The calculation of single displacements and deformations of all gearbox bodies especially the planet carrier, the coupling of ring gear and gear wheel bodies and the deformation of teeth is more complex in planetary gearboxes than in spur gearboxes. To determine the load distribution, the flank deviation for the tooth contact sun/planet and the tooth contact planet/ring gear is calculated by the new software MDESIGNLVRplanet (Refs. 8 and 9). The result of the calculation is the exces- Figure 15 Verication of planetary gear stages. sive line load, which is expressed by the factor KH. In general, the excessive line load is on the flank side The deformation is calculated by FE method and is then opposite the deviated flank side. added to the flank deviation. All parts of the helix angle deviNext to the calculation of the ratio of maximum and middle ation have to be added as values normal to the flank. The line load, the software gives detailed information about tooth database of the calculation is saved in XML format. With this, a structured depositing of design, modification, deviation, load flank pressure and tooth root stress distribution (Fig. 15). and control data is possible. Furthermore, the program has a The flank deviation (FLKM) consists of the following parts: Elastic deformation of gear body (veRK) project management capability for saving projects, standard Elastic tilting difference of roller bearings /17/ (veWL) examples and more calculation guidelines (Ref. 14). Torsion deformation of planet carrier (vePT) After input of all necessary parameters: all data are checked, Tilting of planet due to of sliding bearing (verkippPL) the design models are generated and the FE models for the Effective helix angle modification (fHeff) gears with coupling design and the planet carrier are created. Elastic deformation of tooth flank For an efficient calculation it is necessary and reasonable to use Elastic deformation difference of planet carrier bearing drive technology software. DriveConcepts GmbH develops Deformation of housing software solutions for drive technology, which is characterized The helix angle deviation for tooth contact sun/planet is cal- by clear and intuitive handling of all data. In the background, academic-established calculation kernels and consistent, strucculated by the following equation: (1) tured interfaces help solve the actual task efficiently. FLKM = ve1 + ve2 + veWL + vePT verkippPL + fHeff
172

The helix angle deviation for tooth contact planet/ring gear is calculated by the following equation: ve1 = deformation difference of sun ve2 = deformation difference of planet ve3 = deformation difference of ring gear
FLKM = ve1 + ve2 + veWL + vePT verkippPL + fHeff
(2)

Case Study

The example of a wind turbine with 2,000 kW output power should show the consequences of different flank modifications with constant load (Ref. 12). The main gearbox consists of one planetary gear stage and two spur gear stages (helical gearing). The detailed parameters of the first planetary gear stage are listed (Fig. 16). The initial state of unmodified gearing under

Figure 16 Application case.

module m number of teeth z1|2|3 center of distance a pressure angle helix angle

16 mm face width b1|2|3 20 | 36 | -91 add. modication sun x1 463 mm add. modication planet x2 20 add. modication ring gear x3 8

310 mm 0.4 0.3156 -1,6429

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Figure 17 Initial state (left side); rst optimization (right side).

Figure 18 Final design (left side); bad solution with too much lead crowning (right side).

nominal load is shown (Fig. 17, left side). In this case the ratio of maximum and mean value of line load is 1.67. In the first step of optimization with a helix flank modification, the factor can be reduced to KH = 1.23 (Fig. 17). The rest of t h e unbalanced distribution along the face width which comes from planet carrier torsion deformation can be offset with an optimal lead crowning. The ratio of maximum and middle-line load can be reduced to KH = 1.16 (Fig. 18, left). At t h e right side of Figure 18 i t is shown that an oversized lead crowning can also lead to poor conditions. In this case the lead load distribution changes to KH = 1.98. The example shows the n e c e ss it y of the right dimension of macrogeometry and also of used modifications. If these are correct, the lead load distribution K H can be reduced from 1.67 to 1.16; but with unfavorable modifications, the opposite will be the result. This case study shows advantages of MDESIGN 2010 with the libraries LVR, LVRplanet and gearbox to develop gearboxes in a very efficiency way.

References

1. Brner, J. and M. Senf. Verzahnungsbeanspruchung im Eingriffsfeld Effektiv Berechnet, Antriebstechnik 1, 1995. 2. Brner, J. Very Efficient Calculation of the Load Distribution on External Gearsets Method and Application of the Program LVR, International ASME Conference, San Diego, 1996. 3. Hartmann-Gerlach, Christian. Verformungsanalyse von Planetentrgern unter Verwendung der Finiten Elemente Methode, Internal Draft, TU, Dresden 2008. 4. Hohrein, A. and M. Senf. Untersuchungen zur Last und Spannungsverteilung an Schrgverzahnten Stirnrdern, Ph.D. Thesis, TU, Dresden 1978. 5. ISO 6336. 2006 Calculation of Load Capacity of Spur and Helical Gears. 6. Linke, H. Stirnradverzahnung Berechnung, Werkstoffe, Fertigung, Mnchen, Wien: Hanser, 1996.

7. Linke, H. Beitrag zur Ermittlung der Zahnflanken und Zahnfutragfhigkeit unter Bercksichtigung der Abweichungen geometrischer Gren, Deformation der Getriebeteile und der Werkstoffkennwerte, Habilitationsschrift, TU, Dresden 1978. 8. MDESIGN LVR 2010. Software for Load Distribution of Multi-Stage Spur and Helical Gears, DriveConcepts GmbH, 2010. 9. MDESIGN LVRplanet 2010. Software for Load Distribution of Planetary Gear Stages, DriveConcepts GmbH, 2010. 10. MDESIGNgearbox 2010. Design and Calculation Software for Multi-Stage Gearboxes, DriveConcepts GmbH, 2010 11. Schlecht, B., M. Senf and T. Schulze. Beanspruchungsanalyse bei Stirnradgetrieben, Antriebsstrnge in Windenergieanlagen-Haus der Technik, e.V., Essen, (Refs. 910), Mrz 2010. 12. Schulze, Tobias. Ganzheitliche dynamische Antriebsstrangsbetrachtung von Windenergieanlagen, Sierke Verlag, 2008, Ph.D. Thesis, TU, Dresden. 13. Schulze, Tobias. Getriebeberechnung nach Aktuellen Wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen, Vortrag Anlsslich des Dresdner Maschinenelemente, DMK, Dresden, DriveConcepts GmbH, 2007. 14. Schulze, Tobias. Load Distribution in Planetary Gears under Consideration of All Relevant Influences, JSME International Conference on Motion and Power Transmissions, May 1315, 2009, Matsushima Isles Resort, Japan. 15. Schulze, Tobias. Load distribution in Planetary Gears, Danish Gear Society Gearteknisk Interesse Gruppe, February 11, 2010, SDU, Odense, Denmark. 16. Schulze, Tobias. Calculation of Load Distribution in Planetary Gears for An Effective Gear Design Process, AGMA Fall Technical Meeting 2010, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 17. Wiche, E. Radiale Federung von Wlzlagern bei Beliebiger Lagerluft, Konstruktion, Berlin 1967.

Dr.-Ing. Tobias Schulze studied (1996-2001)

drivetrain and gear technology at the TU Dresden. From 2001-2006 he was a scientic assistant at the TU Dresden in the analysis of the dynamic behavior of drivetrains with multi-body simulation, including the inuence of holes in ring gears with FEM, and the inuence of manufactured deviations on bevel gear stress run on a servo-hydraulic test stand for steering systems. Since 2006, Schulze has served as managing director of DriveConcepts GmbH, Dresden.
[www.geartechnology.com] [www.GearTechnologyIndia.com]

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The Unrivaled Authority


in Power Transmission Solutions

KPCL is a leading manufacturer of gear boxes, known for exceptional product innovation, integrity as well as superior service. The extensive KPCL product line including standard gear box along with tailor gear box made to suit the individual requirements of customers, has propelled ahead companies in such sectors as Cement, Power, Rubber, Paper & Mining. Widely regarded as world leaders in Helical Reduction Gear Boxes, KPCL has continued to enjoy worldwide reputation for crafting exceptionally durable and reliable products through its state of art manufacturing facilities.

KIRLOSKAR PNEUMATICS CO LTD


Transmission Division
REGD. OFFICE & WORKS: Plot No.1, Hadapsar Industrial Estate, Pune 41 1 O13, Maharashtra, India. Ph.: 020-26727000 Fax: 020-26870297 / 26870634 E-mail: transmissions@kpcl.net Web: www.kirloskarkpcl.com

technical

Introduction to Bearings
Structure and function. A surprisingly large number of bearings can be found all around us. Take automobiles, for example: there are 100 to 150 bearings in a typical car. Without bearings, the wheels would rattle, the transmission gear teeth wouldnt be able to mesh, and the car wouldnt run smoothly. Bearings are not used only in cars, but in all kinds of machineryfrom trains to planes and automobiles and much, much more. Bearings enhance the functionality of machinery and help to save energy. Bearings do their work silently, in tough environments, hidden in machinery where we cant see them. Nevertheless, bearings are crucial for the stable operation of machinery and for ensuring its top performance. The word bearing incorporates the meaning of to bear, in the sense of to support, and to carry a burden. This refers to the fact that bearings support and carry the burden of revolving axles. The two pictures below show the most basic bearingscommonly known as rolling bearings. Rolling bearings are made up of four elements and have an extremely simple structure: The basic function of bearings is principally to reduce mechanical friction. By reducing friction 1. Machinery will run more efficiently. 2. There will be less frictional wear, extending the operating life of the machinery. 3 . Abrasion burn is prevented, thus avoiding mechanical breakdown. Bearings also contribute to lower energy consumption by reducing friction and allowing the efficient transmission of power. This is just one way in which bearings are environmentally friendly.

Figure 1 Rolling bearing (ball bearing).

History

The principle of bearings was known to the ancients, and they were in fact used in building the pyramids in Egypt. The illustration is a replica of a relief depicting construction in ancient Mesopotamia, where urban civilization flourished in parallel with that of the Pharaohs Egypt. Later, that famous genius of the Middle AgesLeonardo da Vincicame up with an idea for a mechanism that is remarkably similar to modern uses of bearings. The machine-based civilization that was born in the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century led to the development of modern bearings. In 1916 NSK started up in Japan the first specialist production of bearings. However, it was not until after the end of the World War II that Japans bearings technology made substantial progress. 1955 marked the beginning of growth in demand for private automobiles, in addition to home appliances such as washing machines, refrigerators and air conditioners. In this environment, one of the key characteristics that the Japanese demanded of these home appliances was quietness. However, bearings manufacturers outside Japan didnt place much emphasis on this requirement; so Japanese manufacturers proceeded to build up know-how

Figure 2 Rolling bearing (roller bearing).

Figure 3 Outer ring: the large ring of the outer race.

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through research and development efforts based on the objective of developing the worlds quietest bearings. Later, Japanese bearings, renowned for their quietness, were exported to the United States and Europe. Before long they also offered a high degree of durability. Bearing specifications have been standardized in accordance with international ISO standards. Japanese-made bearings are used around the world for their high performance and high quality. There are said to be around 3 billion bearings made annually in Japan, of which over 40 per-

cent are for automobile use; nearly 30 percent are exported. B earings have been Figure 7 Without bearings, Egypts pyramids of the pharaohs developed and improved may never have gotten off the ground. in a global environment, Bearing Types and results from research into further reducing friction are accumulating all Anything that can be called a machine the time, continually anticipating the will invariably incorporate bearings. needs of the times. The ongoing challenge Bearings must fulfill a great variety of remains to: needs, and they constantly evolve in Reduce weight response to this. Following are bearing Increase compactness types and their various applications: Lengthen life Reduce energy requirements Reduce the impact on the environment

Figure 4 Inner ring: the small ring of the inner race.

Figure 5 Rolling elements: Several balls or rollers that are contained in the space between the outer race and inner race.

Figure 6 Cage: Used to x the position of the rolling elements.

Figure 8 Deep groove ball bearing: The most widely used bearing in the world.

Figure 9 Angular contact thrust ball bearing: The rolling element meets the inner and outer ring raceways at a contact angle. This bearing can carry radial and axial loads.

Figure 10 Thrust ball bearing: Capable of handling loads in the axial direction (axial loads), and can support heavy loads.

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Figure 11 Cylindrical roller bearing. The rolling elements are the cylindrical roller type.

Figure 12 Cylindrical roller bearing: Here, too, the rolling elements are the cylindrical roller type. However in this instance the shape of the cage differs from that in the previous example.

Figure 13 Tapered roller bearing: The rolling elements are of the tapered roller type; because the rollers are tapered, this bearing is able to carry combined axial and radial loads.

Size varies from 2mm to 6 m. Bearings come in all sizes: The worlds smallestminiature bearingshave an inner diameter of 0.6mm, an outer diameter of 2.0mm, and a width of 0.8mm. They are used in ultra-compact motors. At the other extreme, there are bearings with an outer diameter of 6 meters that weigh over 15 tons. These are used in giant boring machines that dig tunnels, such as the Euro tunnel linking France and Britain under the Straits of Dover. 400,000 revolutions in one minute. Bearings that can revolve at ultra-high speeds are used in dental drills. These drills incorporate two ultra-high precision bearings with an inner diameter of 3.0 mm, an outer diameter of 6.0 mm a width of 2.0 mm, and incorporating ball bearings with a diameter of 1.0 mm. The bearings revolve at the astounding speed of 400,000 revolutions-per-minute. This ultra-high-speed, together with extremely accurate revolution, almost eliminates vibration in the dental drill, helping to provide safe, comfortable dental treatment. Ball revolves at a speed of 160 m/sec. These bearings are used in the main shaft of a V2500 jet engine in an international passenger airplane. The rolling elements in this bearing revolve at a speed of 160 meters-per-second. This is equivalent to 580 km/h. Next time you fly you can relax as these high-performance, highspeed bearings support the fast, powerful and lengthy operation of jet engines.

The Amazing World of Bearings

Vibration of less than 100 nm. It is no exaggeration to say that the accuracy of machinery is determined by the accuracy of the revolution of the bearings. A bearing supports each end of the axis of rotation. If there is a large run-out from the center of that axis, you could not expect the machine to operate with high performance. The deflection from the central axis of a computers external memory device (hard disk drive) that uses ultrahigh-precision bearings is less than 100 nm (one nm is one billionth of a meter). What determines this ultra-high precision is the accuracy of the rolling elements such as balls and rollers. 15 years in space. Bearings are also essential to space development. Such information as weather reports, satellite broadcast data and car navigation positioning data come to us from satellites orbiting the earth. These satellites have a piece of equipment known as a flywheel that maintains them in the correct position and orientation. This flywheel uses ultra-high-precision bearings; such bearings have been patiently revolving in space for the past 15 years. From 253C to +500C. The bearings that are used in the coldest temperatures are those that are incorporated in the liquid fuel pumps of space rockets, and they rotate in liquid hydrogen at 253C. At the other extreme, bearings that operate in a very high-temperature environment include the high-performance bearings used in CT scanners in the medical service field. Even in a vacuum tube where

X-rays are generated and temperatures reach 300 to 500C, the bearings continue to revolve, helping us to maintain our health.

The Future for Bearings

In closing, following are some themes on the further evolution of bearings.

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Figure 14 Self-aligning roller bearing: Has an automatic aligning function to compensate for minute misalignments between the inner and outer rings during operation.

Figure 15 Thrust needle bearing: Used in parts such as compressors that deliver the air in automobile air conditioning units.

Figure 16 Cage and roller: One of several kinds of bearing used in vehicles manual transmissions; it is required to be highly durable.

1. Greater energy savings. The smaller a machine becomes, the smaller its components. Further, the smaller a machine becomes, the greater the need for precision becomes, and this could mean that even a small amount of friction could lead to a breakdown. Moreover, no matter how small machines become, total energy consumption will be large when viewed

on a global scale. In order to produce even greater energy savings, we should continue to seek out even better ways of reducing friction using bearings. 2. Cleaner credentials. Improving bearing technology can have beneficial effects on the environment: a reduction in vehicle exhaust gas emissions, for example. Additionally, the vast majority of bearings are made from steel that doesnt contain any harmful chemical substances; this steel can be recycled into new steel materials. Bearings offer excellent potential as products for recycling and reuse. 3. Comfort. Machines must be agreeable for both people and the environment. In the past, machines have supported improved production; in the future,

there will be demands that machines help society and individuals enjoy more fulfilling lives through education, medical services, welfare and entertainment. Also, the bearings that are used in those machines may be asked to fulfill functions and roles that differ from the old ones.

For more information:


NSK Precision America 3450 Bearing Drive Franklin, IN, 46131 Phone: (800) 255-4773 Fax: (317) 738-5050 info@nskprecision.com www.nskamericas.com

Figure 17 Miniature bearings, have an inner diameter of 0.6mm, an outer diameter of 2.0mm, and a width of 0.8mm; they are typically used in ultra-compact motors.

Figure 18 Bearings such as shown here can revolve at ultra-high speeds and are used in, for example, dental drills.

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technical

The Workhorse of Industry: The Induction Motor


Dan Jones, President, Incremotion Associates
History
used in the smaller, below 1 hp applications. ingor auxiliary windingthat allows one to use a capacitor to establish a near 90 electric degrees between the stator winding and auxiliary winding. This action supports continuous rotor and shaft rotation. The housing, end caps and bearings complete the AC motor construction that supports the motors rotation (Fig. 1). As with many new inventions, the first practical single-phase induction motors appear to have been invented in 1885 by Galileo Ferraris, an Italian. Two year later, Nicola Tesla, a Serbian-born naturalized citizen of the United States., created the 2-phase induction motor; Tesla was granted U.S. patents in 1887. George Westinghouse employed Tesla for one year to develop the induction motor for his company. The first wound-field, 2-phase AC induction motor product family was announced by Westinghouse in 1892. In 1888, Mikhail Dovilo Dobrovolsky created a 3-phase induction with a squirrel cage motor. GE began developing 3-phase AC induction motors beginning in 1891 under Charles Steinmetzs leadership. Induction motors continued to evolve in form and use. The 3-phase induction motor is used in the larger horsepower application above 1 hp while the single-phase AC motors were

Construction

The AC induction motor consists of two major assemblies rotor and stator. AC power in the form of 60Hz sinusoidal signals are fed into the 3-phase stator windings. This rotating magnetic field induces a rotor field in the rotors shorted (closed circuit) squirrel cage windings. The established rotor field runs at a frequency and rotor shaft speed that is not in synchronism with the rotating stator frequency. This condition, defined as slip, results in the rotor shaft speed to be tens of rpm below the induction motors synchronous speed (frequency) developed by the stator. The slip value varies between one percent and five percent on most AC induction motors. The 3-phase stator signals establish a series of rotating magnetic vector fields that allow the induction motor to continue to rotate freely without external support. The single-phase AC induction motor works in a similar manner except it possesses a second wind-

Performance

The mechanical output is represented by the motors torque vs. speed curves, based first on 60Hz input voltage and current inputs, and later on a range of input frequencies. The motors shaft speed is a function of the number of magnetic poles within the motor. It runs at a no-load speed of almost 3,600 rpm for a 2-pole and 1,800 rpm for a 4-pole. Remember the impact of slip. The AC induction motors torque vs. speed curve is highly non-linear. There are three different regions on an AC induction motors torque vs. speed curves. They are the near-vertical-rated portion of the curve (Fig. 2). Once the torque speed curve begins to bend horizontally, one reaches the maximum percent torque pointthe breakdown pointthe AC induction motors speed falls rapidly to stall or zero speed. For the design A, B, C and D NEMA Mg-1 standard-rated torque-speed curves, only the design D AC induction motor curves can re-start and move up the curve back to the rated torque region. The price for the Design Ds higher starting torque performance is much lower power efficiency. The other three design curves require extra help to return to the rated torque region. Current is non-linear; the most current for all four

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A B
CURRENT
Figure 1 Figure 2

C or D

PERCENT OF SYNCHRONOUS SPEED

design torque-speed curves is drawn at stall (Fig. 3); the Design B curve is the most popular one today. The AC induction motor was originally designed for applications that have a near-constant load. One just plugs the AC induction motors power cord directly into the 60 Hz wall outlet for constant speed applications. The motor can self-regulate its speed within 20 percent of rated load.

Enter the Variable-Speed Drive

The AC induction motor has a flaw when operating in its normal-rated torque region. At very light application loads, it draws nearly the same current at rated load. Power efficiencies could drop to 35 percent from its rated efficiency of

90 percent to 95 percent, depending on an AC motors hp output. The emergence of the 3-phase adjustable or variable speed drive (VSD) in the late 1980s provided the AC motor with a much wider speed operation. The variable speed drive is a solid- state power conversion unit that controls the frequency, voltage and current into a 3-phase induction motor. Typical VSDs can seamlessly vary volts and frequency to eliminate the difficulty in high current and low starting torque in AC induction motors. Field weakening, pulse width modulation (PWM), and current control provides other drive strategies available to be more controllable and to maintain high power efficiency over a variable load.

The AC induction motor is the most popular motor for use in a wide range of speed-based applications. Simple in design and rugged in construction, lower in cost and in maintenance the AC induction motor continues to dominate industrial and powered home applications.

Dan Jones received his

300 PERCENT TORQUE 250 200 150 100 50 0 0

D C A or B
50 100

PERCENT SYNCHRONOUS SPEED


Figure 3

BSEE degree from Hofstra University in 1965 and MS in Mathematics at Adelphi in 1969. He has over 50 years experience in the design of all types of electric motors and generators from 10 W to 500 kW and has held engineering design, management and marketing management positions at a number of companies. He is recognized as an international authority on electric motors and motion control. He has written 250+ technical articles/papers and held seminars in 10 countries. He is a past member of the board of directors of SMMA and EMERF. He currently is a member of the board of directors of the Motion Control Association (MCA). He is a life member of IEEE and a member of ASME. This article was adapted from his seminar on motor types, which was presented at Motion Control 2013 (October 1517 in Los Angeles) and at the Motor, Drives and Automation Systems 2014 Show (January 2930 in Orlando).

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industry news

Timken

OPENS INDUSTRIAL SERVICE CENTER


The Timken Company recently announced the opening of its new industrial service center in Raipur, in the state of Chhattisgarh, India. The 30,000-square-foot facility provides gear drive and bearing repair and upgrade services to meet growing customer demand in central India. We are pleased to open a dedicated service center with advanced inspection techniques and machine tools that can promptly diagnose and repair our customers mission-critical

SPC Automation India

PROVIDES PLATFORM FOR INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION


Messe Frankfurt Trade Fairs India together with Mesago Messe Frankfurt introduces Europes leading automation exhibition SPS IPC Drives to the Indian market. The organisers feel it is the perfect time to harness business opportunities across all verticals of the automation industry in India and believe the launch of SPS Automation India - Driving manufacturing processes of the future will be the ideal platform to aid this development. The trade fair, like the mother event SPS IPC Drives (Nuremberg), will represent a leading platform for innovations in the field of industrial automation and host a vast range of displays of products, systems and services. SPS Automation India will be held from 5 7 February 2015 at Mahatma Mandir Convention and Exhibition Centre in Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

equipment, said Carl Rapp, Timken vice president of industrial services. The Raipur facility offers a one-stop-shop solution to our many customers in Indias growing cement, primary metals, mining and power generation sectors. The Timken Company has been steadily expanding its industrial services portfolio within the process industries segment, adding to its existing bearing repair capabilities and leveraging recent related service acquisitions, which include gearbox repair and motor rewind, to further expand the geographic footprint of the services business. The Raipur center is the companys first industrial service center in India to offer gear repair, and joins the Timken facility in Jamshedpur, India, as the second offering bearing repair. Timken also operates production bearing facilities in Chennai and Jamshedpur, as well as a research and technology center within its Bangalore headquarters.

In India, industrial automation is an inherent need as well as a market requirement. Raj Manek, managing director, Messe Frankfurt Trade Fairs India stated: The solution to Indias pursuit of being a world-class industrial competitor is automation, and we are confident that SPS Automation India will present the sector players the perfect platform to showcase technologies while allowing the Indian market to access automation solutions designed to improve business profitability and optimize manufacturing operations. Moreover, we are also proud to combine strengths with our brand partner Mesago. For registration information, visit www.spsautomation-india.in.

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GE

HELPS POWER INDIAS FIRST DIESELELECTRIC SHIP


India continues to grow as a global center of technological excellence, accounting for 10 percent of research and development and home to five of the top 10 science and technology schools in Asia. The Government of India, having a network of more than 50 laboratories deeply engaged in developing a range of technologies from electronic and computer sciences, through life sciences and materials, to marine research and development, will invest in a new scientific research platform vessel to be built by Bharati Shipyard, based in Mumbai. The Class XII merchant vessel will host scientists from various Indian government scientific laboratories. It will be used to carry out multipurpose research along the coastal sea belt of India. Bharati has chosen GE Power Conversion, with its extensive experience and understanding of the global marine industry, to supply the power and propulsion system for the ship. This will be the first diesel-electric ship built in India to incorporate medium-voltage equipment, an area in which GE already has a strong position globally. Delivery of the vessel is expected in the year 2015. Paul English, marine business leader for GE Power Conversion says, GE has built up a good reputation in India over many years, and this has clearly helped us to win this interesting new contract. The people at Bharati know they can trust us to deliver with a medium-voltage propulsion system that will be unique in Indian waters. They also know that we are very good at accommodating application-specific needs into individual projects, according to each customers unique situation. We are also very happy to gain the Government of India as the final end user of this type of mediumvoltage diesel-electric propulsion vessel for the first time, and we will be working hard to make sure it is not the last, English added. We have been working on this project for two years, and I think it is fair to say that all parties are very satisfied with the outcome. Overall, we see good prospects for power and propulsion systems in India in the marine industry.

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industry news

Siemens

DELIVERS SOUND START TO 2014


Siemens delivered a sound quarter to start its fiscal year 2014. Supported by several major orders, new orders rose 12 percent year-over-year, while revenue development was nearly stable. We delivered a sound quarter to start our fiscal year. As expected, market conditions were not in our favor. We continue to focus on our productivity program for the year, and on the actions we will take beyond 2014, said Siemens president and CEO Joe Kaeser.

quarter. New orders at the Sector climbed four percent to 3.2 billion and revenue increased one percent to 3.1 billion. At the Industry Sector, new orders rose ten percent to 4.6 billion, driven by a substantially higher volume from major orders in the Sectors long-cycle businesses. At 4.3 billion, revenue remained at the prior-year level. Profit was down five percent to 482 million. Profit increased at the Industry Automation Division while declining at the Drive Technologies Division. The profit margin at the Sector was 11.2 percent, compared to 11.5 percent in the prior-year period. At the Infrastructure & Cities Sector, new orders soared 45 percent, driven by a major order totaling 1.6 billion for two driverless subway lines in Saudi Arabia to be supplied by the Sectors Transportation & Logistics and Power Grid Solutions & Products businesses. Revenue increased four percent yearover-year to 4.4 billion. Profit at the Infrastructure & Cities Sector climbed to 330 million from 141 million in the comparable period a year earlier, supported by profit increases in all the Sectors businesses. Improved project execution at the Transportation & Logistics business was a key factor. The profit margin rose to 7.6 percent, compared to 3.4 percent in the prior-year period.

HSBC
Excluding currency and portfolio effects, new orders at Siemens increased in the first quarter of fiscal 2014 12 percent to 20.8 billion. At 17.3 billion, revenue was one percent below the prior-year level. The book-to-bill ratio was 1.20. The order backlog at the end of the first quarter again reached the record level of 102 billion. Total Sectors profit was up 15 percent to 1.8 billion, while the Sectors profit margin rose to 10.2 percent, compared to 8.6 percent in the prior-year quarter. Net income increased to 1.5 billion from 1.2 billion. Earnings per share climbed to 1.70 from 1.42. Sector overview New orders at the Energy Sector increased three percent to 7.2 billion in a market environment that remained highly competitive. While declining at the Power Generation and Power Transmission Divisions, new orders doubled at the Wind Power Division. Revenue at the Sector declined four percent to 5.8 billion. Due in part to lower charges compared to the prioryear quarter, profit at the Sector improved to 506 million from 410 million, while the profit margin rose to 8.8 percent from 6.5 percent a year earlier. The Healthcare Sector contributed 471 million to profit in the first quarter, compared to 503 million in the first quarter of the prior year. The decrease includes burdens on profit from currency effects. The Sector also faced ongoing market challenges, including weak economic conditions in Europe, uncertainty in the healthcare market, an excise tax on medical devices in the U.S. and slowing growth in China. The profit margin was 15.2 percent, compared to 15.5 percent in the prior-year

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Operating conditions for Indias manufacturers improved further in January, according to the HSBC India Manufacturing Purchasing Managers Index (PMI). The index, fuelled by higher output and strong orders, rose to 51.4, from 50.7 in December the highest reading since March 2013. However, the pace of expansion was below the series average of 55.1. New orders expanded at the fastest rate for ten months, helped by an improvement in new export business. Output rose for the third consecutive month, with respondents citing new contracts as the main reason for increased production levels. Leif Eskesen, chief economist for India and ASEAN, HSBC, said: Manufacturing activity moved into a higher gear led by faster growth in new orders. However, inflation pressures also firmed, suggesting that the Reserve Bank of India has to keep up its inflation guards. The survey suggests that consumer and intermediate goods were behind the recent expansion, but that capital goods production softened. Backlogs of work continued to rise but at a slightly slower rate, probably helped by stronger employment growth. Purchasing activity picked up at the start of 2014, in line with the rise in order flows. Average input costs increased, with manufacturers reporting that higher prices for raw materials were passed on to customers. Manufacturing activity moved into a higher gear led by faster growth in new orders. The HSBC India Manufacturing PMI is a composite indicator designed to provide an overall view of activity in the manufacturing sector. A reading above 50 signals improvement, while below 50 signals deterioration.

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calendar
March 1922WIN Eurasia Automation 2014. Istanbul, Turkey. The worlds leading trade show for highgrowth automation technology, electrotech, hydraulics/ pneumatics and material handling. More than 86 unions and associations come together to provide new market opportunities in Asia, the Middle East, Africa and the Balkans. Main topics include assembly, robotics, controls, sensors, measuring systems, IT and software, laser technology, automation systems and services, packaging, cranes, transportation, hydraulics and pneumatics, gears, motors, transformers and much more. The 2013 show welcomed professionals from more than 77 countries particularly in the machinery, energy, automotive and metal sectors. For more information, visit www.win-fair.com. April 711Hannover Messe 2014. Hannover
Fairgrounds, Hannover, Germany. The worlds leading trade show for industrial technology returns in 2014 with a full lineup of trade shows under the banner Integrated IndustryNext Steps. The seven co-located shows include Industrial Automation; MobiliTec; Digital Factory; Industrial Supply; IndustrialGreen Tec and Research and Technology and Energy. The Netherlands is the official partner country in 2014. Discover new perspectives on energy, automation and industrial supply and engineering topics as well as a broad range of events and displays affecting the global industrial market today. Other Hannover highlights include the Robotics Award, the 11th WoMenPower Conference, Metropolitan Solutions, economic forums, job and career fair and more. For more information, visit www.hannovermesse.de. Future Growth, the event brings together decision makers and influencers as well as technical experts and professionals from leading companies involved in the renewable, conventional, hydropower, transmissions and distribution power generation, within India and around the world. With a track record attracting more than 7,000 attendees from 40 countries around the globe, the event is co-located with Power-Gen India & Central Asia, DistribuTech India and incorporating HydroVision India. The show will focus on the ways to prevent useless wastage of energy and will discuss about the effective mediums which will help in protecting Indias energy future. For more information, visit www.renewableenergyindiaexpo.com.

May 57Renewable Energy World Conference & Expo. New Delhi. Under the theme, Power: Key to Indias

May 9Manufacturing IT Summit. Mumbai. The 5th edition of the Manufacturing IT Summit is highly focused and designed for IT leaders in the manufacturing sector to present global case studies, benchmark business strategies and ensure that your manufacturing facility has a coherent, logical IT strategy. Face-to-face networking opportunities, keynote presentations and executive exchanges will help give a clear understanding of the issues and challenges faced in this industry today. This is one of the largest gatherings in India of CIOs and more than 200+ delegates from the manufacturing sector. Topics include cloud security, data virtualization and overcoming the legacy crisis. For more information, visit www.mitsummit.com. May 2931Automotive Engineering Show 2014. Pune. The 8th edition will focus on Lowering Costs
in Automotive Plants. This event centers on the automotive manufacturing processes with the automobile factory as its focal point. Featuring more than 120 exhibitors, Automotive Engineering will present solutions to an audience of 6,000+ users from the auto industry. Exhibition categories include automation systems, assembly line systems, machining centers, robotics, metrology, material handling, productivity enhancers and more. Exhibitors can increase sales leads, develop new market shares, launch new product/services and expand competitor advantage. Senior executives will present their thoughts and debate on the current manufacturing scenario and future trends. For more information, visit www.aes-show.com.

April 911Pump, Valve & Compressor Expo 2014. Chennai. Pumps and valves are the integral part of any

process where a transportation of liquid is required. Over the years, the usage of pumps, which was primarily for water, has undergone a total change and now there are pumps available for every material which needs to be moved. Along with pumps, the technology for valves and associated control equipment has also changed considerably. Exhibitors include companies involved in shafts/seals, motors, gearboxes, couplings, bearings, actuators, sensors and more. A separate Compressor Pavilion will be available to attendees as well as a special focus on solar powered pumps. For more information, visit www.cii.in.

April 1921Indian Machine Tool and Automation Expo. New Delhi. This event provides a plat-

June 1114Pack Plus 2014. New Delhi. This event

form for manufacturers or suppliers of machine tools and automation products to display their products before a professional community dealing with machine tool, automation, cutting tool and commercial consumers. It will be a forum for discussion and demonstration of machine tool and automation. Exhibition categories include lathes, boring machines, drilling machines, forging, grinding, machining centers, machine tools, abrasives, measuring equipment, tooling, industrial cleaning and more. For more information, visit www.toolautomationexpo.com.

will include a packaging zone, converting zone, processing zone and supply chain zone and include important decision makers and specifiers from top and middle management from various industries including pharmaceutical and chemical, food and beverage, dairy and meat, engineering, garments and textiles, personal care products and logistics. Printers, converters, packaging professionals and packaging end users as well as the providers of materials, equipment and services will also visit in large numbers. Relevant industrial subjects will include automation, barcodes, smart cards, biometrics, RFID, bulk packaging and more. For additional information, visit www.packplus.in.

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GEAR TECHNOLOGY INDIA VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1

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55

INsight

Indias Economy:
Moving Mountains or Cursing the Darkness?
 According to the law of Dharma, you have a unique talent and a unique way of expressing it.
Unfortunately, as Indias efforts at building a Middle Class fall short, so too does its manufacturing base and national economy. And despite the countrys brisk export activity, it will take more than an election to move mountains and lay wire. Fact is, there simply are not enough people in India with disposable income to buy air conditioners or cars or washing machines or refrigerators, and so on, to sustainmuch less help create a sound domestic economy. By the end of 2013, the share of manufacturing in Indias gross domestic product dropped to its lowest in a decade. But even if there were enough consumers, theres thistake ACs for example. Chances are they would be off more often than on, given the state of the countrys electrical supply. On this matter of infrastructure, an expert no less than economist and Nobel laureate Joseph Stiglitz worries for Indiaworries whether she has the wherewithal and the will to do what it must to assume what should be its logical place in the worlds manufacturing pecking order. As Stiglitz explains, If you dont have electricity or have high cost of electricity, it will not help manufacturingeven if labour is cheap. I do worry that there are certain things, like lack of infrastructure, that are impediments for some kinds of manufacturing that would have otherwise come to India, he says. So there you have it. Let Indias manufacturing renaissance beginnow. All that is needed is a level playing field for the games. And if you (India) build it, they (manufacturers) will comein droves. There is something that you can do better than anyone else in the whole world and for every unique talent and unique expression of that talent, there are also unique needs. When these needs are matched with the creative expression of your talents, that is the spark that creates affluence. Expressing your talents to fulfill needs creates unlimited wealth and abundance.Deepak Chopra Consider it a call-to-arms for the Indian government to overcome their atrophy and begin addressing Indias vast, yet underdeveloped, potential workforce. Also: now is the time to sharpen the pencils, get the slide rules out, and develop a master plan to tackle a woefully lacking national infrastructure to help attract international businessesbusinesses that look longingly at India from afar, licking their collective lips while wishing the country would get its act together. What makes this all the more an in the moment issue is a China whose knees are buckling. But if India continues its dithering, there is a real possibility of a lost, historical moment on a grandif not economically tragicscale. And yet theres good news as well. Witness: Electrical equipment maker Havells is one of several Indian companies to have shifted production or sourcing from China. That cudgel in the form of cheap labor and cheap energy that China has wielded for the last 2530 years has begun to rot and splinter. Apparently the seeds of a Middle Class are taking root there and the workers are demanding equal pay for an equal days work, and so on. And easy-access electricity?there is less of itthe worlds worst polluter notwithstanding. So Chinese manufacturers passed the hot potato on to their customers, such as in India, and raised prices by as much as 20 percent. This went on for quite a while. But, as quoted in a piece from a recent businesstoday.com article, A time came when we said this was enough, and we should look at manufacturing in India, says Sunil Sikka, Havells president. It gets better. Consumer appliance company Godrej and consumer appliance company/auto parts maker Bosch have started expanding or exploring manufacturing operations in India. And get this Chinese companies are scrambling aboard the bandwagon, looking for their piece of the pie. Business Today, a prime source for this article, interviewed 16 companies that transitioned at least part of their business (production) to India. Chinese costs are going up; this is a great time to move production from China to India, says Adi Godrej, chairman of the Godrej Group, in the same Business Today article. His company has shifted its air conditioner and washing machine production to India. And while Godrej believes the trend will continue for 20 years, the time to get those roads, bridges, electrical and other infrastructure needs built is now.

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