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ADVANTAGE User Reference Guide

Software Version 6.0 Reference Guide Edition 2

Copyright 2007 AIRCOM International All rights reserved ADVANTAGE, ASSET, CONNECT, DATASAFE, ENTERPRISE, NEPTUNE, ARRAYWIZARD, OPTIMA, OSSEXPERT, and WEBWIZARD are recognised trademarks of AIRCOM International. Other product names are trademarks of their respective companies. Microsoft Excel , .NET, Microsoft Office, Outlook , Visual Basic Windows, Windows XP, Windows Vista and Word are trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation. This documentation is protected by copyright and contains proprietary and confidential information. No part of the contents of this documentation may be disclosed, used or reproduced in any form, or by any means, without the prior written consent of AIRCOM International. Although AIRCOM International has collated this documentation to reflect the features and capabilities supported in the software products, the company makes no warranty or representation, either expressed or implied, about this documentation, its quality or fitness for particular customer purpose. Users are solely responsible for the proper use of ENTERPRISE software and the application of the results obtained. An electronic version of this document exists. This User Reference Guide finalised on 15 October 2007. Refer to the Online Help for more information. This User Reference Guide prepared by: AIRCOM International Ltd Cassini Court Randalls Research Park Randalls Way Leatherhead Surrey KT22 7TW Telephone: Support Hotline: Fax: Web: +44 (0) 1932 442000 +44 (0) 1932 442345 +44 (0) 1932 442005 www.aircominternational.com

Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction

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10 11 12 12 13
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About ADVANTAGE About the ADVANTAGE Operational Environment About the ADVANTAGE Optimisation Framework What are the Benefits of Using ADVANTAGE? Obtaining User Assistance
Who is This User Reference Guide For? About the ENTERPRISE User Reference Guides Can You Improve Our User Assistance? Obtaining Support Obtaining Further Information and Services

Chapter 2 Getting Started Using ADVANTAGE 19


About the Main Features of ADVANTAGE
About Measurement Data About Analysis About Network Optimisation

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20 20 21

About the ADVANTAGE User Interface


About the File Menu About the Configuration Menu About the Arrays Menu About the Tools Menu About the Reports Menu About the Optimiser Menu

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About the Optimiser Workflow The ADVANTAGE Process Flow

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Chapter 3 Setting Action-Constraints in ADVANTAGE


About Actions-Constraints
Action-Constraints Exclusive to the Site Database

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About the Action-Constraints Available


Configuring BTS Equipment and Mast Constraints Configuring Property Antenna Constraints Configuring Property Grid Constraints Configuring GSM Site Installation Constraints Configuring GSM Site Grid Constraints Configuring GSM Cell Antenna Constraints Configuring GSM Subcell Antenna/TRX Constraints Configuring Node Resource Constraints Configuring Node Antenna Constraints Configuring Node Grid Constraints Configuring UMTS Cell Params Constraints ADVANTAGE User Reference Guide Version 6.0

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Configuring UMTS Cell Load and Power Ctrl Constraints Configuring Constraints in the Site Database Global Editor

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Chapter 4 Using the Optimiser Workflow


Using the Plan Manager

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47 48 49 51 54 55 59 66 78 81 82 83 89 96 97 98 99

About the Concept of Plans in ADVANTAGE Viewing and Using Plans in the Plan Manager Creating a New Plan for Optimisation Setting Up and Activating the Details for the Plan Using the Context Menu Viewing Plans in the Map View Window Using the Action-Constraints Dialog Box About Actions-Constraints Templates Assigning Action-Constraints Templates to Objects by using Filters Prerequisites for an Optimisation Starting an Optimisation Running an Optimisation About the Statistics Analysis Deleting a Plan Applying a Plan Temporarily to the Database Applying a Plan to the Database Key Differences between Temp Apply and DB Apply

Setting Clutter/Vector Parameters


Specifying Clutter Parameters Specifying Vector Parameters

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100 102

Setting Performance Metrics/Targets


Setting Performance Targets for Signal Strength Metrics Setting Performance Targets for Simulator Metrics

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Specifying Costs/Risks/Limits
Setting Maximum Limits for Objects or Actions Defining Combinations of Actions Defining Costs and Risks for Objects and Actions Specifying Maximum Costs and Risks

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112 114 115 118

Setting the Strategy


Selecting the Metrics and Weights Rejecting Plans based on Metric Degradation Defining the Cost Conversion Coefficients and Synthesis

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119 121 123

Specifying the Settings


Configuring General Options and Settings Loading Cached Traffic Arrays

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Chapter 5 Identifying Problematic Areas and Cells in your Network 129


Configuring Problem Area Thresholds
Example of Problem Area Thresholds

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Configuring Problem Cell Thresholds Identifying Problem Areas and Cells


About the Information Shown in a Problem Area Report About the Information Shown in a Problem Cell Report

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135 137

Configuring Problem Cell Weights

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Chapter 6 Using Measurement Data

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About Intelligent Spreading of Network Data How ADVANTAGE Spreads Traffic Data About the Spreading Mechanisms in ADVANTAGE Configuring the Format for Importing Network Data
Configuring the Format for Additional Data Examples of the ADVANTAGE Import Format

About Spreading Network Data


Spreading Network Data Displaying Spread Data on the Map View Displaying Spread Data in the Data Values Pixel Analyser Re-Spreading Network Data About Cached Traffic Arrays

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150 151 152 154 154

Performing Network Data Array Operations


Scaling Network Data Arrays Combining Network Data Arrays Managing Network Data Arrays

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155 155 156

About Drive Test or other Area and Cell-Specific Data


Converting TEMS Data to Signia Data Loading and Viewing CW Measurement Data

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157 158

About Using Measurement-Based Pathloss Files


Generating Measurement-Based Pathloss Files Using Drive Test Data to Influence Predictions

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Appendix A Technical Reference 169


About the Optimisation-Based Spreading Algorithms About the Network Optimisation Domain About the Network Optimisation Cost Function About Efficient Network Optimisation About the Voronoi Diagrams About Optimisation Problem Definitions About Adaptive Simulated Annealing 169 170 170 172 173 174 175

Index

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CHAPTER 1

Introduction
ADVANTAGE is an automatic network planning and optimisation tool. It provides an advanced, integrated framework that is composed of: Network modelling and fine tuning Network analysis and problem identification Consideration of design issues and constraints Automatic cell planning and optimisation ADVANTAGE is part of AIRCOM International's ENTERPRISE suite. ENTERPRISE is the fully integrated, PC-based, network engineering solution for network operators, cellular equipment manufacturers and system integrators.

In This Section
About ADVANTAGE About the ADVANTAGE Operational Environment About the ADVANTAGE Optimisation Framework What are the Benefits of Using ADVANTAGE? Obtaining User Assistance 10 11 12 12 13

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About ADVANTAGE
ADVANTAGE is an automatic planning/optimisation platform that: Enables the automatic optimisation of: The number of sites required to meet the coverage and service objectives during regional network rollout The physical network configuration to maximise capacity for the desired range of services and traffic demands Various design parameter settings (antenna, power, site location/configuration) to meet the network performance objectives ARFCN allocation and associated parameters, including baseband and RF hopping

Provides a more efficient and economic solution to network planning and optimisation than the manual 'trial and error' approach that usually involves significant drive testing and re-rigging activity Offers high level of integration between interacting optimisation mechanisms Utilises a wide range of survey measurement and network statistics data to tune the modelled network and facilitate area performance optimisation Improves the efficiency of the cyclical process of ongoing planning and optimisation, and frees up time for planning/optimisation engineers to focus on other tasks Supports real-world performance targets and network configuration constraints Facilitates the joint consideration of a wide range of data (such as pathloss predictions, OSS performance statistics and drive test measurements) to make the modelled network as realistic as possible Supports multi-technology network planning and optimisation Uses a series of intelligent analysis algorithms to identify and alleviate areas/cells of poor performance Integrates efficiently with planning and optimisation tools to avoid data integration and interfacing issues Benefits from the ENTERPRISE graphical interface and database architecture

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About the ADVANTAGE Operational Environment


ADVANTAGE is designed to interact seamlessly with the other products of the ENTERPRISE tool suite, so that you can make full use of the ENTERPRISE modelling and analysis functionality, and apply the identified optimisation solutions into the planning and operational network environment. ADVANTAGE is: Based on the same user interface as the rest of the ENTERPRISE products Built to operate on top of the ENTERPRISE planning database, which uses a robust Oracle platform to achieve both speed and data consistency Alternatively, you can use ADVANTAGE in a standalone capacity, based on a series of interfaces through which information can be exchanged between ADVANTAGE and any third party or operator tools. This picture shows the optimisation life cycle using ADVANTAGE:

The optimisation life cycle using ADVANTAGE

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About the ADVANTAGE Optimisation Framework


The ADVANTAGE framework enables you to optimise an extensive number of physical design and network parameter settings, according to your specific requirements. The optimisation process offers a choice of cost mechanisms, each with its own set of metrics. There are two cost mechanisms: Static Simulation-based As an example, in order to maximise the signal coverage/quality in your network, you might use a Static optimisation that considers antenna azimuth changes and power changes. Or, in order to maximise the mean number of served UMTS users in your network, you might use a Simulation-based optimisation that considers antenna electrical tilt changes. You can also choose to use a combination of both approaches. The changes considered in the optimisation can be evaluated in terms of three components or indicators:
Indicator Budget Manpower Performance Represents The monetary cost of a network plan. The actual resource level required to implement a network plan. The network plan performance in terms of the targets specified by the user.

An overall optimisation cost value can be generated from all these components, based on scenario-specific relative degrees of importance. In summary, the optimisation depends on: A series of actions that can be considered in order to improve a network, including the monetary and manpower cost associated with each of these actions A set of constraints that restrict which/how specific network parameters can be altered during optimisation A set of radio parameters and targets that characterise the expected performance for the metrics that can be affected by the optimisation An analysis engine that estimates the cost values for the metrics used in the optimisation every time a network plan is evaluated A sophisticated, proprietary algorithm that can identify the best solution in an efficient manner

What are the Benefits of Using ADVANTAGE?


A large number of customer and trial optimisation scenarios have confirmed that ADVANTAGE can enhance the efficiency of the network planning/optimisation process, and thus provide significant commercial benefits: Reduce CapEx (Capital Expenditure), by decreasing the site count required to achieve the prescribed performance levels during the nominal planning phase.

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Reduce OpEx (Operational Expenditure), by enabling engineers to focus on other tasks while it produces the best network plans, and by ultimately minimising the need for drive testing or antenna re-rigging. Increase traffic revenue, by leading to significant capacity gains, even in mature 2g networks where it has been possible to improve the Quality of Service and maximise the generated revenue from the same or higher bit rate services.

Obtaining User Assistance


Using Online Help ENTERPRISE products come with a complete system of online Help which you can access in three ways: From the Help menu, click Help Contents. Scroll through the table of contents and choose a relevant topic to display. To search for something particular, from the Help menu, click Help Contents and using the Index tab or Search tab, type in a letter or word to start searching for relevant topics. Press F1 in a dialog box to view context-sensitive help (available for most dialog boxes). Important : If you are using ENTERPRISE within a CITRIX environment, to ensure that the Help graphics are displayed, you should ensure that your visualisation settings are configured to display greater than 256 colours. Using ENTERPRISE User Reference Guides If you prefer to read printed content, we also provide User Reference Guides. To view or print these as PDFs (Adobe Acrobat portable document format): 1 Make sure you have Adobe Acrobat Reader installed on your PC. If you do not have this, you can install it from the ENTERPRISE CD, or get it from the Adobe website. Note : Adobe and Acrobat are trademarks of Adobe Systems, Incorporated. 2 Click Start on the taskbar, point to Programs, then AIRCOM International, then ENTERPRISE, then Docs. - or Navigate to the Docs folder in the location where you installed the product. Note : If neither of these exist, please contact your administrator. 3 Double-click the PDF file that you want to view. Tip : If you have a customer web account, you can also download the latest User Reference Guides from our website.

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Checking Release Notes Each release of the ENTERPRISE software is accompanied by Release Notes, giving important information on system requirements, installation, known issues, upgrades and so on. These notes are included in the ENTERPRISE CD, or you can download them from our website. For any further documentation, such as application notes and extra reference information, please email the support team at the address described in Obtaining Support on page 16.

Who is This User Reference Guide For?


The ENTERPRISE User Reference Guides are intended for different audiences, depending on the particular product. Typical prerequisites include a good understanding of the following: The appropriate telecoms technologies and the associated network planning methods (for planning software) Relational database management, and in particular Oracle database creation and administration procedures (for administrative software) The various parameters utilised for monitoring and optimising networks (for OSS software) Irrespective of the particular product, the following basic knowledge is required: Microsoft Windows concepts The functions of the Microsoft Office suite of tools, in particular Excel

About the ENTERPRISE User Reference Guides


This table describes our range of User Reference Guides:
This Guide What's New ENTERPRISE Installation and Administration Contains Information On The main difference between the latest versions of the ENTERPRISE suite. Installing and configuring ENTERPRISE, your network, and Oracle databases. Using Administrator to create users and groups, and set permissions. Also contains information on software licensing. ENTERPRISE Database Reference ENTERPRISE User Reference ENTERPRISE Technical Reference ADVANTAGE User Reference The relationships between tables in the database and the contents of each table. Functionality that is common to most of the products in the ENTERPRISE suite, including how to access, view, edit and store data. File formats, as well as antenna and diffraction calculations. Using ADVANTAGE to plan and optimise networks automatically, consider measured data in analysis/optimisation, analyse network performance, identify problematic areas/cells, and more. Using ARRAYWIZARD to automatically generate coverage predictions and best server arrays, which gives you instantaneous display of coverage and interference information for pre-selected filters when loaded into ASSET.

ARRAYWIZARD User Reference

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This Guide ASSET User Reference

Contains Information On Using ASSET, the network planning and analysis tool, to design a range of cellular networks. Includes information on hierarchical network planning, propagation modelling, service and bearer definition, coverage analysis, traffic planning, neighbour planning, frequency planning, CW data analysis, detailed reporting, analysis arrays and simulation of network performance.

ASSET Technical Reference CONNECT User Reference

Array descriptions and information on some of the algorithms used in ASSET. Using CONNECT, the network transmission and microwave link planning software for full network physical link design and logical link design. Also contains CONNECT-specific reference information.

DATASAFE User Reference DIRECT User Reference

Using DATASAFE, our network configuration tool to implement both small and large scale changes to networks Using DIRECT to design telecommunications networks of different network layers. Explains how to plan cellular, PSTN and data networks at a both general and strategic level. Also contains DIRECT-specific reference information.

NEPTUNE User Reference

Using NEPTUNE to collect, import and analyse testmobile data and using the optional module, PROBE for additional analysis. Also contains reference information on NEPTUNE file formats.

OPTIMA User Reference OSSEXPERT User Reference RANOPT User Reference WEBWIZARD User Reference

Using OPTIMA to view performance data and statistics both with ENTERPRISE and standalone using OPTIMA Lite. Using OSSEXPERT to manage optimisation tasks in wireless networks. Using RANOPT to efficiently find faults in your network, optimise and validate its performance prior to commercial launch. Using WEBWIZARD to display GIS and report information of network data, including creating layers, regions, nodes, layer types, administering and configuring the system and using the GIS view, explorer and report viewers.

Can You Improve Our User Assistance?


We are always trying to improve the online Help and User Reference Guides. If you cannot find the Help you were looking for, need more information, or have any suggestions for improvements, we would be grateful for your feedback. Also, if you are generally satisfied with these resources, we would appreciate any positive feedback. Online Questionnaire You can help us by completing our brief online questionnaire (http://tinyurl.com/y47rqn). Alternatively, you can contact us directly at docs@aircominternational.com.

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Obtaining Support
If you have a difficulty you cannot resolve yourself using the online Help or Reference Guides, or you have found a possible fault in the software, you can log a support request as described below. You may also wish to contact us if you want to: Register for a customer web account to access the Support area Obtain further documentation, such as application notes and extra reference information Logging Support Requests Online To log a support request online: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Go to the AIRCOM website, at www.aircominternational.com. Click the link to Support. Log in, using your customer web account username and password. In the Technical Support pane, click Online Helpdesk System. Click Log New. Enter the details of your request, and then click Log.

Contacting us via Telephone or Email If you wish to contact us directly, here are the contact details of our regional offices:
Location Europe Regional Office United Kingdom Contact Details Tel : +44 (0) 01932 442345 Fax :+44 (0) 01932 442005 support@aircominternational.com Sweden France Italy Germany Belgium Middle East, Africa and Central Asia United Arab Emirates support@aircominternational.se support@aircominternational.fr support@aircominternational.it support@aircominternational.de support@aircominternational.be Tel : +971 4 391 2642 Fax :+971 4 391 8660 support@aircominternational.ae South Africa Tel : +27 11 3243600 Fax : +27 11 7848027 support@aircominternational.com Americas Mexico USA support@aircominternational.com.mx Tel : +1 866 207 8083 Fax : +1 214 360 7241 support@aircominternational.us

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Location

Regional Office Brazil

Contact Details Tel : +55 12 3941-2199 Fax : +55 12 3911-3727 support@aircominternational.com.br

Asia and Oceania

Australia Singapore China Taiwan India

support@aircominternational.com.au support@aircominternational.sg support@aircominternational.cn support@aircominternational.com.tw support@aircominternational.in

When contacting us with a support query, it would help us if you: Give us as much information as possible about the problem and the context in which it occurred State the version and build you are using Have all the details of your query to hand Are logged into the ENTERPRISE application Can send extracts of your data sets if we need them to reproduce your problem

Obtaining Further Information and Services


As well as comprehensive online Help and User Reference Guides and dedicated Product Support, AIRCOM additionally provides: Online Knowledgebase of Articles If you register for a customer web account, you can view our searchable technical database in the Product Support section of the AIRCOM website. This Knowledgebase contains articles created by our support professionals who have resolved issues for our customers, and is constantly updated, expanded, and refined to ensure that you have access to the very latest information. Online Technical Forum You can obtain useful information from our online problem-solving technical forum. The URL address is: http://www2.aircom.co.uk/techforum If you would like permission to access to this resource, please email the support team at the address described in Obtaining Support on page 16. Power Tools If you register for a customer web account, you can download from a selection of useful power tools, such as file conversion utilities.

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Latest Copies of the User Reference Guides If you register for a customer web account, you can download the latest User Reference Guides (PDFs) from our website. If you do this, please check the back of the reference guides for any additions or corrections. Consultancy Services AIRCOM also provide full radio consultancy services in Network Audits, Business Planning Support, Licence Applications, Radio Network Planning, Telecommunications Research and System Modelling and Propagation Analysis and Modelling. Training There is a wide variety of courses run by AIRCOM. These courses range from tool training to technology training. For details, contact Competence Development Solutions (training@aircominternational.com).

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CHAPTER 2

Getting Started Using ADVANTAGE


Before you begin to use ADVANTAGE, you should ensure you understand the basic concepts described in this section. Note : You must have the appropriate user permissions (these are specified in ENTERPRISE Administrator) in order to use ADVANTAGE-specific functionality or to change ADVANTAGE settings. For more information, see the Installation and Administration User Reference Guide.

In This Section
About the Main Features of ADVANTAGE About the ADVANTAGE User Interface About the Optimiser Workflow The ADVANTAGE Process Flow 19 21 26 27

About the Main Features of ADVANTAGE


The main features of ADVANTAGE are: Measurement Data Usage - you can use area and/or cell-specific (measured or experimental) data Network Statistics Analysis - you can evaluate any number of network plans Network Optimisation - you can optimise a network automatically Important : The ADVANTAGE User Reference Guide describes all the steps and processes in the tool. However, some of these steps, in particular the ones related to the radio environment setup, will not be required for the general user provided the administrator (or super-user) has already completed them. This is also true for optimisation scenarios that have been set up by one user that can be shared with other users who access the same project. You should always make sure that the ENTERPRISE project setup is up-to-date and complete before proceeding. For more information, see the ENTERPRISE and ASSET User Reference Guides.

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About Measurement Data


There are two aspects to the use of measurement data in ADVANTAGE. You can: Import and spread network data, for example performance engineering data or traffic data. This cell-specific information is imported into ADVANTAGE and spread intelligently in the area of interest. The created arrays can describe the network performance and may highlight problematic areas/cells. They can also be used directly (in the case of traffic arrays) or indirectly in the statistics analysis or optimisation. ADVANTAGE also enables you to use the standard ENTERPRISE traffic functionality to create/load/modify a traffic array, using either live traffic or specified traffic. Load and use area-specific and/or cell-specific data (for example, drive test measurements) to check the network modelling/performance; tune a propagation model; generate measurement-based pathloss files in order to influence the pathloss predictions (and predicted network performance); run a focused statistics analysis or optimisation (based, for example, on drive test routes). For more information, see Using Measurement Data on page 141.

About Analysis
There are several ways of performing network analysis in ADVANTAGE. In summary, you can: Run a statistics analysis Identify problem areas and cells Use ENTERPRISE and ASSET analysis functionality Statistics Analysis The statistics analysis functionality in ADVANTAGE enables you to: Analyse and evaluate a current Plan configuration or an optimised Delta Plan configuration Compare any two plan configurations, whether current or optimised You can evaluate a single plan, or compare two plans, in terms of their performance (with respect to measurements and optimisation metrics). The performance achieved for each configuration is compared with the user-specified performance targets and presented (in terms of absolute and/or relative values) on a traffic and area basis. The statistics report generated can include: Actions Statistics Costs You can use the produced reports and/or graphical information to determine how good a plan is, or the number/cost of the required optimisation actions.
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For more information, see About the Statistics Analysis on page 89. Problem Area and Problem Cell Identification ADVANTAGE also enables you to quickly identify the areas and cells of poor performance, based on user-specified targets. You can use the produced reports and/or graphical information to determine which areas or cells should be optimised. You can also use problem cell weighting to prioritise actions (changes) to cells that have shown poor performance, based on the analysis output and/or network measurements. For more information, see Identifying Problematic Areas and Cells in your Network on page 129.

About Network Optimisation


The principal feature of ADVANTAGE is the automatic Optimiser, which can consider an extensive number of physical design and network parameter settings that affect the performance of the radio network. You can set up and start the automatic optimisation of a network configuration according to various targets, costs, actions and constraints, using any or all of the following planning mechanisms: Antenna Power Grid (site location/selection/configuration) For more information, see Using the Plan Manager on page 46 and Prerequisites for an Optimisation on page 81.

About the ADVANTAGE User Interface


As part of the ENTERPRISE Suite, ADVANTAGE not only benefits from the common Site Database and Map View windows, but also adds specialised functionality for the purpose of automatic network planning and optimisation. This section briefly describes some of the user interface features that ADVANTAGE shares with or adds to the core ENTERPRISE user interface. There is one menu which is exclusive to ADVANTAGE: Optimiser The common menus (some of which also contain ADVANTAGE-specific features*) are: File*, View , Database, Equipment, Configuration, Arrays*, Tools*, Reports, Windows, Help For more information about the common user interface, see either the ENTERPRISE User Reference Guide, or the ASSET User Reference Guide. Note : If ADVANTAGE is installed as a standalone product, then some options will be unavailable.
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About the File Menu


ENTERPRISE enables you to import XML files into a project or export XML files from a project. You can do this using the File Menu, which gives access to the XML Import and Export dialog boxes. When you have ADVANTAGE installed, these dialog boxes contain an additional tab, enabling you to import or export ADVANTAGE-specific plans, targets, parameters, costs and thresholds. This picture shows an example:

For more information on importing and exporting XML data, see the ENTERPRISE User Reference Guide.

About the Configuration Menu


The following table briefly describes the options available on the Configuration menu, which ADVANTAGE shares with ASSET:
This Menu Item Propagation Models Enables You To Define propagation models. Propagation models are mathematical attempts to model the real radio environment as closely as possible. Terminal Types Specify the different terminal types and properties needed for subscribers of your network. Assign the terminal types to different network layers or to multiple layers, and describe their geographical distribution in relation to the mapping data.

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This Menu Item Carriers: GSM and GPRS Frequency Bands UMTS Carriers Layers: Carrier Layers Cell Layers

Enables You To Define carriers. Most radio network systems divide up spectrum into pairs for uplink and downlink communication. Rather than refer to the two absolute frequencies in terms of MHz, it is convenient to refer to a carrier number, which abstracts the absolute frequency from the description of the carriers. Define GSM carrier layers, which are sub-sets of the total list of carriers, grouped together under a common name. Define GSM cell layers, which are logical groups of transceivers on a cell. By using cell layers, you can distinguish between micro cells and macro cells or between carriers of different frequency bands. Define UMTS and HSDPA bearers that transport voice and data between cells and terminal types. Define UMTS and HSDPA services, and then allocate the services to terminal types, to account for the different services offered to the subscriber. For example, services might have different data rates and other requirements such as quality of service.

Bearers Services

Lookup Tables and Curves GSM Coverage Schemas UMTS Resources

Define Frequency Hopping Diversity Gain, C/I BER Conversion, Channel to TRX Maps and HSDPA Coding Rates. Define your own colours for GSM coverage schemas. Configure up to 6 default resources for your UMTS and HSDPA elements, including Channels.

For more information on any of these menu items, see the ASSET User Reference Guide.

About the Arrays Menu


The following table briefly describes the options on the Arrays menu:
This Menu Item Array Manager* Traffic: Traffic Array Wizard* Scale Traffic* Load Live Traffic* Network Data: Data Array Wizard Data Pixel Analyser Import and spread live network data onto the region associated with the selected Plan. For example, you can create an ADVANTAGE traffic array. View detailed information about the data you have spread, as values per pixel, depending on the chosen area and network, the data spread and the resolution selected for spreading. Scale, combine and manage data arrays. Spread data based on the originally spread data and an optimised network configuration. Create GSM coverage/interference arrays. Create traffic arrays. Scale traffic arrays (projected to increase in system load over time). Create traffic arrays using imported live traffic. Enables You To View any non-ADVANTAGE-specific array information currently in memory, as well as load, delete and save arrays.

Data Array Operations Re-Spread Data Coverage/Interference*

Signal Coverage - GSM Best Server Create signal coverage arrays for GSM networks. Wizard*

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This Menu Item Signal Coverage - UMTS Pilot coverage Wizard* Array Settings*

Enables You To Create signal coverage arrays for UMTS networks. Define the parameters for all arrays and prediction creation/loading.

For more information on the items marked *, see the ASSET User Reference Guide. For more information on the four items listed under Network Data, see Using Measurement Data on page 141.

About the Tools Menu


The following table briefly describes the options on the Tools menu:
This Menu Item Pathloss Prediction Generator Tip : There is also a shortcut button main ADVANTAGE toolbar. CW Measurements on the Import drive test measurements, perform CW analysis, auto-tune the propagation model parameters and create measurement-based pathloss files (based on the imported data). Convert TEMS FMT file data to Signia file format and perform data loading. Create Interference Tables, which accumulate the interference that would result if all cells in the network were allocated the same or adjacent carriers. In this way, it provides values that can be used to objectively minimise the interference within any plan it generates during the frequency planning process (see below). Use a range of automatic frequency planning options designed to help optimise your network, and produce reports based on the current or projected frequency plans. Enables You To Create prediction files for multiple sites.

TEMS Utility (GSM and UMTS) Interference Tables: Interference Weights Interference Table Wizard Load Interference Table Save Interference Table View Interference Table Frequency Planning: Frequency Hopping Process Selector ILSA Frequency Planner MA List Planner MALID Planner MALID Checker MAIO Planner HSN Planner BSIC Planner Frequency Plan Reporter Problem Identification: Problem Area Thresholds GSM UMTS Problem Cell Thresholds

Configure technology-specific thresholds for problematic areas. These define the minimum clutter-specific values that are acceptable for the purpose of the analysis. Configure technology-specific thresholds for problematic cells. You can configure problem cell thresholds to define the criteria used to classify problem cells (both GSM and UMTS) in your network. When you later identify problem cells, any cells that do not meet these thresholds will be classified as problematic.

Problem Area and Cell Identification

Identify area problems (such as low coverage, low quality) and/or cell problems (such as large number of dropped calls, large number of handovers). Assign problem cell weights, in order to prioritise actions (changes) to cells that have shown poor performance.

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For more information on the Pathloss Prediction Generator, Interference Tables and Frequency Planning, see the ASSET User Reference Guide.

About the Reports Menu


The following table describes the reporting options that ADVANTAGE shares with ASSET:
This Menu Item Site/Node report GSM Cell Information report FCC report Enables You To Generate a report that includes any selected contents of the Site Database, based on any filter. Generate a report containing all cells which use a certain carrier, or range of carriers, according to the criteria. Generate a report that displays all the data required for FCC form 600. The FCC (Federal Communications Commission) is the statutory regulatory body for mobile communication in the U.S.A.

About the Optimiser Menu


The following table briefly describes the two options on the Optimiser menu: Optimiser Workflow ADVANTAGE Wastebasket
This Menu Item Workflow Enables You To The Optimiser Workflow enables you to perform the vast majority of tasks within ADVANTAGE from a single dialog box. This incorporates the setting up of parameters, costs, constraints and targets, and generation of optimisation Plans. It comprises a number of main options: Plan Manager Clutter/Vector Parameters Performance Metrics/Targets Costs /Risks/Limits Strategy Settings For more information, see About the Optimiser Workflow on page 26. Delete ADVANTAGE-specific items from the database. Note : You cannot create a new item with the same name as an item in the ADVANTAGE Wastebasket, even if the items were placed in the Wastebasket by another user. Therefore, to keep these problems to a minimum you may want to delete an item permanently. Warning : Do not remove anything from the ADVANTAGE Wastebasket that another user might need as these items cannot be recovered.

Tip : There is also a shortcut button main ADVANTAGE toolbar.

on the

ADVANTAGE Wastebasket

Tip : There is also a shortcut button main ADVANTAGE toolbar.

on the

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About the Optimiser Workflow


The Optimiser Workflow helps you to access most of the ADVANTAGE-specific functionality from a single dialog box. Click the Workflow. button on the ADVANTAGE toolbar menu to open the Optimiser

The following dialog box is displayed:

The Optimiser Workflow dialog box

The following table describes the options in the Optimiser Workflow dialog box:
Option Plan Manager Clutter/Vector Parameters Brief Description Enables you to perform Plan-related operations, including running optimisations and statistics analysis. Enables you to specify the required RF performance for your optimisations, and define parameters that characterise the radio interface and the environment. Enables you to define performance design targets for your optimisations, based on the appropriate metrics. For actions and action costs, enables you to set maximum limits, combinations, and costs/risks in terms of budget/manpower/performance. Enables you to define major factors that will influence optimisations, such as which metrics will be optimised, and how those metrics are weighted. Enables you to set additional parameters and options related to optimisations, statistics and spreading network data.

Performance Metrics/targets Costs/Risks/Limits

Strategy

Settings

For complete information about this dialog box, see Using the Optimiser Workflow on page 45.

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The ADVANTAGE Process Flow


This section outlines the complete ADVANTAGE process flow, which should be helpful if you are using the tool for the first time. Note that parts of this process may not be relevant to the general user, depending on user permissions. This is especially the case if another user (for example, the administrator) has already specified and committed the setup. Tip : The Optimiser Workflow dialog box (the main user interface in ADVANTAGE) has been specially designed to help you use the tool. This diagram summarises the ADVANTAGE process:

The ADVANTAGE process flow

Setup During this phase, you must follow these steps (where applicable): Import/use planning environment data. Define the traffic-related configuration parameters (such as terminal types, services), if applicable. Create a new Plan or Plans for optimisation. Specify the Plan Details, such as vectors, drive test routes, terminal types. Configure the Action-Constraints for the optimisation. Define the Clutter and/or Vector Parameters. Specify the Performance Targets. Define the Strategy for the optimisation, which includes the selection of which Metrics are to be used. Define the Settings, that is, key additional parameters and options. Create/load traffic arrays, if applicable. Optionally, you can also follow these steps: Specify constraints in the Site Database. Define the Object/Action Costs and other cost-associated options (including Budget and/or Manpower) Import and use area-specific/cell-specific measurements (CW data, network data, and so on) if applicable.
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Specify the Problem Area and/or Cell Thresholds. Analysis During this phase, you can optionally perform these steps: Review the configuration of any Plan or Delta Plan, by vhecking the Plan reports (Initial, Delta, Final) and the Actions-Constraints. Check the measurement-based network performance (CW measurements), if applicable. Display and review the spread network data, if applicable. Analyse the performance statistics of a network plan or compare two plans, if applicable (Statistics reports). Identify problematic areas and/or problematic cells. Re-spread network data, if applicable. Apply a plan to the Site Database, using either the Temp Apply/Unapply or the DB Apply. If applicable, use the analysis functionality in ASSET. Optimisation During this phase, you can use the Plan Manager in the Optimiser Workflow to perform a number of Plan-related operations, including the starting/running of the Optimiser. You can check the feedback from the Optimiser in terms of: Cost Details and Graphs - information about the costs related to the optimisation. Statistics Details and Graphs - information about the statistics (metrics/thresholds) related to the optimisation. Optimisation Report - comprehensive details of the generated optimisation plans. Overall cost improvement; time taken; accepted iterations. Action During this phase, you can optionally perform these steps: Apply a plan to the Site Database, using either the Temp Apply/Unapply or the DB Apply. Start a new optimisation with same plan (with different action-constraints, costs, and so on). Create a new plan and and a new optimisation. Start a (new) optimisation from a Delta Plan.

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CHAPTER 3

Setting Action-Constraints in ADVANTAGE


The purpose of action-constraints in ADVANTAGE is to allow certain network parameter changes to be considered in a network optimisation, but at the same time impose meaningful limitations and restrictions on those changes, in order to accurately represent the real-world environment. An example of an 'action' may be to allow the azimuth of the antennas of a group of cells to be changed, but, at the same time, specify a 'constraint' for one of those cells, which might be a forbidden azimuth range due to to a nearby school. The ADVANTAGE tool focuses on automatic optimisation of Plans, and the actionconstraints play a crucial part in this process. It is important that you read the relevant sections in the Optimiser Workflow chapter in particular About the ActionConstraints Dialog Box on page 71.

In This Section
About Actions-Constraints About the Action-Constraints Available 29 31

About Actions-Constraints
In ADVANTAGE, there are two separate 'sources' of action-constraints: Action-constraints that you can set up and edit within the Optimiser Workflow Action-constraints that you can set for specific network elements directly within the Site Database In both cases, these action-constraints can be configured on an object-by-object basis, or to groups of objects through the use of filters. The action-constraints that you can specify are mainly common, whichever source you use. This is because, in general terms, there is nothing you can set up in the Site Database that you cannot also set up in the Action-Constraints dialog box. However, there are a few exceptions, listed in the table in Action-Constraints Exclusive to the Site Database on page 30.

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Important : Action-constraints that are set in the Site Database are always autopopulated into the Actions-Constraints dialog box when you create a Plan. You then have the freedom to modify those action-constraints at that stage, if required. When you run an optimisation, the Optimiser reads the action-constraints exclusively from the Actions-Constraints dialog box, regardless of their original 'source'. When you run an optimisation, there are three planning mechanisms you can use: Antenna Power Grid (site location/selection/configuration) ADVANTAGE provides the flexibility to run optimisations based on any single mechanism, or any combination of them. This flexibility enables you to, for example: 1 2 Set specific action-constraints in the Site Database. Edit these action-constraints (if required) and set up further action-constraints (if required) in the Actions-Constraints dialog box. - or Set up action-constraints exclusively in the Actions-Constraints dialog box. 3 Select one or more of the planning mechanisms, according to your optimisation strategy.

Note : The action-constraints of any Plans which already have Delta Plans are always in Read-Only format. For more detailed information about the action-constraints within the Optimiser Workflow, see About the Action-Constraints Dialog Box on page 71 and Using the Actions-Constraints Dialog Box.

Action-Constraints Exclusive to the Site Database


In general terms, there is nothing you can set up in the Site Database that you cannot also set up in the Action-Constraints dialog box. However, there are some exceptions, listed in the table below. This table lists the action-constraints that you can only set in the Site Database:
Tab name Grid Constraints Grid Constraints Grid Constraints Object Property Property Site or Node Action-Constraint Define potential Property locations as valid optimisation options, in terms of co-ordinates or Candidate Properties. Define the optimisation status of a Property as Nominal or Candidate. Define sector configurations (combinations).

If you do set any of the above action-constraints in the Site Database, when you next create a plan, you will be able to view them in the Action-Constraints dialog box, in a read-only state. Whether they are used in an optimisation depends on whether you choose to use the Grid planning mechanism.

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About the Action-Constraints Available


This section describes the various action-constraints that can be specified in ADVANTAGE. They are summarised in this table, listed against the specific network elements to which they relate. Note : Although these action-constraints are described here specifically in terms of setting them in the Site Database, the concept of the action-constraints is the same if you set them within the Optimiser Workflow. If you are setting them within the Optimiser Workflow, you should also refer to About the Action-Constraints Dialog Box on page 71.
Network Element Equipment Property GSM Site GSM Cell GSM Subcell UMTS Node UMTS Cell Constraints BTS Type, Mast Antenna, Grid Installation, Grid Antenna Antenna/TRX Resource, Antenna, Grid Cell Parameter, Load and Power Ctrl

You can also edit a number of constraints in the Site Database simultaneously, as described in Configuring Constraints in the Site Database Global Editor on page 43.

Configuring BTS Equipment and Mast Constraints


You can specify constraints for BTS equipment and masts, so that the constraints are used when these objects are assigned to a network element in the Site Database. BTS types can be used to constrain the output power of GSM subcells, and masts can be used to constrain the antenna heights of Properties. To configure equipment-specific constraints for BTS types: 1 2 3 From the Equipment menu, select BTS Equipment. In the dialog box that appears, select the BTS type that you want to constrain. Click the Parameters tab, and in the PA Output Power pane, select a cell layer and enter the minimum and maximum PA Output power values that the BTS can provide. This picture shows an example:

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Click Apply to save the change(s) locally, or Commit (or Commit All) to save the change(s) for use by other users. From the Equipment menu, select Masts. In the dialog box that appears, select the mast that you want to constrain. Click the Dimensions tab, and: Specify the structure height Select the required mount option - if you select Rooftop, the building height of the Property will be added to the mast height to give the antenna height.

To configure equipment-specific constraints for masts: 1 2 3

Click the Constraints tab, and specify the mast heights that you want to make available:

In the Available Masts Height pane, type in a height value and click Add To change a value, select it and enter a new value in the box and click Update To remove a value, select it and click Remove

Click Apply to save the changes, and Commit if appropriate.

Note : These constraints are only used if these equipment types are assigned to the relevant elements in the Site Database, for example, BTS equipment types are assigned to sites and masts are assigned to Properties. See the ENTERPRISE User Reference Guide for information about how to do this.

Configuring Property Antenna Constraints


Property antenna constraints are related to the antenna optimisation, and enable you to restrict the available options that can be used to optimise the antennas located on the Property. To configure Property Antenna Constraints: 1 From the Database menu, click Sites.

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Select a Property, and click the Antenna Constraints tab. This picture shows an example:

In the Antenna Height Rules pane, enter the minimum and maximum height values that you wish to use as a basis for the antenna constraints defined on this tab. To manually define a series of allowable antenna height values within the minimum-maximum range: Select the Manual option, and then select the Constrain checkbox. In the value box above the Add button, type the first value in metres. Click Add. Add further values as required - to delete a value, select it and click Remove. To edit a value, select it, change the value and then click Update.

To define a series of allowable antenna height values within the minimummaximum range based on the mast associated with the Property (which is defined on the General tab of a Property in the Site Database): Select the Mast option, and then select the Constrain checkbox. The constraint values that you have defined for this mast appear. For more information on this, see Configuring BTS Equipment and Mast Constraints on page 31.

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To define a series of allowable antenna height values within the minimummaximum range based on a particular step size: Select the Step option, and then type a value in metres for the step. Select the Constrain checkbox. A series of allowable antenna height values appear, starting with the defined minimum height, then moving upwards in steps (according to the size you defined) to the defined maximum height.

For example, the allowable height values for a minimum height of 20m and a maximum of 30m with a step size of 2m would be 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, and 30m. 4 In the Height Variation pane, you can determine whether the heights for individual antennas may differ at a specific Property (this option is cell layerspecific for GSM). To do this, select the Allowed checkbox. Note : If this is not selected, all antennas on the same cell layer (GSM) or on all carriers (UMTS) at this Property must be at the same height. However, GSM cells for different cell layers, or cells of different technologies (for example, GSM and UMTS) can still have antennas with heights different from each other. 5 In the Antennas at Same Height pane, you can specify a minimum azimuth difference. This is the minimum separation (in degrees) that you are willing to accept between antennas of the same height on this Property. To do this, select the Constrain checkbox and type a value. In the Antenna Co-location pane, if you want to enable two or more co-located cells of the same or different technology (for example, GSM or UMTS) to share a common antenna device, select the Enable Co-location checkbox. Important : If Antenna Co-location is enabled for a Property, and the antenna locations (i.e. co-ordinates, height and orientation) for two or more Property sectors are identical, the respectively specified mechanical downtilts must also be identical. Otherwise, this will be treated as a constraint violation and the Optimiser will fail to start. If Antenna Co-location is not enabled for a Property, no antenna sharing configuration can be accepted as a valid starting configuration or examined as a potential optimisation solution by the Optimiser. For more information about shared antennas, see How an Optimisation Deals with Shared Antennas.

Click Apply to save the changes, and Commit if appropriate.

Configuring Property Grid Constraints


Property grid constraints can be used in conjunction with the grid planning optimisation actions and the optimisation status to specify how a Property will be considered in an optimisation, for example, its grid and/or candidate Property locations. To configure Property grid constraints: 1 From the Database menu, click Sites.

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2 3

Select a Property and click on the Grid Constraints tab. Select the required Optimisation Status:
Select Nominal To Define locations in terms of co-ordinates or candidate Properties as valid optimisation options (this means that the Property can be moved to those locations). Define the Property as a candidate only.

Candidate

If you have selected Nominal, specify a possible candidate location by either: Clicking in the Name field and typing the name of another Property already defined in the Site Database. The Optimisation Status on the candidates Property Grid Constraints tab is updated to Candidate. Clicking in the appropriate column and typing new values (in GRID, DLL, or LL as appropriate).

Note : Invalid co-ordinates will not be saved. 5 Select from the following options for each Property as appropriate:
Select Location Fixed To Constrain the Optimiser to consider only the current position of the Property whether candidate locations are available or not. Note : Selecting Location Fixed also selects Always Consider for this Property automatically. Always Consider Use either this Property, or any of its candidates, in every solution the Optimiser generates.

Click Apply to save the changes, and Commit if appropriate.

This picture shows an example, where three possible candidate locations have been defined:

Defining candidate locations

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Configuring GSM Site Installation Constraints


GSM site installation constraints can be configured to restrict the GSM cell site installation options that can be used during GSM cell power optimisation. To configure GSM site installation constraints: 1 2 3 From the Database menu, click Sites. Select a GSM site, and click on the Installation tab. In the Cabin/Installation pane, select the Fixed checkbox if you want the specified BTS equipment type to stay unchanged during a GSM power optimisation.

Click Apply to save the changes, and Commit if appropriate.

Configuring GSM Site Grid Constraints


The Grid Constraints tab of a GSM site is where you can define varying site configurations to use in the grid planning optimisation - in particular, how you choose which sectors the site is going to use during optimisation (the Site Configuration Optimisation option). If you want to prevent the site sector configuration from changing during optimisation, select the Fixed Site DB Sector Configuration checkbox. Important : Site configuration changes may not be considered by the Optimiser, depending on the other grid planning constraints. To generate a configuration automatically: 1 2 3 4 From the Database menu, click Sites. Select a GSM site and click on the Grid Constraints tab. In the Min. Sectors and Max. Sectors fields, type the required number of sectors. Click Generate.

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This picture shows an example with two configurations:

5 1 2 3

Click Apply to save the changes, and Commit if appropriate. Click the Add button. Select the checkboxes for the required sectors. Click Apply to save the changes, and Commit if appropriate.

To add a configuration manually:

To delete a configuration, select it and click Remove. To delete all configurations, click Remove All.

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Configuring GSM Cell Antenna Constraints


GSM cell antenna constraints are configured per antenna, as opposed to constraints configured per Property, which relate to all antennas on the Property. For information on how to configure these, see Configuring Property Antenna Constraints on page 32. To configure GSM cell antenna constraints: 1 2 3 From the Database menu, click Sites. Select a cell, and click the Antenna Constraints tab. If you want to change the antenna for which you are configuring constraints, select the required slot from the Antenna Configuration pane:

In the Wall or Other Bearing Constraints pane, select to use a Forbidden Azimuth Range. This enables you to define an orientation region (or range) which the automatic optimisation cannot consider for azimuth changes. To set the range, type a clockwise wall bearing angle (in other words, the starting azimuth for the forbidden range) and an anti-clockwise wall bearing angle (in other words, the final azimuth for the forbidden range). This picture shows an example for an original antenna azimuth of 100 degrees. The clockwise bearing angle is set to 120 degrees and the anti-clockwise bearing angle to 80 degrees, meaning that, depending on the considered antenna actions/constraints, the antenna may be able to move plus or minus 20 degrees during the optimisation:

In the Misc Constraints pane, you can set the following constraints per antenna slot:
Select this checkbox Antenna Device Fixed Antenna Pattern Fixed To Prevent changes to the antenna device during optimisation. Prevent changes to the antenna pattern during optimisation. Note : If you select this, Antenna Device Fixed will be selected automatically. Mechanical Downtilt Fixed Azimuth Fixed Height Fixed Prevent changes to the mechanical downtilt during optimisation. Prevent changes to the azimuth during optimisation. Prevent changes to the antenna height during optimisation.

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Select this checkbox Constrain Max Main Lobe Tilt

To Prevent changes to the electrical and/or mechanical downtilt that violate this constraint during optimisation

Click Apply to save the changes, and Commit if appropriate.

Configuring GSM Subcell Antenna/TRX Constraints


GSM subcell antenna/TRX constraints can be configured to fix the PA output during the GSM cell power optimisation. To configure GSM subcell antenna/TRX constraints: 1 2 3 From the Database menu, click Sites. Select a GSM subcell, and click the Antenna/TRX tab. In the Transmitter pane, to prevent changes to the PA output by the Optimiser during optimisation, select the Fixed PA Output checkbox.

Click Apply to save the changes, and Commit if appropriate.

Configuring Node Resource Constraints


Node constraints can be configured to restrict the node to a particular type during a node power optimisation. To configure node resource constraints: 1 2 3 From the Database menu, click Sites. Select a node and click the Resource tab. Select the Fixed checkbox if you want the specified Node type to stay unchanged during a power optimisation.

Click Apply to save the changes, and Commit if appropriate.


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Configuring Node Antenna Constraints


Node antenna constraints are related to the antenna optimisation, and enable you to restrict the available options that can be used to optimise the antennas associated with a node cell. To configure node antenna constraints: 1 2 3 From the Database menu, click Sites. Select a node and click the Antenna Constraints tab. If you want to change the antenna for which you are configuring constraints, select the required slot from the Antenna Configuration pane:

In the Wall or Other Bearing Constraints pane, select to use a Forbidden Azimuth Range. This enables you to define an orientation region (or range) which the automatic optimisation cannot consider for antenna azimuth changes. To set the range, type a clockwise wall bearing angle (in other words, the starting azimuth for the forbidden range) and an anti-clockwise wall bearing angle (in other words, the final azimuth for the forbidden range). This picture shows an example for an azimuth of 100 degrees. The clockwise bearing angle is set to 120 degrees and the anti-clockwise bearing angle to 80 degrees, meaning that the antenna is able to move plus or minus 20 degrees during the optimisation:

In the Misc Constraints pane, you can set the following constraints per cell:
Select this checkbox Antenna Device Fixed Antenna Pattern Fixed To Prevent changes to the antenna device during optimisation. Prevent changes to the antenna pattern during optimisation. Note : If you select this, Antenna Device Fixed will be selected automatically. Mechanical Downtilt Fixed Azimuth Fixed Height Fixed Constrain Max Main Lobe Tilt Prevent changes to the mechanical downtilit during optimisation. Prevent changes to the azimuth during optimisation. Prevent changes to the antenna height during optimisation. Prevent changes to the electrical and/or mechanical downtilt that violate this constraint during optimisation

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Click Apply to save the changes, and Commit if appropriate.

Configuring Node Grid Constraints


The Grid Constraints tab of a node is where you can define varying configurations for use in the grid planning optimisation - in particular, how you choose which sectors the site is going to use (the Site Configuration Optimisation option). If you want to prevent the site sector configuration from changing during optimisation, select the Fixed Site DB Sector Configuration checkbox. Important : Site configuration changes may not be considered by the Optimiser, depending on the other grid planning constraints. To generate a configuration automatically: 1 2 3 4 From the Database menu, click Sites. Select a node and click on the Grid Constraints tab. In the Min. Sectors and Max. Sectors fields, type the required number of sectors. Click Generate. This picture shows an example of six possible configurations:

Click Apply to save the changes, and Commit if appropriate.

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To add a configuration manually: 1 2 3 Click the Add button. Select the checkboxes for the required sectors. Click Apply to save the changes, and Commit if appropriate.

To delete a configuration, select it and click Remove. To delete all configurations, click Remove All.

Configuring UMTS Cell Params Constraints


UMTS cell parameter constraints can be set to restrict the power settings options that can be used to optimise the UMTS cell. To configure UMTS cell parameter constraints: 1 2 3 From the Database menu, click Sites. Select a UMTS cell, and click the Cell Params tab. In the UMTS Parameters pane: 4 Set Fixed Max TX Power to True to prevent changes to the maximum total power during optimisation Set Fixed UMTS Channel Power to True to prevent changes to the power that is dedicated to the Pilot, Control, Synchronisation and Indicator channels Set Fixed HSDPA Link Power to True to prevent changes to the HSDPA link power during optimisation

Click Apply to save the changes, and Commit if appropriate.

Configuring UMTS Cell Load and Power Ctrl Constraints


UMTS cell load and power control constraints can be configured to restrict the maximum downlink power per connection that can be used to optimise the UMTS cell. To do this: 1 2 3 From the Site Database, click Sites. Select a UMTS cell, and click the Load&Power Ctrl tab. In the TX Power Limits pane, select the Fixed checkbox.

Click Apply to save the changes, and Commit if appropriate.

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Configuring Constraints in the Site Database Global Editor


Changing information for a large number of Properties, sites and cells can be a very lengthy process when performed manually. To avoid this, you can use the Global Editor to define constraints for objects identified by a filter. Note : The Global Editor is used on a per filter basis - you cannot specify a different filter for different tabs. To use the Global Editor: 1 2 3 4 From the Database menu, click Sites. In the Site Database window, click Global Edit. Select the appropriate filter. Select the items that you want to change for the network elements in this filter. For a list of the ADVANTAGE-specific constraints, see ADVANTAGE-specific Constraints in the Global Editor. Here is an example of the constraints in the Global Editor:

Important : Where appropriate, select both checkboxes to set the relevant constraint. If you just select the first checkbox, the constraint will be disabled. 5 Click Apply to save the changes, and Commit if appropriate.

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ADVANTAGE-specific Constraints in the Global Editor


This table describes the ADVANTAGE-specific constraints:
On this tab Antenna Constraints You can set these constraints Antenna Device Fixed Antenna Pattern Fixed Mechanical Downtilt Fixed Azimuth Fixed Height Fixed Constrain Max Main Lobe Tilt Property Constraints Antennas: Allow Co-location Allow Height Variation Same Height Min Azimuth Diff Antenna Height Rules: Manual, Mast or Step Height Min Height Max Height Grid Constraints: Optimisation Status Location Fixed Always Consider Heights Used Grid Constraints Fixed Site DB Sector Configuration Site Configuration Generator: Min Sectors Max Sectors Generate Configurations Remove All Configurations Installation (GSM) Cell Layer (GSM) Node Config Cell Params Fixed Site/BTS Equipment Fixed PA Output Fixed Node Type Fixed Max TX Power Fixed UMTS Channels Power Fixed HSDPA Link Power Cell Load & Power Fixed Max DL Power per Connection

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CHAPTER 4

Using the Optimiser Workflow


The Optimiser Workflow enables you to perform the vast majority of tasks within ADVANTAGE from a single dialog box. This incorporates the setting up of parameters, costs, constraints and targets, and generation of optimisation Plans.

Example of the Optimiser Workflow dialog box in ADVANTAGE

The Optimiser Workflow comprises a number of main options in the left hand pane, and each of these enables you to access a range of specific options that are displayed in the right-hand pane. To start the Optimiser Workflow : From the Optimiser menu, click Workflow - or Click the button on the main ADVANTAGE toolbar

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In This Section
Using the Plan Manager Setting Clutter/Vector Parameters Setting Performance Metrics/Targets Specifying Costs/Risks/Limits Setting the Strategy Specifying the Settings 46 100 104 112 119 125

Using the Plan Manager


The Plan Manager in the Optimiser Workflow enables you to perform a number of Plan-related operations: View and use existing Plans Create new Plans Set up and activate the Plan Details View and Edit Actions-Constraints Start/Run Optimisations Delete Plans Temp Apply/Unapply DB Apply Tip : There is also a context menu, which you can access by right-clicking on the icon of the appropriate Plan. This provides quick access to the same options as most of the main buttons, but also provides extra options. For more information, see Using the Context Menu on page 54. Important : When you are using the Optimiser Workflow for the first time, you need to set up the general parameters, strategy, settings, and so on, before you run any optimisations. These may include: Clutter/Vector Parameters Performance Metrics/Targets Costs/Risks/Limits Strategy Settings However, this depends whether you have the appropriate user permissions. Parts of this process may not be relevant to the general user. Depending on the situation, it is possible that the above options and parameters are centrally specified and committed within the user's organisation.

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About the Concept of Plans in ADVANTAGE


There are two 'categories' of Plan in ADVANTAGE: Plan Delta Plan However, in essence, the two types of plan, once created, can be considered to be the same. This is because, in general terms, you can perform similar operations using a Plan of either category, and you can choose to Apply any of these Plans to the database. Here are some basic principles: Before you can start an optimisation, you must have at least one Plan created. For more information, see Creating a New Plan for Optimisation on page 49. Plans are created by way of a 'snapshot' from the current Site Database (this is the only way to create a 'new' plan). During that process, you can restrict the scope of the plan in terms of the region and the sites/nodes/cells, by using the Map View region and the filters. At the end of that process, the Plan appears within the Plan Manager list. A set of Details (specific vectors, drive test routes, terminal types, array-based options) must be active, in order to optimise a plan. Plans and Delta Plans are listed in the Plan Manager section of the Optimiser Workflow dialog box. Delta Plans can only emanate from a Plan, and they must always be 'parented' to a Plan, since they represent changes to the starting Plan. When you run an optimisation for the Plan, the Delta Plans appear as 'children' of the parent Plan. Plans are categorised by the icon. Delta Plans are categorised by the icon.

The following picture illustrates this:

Example of Plans and Delta Plans listed in the Plan Manager

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Viewing and Using Plans in the Plan Manager


When you are viewing Plans, there are three viewing options: Used Created By Me All Plans

These options are visual 'filters' that help you to distinguish which Plan(s) you are working with. The 'Created By Me' option always lists the Plans that you (the logged in User ID) have created. The 'All Plans' option always lists all existing Plans, regardless of who created them. The 'Used' option requires a more detailed description: The concept behind the 'Used' option is that, generally speaking, only one individual would be working with a particular Plan at any one time. This would avoid 'multiuser' problems if you are intending to work iteratively with a Plan, making progressive changes toward a new Plan which has the potential to improve the quality of your network. Nevertheless, it is possible, if required, that a Plan is 'Used' by more than one individual. However, in this situation, it is not possible to delete the Plan, nor is it possible to edit the Action-Constraints for the Plan (but they are viewable in readonly form). When you create a Plan, it automatically becomes 'Used' by you. However, it is possible to turn this status on/off, using the Toggle option in the context menu. In a similar way, any user who did not create the Plan, can use the Toggle option to activate his/her 'Used' status for that Plan. The option can therefore be used to hand over the 'use' of the Plan to a different single user, or (if explicitly required) it can be used to share the 'use' of the Plan amongst multiple users. In situations where you may want multiple users to work on the same Plan, but have the freedom to edit the Actions-Constraints for that Plan, you can utilise the Duplicate option. This enables different users to 'branch off' from the same original Plan into potentially different proposed network Plans. For more information on the context menu, including the Toggle and Duplicate options, see Using the Context Menu on page 54.

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Creating a New Plan for Optimisation


To create a new Plan for optimisation: 1 Ensure you have at least one Map View window open. Note : The above step is essential, because the region must always be an inherent characteristic of any Plan. 2 3 Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. In the left-hand pane, select Plan Manager. on the main

4 5

Click the New Plan button. In the Plan Wizard that appears, type a name for the Plan. If required, you can select an existing Plan as a template. For information on this, see the following section.

6 7

Click Next. If you have more than one Map View open, and you require a different view from the one displayed in the wizard, select a different view using the button. Alternatively, you can choose to enter the coordinates instead.

8 9

Select one or more filters to determine which sites/nodes and cells are to be considered in the Plan. Click the Finish button.

Tip : There is also a button on the main ADVANTAGE toolbar which enables you to make a '2D View Plan', enabling you to short-cut some of the processes. For more information on this, see Creating a New Plan Directly from a Map View on page 50.

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Select an Existing Plan as a Template for a New Plan


When you are creating a new Plan for optimisation, you can choose to select an existing Plan as a template for the new Plan. If you do this, the cells to be included in the new plan are still determined by the region and filters that you select within the Plan wizard, but the key difference is that all the action-constraints for cells that exist both in the original 'template' plan and in the new Plan are 'copied' into the new Plan. In effect, it copies the action-constraints for such cells into the Action-Constraints dialog box, but takes a fresh snapshot of the parameters in the Site Database. This option may therefore be useful if you have made changes in the Site Database since creating the original Plan, and want to bring those changes into a new Plan. Note : Any cells that were in the original 'template' plan, but not captured by the region/filters for the new Plan, are always excluded from the new Plan. Conversely, if there are cells in the new Plan that were not in the original 'template' plan, they would need their action-constraints to be edited in the Action-Constraints dialog box (in the usual way).

Creating a New Plan Directly from a Map View


There is a short-cut button on the main ADVANTAGE toolbar which enables you to create a Plan from a currently opened Map View.

New Plan button

This option works in a similar way to the normal way of creating a plan, except that it short-cuts some of the processes. To use this option: 1 2 3 Ensure you have the appropriate Map View open, which is displaying the filters that include the cells you want to include. Click the 'Create New Plan' button. Click on your Map View (as prompted). In the Optimiser Workflow dialog box, you can now view the new plan in the Plan Manager list, with an incremented name, which you can rename by right-clicking on it, if required. 4 By default, the Action-Constraints dialog box appears, so that you can edit the values for the new plan.

In effect, this short-cut method simplifies the process within the Plan Wizard, and relies on the fact that, beforehand, you set up the Map View with the correct filters for the sites/nodes and cells.

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Setting Up and Activating the Details for the Plan


Given that the area and cells have already been determined at the Plan creation stage, the Plan Details enable you to set up the optimisation to use specific vectors, use location information (from drive test routes), select terminal types, and set the arraybased options and parameters. Important : If you choose to set up more than one set of details, you can only have one set activated at any time. In this situation, always ensure you have the required set activated. To set up the Details: 1 2 Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. In the left-hand pane, select Plan Manager. on the main

Expand the Plan Manager option, and then click on Details.

4 5 6

Click Add. The Detail Wizard appears. Type a name for the Detail. If appropriate, you can initially base the new Detail on an existing one. Click Next. Select the Use Vectors checkbox if you want to constrain the optimisation calculations (and the network data spreading, statistics, problem area and cell identification) to the particular vectors that you may now specify.

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Select the Use Location Information in Pathloss Corrections checkbox if you want to use the location information stored in the matching pathloss correction files. Ensure that the pathloss correction files are of the same resolution as the one you want to use in the Plan Details. This will focus your calculations on drive test routes, which are implicitly considered based on their respective measurements. For more information about this, see About Using Measurement-Based Pathloss Files on page 163. Note : The main advantage of constraining optimisation calculations to vectors, and/or using location information, is that it makes calculations faster and more focused. If you select both options, the Optimiser will improve both the area(s) within the vector(s) and the drive test route areas. Click Next.

Select the required terminal type(s) from the list displayed, and then click Next.

Note : This is not required for network data spreading or area-based analysis/optimisation. 9 Select a resolution, and then choose the array-based parameters and options for the appropriate technology, either GSM or UMTS or both, as described in the following sections.

10 Any added or edited Details are 'auto-applied'. If you want to commit changes, click Commit. Alternatively, if required, you can click Restore to revert to the previously (if any) committed state. If you have made many changes, the Commit All and Restore All buttons may be useful. 11 Click Finish. Important : If you choose to set up more than one set of details, you can only have one set activated at any time. If you want this set of Details to be active, ensure that you select it. All changes that you have just made in the Detail Wizard dialog box are automatically Applied (that is, saved to the database). At this point, the changes on this page are in the Applied state and will persist even if you close the Optimiser Workflow dialog box. However, if appropriate, you can carry out one of the following actions: If you want to restore specific options on this page to the previous committed state (if such a state exists), click Restore If you want to share specific changes on this page with all other users of the project, click Commit Tip : The Commit All and Restore All buttons may be useful if you have added or edited several sets of Details.
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About the GSM Parameters


This table describes the array-based parameters for GSM, when you are setting up the Details for a Plan:
Parameter Maximum number of servers Comments The number of GSM cells that are considered as covering cells and interferers. Note : If you are only interested in the Best Server and Best C/I (Average Connection) arrays, this value should be set to 1. Minimum signal strength (dBm) Network data will only spread to areas where the signal strength is above this threshold. Note : This is only used for data spreading.

About the UMTS Parameters


This table describes the array-based parameters for UMTS, when you are setting up the Details for a Plan:
Parameter Number of covering cells Minimum signal strength (dBm) Comments The number of cells that are considered as primary covering cells, handover cells and interferers. Network data will only spread to areas where the signal strength is above this threshold. Note : This is only used for data spreading. Number of Snapshots A snapshot represents an individual component within the simulation process. For each snapshot, specified densities of user terminals are positioned in statistically determined locations. The ability of each terminal to make its connection to the network is calculated through an iterative process. The performance of the network is then analysed from the averaged results. The simulation can output an array that shows the average number of pilot polluters at any location, as determined by the relative threshold that you set here (xdB). Pilot polluters are defined as the number of cells not in the active set, but providing an Ec/Io level within xdB of the best Ec/Io in the active set. The error due to imperfect power control in dB, which can be used to influence the simulation results. It is recommended that this parameter is set to zero. In a real network, imperfect power control produces a (log-normal) distribution of achieved Eb/No values for successfully served terminals. One consequence might be a higher uplink noise rise. If a non-zero value is entered here, the simulation models this effect by including uncorrelated lognormal errors on the UL and DL transmit powers. Errors are applied only after all other handover gains and margins have been considered. Note : Terminals are never dropped from the simulation results if the resulting error makes their transmit power too high or low. Therefore, although the output arrays may differ slightly, the reports will be unaffected. Chip Rate The chip rate of the system to be simulated. This value is used in combination with the service bit rate to calculate the processing gain for a service.

Pilot Pollution Threshold

Power Control Standard Deviation

Intra-Site Correlation Coefficient The correlation between fades (for a terminal) to cells on the same node. Inter-Site Correlation Coefficient The correlation between fades (for a terminal) to cells on different nodes. Orthogonality Factor per Clutter Type If you have specified values for orthogonality per clutter type in the 3g Clutter Parameters, you have the option here to enable them to be used in the simulation. Note : If this option is not enabled, the orthogonality factor used by the Simulator is the generic value on the Cell Params tab in the Site Database. HSDPA Max Ec/Io Prioritisation If applicable, choose whether you want to use Max Ec/Io prioritisation of the terminals supporting HSDPA. Note : Only the terminals that support HSDPA will be sorted, even if they do not end up using a HSDPA bearer.

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Parameter Use Neighbour Lists Max Power Change (%)

Comments If applicable, choose whether you want to use neighbour lists. Both will impose restrictions on handovers. If neither is selected, handovers can potentially occur between any cells. Set the Max. Power Change (%) convergence parameter to set the 'stabilisation' target for each snapshot. This limits the number of iterations per snapshot. If the percentage change in total uplink and total downlink interference (summed over all cells) changes by an amount smaller than this target value for 15 consecutive iterations, then the iterations are deemed to have converged.

Only Scan Where Traffic Exists Reference Terminal Type

You can choose to only scan pixels where traffic exists, if a valid traffic raster is in memory. This is required to generate arrays if you are running a Simulator-based optimisation that involves static calculations (that is, using Simulator metrics together with Signal Strength metrics).

Using the Context Menu


When you are viewing the Plan Manager, there is a also a context menu available, which you can access by right-clicking on the: icon of the appropriate Plan - or icon of the appropriate Delta Plan This not only provides quick access to the same options as most of the main buttons, but also provides extra options:
Option Action-Constraints Delete Rename a Plan Duplicate a Plan Available for Plans Plans and Delta Plans Plans and Delta Plans Plans Description/Comments See Using the Action-Constraints Dialog Box on page 59. When you delete a Plan, its 'child' Delta Plans are also removed. A Delta Plan can be deleted individually. A quick way to rename a Plan or Delta Plan. These names must always be unique within a project. This is a useful option in situations where you want to: Work on one of your existing Plans, experimenting with different Actions-Constraints, but still retain the original Plan. Work on a Plan that is being 'Used' by someone else, but want the freedom to edit the Actions-Constraints for that Plan. For more information, see Viewing and Using Plans in the Plan Manager on page 48. Toggle the Use of a Plan Plans and Delta Plans You can use this option to toggle the 'Used' status of a Plan. The option can be used, for example, to 'release your usage' of a Plan. This may, for example, enable another user to 'obtain the usage' of that Plan. For more information, see Viewing Plans in the Plan Manager on page 48. Set a Plan as the Active Plan Plans and Delta Plans This simply acts as a 'bookmark', so that you can quickly identify the Plan you have been working on. It also appears as the default plan in the dialog boxes where you need to select a plan. See Starting an Optimisation on page 82. The current values, and the constraints, of the network contained in the Plan, and the possible network parameter changes that may be considered in an optimisation (as appropriate).

Optimise Initial Report

Plans and Delta Plans Plans

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Option Delta Report

Available for Delta Plans

Description/Comments The current values, and the constraints, of the network contained in the Delta Plan, and the specific network parameter changes 'proposed' by the Optimiser. A complete report of the state of the 'optimised' network. in other words, the current values are replaced by the 'proposed' values (only in the report, not in the database).

Final Report

Delta Plans

Summary

Plans

The included cells, the planning region (size, location, resolution). Tip : The Update 2D View button is also very useful.

Set Active Cells to Selection Filter

Plans and Delta Plans

This enables you to quickly update (overwrite) the contents of the Selection Filter with the 'active' cells that are in the selected plan. Tip : This option is particularly useful for Delta Plans derived from Grid Planning optimisations that involve site selection/configuration, because the filter will be a perfect 'mirror' of the sites/cells which are 'active' in the corresponding Delta Plan. For more information about the Selection Filter, see the ENTERPRISE User Reference Guide.

Statistics

Plans and Delta Plans

The Actions report, Statistics report, and Costs report (as appropriate). See About the Statistics Analysis on page 89.

Viewing Plans in the Map View Window


In addition to viewing Plans within the Plan Manager, there are also some viewing options in the Map View window. When you have created plans, you can view that region in the Map View. To do this: 1 2 Ensure you have a Map View window open that will include the planning region for the Plan. Open the Map Information and Control, and select the required Plan under the Plans heading in the Data Types:

Click the Apply button.

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The planning region is displayed:

If required, you can double-click the Plan name in the Map Information and Control, and select a different display colour.

Important : The other items displayed (including the nodes or sites) depend on which other items are selected in the Data Types (this may also depend whether a Favourite View has been initially displayed). This Plan viewing option does not discriminate in terms of nodes/sites; it simply visualises the planning region.

About the Apply Detail Option in the Map View


When you are viewing Plans in the Map View, you can choose to modify the highlighted planning region in terms of the exact pixels that will be included in the optimisation calculations. Note : This option is purely for visual purposes. It has no direct impact on the Plans or optimisations. The resulting display on the Map View can depend on two factors: In the Details for the Plan, you can specify if you want to restrict an optimisation to specific vectors (for example, polygons), and/or drive test routes (you can have more than one set of Details, but you can only have one set activated at any time). For more information, see Setting Up and Activating the Details for the Plan on page 51. In the Clutter Parameters, on the General Parameters tab, you can specify that you want to use sampling on certain pixels. For more information, see Specifying Clutter Parameters on page 100.

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You can modify the display of the planning region on the Map View so the it only shows the exact pixels that will be included in the optimisation calculations, according to either or both of the above factors. To do this: 1 In the Map Information and Control, right-click the required Plan (under the Plans heading in the Data Types):

2 3

Click the 'Apply Detail' option. Click the Redraw button. If any vectors have been specified in the active Details, only the corresponding pixels will be displayed. This example shows the pixels for a polygon comprising 3 segments:

If some of the clutter parameters have been set to use sampling, only the corresponding pixels will be displayed. Here is an example:

Note: It is also possible to have a combination of both factors (sampled pixels within vectors/polygons).

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About the Other Plan Options in the Map View


When you are viewing Plans in the Map View, you can also use some additional options in the Map View window. To access these options: 1 In the Map Information and Control, right-click the required Plan:

Click the required option. This table describes the options:


Option Plan Summary Description A summary which lists the included cells, and the planning region (size, location, resolution). Tip : The Update 2D View button is also very useful. Apply (or Remove) Detail Update Selection Filter See About the Apply Detail Option in the Map View on page 56. Enables you to quickly update (overwrite) the contents of the Selection Filter with the cells that are in the selected plan. For more information about the Selection Filter, see the ENTERPRISE User Reference Guide. Properties (all options) In the same way as for other items in the Data Types, these options enable you to manage the display properties of each item. Tip : The Properties option can also be accessed by double-clicking the Plan name.

If you have clicked one of the visual options (Apply Detail, Properties options), you need to click the Redraw button to refresh the Map View.

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Using the Action-Constraints Dialog Box


The Action-Constraints dialog box plays a crucial role in ADVANTAGE, because it enables you to specify which parameters can be changed (for the cells that can be planned) during optimisation. You can do this for any or all of the planning mechanisms (Antenna/Power/Grid). The Action-Constraints dialog box presents a tabular display containing four tabs: Summary Antenna Power Grid

Example of Action-Constraints dialog box

The Summary tab page displays how many Sites, Cells, and Antennas are in the Plan, itemised in terms of Total, Plan, Read-only values. The other tabs (Antenna/Power/Grid) display the parameters relevant to each planning mechanism, which can be briefly described as: The current values of the network contained in the Plan The constraints, that is, the restrictions on what can be changed, in terms of objects, ranges, limits and so on The actions, that is, all the possible network parameter changes that may be considered in the optimisation Important : The action-constraints of any Plans which already have Delta Plans are always in Read-Only format. Note : If you are only intending to analyse a Plan, you may not need to edit the actionconstraints.

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You can edit the Action-Constraints for an optimisation Plan. To do this: 1 2 Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. In the left-hand pane, select Plan Manager. on the main

Select the appropriate Plan, and click the Constraints button. The Action-Constraints dialog box appears.

For the selected Plan, you can edit the constraints and/or the possible changes. You can do this: Individually for each object, on a manual basis. You can employ functionality similar to that in Microsoft Excel to do this, such as copying and pasting. - or Using Action-Constraints Templates that you have created, which you can then either: Manually assign to objects in the Action-Constraints dialog box, under the Templates column, - or Assign to objects on a 'filter-specific' basis, by clicking the Assign Templates button.

Important : When you have finished making changes in the Action-Constraints dialog box, you must always click 'Apply', in order to save the changes.

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About the Viewing Options for Action-Constraints


You can perform many kinds of viewing operations similar to that in Microsoft Excel, by clicking the appropriate within the dialog box.

There are two distinct 'levels' in the Action-Constraints dialog box, where the appears: The section headings (ID, Current Values, Azimuth, Pilot Power, Candidate Planning and so on) The column headings (Property, Cell, Min, Max, Step, Fixed and so on)

Example of Heading levels in Action-Constraints dialog box

For the Section headings, when you click Show/hide columns (within the section) For the Column headings, when you click options: Show/hide column Sort ascending Sort descending Show all rows

, you can perform this viewing option:

, you can perform these viewing

Filter (gives option to show only the rows containing a chosen value in column) In addition, if you prefer, you can perform similar viewing operations using the Show/Hide button:

Show/Hide button

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About the Methods of Editing the Action-Constraints


The Action-Constraints dialog box is very flexible, and enables you to set up the action-constraints for your optimisation plans in ways that suit your specific requirements. As you gain experience in using the ADVANTAGE tool, you will develop your own preferences in how you approach this important part of the optimisation process. Important : Whichever method(s) you use, you must always click 'Apply' in the ActionConstraints dialog box, when you have finished, in order to save the changes.

In summary, as previously described, you can take different approaches to editing these values: Individually for each object, on a manual basis Using action-constraints templates A combination of the above In very simplified terms, here is some general advice on how you might use each method: Manually Editing the Action-Constraints Values If you only want to set up or edit a single parameter, for example an Azimuth Change Step, it is probably easier and quicker to edit the value directly in the ActionConstraints dialog box:

Example of Azimuth values in the Action-Constraints dialog box

If you want to set up different values for different groups of cells, make full use of the filters when you edit the values.

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Important : These filters only display the cells included in the Plan when it was created. Therefore, they are intrinsically 'subsets' of the corresponding filters that you would view in the Site Database. Different filters can be selected for each tab (Antenna/Power/Grid). Each time you open a project, the filters in this dialog box will always default to the filter specified on the Filters tab of the Preferences dialog box, under the File menu. Copying and pasting single/multiple values within the dialog box Copying and Pasting values directly to and from Excel Pressing the Ctrl-Shift-DownArrow/UpArrow keys (as a quick method of highlighting an active column)

You can employ functionality similar to that in Microsoft Excel, such as:

Assigning Action-Constraints Templates to Cell Filters If you want to set up or edit a variety of parameters, such as values for Mechanical Downtilt, Azimuth and Height, it is probably easier and quicker to set up Templates, and then use the Assign Templates button to assign the template values to the objects:

Example of Assigning Action-Constraints Templates to Cell Filters

For more information, see Assigning Action-Constraints Templates to Objects by using Filters on page 78.

About the Action-Constraints under the Antennas Tab


In the Action-Constraints dialog box, whilst the majority of column headings are intuitive, there are a few columns that need descriptions. Within the Antenna tab, there is a section heading named Advantage Constraints, which enable you to restrict the available options that can be used to optimise the antennas located on a Property. Height Variation If you want to use height variation, select the checkbox. This defines whether the heights for individual antennas may differ at a specific Property. This option is cell layer-specific for GSM.

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Note : If height variation is not selected, all antennas on the same cell layer/all UMTS carriers at this Property must be at the same height. However, GSM cells for different cell layers, or cells of different technologies (for example, GSM and UMTS) can still have antennas with heights different from each other. Minimum Azimuth Difference This enables you to set a minimum separation (in degrees) that you are willing to accept between antennas of the same height on a specific Property. Antenna Co-location Enabled This enables you to select to allow two or more co-located cells of the same or different technology (for example, GSM or UMTS) to share a common antenna device. Note : If Antenna Co-location is enabled for a Property, and the antenna locations (i.e. coordinates, height and orientation) for two or more Property sectors are identical, the respectively specified mechanical downtilts must also be identical. Otherwise, this will be treated as a constraint violation and the Optimiser will fail to start. If Antenna Co-location is not enabled for a Property, no antenna sharing configuration can be accepted as a valid starting configuration or examined as a potential optimisation solution by the Optimiser. For more information about shared antennas, see How an Optimisation Deals with Shared Antennas. Forbidden Azimuth Min/Max This enables you to select to define an orientation region (or range) which the automatic optimisation cannot consider for azimuth changes. For this, the minimum represents a clockwise wall bearing angle (the starting azimuth for the forbidden range) and the maximum represents an anti-clockwise wall bearing angle (the final azimuth for the forbidden range). For example, for an original antenna azimuth of 100, if the clockwise bearing angle is set to 120 and the anti-clockwise bearing angle to 80, the antenna may be able to move plus or minus 20 during the optimisation.

About the Action-Constraints under the Grid Tab


In the Action-Constraints dialog box, whilst the majority of column headings are intuitive, there are a few columns that need descriptions. Within the Grid tab, there are a number of options which relate to: Selection Planning - potential site/sector configurations Candidate Planning - potential site locations

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Site/Sector Planning Use Under the Selection Planning heading, there is a column heading named 'Site/Sector Planning Use'. 'Sector' changes cannot be considered in an optimisation unless you have already set up the relevant parameters in the Site Database. For information, see Configuring GSM Site Grid Constraints on page 36. There are four options in this column that may be considered during an optimisation:
Option None Site Sector Both During an Optimisation: No effect. Sites can be switched on or off. Sectors (cells) can be switched on or off (according to the configuration in the Site Database). Both of the above can be considered.

These options can also be set up using the Grid Planning Action-Constraints Template, as described in Configuring Action-Constraints for Grid Planning on page 76. Candidate Planning Use Under the Candidate Planning heading, there is a column heading named 'Use'. 'Specified location' (that is, 'List') changes cannot be considered in an optimisation unless you have already set up the relevant parameters in the Site Database. For information, see Configuring Property Grid Constraints on page 34. There are four options in this column that may be considered during an optimisation:
Option None List Search Step Both During an Optimisation: No effect. Sites can be moved to specified locations (corresponding to the Candidate Properties and/or 'coordinate only' locations defined in the Site Database). Sites can be moved to locations determined by globally generated grid co-ordinates, as defined in the Grid Planning Action-Constraints Template. Both of the above can be considered.

These options can also be set up using the Grid Planning Action-Constraints Template, as described in Configuring Action-Constraints for Grid Planning on page 76.

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About Actions-Constraints Templates


The Action-Constraints Templates provide you with a quick and easy way of setting up Actions-Constraints so that they can be reused across all or some of your Plans. This flexibility enables you to specify the action-constraints for any or all of the planning mechanisms: Antenna Power Grid (site location/selection/configuration) Tip : You should make full use of these templates so that you avoid duplication of constraints that may be generic to all Plans. In other words, you should avoid spending time setting many constraints directly in the Action-Constraints dialog box, if there is a high chance that you will be using those action-constraints for other plans.

Options available within the Actions Constraints Template dialog box

When they are created, these templates can then be either: Manually assigned to objects in the Action-Constraints dialog box, under the Templates column, - or Assigned to objects on a 'filter-specific' basis, by clicking the Assign Templates button. Note : If you subsequently modify any values directly in the Action-Constraints dialog box after assigning a template, the Templates column (for the relevant object) automatically reverts to 'Custom'.

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Creating and Editing Action-Constraints Templates


To create or edit Action-Constraints Templates: 1 2 Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. In the left-hand pane, select Plan Manager. on the main

3 4

Select the appropriate Plan, and click the Constraints button. In the Actions-Constraints dialog box, click the Manage Templates button.

5 1

You can now either add, remove, edit, or rename a template. If you are adding a template, click Add, name the template, click OK, and then click Edit - or If you are editing an existing template, select it and click Edit.

To add or edit a template in the Action-Constraints Template Manager dialog box:

In the dialog box that appears, click the first action or constraint that you wish to configure, for example Antenna Planning - Electrical Downtilt.

For details on the different planning actions and constraints that you can configure, see one of the following sections: 3 Configuring Action-Constraints Templates for Antenna Planning on page 68 Configuring Action-Constraints Templates for Power Planning on page 73 Configuring Action-Constraints Templates for Grid Planning on page 76

In the right hand pane, edit the values for this action or constraint. For example:

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Click the next action or constraint that you want to configure, and in the right hand pane edit the values as appropriate. You can configure any combination of actions or constraints in the same template. For example, a template can contain both Antenna Planning and Power Planning actions or constraints.

5 6

When you have configured all of the actions and constraints that you require, click OK, and then, in the Actions-Constraints dialog box, click Close. You can now assign this (or any other) template to objects on a 'filter-specific' basis in the Actions-Constraints dialog box, as described in Assigning ActionConstraints Templates to Objects by using Filters on page 78.

Configuring Actions-Constraints Templates for Antenna Planning


When creating or editing Actions-Constraints Templates, you can configure antenna planning optimisation actions and constraints. These can be used with either cost mechanism to identify the optimum configuration of the antenna subsystem for either GSM or UMTS networks. The concept of antenna planning in ADVANTAGE is to incorporate into the optimisation the practical details of the site construction and the real environment limitations that affect the antenna subsystem. The antenna optimisation can support all the main types of actions that are allowed for the antenna subsystem. These include changes to the number of antennas, the antenna type (device and pattern), downtilt (electrical, mechanical and total), azimuth and height. This picture shows an example of the actions and constraints for antenna heights:

Action-Constraints for Antenna Height

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This table describes the antenna planning actions-constraints that you can configure:
Select Device/Pattern To Enable the antenna devices/patterns to be changed. Select the required antenna devices/patterns from the antenna database tree. Tip : To locate a particular antenna device or pattern, type the name in the Find pane, and click Find. To restrict what is displayed to just the selected items, click Show Selected. To undo this, click Show All. Electrical Downtilt Enable the electrical downtilt of the antenna to be changed: Change Step indicates the allowed step of change (in degrees). Max Change defines the maximum permitted change from the respective original value in the Site Database (in degrees). Total Downtilt must also be selected, unless Mechanical Downtilt is considered and the Total Downtilt is to remain unchanged. Note : For an optimisation to consider electrical downtilt changes, the appropriate antenna patterns (for each antenna device) need to be set up in the Cellular Antennas dialog box. Mechanical Downtilt Enable the mechanical downtilt of the antenna to be changed: Min Value sets the minimum mechanical downtilt that is permitted (in degrees). Any downtilts below the minimum will not be modified in the optimisation. Max Value sets the maximum mechanical downtilt that is permitted (in degrees). Any downtilts above the maximum will not be modified in the optimisation. Change Step indicates the allowed step of change (in degrees). Max Change defines the maximum permitted change from the respective original value in the Site Database. Total Downtilt must also be selected, unless Electrical Downtilt is considered and the Total Downtilt is to remain unchanged. Total Downtilt Enable the total downtilt (electrical plus mechanical) of the antenna to be changed: Min Value sets the minimum total downtilt that is permitted (in degrees). Any downtilts below the minimum will not be modified in the optimisation. Max Value sets the maximum total downtilt that is permitted (in degrees). Any downtilts above the maximum will not be modified in the optimisation. Azimuth Enable the azimuth of the antenna to be changed: Change Step indicates the allowed step of change (in degrees). Max Change defines the maximum permitted change (in degrees). Min Diff at Same Height specifies the minimum permitted angular distance (in degrees) that has to be maintained if antennas for the same technology and cell layer (if applicable) are positioned at the same height. Height Enable the height of the antenna to be changed: Min Value sets the minimum antenna height that is permitted (in m). Any antennas below the minimum will not be modified in the optimisation. Max Value sets the maximum antenna height that is permitted (in m). Any antennas above the maximum will not be modified in the optimisation. Change Step indicates the allowed step of change (in m). Max Change defines the maximum permitted change from the respective original value in the Site Database (in m).

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Important : When configuring antenna planning actions and constraints, you should remember the following: The original parameter settings (for example, antenna types) are always included in the optimisation. Any antenna parameters with values outside the {min, max} range set in the respective constraints will not be changed during the optimisation. The antenna type, electrical downtilt, mechanical downtilt and total downtilt actions/constraints are interdependent. For example, you cannot consider changes to the mechanical downtilt without enabling changes to the electrical and/or total downtilt as well. How the Optimiser Considers Shared Antennas This section summarises how shared antennas are considered when you run the Optimiser in ADVANTAGE. Within your initial network configuration, some of the considered antennas may have an identical physical configuration, in terms of location, height, azimuth, mechanical tilt and (optionally) pattern in the Site Database. In addition, you may have specifically set up shared antenna identities in the Site Database (for information on how to do this, see the ENTERPRISE User Reference Guide). Important : If you want the Optimiser to consider a network configuration that allows antenna sharing, you must ensure the Antenna Co-location checkbox is enabled on the Antenna Constraints tab for the relevant Properties in the Site Database. For more information, see Configuring Property Antenna Constraints on page 32. There are also options related to antenna sharing within the Settings. For more information, see Specifying the Settings on page 125. Depending on the antenna planning actions and constraints that you have specified for the considered cells: In the case of any considered antennas that are specifically set up with shared identities in ENTERPRISE, their configuration (for example, mechanical tilt) can be modified during the optimisation, but the respective antennas will remain shared. In the case of all other considered antennas, whether or not they have the same configuration at the start of the optimisation, their sharing status may (or may not) change during the optimisation. For example: Antennas initially shared may be changed to having a different configuration Antennas not initially shared may be changed to having the same configuration

Whenever antennas are shared, the number of actions and respective action costs are considered appropriately, and are only counted once for the same physical antenna object. For example, a mechanical tilt change to an antenna shared between two cells would only be counted once.

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About the Action-Constraints Dialog Box


The ADVANTAGE tool focuses on automatic optimisation of Plans. The ActionConstraints dialog box plays a crucial part in this process. Here is some key information about the important role it plays: The concept of the Action-Constraints dialog box is that it not only sets the constraints for the network optimisation, but, crucially, it also sets the possible actions (namely, the network parameter changes ) that can take place. In the majority of cases, when you have created a new Plan, you must set possible changes in the Action-Constraints dialog box, otherwise an optimisation will not run. The only exception to this is when you are performing a Grid-only optimisation, which uses Grid action-constraints for Properties/Sites/Nodes that had been set in the Site Database before the Plan was created. For more information about the action-constraints, see Setting Action-Constraints in ADVANTAGE on page 29. The user interface of the Action-Constraints dialog box is designed to help you. The two main guiding factors are the colour distinctions and the checking facility: Colour backgrounds There are two colour backgrounds for columns in the dialog box: The columns that cannot be edited (for example, those that show the current values of the Plan) are presented on a blue background. The columns that can be edited (for example, those for which action-constraints can be set for the Plan optimisation) are presented on a green background. Checking facility The Check button is extremely useful for automatically verifying that the Plan's action-constraints are valid, and ready for the optimisation to run. For example, it can show you: How many 'Degrees of Freedom' are in the Plan, according to the current state of the Action-Constraints. This value emanates from the amount of variables in the plan. The picture below represents a plan where fifteen of the antennas can each undergo a possible azimuth change:

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If there are no degrees of freedom, then the optimisation will not be allowed to run. The feedback may display an error or a warning, for example:

Errors will not allow the optimisation to run; warnings will allow it to run, but the message is aimed at making you aware of the situation. Important : It is recommended that you make full use of the the above guiding factors to ensure everything is set up correctly before optimising any Plan. About the Fixed Columns for the Action-Constraints The Action-Constraints dialog box comprises many columns for the potential network parameter changes. These sets of columns exist for each planning mechanism (Antenna/Power/Grid). One of the most important columns for each group of action-constraints is the 'Fixed' column. Some basic principles are: If the Fixed checkbox for any action-constraint is selected: That action-constraint (for the object in that row) can be considered as completely inactive. The (inactive) values remain in place just in case you want to reuse them later, by removing the Fixed setting. Unless that happens, they stay inactive.

Here is an example:

In the fourth row, the Fixed checkbox for the Azimuth action-constraint is selected. Therefore, when the optimisation is run, no azimuth changes will be considered for that particular antenna in that row. The above principles are true whether the Action-Constraints dialog box is edited manually or by using Template Assignments. With specific regard to changes made to the Action-Constraints values by assignment from Templates, you should note the following:

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For each planning mechanism (Antenna/Power/Grid), there is a Read Only template available. When this is assigned to a filter, all the 'Fixed' checkboxes (for the objects in the associated filter, and independently for each mechanism) become automatically selected in the Action-Constraints dialog box. When you create a template, it is likely that you will not have selected all the potential action-constraints in that template. When you assign that template to a filter, the 'Fixed' checkboxes for the action-constraints that were unselected in the template become automatically selected in the Action-Constraints dialog box (for the objects in the associated filter and independently for each mechanism). For example, if a template has only Azimuth (Antenna mechanism) selected, the other action-constraints (Tilts, Heights, Device/Pattern) would all be set to 'Fixed' in the Action-Constraints dialog box, after the template assignment. For more information, see Assigning Action-Constraints Templates to Objects by using Filters on page 78.

Configuring Actions-Constraints Templates for Power Planning


When creating or editing Actions-Constraints Templates, you can configure power planning optimisation actions and constraints. These can be used with any cost mechanism to identify the optimum power levels for individual base stations and the optimum BTS or Node Types for both GSM and UMTS networks respectively. The differences between the two technologies imply that the types of actions that are appropriate for each are different. In GSM all the physical channels are transmitted at the same power, whereas in UMTS the physical channels can be transmitted at different powers. The power in the node is shared between signalling and user traffic, which suggests that the less power that is allocated for signalling, the more can be made available to user traffic increasing the cell downlink capacity. The ADVANTAGE power optimisation is sufficiently advanced to handle the differing requirements of both technologies by introducing technology-specific actions, such as GSM PA Output Power or UMTS Pilot Power. This picture shows an example of the actions and constraints for GSM PA Output Power:

Action-Constraints for GSM cell PA Output

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About GSM Power Planning Action-Constraints This table describes the GSM power planning actions-constraints you can activate for GSM cells:
Select This Action PA Output Power BTS Type
j

To Enable the power amplifier (PA) output to be changed. Enable the BTS equipment type to be changed on a site.

If you have selected PA Output Power, the constraints described in the table below become active:
This Constraint Min Value (dBm) Max Value (dBm) Change Step (dB) Max Change (dB) Uniform Power Changes Allowed Enables You To Set the minimum power that is permitted (in dBm). Set the maximum power that is permitted (in dBm). Set the permitted step of power change (in dB). Set the maximum permitted change from the current value in the cell (in dB). Specify that all the cells associated with the template are adjusted together. If the initial power values are not the same, then this constraint will not be applicable and will be ignored. Define how the current value will be allowed to change within the set ranges: 'Any' allows both higher and lower values to be examined during the optimisation. 'Only decreases' just allows lower power settings to be examined. 'Only increases' just allows higher power settings to be examined.
ff

Important : When defining power planning actions and constraints, you should remember the following: The original parameter settings (for example, BTS equipment types) are always included in the optimisation. Any power parameters with values outside the {min, max} range set in the respective constraints will not be changed during the optimisation. If the Uniform Power constraint has been enabled, the respective initial power values for the associated cells must be the same in order for changes to be considered by the Optimiser. Certain actions/constraints depend on specified performance metrics and/or cost mechanisms. For example, the BTS Type action and constraint may have an effect on the performance costs, providing that the PA Output Power option is also considered. About UMTS Power Planning Action-Constraints This table describes the UMTS power planning actions you can activate for UMTS cells:
Select This Action Max TX Power Pilot Power HSDPA Link Power Max Power Per User To Enable the maximum transmitted power to be changed. Enable the pilot power (CPICH) to be changed. Enable the HSDPA link power to be changed. Enable the maximum power per user to be changed.

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Select This Action Node Types

To Enable the Node equipment type to be changed on a node.

If you have selected any of the power planning actions, the constraints described in the table below become active:
This Constraint Min Value (dBm) Max Value (dBm) Change Step (dB) Max Change (dB) Fixed % of Max TX Power Enables You To Set the minimum power that is permitted (in dBm). Set the maximum power that is permitted (in dBm). Set the permitted step of power change (in dB). Set the maximum permitted change from the current value in the cell (in dB). Specify that the appropriate power (for all the cells associated with the template) is always adjusted in proportion with the Max TX Power. This maintains the same ratio that exists in the starting plan. Note : When this is selected, the Change Step and the Changes Allowed become read-only, and the values that you set for the Max TX Power are used instead. Uniform Power Changes Allowed Specify that all the cells associated with the template are adjusted together. If the initial power values are not the same, then this constraint will not be applicable and will be ignored. Define how the current value will be allowed to change within the set ranges: 'Any' allows both higher and lower values to be examined during the optimisation. 'Only decreases' just allows lower power settings to be examined. 'Only increases' just allows higher power settings to be examined.

Important : When configuring power planning actions and constraints, you should remember the following: The original parameter settings (for example, Node equipment types) are always included in the optimisation. Any power parameters with values outside the {min, max} range set in the respective constraints will not be changed during the optimisation. If the Uniform Power constraint has been enabled, the respective initial power values for the associated cells must be the same in order for changes to be considered by the Optimiser. Certain actions/constraints depend on specified performance metrics and/or cost mechanisms. For example, the Max Power per User or the Node Type option may have an effect on the performance costs, providing that the Monte Carlo Cost Mechanism is considered. When you are using the Fixed % of Max TX Power checkbox (for Pilot Power, HSDPA Link Power or Max Power Per User): You should ensure that all the values you set for the Max TX Power planning action are compatible with your overall objectives If optimising HSDPA Link Powers, cells will be considered for HSDPA link power optimisation only if they are enabled for HSDPA (and have a Node Type that supports HSDPA) and you choose to use the Monte Carlo mechanism in the Optimisation Wizard

If the Fixed Ratio and/or Uniform Power constraint has been enabled, the Optimiser will not change the Node Type from one that supports HSDPA to one that does not, and vice versa.
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If a cell considered by the Optimiser cannot support HSDPA (in other words, none of its available Node Types support HSDPA or it is not supported on the cell), the Optimiser will not allow any changes to the HSDPA Power and will not consider the HSDPA-specific Fixed Ratio and Uniform Power constraints for this cell.

Configuring Action-Constraints Templates for Grid Planning


When creating or editing Action-Constraints Templates, you can configure grid planning optimisation actions and constraints. These can be used with either cost mechanism to identify the optimum site location/configuration for GSM and UMTS networks. These actions-constraints incorporate various limitations that impact upon network planning in practice, for example, the inability to consider certain site locations due to environmental, financial or other concerns. The grid optimisation in ADVANTAGE can take account of these limitations in the examination of changes to the site locations and/or the site configurations. This picture shows an example of the actions and constraints for grid planning (location):

Action-Constraints for Grid planning (Location)

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This table describes the grid planning actions-constraints that you can configure:
For This Option Location Select Min and Max Inter-site Distance To Specify the minimum and maximum acceptable distance (in m) between any Property-Property pairs that are first-order neighbour pairs (in other words, nominal-nominal, nominal-candidate or candidate-candidate) considered in a plan. You can then choose to modify the way that nominal-nominal first-order neighbour pairs are considered, by selecting to: Ignore the minimum and maximum distances during optimisation Ignore the minimum and maximum distances during the first optimisation iteration only Candidate Locations Enable candidate locations to be examined in the optimisation. These candidate locations can be those: Specified in the Site Database Grid Constraints tab for each considered nominal Property Generated by an algorithm that takes into account either the Propertyspecific value (as defined in the search area for a Property), or a global radius value and a step value both in metres (as defined in the template) Note : If the number of globally generated locations exceeds 100 per Property, a warning message is produced so that the step value is then adjusted (either automatically or manually). Forbidden Areas Ignore forbidden areas for nominal properties Site Configuration Site Configuration Define areas that should not be considered as potential site locations, including the original (Site Database) nominal Properties. Ignore forbidden locations for nominal Properties during optimisation. Enable site configuration to be optimised. The Site Grid constraints are specified per site in the Site Database. For more information, see Configuring GSM Site Grid Constraints on page 36 and Configuring Node Grid Constraints on page 41.

Important : When configuring grid planning actions and constraints, you should remember the following: A grid action will be considered (if possible) by the Optimiser as long as the respective option has been selected. The exact consideration of actions also depends on the related Grid Constraints in the Site Database. For more information, see About Actions-Constraints on page 29 and Setting ActionConstraints in ADVANTAGE on page 29. The original parameter settings (for example, site configurations) are always included in the optimisation. In order for the Optimiser to start, the initial locations for the sites associated with a Grid template must satisfy the Min/Max Inter-site Distance or the Forbidden Areas option if selected (unless the ignore options are chosen). Tip : To speed up the setting up of your nominal network, you can apply a template on the existing filter of your Properties. To do this: 1 2 3 On the Utilities tab, from the Tools menu, click Auto-Generate BTS. In the Auto Site Generation dialog box, select the filter that you want to apply the template to. Select the template that you want to apply to the filter.
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Click OK. You have now applied an instance of the template to every Property in the filter. Note : Each time you do this, a new site/node will be added to the Site Database. These new sites will be placed in the site database dialog under a new: MSC/BSC for GSM sites PLMN for nodes

Assigning Action-Constraints Templates to Objects by using Filters


When you have created Action-Constraints Templates, you can assign them to objects in the Action-Constraints dialog box. You can do this manually within the Action-Constraints dialog box, under the Templates column. However, it will often be easier to make 'filter-specific' assignments by using the Action-Constraints Assignments dialog box. To do this: 1 2 Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. In the left-hand pane, select Plan Manager. on the main

3 4

Select the appropriate Plan, and click the Constraints button. In the Actions-Constraints dialog box, click the Assign Templates button.

5 6 7

In the dialog box that appears, click Add. Select a filter. Select the required template(s). Depending on your optimisation planning approach, you can either assign the same template to all the planning types (Antenna/Power/Grid), or you can assign different templates to each. This allows flexibility if you want to experiment with different combinations of templates.

Continue with the Add (or Remove) button until you have selected the required filter-template combinations. Here is an example:

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Where appropriate, use the Up and Down arrows to set the filter priorities. Only one template can be assigned to an object. Therefore, in cases where an object might exist in more than one filter in this dialog box, the filter priority number is important in determining which template is assigned.

10 Click OK. The assignments you have made now appear in the Actions-Constraints dialog box. 11 To save these assignments, click Apply. Important : When you have finished making changes in the Action-Constraints dialog box, you must always click 'Apply', in order to save the changes.

When you have finished, you can close the Action-Constraints dialog box. Important : There are three points you should note regarding template assignments. Two of these points relate to default templates that are always available to you (these are in addition to the templates that are user-defined): Read Only template - when this is assigned to a filter, all the 'Fixed' checkboxes (for the objects in the associated filter) become automatically selected in the ActionConstraints dialog box. Leave Unchanged template - when this is assigned to a filter, nothing is changed (for the objects in the associated filter) in the Action-Constraints dialog box. This option is necessary because you may want, for example, to assign a template for just one or two planning mechanisms, and leave the other(s) unchanged. When you create a template, it is likely that you will not have selected all the potential action-constraints in that template. When you assign that template to a filter, the 'Fixed' checkboxes for the action-constraints that were unselected in the template become automatically selected in the Action-Constraints dialog box, for the objects in the associated filter. For example, if a template has only Azimuth (Antenna mechanism) selected, the other action-constraints (Tilts, Heights, Device/Pattern) would all be set to 'Fixed' in the Action-Constraints dialog box, after the template assignment. Note : All templates (read only, leave unchanged and user-defined) are assigned separately to each individual planning mechanism (Antenna/Power/Grid). Therefore, the above points are valid independently for each mechanism. For more specific information about the 'Fixed' columns, see About the Fixed Columns for the Action-Constraints on page 72.

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Modifying Action-Constraints Templates after Assigning them to Objects


In situations where you modify an Action-Constraints Template that is already assigned to various objects, those changes will not be made retrospectively in the Action-Constraints dialog box for those objects. However, you can explicitly choose to make those changes in the Action-Constraints dialog box by either: Manually reassigning the template to objects in the Action-Constraints dialog box, under the Templates column Reassigning the template to objects on a 'filter-specific' basis, by clicking the Assign Templates button Using the 'Reassigning All Templates' option Reassigning All Templates This method represents a quick way of implementing those changes into the ActionConstraints dialog box. This special option re-applies all the modified (that is, current) settings from all templates that are currently assigned to objects in the Action-Constraints dialog box. This operation is applicable to all three tabs (Antenna/Power/Grid). To do this: Click the 'Reassign All Templates' button.

If you want to reassign some of your currently assigned templates, but not all, you can change the template selection in the Action-Constraints dialog box to 'Custom' on the objects that you don't want to modify, before pressing the above button.

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Prerequisites for an Optimisation


The principal feature of ADVANTAGE is the automatic Optimiser, which can consider an extensive number of physical design and network parameter settings that affect the performance of the radio network. You can set up and start the automatic optimisation of a network configuration according to various targets, costs, actions and constraints, using any or all of the following planning mechanisms (Antenna/Power/Grid). Before you start optimising your network, ensure that you have: Set up a project with the necessary planning data, including traffic (if applicable). Defined the Clutter and/or Vector Parameters and the Performance Metrics/Targets. Defined the object/action-related costs, if you want the optimisation to consider such costs (for example, costs for antenna azimuth changes). Note: The above step is optional. Created a Plan (defining the area, and cell filters), using the Plan Manager. For more information, see Using the Plan Manager on page 46. Defined the Details (specific vectors, drive test routes, terminal types, array-based options). For more information, see Setting Up and Activating the Details for the Plan on page 51. Configured the Actions-Constraints for the optimisation. Define the Strategy for the optimisation, which includes the selection of which Metrics are to be used. Define the Settings, that is, key additional parameters and options. Created/loaded traffic arrays, if applicable. For traffic-based optimisations, an ENTERPRISE traffic array or a technology-specific ADVANTAGE traffic array (using Spread Network Data or Loaded Cached Traffic) must be available. Note : For a problem cell related optimisation, you must run Problem Cell Identification and/or define cell-specific weights. This then enables you to Start an Optimisation.

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Starting an Optimisation
Important : In order to run an optimisation, you must have: At least one Plan created At least one set of Details set up and activated For a full list of the prerequisites, see Prerequisites for an Optimisation on page 81. Note : If appropriate, you can choose to optimise a Delta Plan. To start an optimisation: 1 2 Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. In the left-hand pane, select Plan Manager. on the main

Select the appropriate Plan, and click the Optimise button. The Optimiser dialog box appears:

Set the minimum time interval for the 'best cost value' plan to be saved (at each time interval, a new delta plan is saved only if the best cost value is less than the previous saved value). To do this, click the Delta Plan Writing button, type the number of minutes, click Set, and then click Close. Note : At the point where you stop the optimisation, an additional Delta Plan is saved (according to the same criteria above), as if the next time interval had been reached.

If you want to view statistics information using the Statistics Graph, Statistics Details or Optimisation Report buttons, ensure that the Calculate Statistics checkbox is selected.

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To start the Optimiser, click Start.

The Optimiser starts running.

Running an Optimisation
When you have started an optimisation, the Optimiser runs. This picture shows an example of a running scenario:

The following values are displayed in the Optimiser dialog box:


Value Starting configuration Plan strategy Starting cost value Best cost value Current cost value Generated cost value Cost value gain; absolute; relative Cost function calls Description The name of the Plan or Delta Plan. The modification strategy specified in the Settings. The cost for the starting configuration. The cost for the best configuration that the Optimiser has found so far. The current optimisation cost. The cost for a generated optimisation state. The absolute gain value represented by the difference between the starting and best cost values; this gain expressed as a relative percentage. The total number of iterations that have taken place up to this point in the optimisation. This includes the iteration required for optimisation initialisation and (if applicable) any iterations rejected based on the Max Objects/Actions or Plan Rejection criteria. The number of iterations that are valid (in other words, accepted by the Optimiser); the number of performed iterations (in other words, generated states); and the accepted (A) to generated (G) ratio. The time the Optimiser was started, the time it was stopped, and the elapsed time.

Iterations: accepted; generated; A/G

Start Time, Stop Time, Elapsed Time

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While the optimisation is running, you can view a variety of useful feedback information, by clicking any of the following buttons: Cost Graph - for a graphical representation of the best, current and generated cost values for each iteration Statistics Graph(s) - for the initial and best plan values for the selected series Cost Details - for a variety of information about the costs related to the optimisation Statistics Details - for the statistics for the initial iteration and the most recent best plan Optimisation Report - for complete details of the generated optimisation plans To stop the Optimiser at any point: Click Stop (you cannot resume the optimisation once it has been stopped) Note : After stopping the Optimiser, you can still view the data it displays and the feedback graphs. This data and the graphs are available until such time that you start another optimisation, or until you close the project. However, you will still be able to access all key data from the plan reports.

About the Cost Graph


When you are running the Optimiser, you can select to display the Cost Graph. This displays a graphical representation of the best, current and generated cost value at or up to (as applicable) each optimisation iteration. This picture shows an example:

Example Cost Graph

You can use this feedback to assess whether a satisfactory cost value has been achieved, and also to see the pattern of values generated by the Optimiser.

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To zoom in on a particular section of the graph: 1 2 Click and hold down the left mouse button on the graph where one corner of the required section will be and drag the mouse to create a box. Release the mouse button. To zoom back out, right-click.

About the Statistics Graph(s)


When you are running the Optimiser, you can select to display the Statistics Graph(s). This displays a graphical representation of the initial and best plan values for a selected (Metric) series. This picture shows an example:

Example Statistics Graph

To select what information is shown on the graph, click Series, and in the dialog box that appears, select the required categories of information. Then click OK. To zoom in on a particular section of the graph: 1 2 Click and hold down the left mouse button on the graph where one corner of the required section will be and drag the mouse to create a box. Release the mouse button. To zoom back out, right-click. To create another graph, click New Graph. If you are starting from a Delta Plan, you can view statistics from the previous optimisation by clicking Show History.

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About the Cost Details


When you are running the Optimiser, you can select to display the Cost Details. This shows: The number of independent optimisation variables (Degrees of Freedom, or DOF) The number of pixels in the area that will be considered by the Optimiser The contribution of each considered cost category (and its components) to the starting best, current and generated optimisation cost (the used cost function weights and cost conversion coefficients are also displayed) The number of considered optimisation actions on a starting, best, current and generated optimisation plan basis The examined optimisation states (or iterations) and the respectively generated optimisation cost (the best and current cost values are also displayed) Tip : To get details of different cost values besides the current ones, ensure that the Log states option is selected. This picture shows an example:

Example Cost Details

You can also use this information to check the entire optimisation setup after an optimisation has started. For example, you can ensure that the weights and conversion coefficients are correctly configured and that the optimisation targets are realistic and can be met.

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About the Statistics Details


When you are running the Optimiser, you can select to display the Statistics Details. This displays the statistics relevant to the Performance Metrics/Targets (Signal Strength and/or Simulator) for the optimisation, depending on the type of optimisation that you are running. You can view statistics per technology, for traffic and/or area. This picture shows an example:

Example Statistics Details

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About the Optimisation Reports


When you are running the Optimiser, you can select to display the Optimisation Report. This report includes coverage statistics based on the Clutter and/or Vector thresholds that you set, as defined in the following categories: GSM Signal Strength, GSM C/I, GSM Quality UMTS Ec, UMTS Ec/Io, UMTS Quality You can view these details in terms of overall coverage, per clutter threshold and/or per vector threshold. If applicable, the report also includes statistics on Simulator metrics. You can also view action information, and cost information for each mechanism selected. Warning : If you begin a new optimisation, the statistics information for the previous one will be deleted. However, if you continue optimisation from the last generated Delta plan, the statistics information for the last optimisation will still be available. The optimisation report provides details of the actions, statistics and costs for the starting plan and each subsequent best plan. This picture shows an example:

Example Optimisation Report

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Tip : You can produce a similar report (for a specific Delta Plan) after you have stopped the Optimiser, by selecting the appropriate Plan in the Plan Manager section of the Optimiser Workflow, and clicking Statistics.

About Alternative Optimisation Scenarios


When you have finished running the Optimiser, you can investigate alternative optimisation scenarios, such as: Using a different traffic array or traffic/service mix Examining different types of actions and/or the impact of limiting the number of actions further Considering drive test measurements in the pathloss predictions and/or running a drive test route-based optimisation Modifying the optimisation targets and/or approach through the Strategy and Settings and (depending on the setup and user permissions) the algorithmic setup Explicitly focussing the optimisation on problematic areas/cells only Using a generated Delta plan as the starting configuration Any combination of the above

About the Statistics Analysis


The statistics analysis functionality in ADVANTAGE enables you to: Analyse and evaluate a current Plan configuration or an optimised Delta plan configuration Compare any two plan configurations, whether current or optimised

You can evaluate a single plan, or compare two plans, in terms of their performance (with respect to measurements and optimisation metrics, which can be fading or nonfading based).

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As part of the network evaluation, statistics similar to those available in ASSET can also be generated. The statistics include Signal Strength-based metrics such as coverage and interference (presented per clutter type and/or per vector) and, if applicable, Simulator-based metrics. In addition, feedback based on the specified optimisation metrics can be provided. The performance achieved for each configuration is compared with the user-specified performance targets and presented (in terms of absolute and/or relative values) on a traffic and area basis. The statistics report generated can include: Actions Statistics Costs You can use the produced reports and/or graphical information to determine how good a plan is, or the number/cost of the required optimisation actions (if applicable). For optimised (Delta Plan) network configurations, the considered actions and action costs are also included in the statistics analysis. Note: As an ADVANTAGE user, you can use parts of the related ENTERPRISE analysis functionality in addition to the ADVANTAGE-specific options. With specific regard to measurements, please see Using Measurement Data on page 141.

Information Generated by the Statistics


You can use the generated statistics to analyse (or compare) your Plan configurations in terms of the following types of information. For more information on the metrics and parameters that are used by the Statistics functionality, see Setting Performance Metrics/Targets on page 104. The report generated can include (as appropriate): Actions Statistics Costs
Information Actions Description The number of changes that the Optimiser has considered. These are divided into antenna, power, grid and combined actions. Type Antenna - antenna unit, device, pattern (remote and site adjustable electrical downtilt), mechanical downtilt, azimuth, height Power - GSM PA output power, BTS type, UMTS max TX power, UMTS pilot power, UMTS HSDPA link power, UMTS max power per user, All UMTS power settings, Node type Grid - Property unit, Property, site unit, site, cell unit, cell Combined - the combination of actions (for example, visit actions) on a particular level (for example, per site).

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Information Statistics

Description

Type

The statistics for the metrics used in the Signal strength - coverage, service overlap, handover optimisation calculations, according to the overlap, interference overlap, traffic/area variation, quality Signal Strength and Simulator cost Simulator - served terminals, served terminals per cell, mechanisms. served terminals in soft or softer handover, uplink and downlink throughput, uplink and downlink cell throughput (both averaged and weighted cost calculation) All costs relating to the optimisation Signal Strength and/or Simulator-based optimisation metrics (Signal Strength and/or Simulator- metrics as specified above. based). Optionally: Budget, Manpower, Risk. Optionally, the associated expenditure, time/resource, and risk of actions, can be included.

Optimisation Costs

Prerequisites for Running a Statistics Analysis


Before performing a statistics analysis, ensure that you have: Set up a project with the necessary planning data, including traffic (if applicable). For more information, see the ENTERPRISE and ASSET User Reference Guides. Defined the Clutter and/or Vector Parameters and the Performance Metrics/Targets. Defined the object/action-related costs. A post-optimisation analysis may also consider action-related targets or Delta Plan costs (for example, costs for antenna azimuth changes). For more information, see Specifying Costs/Risks/Limits on page 112. Note : The above step is optional. If you do this, you must also specify the performance targets of interest. Access to the appropriate Plans and/or Delta Plans (which defines the area and cell filters), and that the active Details (specific vectors, drive test routes, terminal types, and array-based options) have been set up Created/loaded traffic arrays, if applicable. For traffic-based optimisations, an ENTERPRISE traffic array or a technology-specific ADVANTAGE traffic array (using Spread Network Data or Loaded Cached Traffic) must be available.

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Performing Statistics Analysis for a Single Plan


Using the Statistics functionality, you can analyse the performance of a network plan or compare any two plans. Analysing the performance of a single plan enables you to evaluate either a starting (new) plan or a Delta (optimised) plan. For information about the metrics used, see About the Statistics Analysis on page 89 and Using the Optimiser Workflow on page 45. To do this: 1 2 3 Ensure you have performed the required preparation steps, as described in Prerequisites for Running a Statistics Analysis on page 91. Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. In the left-hand pane, select Plan Manager. on the main

4 5

Right-click on the appropriate Plan, and click Statistics. In the Statistics dialog box, the selected Plan appears as the Base Plan.

(If you want to select a different Plan, you can do this by clicking the browse button .) 6 7 In the Statistics dialog box, click Analyse to perform the analysis. When the analysis has finished running, the report button will become active. To generate the report, click the Report button, then select the format for your report, and click OK. This report is similar to the Optimisation report (available from the Optimiser). The difference is that this report focuses on a specific Delta Plan.

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Here is an example:

When you have finished, in the Statistics dialog box, you can either click Reset to analyse or compare other plans, or you can click Close.

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Performing Statistics Analysis to Compare Plans


Using the Statistics functionality, you can analyse the performance of a network plan or compare any two plans. Comparing the performance of two plans enables you to assess one against the other, and evaluate any differences or improvements. For information about the metrics used, see About the Statistics Analysis on page 89 and Using the Optimiser Workflow on page 45. You can analyse and compare the performance between any two plans according to your needs, whether they are Plans or Delta Plans. You can also compare any two Delta Plans, even if they originated from different starting Plans. To do this: 1 2 3 Ensure you have performed the required preparation steps, as described in Prerequisites for Running a Statistics Analysis on page 91. Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. In the left-hand pane, select Plan Manager. on the main

4 5

Right-click on one of the two Plans you want to compare, and click Statistics. In the Statistics dialog box, the selected Plan appears as the Base Plan. (If you want to select a different Plan, you can do this by clicking the browse button .)

In the Statistics dialog box, for the Compare Plan, click the browse and select the other required Plan.

button,

In the Statistics dialog box, if required, click the Compare Options button to set default values for comparing array pixels where one has a server and one does not. Click Analyse to perform the comparison analysis. When the analysis has finished running, the report button will become active. To generate the reports, click the Report button, then select the format for your reports, and click OK.

8 9

10 When you have finished, in the Statistics dialog box, you can either click Reset to analyse or compare other plans, or you can click Close. You can also view the comparison analysis results in the Map View window. For information on how to do this, see Displaying Statistics Comparison Results in the Map View on page 95.

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Displaying Statistics Comparison Results in the Map View After you have performed a Statistics Analysis to compare two plans, you can display your results in the Map View window. To do this: 1 Ensure you have a Map View window showing the considered network configuration(s). If not, you can select the region(s) for the plans using the Plans heading in the Data Types list:

2 3

On the Map View toolbar, click the Show Data Types button Information & Control button

, or click the Map

and then click the Data Types tab.

To display plan comparison results (which show the coverage/interference arrays for the chosen plans), expand the Delta Plan Analysis heading, and then expand the required Plan (or the 'Diff' category). From the list that appears, select the array type that you want to view and click Redraw to view the related analysis results:

To define how the array is displayed, double-click the required array and edit the display properties in the dialog box that appears. You can set the following display options: Which layers are displayed The colour used for the level of improvement The level of improvement you want to display

Click OK and then click OK and Redraw.

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This picture shows an example of plan comparison analysis information displayed on the Map View window. The values show the improvement between plans 2 and 1 for the Nth Pilot Server.

Deleting a Plan
To delete an optimisation Plan: 1 2 3 4 5 Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. In the left-hand pane, select Plan Manager. Select the appropriate Plan. Click the Delete Plan button. Click Yes to proceed, or No to cancel. on the main

If you clicked Yes, the Plan is now removed. Note : You cannot delete a Plan if it is 'in use' by more than one user.

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Applying a Plan Temporarily to the Database


This option enables you to make a 'temporary' application of one of your Plans to the database, so that you can analyse the performance of the Plan (using arrays and reports) within ASSET. The main benefit of this is that you can experiment with the potential benefits of the Plan, and subsequently revert to the previous configuration in the database. To temporarily apply a Plan: 1 2 Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. In the left-hand pane, select Plan Manager. on the main

3 4 5

Select the appropriate Plan. Click the Temp Apply button. Click Yes to proceed, or No to cancel.

If you clicked Yes, the Plan is now temporarily applied to the database. Note: You will see the appropriate cell parameters temporarily modified in the Site Database window, but the whole Site Database is in a read-only state. The read-only state will remain in place until you decide to revert to the previous configuration in the database. To do this: 1 2 3 Select the appropriate Plan. Click the Temp Unapply button. Click Yes to proceed, or No to cancel.

If you clicked Yes, the database is now reverted to its previous configuration, and the Site Database window is active again. Tip : There are some key differences between the Temp Apply/Unapply and the DB Apply options. For more information, see Key Differences between Temp Apply and DB Apply on page 99.

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Applying a Plan to the Database


The DB Apply option enables you to make an application of one of your Plans to the database, in the normal way. It is equivalent to a normal (manual) Apply in the database. It enables you to use the complete functionality within ADVANTAGE and ASSET, and make any necessary subsequent manual changes to the Site Database. As is the normal case for all applied data, you can choose to subsequently Commit the data. Important : In the normal way, if required, you can use the Restore All option after using the DB Apply, but please note that this will restore the database back to the last Committed configuration, which may lead to: Any previously Applied changes in the Site Database being lost (in the normal way) A configuration in the Site Database that is different from the Plan that you created to start with (because the Plan, once created in the Plan Manager is divorced from subsequent database changes) To apply a Plan: 1 2 Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. In the left-hand pane, select Plan Manager. on the main

3 4 5

Select the appropriate Plan. Click the DB Apply button. Click Yes to proceed, or No to cancel.

If you clicked Yes, the Plan is now applied to the database. Tip : There are some key differences between the Temp Apply/Unapply and the DB Apply options. For more information, see the following section.

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Key Differences between Temp Apply and DB Apply


There are some key differences between the Temp Apply/Unapply and the DB Apply options: Temp Apply/Unapply: When you click Temp Apply, you can view the temporary changes in the Site Database window, which, at this point, appears in a read-only state. This operation is fundamentally different from the normal Apply operation used in the rest of ENTERPRISE, because it does not overwrite any changes you might have made in the Site Database since you created the Plan. In other words, when you subsequently revert it from its 'temporary' state (by clicking Temp Unapply), nothing will have changed from the configuration that was in place immediately before you clicked Temp Apply. You cannot make any manual changes to the Site Database while it is in this 'temporary' restrictive state. The operation does not affect other users who are sharing the project. You cannot close a session (that is, close the project) while the Site Database is in the 'temporary' state. It is obligatory to revert it by clicking Temp Unapply before you close your session. DB Apply: This is equivalent to a normal (manual) Apply, which means that it will overwrite any changes you might have made in the Site Database since you created and optimised the Plan. In other words, if you had made some changes to the relevant cells since that time, it will overwrite those changes with the new values when you click the DB Apply button. You can make further manual changes to the Site Database, in the normal way, after this operation. You will be able to use the Restore option in the Site Database, if necessary, to restore to the previous committed state (assuming the network elements had at some stage been previously committed). The operation may subsequently affect other users who are sharing the project, in the normal way, if you choose to Commit the changes. You can close a session (that is, close the project) in the normal way, if required, with some changes in the Applied state.

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Setting Clutter/Vector Parameters

The Clutter/Vector Parameters in the Optimiser Workflow enable you to: Specify clutter parameters Specify vector parameters These optimisation parameters enable you to specify the required RF performance for your optimisations, and define values that characterise the radio interface and the environment.

Specifying Clutter Parameters


On the Clutter Parameters tabs, you can configure clutter-specific parameters that define the current or required performance. This enables you to specify and use, for example, standard deviations for fading, minimum signal strength and signal quality targets for chosen clutter types. This picture shows an example of the Clutter Parameters tabs:

Example Clutter Parameters tabs

Important : In the case of the Fading and Indoor Loss parameters, the values specified here are always used whenever you run an optimisation or analysis for which the Simulator cost mechanism is applicable. When only using the Signal Strength cost mechanism, any Indoor %, Fading and Indoor Loss parameters specified here will be used. Depending on your Settings (Options tab), you can also use the Fading values within the (static) Signal Strength cost mechanism, when using both cost mechanisms together.
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In the case of the Indoor % parameter, the value specified here is used whenever you run an optimisation for metrics within the (static) Signal Strength mechanism. However, for metrics within the Simulator cost mechanism, the Indoor % value used comes from the respective Terminal Type. If you are an ASSET user, and run a simulation from within ASSET, the Clutter parameters from the Configuration Menu on the main toolbar are used. To edit the Clutter parameters: 1 2 Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. on the main

In the left-hand pane, select Clutter/Vector Parameters, and then Clutter.

3 4

Click the required tab (GSM or UMTS.). Specify the parameters as required in the columns for the appropriate clutter types. The following tables describe the parameters: Note : Unless indicated otherwise, these parameters can be used when running optimisations, generating statistics and spreading network data.
Parameter Indoor % Description The percentage of traffic that is assumed to correspond to indoor-located users. Note : Used only for optimisations and spreading network data. Fading Indoor STD Fading Outdoor STD Indoor Loss Signal Strength Threshold (GSM) Pilot Strength Threshold (UMTS) C/I Threshold (GSM) Ec/Io Threshold (UMTS) The standard deviation of the shadow fading (dB) experienced in the corresponding clutter type for the indoor environment. The standard deviation of the shadow fading (dB) experienced in the corresponding clutter type for the outdoor environment. The additional mean loss (dB) that will be experienced by an indoor user. The minimum signal level (dBm) or pilot strength (dBm) that is required to provide coverage in the corresponding clutter type. The minimum signal to interference ratio (dB) or signal quality ratio (dB) that is required in the corresponding clutter type.

Tip : You can copy and paste values from one edit box into one or more other boxes, by copying the value(s) you want to duplicate, selecting the target box(es), and then pasting. 5 If appropriate, by clicking the General Parameters tab, you can also set the following:
Parameter Sample Description Determines whether cost function sampling is applied to the clutter type. This sampling is a calculation process using only a subset of the total pixels during optimisation. The process 'removes' neighbouring pixels of the same clutter type, and therefore makes the optimisation faster. Sampling is only recommended if your mapping resolution is high (under 50m) and you want to optimise a large area. Note : Used only for optimisations and statistics.

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Parameter Importance

Description The importance of the corresponding clutter in terms of traffic density. The higher the importance of the clutter, the higher the traffic density levels for this clutter type, and vice versa. Note : Used only for spreading network data.

All changes that you make on this page are automatically Applied (that is, saved to the database). At this point, the changes on this page are in the Applied state and will persist even if you close the Optimiser Workflow dialog box. However, if appropriate, you can carry out one of the following actions: If you want to restore the options on this page to the previous committed state (if such a state exists), click Restore If you want to share the changes on this page with all other users of the project, click Commit

Specifying Vector Parameters


On the Vector Parameters tabs, you can configure vector-specific parameters that define the current or required performance. This enables you to specify and use, for example, standard deviations for fading, minimum signal strength and signal quality targets for chosen vectors. Important : The Vector Parameter Usage checkboxes not only enable you to edit the values, but also activate the vector parameters when you run an optimisation or generate statistics. Similarly, if unselected, the vector parameters are not active. Therefore, ensure that the required checkboxes are selected/deselected as appropriate before you run an optimisation or generate statistics. The reason there are two checkboxes is so that you can be flexible in activating one or both of them. Note : When selected, vector parameters will always have a higher priority than clutter parameters (in the pixels that are intersected by your chosen vectors). This picture shows an example of the Vector Parameters tabs:

Example Vector Parameters tabs

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To edit the Vector parameters: 1 2 Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. on the main

In the left-hand pane, select Clutter/Vector Parameters, and then Vector.

3 4 5 6

Click the required tab (GSM or UMTS). Click the Select Vectors button, and in the dialog box that appears, choose the vectors for which you would like to configure parameters, then click OK. Select either or both of the Vector Parameter Usage checkboxes, as required. Specify the parameters as required in the columns for the appropriate vectors. The following tables describe the parameters: Note : These parameters can be used when running optimisations and generating statistics.
Thresholds Priority Parameter description You can order the relative priority of the chosen vectors. This will determine which parameters are to be used at locations with intersecting vectors. To raise the priority of a vector, select it, then drag and drop it to the required priority position. The percentage of traffic/area that is assumed to correspond to indoor located users. The standard deviation of the shadow fading (dB) experienced in the corresponding vector for the indoor environment. The standard deviation of the shadow fading (dB) experienced in the corresponding vector for the outdoor environment. The additional mean loss (dB) that will be experienced by an indoor user. The minimum signal level (dBm) or pilot strength (dBm) that is required to provide coverage in the corresponding vector. The minimum signal to interference ratio (dB) or signal quality ratio (dB) that is required in the corresponding vector.

Indoor % Fading Indoor STD Fading Outdoor STD Indoor Loss Signal Strength Threshold (GSM) Pilot Strength Threshold (UMTS) C/I Threshold (GSM) Ec/Io Threshold (UMTS)

Tip : You can copy and paste values from one edit box into one or more other boxes, by copying the value(s) you want to duplicate, selecting the target box(es), and then pasting. All changes that you make on this page are automatically Applied (that is, saved to the database). At this point, the changes on this page are in the Applied state and will persist even if you close the Optimiser Workflow dialog box. However, if appropriate, you can carry out one of the following actions: If you want to restore the options on this page to the previous committed state (if such a state exists), click Restore If you want to share the changes on this page with all other users of the project, click Commit
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Setting Performance Metrics/Targets

The Performance Metrics/Targets in the Optimiser Workflow enable you to: Specify targets for Signal Strength metrics Specify targets for Simulator metrics These parameters enable you to define performance targets for statistics analysis and optimisations. These targets correspond to metrics that can be defined separately for each cost mechanism (Signal Strength and Simulator).

Setting Performance Targets for Signal Strength Metrics


The signal strength performance targets are specific to the Signal Strength cost mechanism. The calculation of probabilities is signal strength-based (received power for GSM and CPICH power for UMTS). Signal strength performance targets can be specified separately for both GSM and UMTS technologies, and are defined at a cell layer level (GSM) or carrier level (UMTS). Important : In ADVANTAGE, the calculation of the performance 'quality' depends on what is specified on the Options tab of the Settings in the Optimiser Workflow. If the checkbox is not selected, then the quality metric is based on:

GSM: C/I levels and the received signal strength UMTS: Ec/Io levels and the received CPICH power

If the checkbox is selected, then the quality metric is based on:

GSM: C/I levels only UMTS: Ec/Io levels only

For more information, see Specifying the Settings on page 125. To define Signal Strength performance targets: 1 Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. on the main

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In the left-hand pane, select Performance Metrics/Targets, and then Signal Strength.

Expand the target category you wish to define, then either Traffic or Area, the technology type, the cell layer (GSM) or carrier (UMTS) and then double-click the clutter type or adjacency level (as appropriate). Tip : To expand or shrink any of the trees, select an object and press the * or - key, or if you are using a laptop computer, press the Fn and * or - keys.

Select the required target option, then in the Values column, double-click the value and make the appropriate changes. In this example, the interference overlap target for the Traffic GSM-Default cell layer Adjacency Level 1 has been set to 20%:

All changes that you make on this page are automatically Applied (that is, saved to the database). At this point, the changes on this page are in the Applied state and will persist even if you close the Optimiser Workflow dialog box. However, if appropriate, you can carry out one of the following actions: If you want to restore the options on this page to the previous committed state (if such a state exists), click Restore If you want to share the changes on this page with all other users of the project, click Commit

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About the Signal Strength Performance Targets


The following table describes the targets that can be defined in the Signal Strength cost mechanism. They can be separately defined for traffic and area:
This metric Coverage Defines Target Options Description Minimum value required Target value Multiplier factor (cost penalty) if the minimum value is not achieved Minimum value required Target value Maximum value required Multiplier factor (cost penalty) if the value is outside the required {min,max} range Minimum value required Target value Maximum value required Multiplier factor (cost penalty) if the value is outside the required {min,max} range Minimum value required Target value Maximum value required Multiplier factor (cost penalty) if the value is outside the required {min,max} range Multiplier factor (cost penalty) by which the cell-specific % difference from the mean will be multiplied, if more than 100% Minimum value required Target value Multiplier factor (cost penalty) if the minimum value is not achieved The required signal strength-based coverage Min probability per clutter type. Target Multiplier

Service Overlap

The required signal strength-based service overlap probability for each cell pair, per adjacency level.

Min Target Max Multiplier

Handover Overlap

The required signal strength-based handover overlap probability per adjacency level, for each cell-pair and the respective handover margin specified on the Options tab of the Settings option in the Optimiser Workflow (unless Use cell-pair specific Handover Margin (GSM) or Use cell specific Soft Handover Window (UMTS) is selected on the same tab).

Min Target Max Multiplier

Interference Overlap

The required signal strength-based Min interference overlap probability per adjacency level, for each cell pair and the Target interference margin specified on the Options tab of the Settings option in the Optimiser Max Workflow. Multiplier

Traffic/Area Variation

The % difference between the signal Multiplier strength-based cell-specific and average traffic and/or area captured by all considered cells; no explicit targets are currently defined. The required signal strength-based quality. This is either : Min

Quality

Target Combined signal strength and C/I (GSM) or Ec/Io (UMTS) probability, per Multiplier clutter type.

-orExclusively C/I (GSM) or Ec/Io (UMTS) probability, per clutter type. This depends on what you specify in the options tab of the Settings option in the Optimiser Workflow.

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Setting Performance Targets for Signal Strength (Global Edit)


Editing multiple static performance targets can be a very lengthy process when performed manually. Therefore, to enable you to make changes to many targets simultaneously, there is a Global Edit option. To use this: 1 2 Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. on the main

In the left-hand pane, select Performance Metrics/Targets, and then Signal Strength.

3 4

Click the Global Edit button. In the dialog box that appears, from the drop-down list, select the type of metric that you wish to change. Important : Always ensure you have selected the appropriate metric before you edit any values.

In the Filter Rules list, select the checkbox for the filter rules you want to use. These can include: traffic/area, technology type, cell layer (GSM) or carrier (UMTS), and clutter type/adjacency level (as appropriate). Tip : To expand or shrink any of the trees, select an object and press the * or - key, or if you are using a laptop computer, press the Fn and * or - keys.

6 7

In the Design Targets list, select the checkboxes for the design targets you want to edit. In the Values column, double-click the required value and make the appropriate changes. In this example, the Handover Overlap target for Adjacency Level 1 on the GSMDefault cell layer has been set to 15%, with a minimum of 10% and a maximum of 15%:

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Click Apply to save the changes, and then click Close. All the changes that you have just made in the Global Edit dialog box are automatically Applied (that is, saved to the database). At this point, the changes on this page are in the Applied state and will persist even if you close the Optimiser Workflow dialog box. However, if appropriate, you can carry out one of the following actions: If you want to restore the options on this page to the previous committed state (if such a state exists), click Restore If you want to share the changes on this page with all other users of the project, click Commit

Setting Performance Targets for Simulator Metrics


In ADVANTAGE, you can optimise a UMTS network based on the results from the Simulator. The Simulator performance targets are specific to the Simulator cost mechanism, which is applicable to UMTS only. You can use the Simulator cost mechanism for antenna, power or grid optimisations, and, if required, you can combine it with the Signal Coverage cost mechanism. Note : If you want to use the Simulator cost mechanism, you must configure the Simulator performance targets before starting the optimisation. Simulator performance targets are associated with terminal capabilities. These targets refer to: The percentage of served terminals (on a network or cell basis) The percentage of served terminals in soft/softer handover The uplink or downlink throughput (on a network or cell basis) The available targets are: Served Terminals (%) Served Terminals per Cell (%) Served Terminals in Soft or Softer Handover (%) Uplink Throughput (kb/s) Downlink Throughput (kb/s) Uplink Cell Throughput (kb/s) Downlink Cell Throughput (kb/s) For each target, you can use: Averaged Cost Calculation - This averages the sum of calculated costs (considered in the optimisation) for all the groups for the appropriate metric, based on the total number of groups assigned to it.

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Weighted Cost Calculation - This weights the calculated cost (considered in the optimisation) for each group for the appropriate metric, based on the groupspecific terminal attempts or served terminals or targeted throughput (as applicable). Note : In terms of the optimisation, the only time the Averaged/Weighted options will make a difference to the results is when you have multiple groups assigned to a metric. If that is not the case, they can be considered to be exactly the same. There are three stages to configuring the Simulator performance targets:

1 2 3

Define one or more performance target groups. Assign the target group(s) to the required metrics. Specify the performance target values for each metric.

Defining Simulator Performance Target Groups


The performance target groups enable you to set target values for your services (or, more precisely, service/carrier combinations). Assuming you want to set the same target values for all your services, it is a simple process to place them in the same group, and specify a common set of target values. However, if you want to specify target values independently for each service, you should ensure you place each service in a separate group. To define the Simulator performance target groups: 1 Ensure that you have defined the services and carriers that you want to use in the performance targets. For information on defining services, carriers, terminals and bearers, see the ASSET User Reference Guide. Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. on the main

2 3

In the left-hand pane, select Performance Metrics/Targets, and then Simulator.

Click Define Groups.

5 6

In the Groups dialog box, click Add to add a new group. In the Group Edit dialog box, select the service/carrier combination(s) that you want to use, and click the right-arrow button.

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The service and carrier combination(s) appears in the right-hand pane. In this example only one service/carrier has been selected, but you can select more if required:

Note : Target values are specified per group. Therefore, if you want to specify target values independently for each service/carrier combination, you should keep them in separate groups. 7 8 9 When you have finished editing the group, continue adding or editing any other groups according to your requirements. If you want to share specific group changes with all other users of the project, click Commit, or to share all group changes, Commit All. Click Close to close the dialog box.

You can now assign the target group(s) to the required metrics.

Assigning Simulator Performance Target Groups to Metrics


After you have defined the Simulator performance target groups, you must assign them to the required metrics. To do this: 1 In the right-hand pane of the Optimiser Workflow, highlight the required metric for example, Served Terminals (%) (Averaged).

Click the Assign Groups button.

From the Groups available pane, select a group and click the right-arrow button. The group appears in the Groups in-use pane, and will be associated with the respective performance target. If appropriate, you can assign more than one group to a metric. If you do this, you should check whether you want to use the Averaged or Weighted metric, as explained in Setting Performance Targets for Simulator Metrics on page 108. Click OK.

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Tip : If a group has already been assigned to one of the metrics, you can quickly copy that same group to another metric by selecting it, and then dragging and dropping it onto another metric.

Example of the same target group assigned to different metrics

You can now specify the Simulator performance target values.

Specifying Simulator Performance Target Values


After you have assigned the Simulator performance target groups to the required metrics, you can specify the target values. To do this: 1 Highlight the appropriate target group.

Note : If the target group is assigned to more than one metric, ensure you select the correct one, because the target values are independent between the metrics. The target group values appear:

Depending on the target group, you can edit some or all of the following values:
Value Min Target Max Multiplier Description Minimum value required Target value Maximum value required (if applicable to the metric) Multiplier factor (cost penalty) if the value is: - Less than the min value or - More than the max value

All changes that you make on this page are automatically Applied (that is, saved to the database). At this point, the changes on this page are in the Applied state and will persist even if you close the Optimiser Workflow dialog box.
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However, if appropriate, you can carry out one of the following actions: If you want to restore the options on this page to the previous committed state (if such a state exists), click Restore If you want to share the changes on this page with all other users of the project, click Commit

Tip : The Commit All and Restore All buttons are useful if you have edited a large number of targets.

Specifying Costs/Risks/Limits
The Costs/Risks/Limits in the Optimiser Workflow enable you to: Set maximum limits for the number of objects or actions The optimisation will reject any Plans exceeding these limits Specify how combinations of actions and action costs are considered The number and costs of different actions can be considered as one single action Specify costs and risks for objects and/or actions Each change considered can incur a cost, in terms of budget/manpower/performance risk Specify maximum costs and risks Plans may or may not be feasible from a financial, time or resource point of view

Setting Maximum Limits for Objects or Actions


On the Max Objects/Actions tab, you can choose to reject Plans according to maximum limits for: The number of objects for a given object type The number of actions for a given planning type (or combined) If you select the option to reject Plans based on these limits, the optimisation will not accept any Plans (apart from the starting Plan) that exceed these limits.

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This picture shows an example where limits have been set on the number of Antenna Objects and the number of Property Objects. Any Plan that exceeds either of these limits would be rejected.

Max Units/Actions tab

To set maximum limits for objects and actions: 1 2 Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. In the left-hand pane, select Costs/Risks/Limits. on the main

3 4 5

Select the Max Objects/Actions tab. Select the 'Reject Plans based on' checkbox. Select the appropriate option(s), and specify the limit(s). All changes that you make on this tab are automatically Applied (that is, saved to the database). At this point, the changes on this tab are in the Applied state and will persist even if you close the Optimiser Workflow dialog box. However, if appropriate, you can carry out one of the following actions: If you want to restore the options on this tab to the previous committed state (if such a state exists), click Restore If you want to share the changes on this tab with all other users of the project, click Commit

Tip : You can turn this Plan rejection method On/Off by using the main checkbox.

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Defining Combinations of Actions


On the Action Combination tab, you can optionally combine actions and action costs, so that the number and costs of different actions can be considered as one single action. This tab enables you to specify which actions and action costs (if any) you want to combine for the optimisations and statistics. You can combine actions by: Location Property Site Cell Note : Unit actions (for example, Antenna unit, Property unit) are not combined. You also have the option of combining: All actions Only visit actions (actions requiring a visit to the site) Only remote actions (actions not requiring a visit to the site, such as changes to remote adjustable antennas) You may then specify whether power actions are to be considered as remote actions or as visit actions (however, BTS and Node Type actions are always considered as visit actions). To define combinations of actions and costs: 1 2 Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. In the left-hand pane, select Costs/Risks/Limits. on the main

3 4

Select the Action Combination tab. Select the appropriate options. All changes that you make on this tab are automatically Applied (that is, saved to the database). At this point, the changes on this tab are in the Applied state and will persist even if you close the Optimiser Workflow dialog box. However, if appropriate, you can carry out one of the following actions: If you want to restore the options on this tab to the previous committed state (if such a state exists), click Restore If you want to share the changes on this tab with all other users of the project, click Commit

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The example below specifies that all Visit Actions per Location (including power actions in this case) will be combined:

Example of combining actions and action costs

Defining Costs and Risks for Objects and Actions


On the Cost/Risk per Object/Action tab, you can use object and action costs if, during optimisation, you want each change considered by the Optimiser to incur a cost, in terms of budget/manpower/performance risk. This corresponds to the expenditure and time/resource required in each object or action category to implement the recommended change. In essence, these options enable you to define object and action-related targets and costs, so that they can be considered in an optimisation. These may be, for example: Object costs for changes in the number of: Cells Sites Antenna devices Action-related costs for number of changes involving: Antenna azimuth Mechanical downtilt PA Output UMTS Max TX Power

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Each of the actions also carries an additional risk that the introduced change may: Exceed the allocated amount (in terms of either budget or manpower) Lead to a lower than expected performance improvement To define costs and risks for objects and actions: 1 2 Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. In the left-hand pane, select Costs/Risks/Limits. on the main

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Select the Cost/Risk per Object/Action tab. Expand the required category (Combined, Antenna, Power or Grid), then expand the appropriate object or action, and then expand Budget, Manpower or Performance. For more information about the combined category, see Defining Combinations of Actions on page 114. Tip : To expand or shrink any of the trees, select an object and press the * or - key, or if you are using a laptop computer, press the Fn and * or - keys.

In the appropriate Values column, double-click a value and edit the Cost and, optionally, Risk %, as required. Note : The budget cost can represent any currency, or any proportional multiple of that currency. In this example below, the budget cost for each antenna azimuth change has been set to 50:

All changes that you make on this tab are automatically Applied (that is, saved to the database). At this point, the changes on this tab are in the Applied state and will persist even if you close the Optimiser Workflow dialog box. However, if appropriate, you can carry out one of the following actions:
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If you want to restore the options on this tab to the previous committed state (if such a state exists), click Restore If you want to share the changes on this tab with all other users of the project, click Commit
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About the Available Object and Action Costs


The following tables summarise the action costs that you can configure: For Combined
This Action Cost Location Property Site Cell Refers to the Costs and Risks of Combined changes (such as the antenna device or azimuth) to the network objects in a location. Combined changes (such as the antenna device or azimuth) to the network objects on a Property. Combined changes (such as the antenna device or azimuth) to the network objects on a site. Combined changes (such as the antenna device or azimuth) to the network objects on a cell.

For Antennas
This Action Cost Antenna Unit Device Refers to the Costs and Risks of Changes to the total number of antennas. Changes to the antenna type (in other words, antenna addition, replacing or removing). Important : A device action will take precedence over a pattern, mechanical downtilt or azimuth action on the same site, and will be the only action considered. Pattern (remote adjustable electrical Remote changes to the used antenna mask (in other words, the electrical downtilt downtilt) of the installed antenna device). Pattern (site adjustable electrical downtilt) Mechanical Downtilt Azimuth Height Changes to the used antenna mask (in other words, the electrical downtilt of the installed antenna device) that have to be implemented onsite. Changes to the antenna mechanical downtilt. Changes to the antenna azimuth. Changes to the antenna height.

For Power
This Action Cost PA Output BTS Type UMTS Max TX Power UMTS Pilot Power HSDPA Link Power Refers to the Costs and Risks of Changes to the PA output power of a GSM cell. Replacing a BTS type (GSM only). Changes to the maximum TX power of a UMTS cell. Changes to the CPICH power level of a UMTS cell. Changes to the HSDPA link power level of a UMTS cell. Note : Only relevant to a Monte Carlo-based optimisation. UMTS Max Power Per User Changes to the maximum power per user of a UMTS cell. Note : Only relevant to a Monte Carlo-based optimisation. All UMTS Power Settings Node Type Simultaneous changes to all of the UMTS cell power settings described above. Replacing a Node Type (UMTS only). Note : Only relevant to a Monte Carlo-based optimisation.

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For Grid
This Action Cost Property Unit Property Site Unit Site Cell Unit Cell Refers to the Costs and Risks of Changes to the total number of nominal Properties. Changing (moving or removing) a nominal Property. Changes to the total number of nominal sites. Changing (moving or removing) a nominal site or adding a candidate site. Changes to the total number of nominal cells. Changing (moving or removing) a nominal cell or adding a candidate cell.

Note : For Antenna Unit, Property Unit, Site Unit and Cell Unit, only a Budget component is available. This represents the (generic) financial burden that may be imposed by changes to the respective total numbers of antennas/Properties/sites/cells in an optimised plan.

Specifying Maximum Costs and Risks


On the Max Cost/Risk tab, you can use the Maximum Costs and Risks option to specify thresholds and multipliers for: Budget action/object costs and risks Manpower action/object costs and risks Performance risks If the total budget or manpower cost of an examined network configuration exceeds the set limit, then this cost is increased by the specified multiplier, to ensure that any new configurations are always feasible (that is, acceptable from a financial, time or resource point of view). If required, you can also specify restrictions for the overall budget, manpower and performance risk. These restrictions refer to the maximum desired risk percentage for budget/manpower/performance, and the respective penalty multiplier if this threshold is exceeded. To specify Maximum Costs and Risks: 1 2 Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. In the left-hand pane, select Costs/Risks/Limits. on the main

3 4

Select the Max Cost/Risk tab. Expand the required category, then select the item that you want to edit. Note : If you select Manpower, you are given 5 different types to configure. If you wish to rename a Manpower type, double click on the appropriate name in the Values column and type the new name.

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In the Values column, double-click a value and edit the Max (for Cost), the Max % (for Risk) and, if required, the Multiplier (for both Cost and Risk) as appropriate. Note : The budget cost can represent any currency, or any proportional multiple of that currency. In this example below, it could represent 500 (GBP), or it could represent 500 x $1000 (USD):

All changes that you make on this tab are automatically Applied (that is, saved to the database). At this point, the changes on this tab are in the Applied state and will persist even if you close the Optimiser Workflow dialog box. However, if appropriate, you can carry out one of the following actions: If you want to restore the options on this tab to the previous committed state (if such a state exists), click Restore If you want to share the changes on this tab with all other users of the project, click Commit

Setting the Strategy


The Strategy option in the Optimiser Workflow enables you to: Select the Metrics to be used in the optimisation and set their weightings Choose to Reject Plans based on any individual metric degradation Specify the Metrics Synthesis for the optimisation These parameters enable you to define the factors that will influence optimisations.

Selecting the Metrics and Weights


On the Metrics Selection/Weights tab, you can select metrics to be used in the optimisation and set their weightings based on three main categories: Budget Manpower Performance

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This picture shows an example:

Example of Metrics Selection/Weights tab

To do this: 1 2 Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. In the left-hand pane, select Strategy. on the main

3 4 5

Select the Metrics Selection/Weights tab. Expand the appropriate category (and also, in the case of Performance, the cost mechanism). Select the component of interest. Note : When you do this, the weight automatically defaults to a value of 1. If you subsequently deselect it, no value is shown and the weight is zero.

Double-click the Weight value, and type the required value. Tip : To ensure a particular component is not considered in the optimisation, deselect it.

In the Global Coefficients pane, specify whether the calculation of the optimisation costs should consider traffic only, area only or both combined. To do this, type a value in the % Traffic box to define the % importance of traffic-specific calculations for the optimisation; the % Area value is then automatically updated. If a coefficient is 0%, it will not be included in the optimisation. Important : The global coefficients affects the Signal Strength cost mechanism only (in other words, the Simulator cost mechanism is always only traffic-based).

In the Mechanism Technologies pane, select which technologies (UMTS and/or GSM) for which you want the metrics/weightings to be used.
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Important : For UMTS, either or both cost mechanisms (Signal Strength and/or Simulator) may be applicable to an optimisation. For GSM, only the Signal Strength cost mechanism is applicable. All changes that you make on this tab are automatically Applied (that is, saved to the database). At this point, the changes on this tab are in the Applied state and will persist even if you close the Optimiser Workflow dialog box. However, if appropriate, you can carry out one of the following actions: If you want to restore the options on this tab to the previous committed state (if such a state exists), click Restore If you want to share the changes on this tab with all other users of the project, click Commit

Rejecting Plans based on Metric Degradation


On the Max Degradation tab, you can choose to reject Plans based on any individual metric degradation. For any of the metrics, you can set a maximum degradation threshold in absolute or relative (%) terms. If you select the option to reject Plans based on metric degradation, and then select any of the metrics and set threshold values for them, the optimisation will not accept any Plans that violate any of these constraints. This picture shows an example:

Example of Max Degradation tab (Metrics) tab

Note : All the options are individually independent. For example, you could choose to select 'Signal Strength' without also selecting 'Performance', and you could select 'Coverage' without also having to select 'Signal Strength'. Alternatively, you could choose to prevent the Signal Strength category degrading too much without specifying limits on any individual sub-categories (such as Coverage or Quality). Assuming the main 'Reject Plans Based On Metric Degradation' checkbox is selected, each selected option will always have an influence on the optimisation process.

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To set a threshold: 1 2 Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. In the left-hand pane, select Strategy. on the main

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Select the Max Degradation tab. Select the 'Reject Plans Based On Metric Degradation' option. Select the appropriate metric. If you want to set the threshold as a percentage of the starting cost value, then double-click the appropriate row in the Degradation column, and select Relative %. Otherwise, the maximum degradation threshold is expressed as an absolute value. For example, if you have a starting cost value of 5: An absolute threshold of 5 would mean that configurations with costs less than 10% (5 + 5) would be considered A relative % threshold of 5 would mean that configurations with costs less than 5.25% (5 + .0.25 (5% of 5)) would be considered

Type the value for the maximum degradation. In the example above, a Signal Strength threshold has been set, which specifies a degradation limit of 10% relative to the initial cost. So if the initial cost was 3%, then any configurations with costs less than 3.3% would be considered. All changes that you make on this tab are automatically Applied (that is, saved to the database). At this point, the changes on this tab are in the Applied state and will persist even if you close the Optimiser Workflow dialog box. However, if appropriate, you can carry out one of the following actions: If you want to restore the options on this tab to the previous committed state (if such a state exists), click Restore If you want to share the changes on this tab with all other users of the project, click Commit

Tip : You can turn this Plan rejection method On/Off by using the main checkbox.

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Defining the Cost Conversion Coefficients and Synthesis


On the Metrics Synthesis tab, you can: Define the cost conversion coefficients Select the performance cost synthesis This picture shows an example:

Example of Metrics Synthesis tab

Cost Conversion Coefficients These enable you to normalise the units used for the different cost categories, so that the respective costs (if applicable) are considered in the optimisation on a common basis (the Performance cost category does not actually refer to a specific measurable unit; it is an abstract number or percentage). Cost conversion coefficient values indicate the scale used to represent the following parameters: Budget, which is defined in a single currency Manpower, which can be defined for up to 5 different types (in other words, 5 different costs of manpower) Performance, based on the Signal Strength and Simulator cost mechanisms Important : The way that you define the cost conversion coefficients will have a significant impact on the optimisation. You should ensure that all of the values are correct before proceeding.

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For example, suppose you are using the Budget, Manpower and Performance metrics in an optimisation, where the budget has been defined in euros, and manpower in mandays. If you know/assume that 10,000 euros of expenditure is equivalent to 10 mandays of work and a performance cost of 1 unit, then the coefficient values should be 1 for Budget, 1,000 for the selected Manpower type (in this case, RF Team A) and 10,000 for Performance. Performance Cost Synthesis This enables you to determine how the performance cost components are considered in the optimisation. To specify the performance cost synthesis, you can select one of the performance cost synthesis types:
Option Weighted Sum of Performance Cost Components Maximum Weighted Performance Cost Component Description All performance cost components are considered in each optimisation iteration, based on the performance component weights specified on the Metrics Selection/Weights tab. The weighted performance component with the maximum cost contribution is considered in each optimisation iteration.

To define the options on the Metrics Synthesis tab: 1 2 Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. In the left-hand pane, select Strategy. on the main

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Select the Metrics Synthesis tab. Double-click the conversion coefficient value(s) that you want to edit, and type the new value(s). Select the required performance cost synthesis option. All changes that you make on this tab are automatically Applied (that is, saved to the database). At this point, the changes on this tab are in the Applied state and will persist even if you close the Optimiser Workflow dialog box. However, if appropriate, you can carry out one of the following actions: If you want to restore the options on this tab to the previous committed state (if such a state exists), click Restore If you want to share the changes on this tab with all other users of the project, click Commit

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Specifying the Settings


The Settings in the Optimiser Workflow enable you to: Set additional parameters and options related to optimisations, statistics and spreading network data Load Cached Traffic Arrays

Configuring General Options and Settings


On the Options tab, you can specify a variety of options and settings. This picture shows an example of part of the Options tab:

Example of Options tab

To define the options: 1 2 Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. In the left-hand pane, select Settings. on the main

3 4

Select the Options tab. Set the required options. For descriptions of each option, see About the Settings on the Options tab on page 126. All changes that you make on this tab are automatically Applied (that is, saved to the database). At this point, the changes on this tab are in the Applied state and will persist even if you close the Optimiser Workflow dialog box. However, if appropriate, you can carry out one of the following actions: If you want to restore the options on this tab to the previous committed state (if such a state exists), click Restore If you want to share the changes on this tab with all other users of the project, click Commit
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About the Settings on the Options tab


This table describes the available settings on the Options tab:
From This Category Servers/Cells per Pixel Use This Option GSM To Set the maximum number of GSM servers that can be considered in the statistics and optimisation cost calculations per pixel for the (static) Signal Strength cost mechanism. Set the maximum number of UMTS cells that can be considered in the analysis/optimisation cost calculations per pixel for the (static) Signal Strength cost mechanism. Set the Quality metric cost calculations to consider only C/I (GSM) or Ec/Io (UMTS), rather than a combination of C/I or Ec/Io and Signal Strength. Set the optimisation to take into account all covering cells when calculating interference in Overlap calculations. Use the clutter/vector fading standard deviation in the static calculations for Simulator-based optimisations. Important : This option only affects those optimisations that involve (static) Signal Strength calculations. Use the GSM signal strength threshold defined in the Site Database, rather than the thresholds defined in the Clutter/Vector Parameters tabs. Use the GSM handover margin defined in the Site Database, rather than the Margin Setting. Use the UMTS soft handover window defined in the Site Database, rather than the Margin Setting. Use the neighbour relationship information defined in the imported handover data (if available). Use the neighbour relationship information defined in the Site Database. Use the neighbour relationship information based on the network topology. See About the Voronoi Diagrams on page 173 for more details. Important : Performance targets for adjacency levels higher than 2nd order will not be used when only geometrical neighbours are considered. Handover Margin GSM Set the value below the better server (for every GSM cell pair) that has to be exceeded so that a handover to a 1st or 2nd or other (if applicable) adjacent cell or neighbour, is assumed to be likely. Set the value below the better cell (for every UMTS cell pair) that has to be exceeded so that a handover to a 1st or 2nd or other (if applicable) adjacent cell or neighbour, is assumed to be likely. Set the value below the better server (for every GSM cell pair) that has to be exceeded so that a 1st or 2nd or other (if applicable) adjacent cell or neighbour, is assumed to cause interference.

UMTS

Quality Metric Definition

Only consider C/I (GSM) or Ec/Io (UMTS) for Quality Utilise all covering cells for Interference in Overlap calculations. Use Fading STD in Static Calculations for Simulatorbased Optimisation

Overlap Metric Definition

Fading STD Use

Site Database Parameters

Use subcell specific Signal Threshold (GSM) Use cell-pair specific Handover Margin (GSM) Use cell specific Soft Handover Window (UMTS)

Geometrical Neighbour Identification

Restrict to cell-pair relationships in Handover Data Restrict to cell-pair relationships in Site Database Neighbour Data Restrict to Geometrical Neighbours

UMTS

Interference Margin

GSM

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From This Category

Use This Option UMTS

To Set the value below the better cell (for every UMTS cell pair) that has to be exceeded so that a 1st or 2nd or other (if applicable) adjacent cell or neighbour, is assumed to cause interference. Prioritise actions (changes) to cells of (measured or predicted) poor performance during the optimisation. Tip : You can use Problem Cell Identification to help you prioritise actions.

Problem Cell Weights

Use Problem Cell Weights

Shared Antenna Device/Pattern Prevent inter cell layer (GSM) Do not allow shared antenna ID variation for inter cell layer ID Variation antenna sharing shared antennas (GSM). Prevent inter technology (GSM-UMTS) antenna sharing Modification Strategy Only modify problem cells and their neighbours with plan status Do not allow shared antenna ID variation for all inter technology (GSM and UMTS) shared antennas. Set the optimisation to only modify problem cells and their neighbours (if their status is set to 'plan'). For more information, see Identifying Problematic Areas and Cells in your Network on page 129.

Notes : The options on this tab need to be set carefully, especially if the optimisation includes an Overlap metric or you have defined non-zero standard deviation values The number of servers used in the GSM/UMTS static cost calculations is the lesser of: (i) the number specified in the Servers/Cell per Pixel field and (ii) the respective setting in the active Details for the plan The Servers/Cell per Pixel setting only applies to the (static) Signal Strength cost calculations For more information about shared antennas, see How the Optimiser Considers Shared Antennas

Loading Cached Traffic Arrays


On the Cached Traffic tab of the Settings, you can load any cached traffic arrays. This is because whenever you spread network data, the resulting traffic array is stored, which means you do not have to create the same array again. To load a cached traffic array: 1 2 Open the Optimiser Workflow by clicking the shortcut button ADVANTAGE toolbar. In the left-hand pane, select Settings. on the main

Select the Cached Traffic tab.

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In the dialog box that appears, select the Use Advantage Traffic checkbox to enable the use of the arrays that are selected in the Cached Traffic Arrays pane.

Note : Select the Use Cell Traffic Offset Values checkbox if you want to use these values in optimisation, statistics and problem cell identification. 5 Right-click the required traffic array and select Load Ticked Traffic Arrays. The selected arrays are loaded into memory. To delete a cached array: Right-click the required cached traffic array and select Delete Array. This is only available if the array is not ticked. ENTERPRISE Traffic Arrays As an alternative to cached traffic arrays, you can load ENTERPRISE traffic arrays using the Array Manager. To do this: 1 2 Ensure you deselect the Use Advantage Traffic checkbox. From the Arrays menu, click Array Manager, and select the required arrays.

For more information on using the Array Manager, see the ASSET User Reference Guide.

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CHAPTER 5

Identifying Problematic Areas and Cells in your Network


ADVANTAGE enables you to focus the optimisation process, either automatically or manually, on the areas or cells of the network that are underperforming. The focus is on the identification of: Problem areas in the network Problem cells in the network The problem area and/or cell identification analysis allows you to define the expected performance both in terms of design targets for offered services, and also in terms of area served or traffic captured, or both. This identifies the areas of poor performance that are critical to network efficiency. By correlating the performance achieved and the area and/or traffic served, ADVANTAGE can quickly improve the achieved revenue from the network. Problems with areas may include: Low Coverage Low Quality Low Dominance For more information on defining problem criteria for areas, see Configuring Problem Area Thresholds on page 130. Problems with cells may include those that: Experience a large number of dropped calls Experience a large number of handovers (as source cells) Note : To use these first two options, the respective performance data must have been imported for spreading. For more information, see Spreading Network Data on page 150. Are associated with coverage problems within their best server area Are associated with quality problems within their best server area

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Provide coverage to low levels of traffic Provide coverage to small areas Provide coverage to high levels of traffic Provide coverage to large areas Are associated with interference (in other words low quality) problem areas Provide coverage to areas of low dominance Note : For problem cell identification, the imported (rather than spread) data is used. For more information on defining problem criteria for cells, see Configuring Problem Cell Thresholds on page 132. After you have set the necessary area/cell problem criteria above, you can identify problematic areas or cells by using Problem Area and Cell Identification. For more information, see Identifying Problem Areas and Cells on page 134. You can also specify (or produce automatically) cell-specific weights that can be considered during optimisation. The problem cells can subsequently be targeted by the automatic optimisation algorithm. This ensures that increased priority is given to these cells, enabling more efficient automatic optimisation. For more information, see Configuring Problem Cell Weights on page 138.

In This Section
Configuring Problem Area Thresholds Configuring Problem Cell Thresholds Identifying Problem Areas and Cells Configuring Problem Cell Weights 130 132 134 138

Configuring Problem Area Thresholds


You can configure problem area thresholds to define the criteria used for identifying problem areas in your network. When you later identify problem areas, any areas that do not satisfy these thresholds will be classified as problematic. The problem area categories available are: Low Coverage Low Quality Low Dominance The array used during the identification process for Low Coverage and Low Dominance is the Best Server array (GSM) or Best Pilot Server array (UMTS). The array used during the identification process for Low Quality is the Average Connection (C/I) array (GSM) or Best Ec/Io array (UMTS). To configure problem area thresholds: 1 From the Tools menu, point to Problem Identification, then point to Problem Area Thresholds, and then click the required technology (GSM or UMTS).
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On each tab, you can set clutter-specific threshold values as follows:


Category Low Coverage Low Quality Low Dominance Threshold Min Signal Strength (dBm) Min Quality (dB) Max Servers Classification of Problem Area Anything less than this value Anything less than this value Anything more than this value

Note : The above criteria also depend on whether at least one of the associated traffic/area thresholds is also exceeded, as described below. 3 On each of the three tabs, you can also set associated threshold values as follows:
Category Low Coverage Low Quality Low Dominance Low Coverage Low Quality Low Dominance Threshold Min Traffic (E - but this can represent any unit) Min Area (km) Classification of Problem Area Anything more than this value (for a contiguous area) Anything more than this value (for a contiguous area)

If either of the above values is exceeded, the area may qualify as problematic, depending on the associated value for Low Coverage, Low Quality or Low Dominance. 4 5 When you have completed your changes, click Apply, and then click Close. You can now either: Configure problem cell thresholds - or Identify problem areas

See the following sections for more details.

Example of Problem Area Thresholds


Here is an example of configuring problem area thresholds. The example is valid for either GSM or UMTS:

Example of configuring problem area thresholds

In this example, on the Low Coverage problem area category, the criteria for a contiguous low coverage (that is, problematic) area have been set to any urban area: with at least 10 Erlangs* of traffic OR of at least 1 km in area AND where the signal strength is less than -100 dBm

* (E can represent any unit) If the Min Traffic and Min Area had not been set, even a single pixel with less than 100 dBm signal strength would be classified as a low coverage problem area.
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Configuring Problem Cell Thresholds


You can configure problem cell thresholds to define the criteria used to classify problem cells (both GSM and UMTS) in your network. When you later identify problem cells, any cells that do not satisfy these thresholds will be classified as problematic, and you can use this information to focus on problem cells and their neighbours when you run an optimisation. For more information, see Specifying the Settings on page 125. To configure problem cell thresholds: 1 2 3 From the Tools menu, point to Problem Identification, then click Problem Cell Thresholds. In the dialog box that appears, expand either GSM or UMTS, as appropriate. Expand the required category, and select the threshold you want to configure. The following table describes these thresholds:
Category Large # of Dropped Calls Threshold Max Max % of Carried Traffic Large # of Handovers Max Max % of Carried Traffic Low Coverage Min Signal Strength (dBm) Description Classification of Problem Cell

Maximum number of dropped calls. Anything exceeding this value. Maximum number of dropped calls, As above. as a proportion of traffic. Maximum number of calls in handover Anything exceeding this value.

Maximum number of calls in As above. handover, as a proportion of traffic. Minimum level of signal strength for the best server cell in the pixel. Anything less than this value - but only if one or both of the associated traffic/area thresholds is also exceeded. As above.

Min Coverage Probability Minimum probability of the above (%) signal strength being reached in the pixel. Min Traffic Minimum traffic associated with low coverage.

Anything exceeding this value - but only if one or both of the associated coverage thresholds is also exceeded. As above. Anything less than this value - but only if one or both of the associated traffic/area thresholds is also exceeded. As above.

Min Area Low Quality Min Quality (dB)

Minimum area associated with low coverage. Minimum signal quality level required for the best server cell in the pixel. Minimum probability of the minimum quality level being reached in the pixel. Minimum traffic associated with low quality. Minimum area associated with low quality.

Min Quality Probability (%) Min Traffic

Anything exceeding this value - but only if one or both of the associated quality thresholds is also exceeded. As above.

Min Area

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Category Low Traffic

Threshold Min (E - but can represent any unit) Min % of Mean Traffic

Description Minimum amount of traffic that a cell should carry. Minimum proportion of the mean carried traffic that a cell should carry. Minimum area that a cell is required to cover.

Classification of Problem Cell Anything less than this value. As above.

Small Area

Min (km) Min % of Mean Area

Anything less than this value.

Minimum proportion of the mean As above. covered area that a cell is required to cover. Maximum amount of traffic that a cell should carry. Maximum proportion of the mean carried traffic that a cell should carry. Maximum area that a cell is required to cover. Anything exceeding this value. As above.

High Traffic

Max (E - but can represent any unit) Max % of Mean Traffic

Large Area

Max (km) Max % of Mean Area

Anything exceeding this value.

Maximum proportion of the mean As above. covered area that a cell is required to cover.

Notes : Within the Problem Cell categories that contain a pair of thresholds, the two thresholds operate on an OR basis. Within the Low Coverage and Low Quality categories, the first pair of thresholds operate on an OR basis, but each one also operates on an AND basis with its respective Min Traffic OR Min Area threshold. Dropped Call and Handover problem cells will only be identified if you have corresponding performance data. Furthermore, if you have more than one type of data for these (for example, DroppedCallsLev and DroppedCallsQual), ADVANTAGE combines the respective data into a single value per cell for problem cell identification purposes. 4 5 6 In the Values column, double-click a value and type the new one. When you have completed your changes, click Apply, and then click Close. You can now either: Configure problem area thresholds (if you have not done so already) - or Identify problem cells

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Identifying Problem Areas and Cells


You can run the Problem Area and Cell Identification to identify problematic areas and cells in your network. The identification process always relates to a specific Plan, therefore the area and cells are determined by the Map View and filters that were appropriate when the Plan was created. Prerequisites Before performing problem area and cell identification, ensure that you have: Set up a project with the necessary planning data, including traffic (if applicable). For more information, see the ENTERPRISE and ASSET User Reference Guides. Defined the Clutter and/or Vector Parameters Created a Plan (defining the area, and cell filters), using the Plan Manager. For more information, see Using the Plan Manager on page 46. Defined the Details (specific vectors, drive test routes, terminal types, array-based options). For more information, see For more information, see Setting Up and Activating the Details for the Plan on page 51. Defined the Problem Area and/or Cell Thresholds, as appropriate. For more information, see: 1 2 3 4 Configuring Problem Area Thresholds on page 130 Configuring Problem Cell Thresholds on page 132

To identify problem areas and cells: Ensure you have performed the required prerequisites, as described in Identifying Problematic Areas and Cells in your Network on page 129. From the Tools menu, point to Problem Identification, then click Problem Area and Cell Identification. Select the appropriate Plan, and click OK. This is necessary to focus on the relevant area and cells. In the dialog box that appears, on the Problem Area Cell Identification tab, select the checkboxes next to the parameters that you wish to be considered when identifying problem areas and cells. Note : If you select one of the problem cell types that relate to a similar problem area type (Low Coverage, Low Quality, Low Dominance), then the corresponding problem area type is also selected. In these cases, you cannot identify problem cells independent of the area they are associated with. 5 6 Click Start. Problem areas and cells are identified. When you have run the identification, you can generate one or both of these reports:
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Problem Area Report Problem Cell Report


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Click the appropriate button, and then select the type of report you want to generate, and click OK. You can also specify (or produce automatically) cell-specific weights that can be considered during optimisation. The problem cells can subsequently be targeted by the automatic optimisation algorithm. This ensures that increased priority is given to these cells, enabling more efficient automatic optimisation. For more information, see Configuring Problem Cell Weights on page 138.

About the Information Shown in a Problem Area Report


After you have identified problem areas, you can view a problem area report. This picture shows an example of a problem area report for low coverage (UMTS network):

Example Problem Area Report (UMTS Problem Area tab)

The report details the number of problem areas, the amount of affected traffic (given in E, but this can represent any unit) and the size of the affected area (in km). Tip : To quickly identify the most or least problematic area, use the Sort Ascending/Descending function in Excel. As well as generating a report, you can also view problem area data in the Map View window. For information on how do this, see Displaying Problem Area Data in the Map View on page 136.

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Displaying Problem Area Data in the Map View


After you have generated a Problem Area Report, you can also view problem area data in the Map View window. To do this: 1 Ensure you have a Map View window showing the considered network configuration(s). If not, you can select the region for the plan using the Plans heading in the Data Types list:

2 3 4

On the Map View toolbar, click the Show Data Types button Information & Control button Click Redraw. The problem area data will be displayed.

, or click the Map

and then click the Data Types tab.

Select the appropriate problem areas from the Problem Areas folder.

This picture shows UMTS Coverage Problem Areas in the Map View window:

Example UMTS Coverage Problem Areas (Map View)

If you want to display several problem areas at once, and view information on each as you hover over the Map View: 1
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Click the Edit Map Information button

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In the Map Information Field Selector, select the required problem areas, and then click Add.

Click OK.

Tip : If you want to define colour profiles for different problem areas, double-click on the problem area in the Map Information and Control dialog box. In the dialog box that appears, on the Problem Area tab select a colour to represent the starting value, and on the Selected Areas tab choose which problem areas to show on the Map View window.

About the Information Shown in a Problem Cell Report


After you have identified problem cells, you can view a problem cell report (for both GSM and UMTS). This picture shows an example of the Summary tab of a Problem Cell Report for Low Coverage and Low Quality:

Example Problem Cell Report (Summary tab)

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As well as the summary, each report has a separate page for each problem type ADVANTAGE has identified. In the example above, the problem of Low Coverage is identified. This picture shows the Low Coverage tab:

Example Problem Cell Report (Low Coverage tab)

Notes : The report also shows the problem areas related to the respective problem cells, since these are considered when identifying problematic cells. Traffic values in the summary and separate problem type reports are given in E, but this can represent any unit.

Configuring Problem Cell Weights


You can use problem cell weighting to prioritise actions (changes) to cells that have shown poor performance (based on the analysis output and/or network measurements) or should be given a higher priority anyway. You can use this information to focus on problem cells and their neighbours when you run an optimisation. For more information, see Specifying the Settings on page 125. You can configure problem cell weights automatically or manually. To configure the problem cell weights automatically: 1 2 3 4 Identify the problem cells in your network. For more information on how to do this, see Identifying Problem Areas and Cells on page 134. From the Tools menu, point to Problem Identification, then click Problem Area and Cell Identification. Select the appropriate Plan, and click OK. This is necessary to focus on the relevant area and cells. In the Problem Area and Cell Identification dialog box, click the Problem Cell Weights tab.
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Based on the problem cells identified: Cell weights are produced (if applicable), and displayed in the cost multiplier column. The default weight is 1.0000 (no priority) and higher values indicate a more problematic cell and therefore a greater priority for the optimisation. Cells are classified as problematic (or otherwise) in the Problem column.

This picture shows an example, where 3 problem cells have been identified:

Click Apply to save to the database, and (if required) Commit.

Note : You can choose to manually edit the automatically produced weight values, and also select/deselect any of the cells. To configure the problem cell weights manually: 1 2 3 From the Tools menu, point to Problem Identification, then click Problem Area and Cell Identification. Select the appropriate Plan, and click OK. This is necessary to focus on the relevant area and cells. In the In the Problem Area and Cell Identification dialog box, on the Problem Cell Weights tab, double-click the required cell's Cost Multiplier value and type the new value. The default weight is 1.0000 (no priority) and higher values indicate a more problematic cell and therefore a greater priority for the optimisation. For example, a cost multiplier of 2.0000 would give that cell a weight twice that of the other cells. You can also use lower values if you require. You can even use 0, in which case the cell will be included in the optimisation but will not contribute to the cost calculations. Note : If you edit the weight of a problem cell, it is automatically selected. 4 1 2 Click Apply to save to the database, and (if required) Commit. Select the appropriate technology level checkbox, and then deselect it, so that all of the cell-specific checkboxes are automatically unselected. Click Apply to save to the database, and (if required) Commit. To remove the manual problem cell weights and use the default unitary weights:

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CHAPTER 6

Using Measurement Data


ADVANTAGE enables you to import and use: Performance Engineering or other cell-specific data, providing information that is crucial to understanding the performance of your network: You can import cell (and cell pair)-specific information into ADVANTAGE, which is spread intelligently in the area of interest and used in the analysis/optimisation. Area and cell-specific measurement data (typically drive test data): You can use this data to generate measurement-based pathloss files, which can then be used to influence predictions and/or run a drive test route-based analysis/optimisation. In a similar way to ASSET, you can also use the standard ENTERPRISE traffic functionality in ADVANTAGE to create/load/modify a traffic array, whether live traffic is considered or not. For more information on this, see the ASSET User Reference Guide. Using measured data, ADVANTAGE can model the network more accurately, basing its results on measured performance, and consider the measurements in the analysis and optimisation.

In This Section
About Intelligent Spreading of Network Data How ADVANTAGE Spreads Traffic Data About the Spreading Mechanisms in ADVANTAGE Configuring the Format for Importing Network Data About Spreading Network Data Performing Network Data Array Operations About Drive Test or other Area and Cell-Specific Data About Using Measurement-Based Pathloss Files 142 144 145 146 149 154 157 163

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About Intelligent Spreading of Network Data


ADVANTAGE can incorporate cell-specific measurements into the optimisation process. This enables you to consider measured data in addition to the most accurate pathloss predictions. In this way, it is possible to use measurements to tune the predicted network behaviour. Using the ADVANTAGE-specific spreading mechanisms, you can import and spread on a pixel basis any Key Performance Indicator (KPI) data. You can then visualise and pinpoint the areas and/or cells that are under-performing, focus the Optimiser on the network problem regions, thus increasing efficiency and reducing optimisation process times. The default types of network data that you can import in ADVANTAGE for 2g and 3g networks are traffic, congestion (%), dropped calls and handover statistics. Note : For details about how other data types can be imported, see Configuring the Format for Additional Data on page 147. The following picture shows an example of different types of network data being imported into ADVANTAGE:

Importing network data in ADVANTAGE

Note : The values shown are only for representative purposes.

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The following pictures show examples of arrays (Traffic and DroppedCallsOther) created by spreading network data over a selected area:

A typical array of spread network data - Traffic

A typical array of spread network data - DroppedCallsOther

In the first example, the areas of green represent low traffic density. In the second example, the areas of red represent a high number of dropped calls due to reasons other than signal strength or interference.

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How ADVANTAGE Spreads Traffic Data


Amongst cell-specific data, traffic is fundamental for analysis/optimisation purposes. In ADVANTAGE, the imported traffic per cell can be spread within the examined area in an intelligent and realistic fashion, so that any subsequently produced optimisation plan is more likely to improve the 'real-life' network performance. Note : The standard ENTERPRISE traffic functionality can also be used in ADVANTAGE to create/load/modify a traffic array. There are a number of potential chronic problems inherent in planning, as summarised here:
Problems Traffic only spread to an individual best server cell within a pixel: Unrealistic discontinuities in traffic density. This will skew any cost function based on traffic covered. Traffic not spread to areas with no coverage: Any cost function based on traffic will see no benefit in increasing coverage. Network coverage expansion cannot be automatically planned based on this data. Traffic spread dictated by user-defined density weightings: You must pre-estimate weightings. This is likely to incorrectly skew traffic distribution between land usage categories. Direct usage of network-recorded traffic: The traffic recorded in the statistics is the carried traffic, rather than the traffic offered to the network. Using this traffic will underestimate the load on the network. Imperfect coverage not accounted for: When an infill site is introduced for capacity reasons, it is typical to see a traffic increase due to improved coverage. For instance, if the coverage probability is increased from 80% to 90% in a region, it is reasonable to expect a similar increase in offered traffic.

The way that traffic is spread by ADVANTAGE alleviates the above problems, because the traffic spreading process acknowledges the likelihood that a pixel may be covered by any of the predicted servers/cells. The calculated coverage probability and the traffic per cell (from the imported network data) are used to generate a system of equations, which are solved so that the predicted and measured data are consistent. The two end products of traffic spreading are a technology-specific traffic array and a set of cell-specific traffic modifiers.

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About the Spreading Mechanisms in ADVANTAGE


The spreading mechanisms used in ADVANTAGE are described in the following table, for which these definitions apply: Coverage Probability is based on (as applicable): The Nth Best Server array for GSM The Nth Best Pilot Server array for UMTS The respective minimum signal strength value specified in the active Details The Nth Average Connection (C/I) array for GSM The Nth Best Ec/Io array for UMTS
To Example of Network Data spread this way Default Naming Convention in ADVANTAGE Traffic

Interference is based on (as applicable):

Use This Mechanism Traffic

Spread data based on clutter and Traffic coverage probability for each cell; this spreading process is actually an optimisation that will identify the optimal clutter type traffic densities, based on the imported data and the considered network configuration and Clutter/Vector Parameters in the Optimiser Workflow. Spread data (weighted) based on the coverage probability for each cell. Spread data (uniformly) based on the traffic and coverage probability for each cell. Congestion probability Dropped calls due to reasons other than signal strength or interference

Weighted Average Even

Congestion DroppedCallsOther

Signal Strength

Spread data based on the traffic, clutter Dropped calls due to signal and coverage probability for each cell; strength this spreading process is actually an optimisation that will identify the minimum signal strength threshold below which calls are dropped, based on the imported data and the considered network configuration and Clutter/Vector Parameters in the Optimiser Workflow. Spread data based on the traffic, clutter, Dropped calls due to coverage probability and interference interference probability for each cell; this spreading process is actually an optimisation that will identify the minimum interference threshold below which calls are dropped, based on the imported data and the considered network configuration and Clutter/Vector Parameters in the Optimiser Workflow. Spread data based on the traffic and Handovers due to link budget coverage probability for each cell pair, taking into account the handover margin values defined in the Site Database and, if not, the Handover Margin specified in Settings in the Optimiser Workflow.

DroppedCallsLev

Interference

DroppedCallsQual

Relative Signal Strength (1)

HandoverLinkBudget

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Use This Mechanism Relative Signal Strength (2)

To

Example of Network Data spread this way Handovers due to signal strength

Default Naming Convention in ADVANTAGE HandoverLev

Spread data based on the traffic and coverage probability for each cell pair, taking into account the absolute signal strength thresholds defined in the Site Database and, if not, the Clutter Parameters in the Optimiser Workflow. Spread data based on the traffic, coverage probability and interference probability for each cell pair, taking into account the relative interference and absolute signal strength thresholds defined in the Site Database and, if not, the Clutter Parameters in the Optimiser Workflow.

Relative Interference and (absolute) Signal Strength

Handovers due to interference HandoverQual

Relative Signal Spread data based on the traffic, Handovers due to interference N/A Strength and coverage probability and interference (absolute) interference probability for each cell pair, taking into account the relative signal strength and absolute interference thresholds defined in the Site Database and, if not, the Clutter Parameters in the Optimiser Workflow.

For more information on the Clutter/Vector Parameters and Settings, see Using the Optimiser Workflow on page 45. For more information on configuring networks, see the ASSET User Reference Guide.

Configuring the Format for Importing Network Data


You can import network data (that is, cell-specific data) into ADVANTAGE using: An appropriate ADVANTAGE-specific Excel spreadsheet An appropriate table and view in an Oracle (for example, OPTIMA) database Data types named as traffic or congestion are automatically recognised by ADVANTAGE and associated with the correct default spreading mechanism. However, additional data can be imported in ADVANTAGE and spread, based on any of the existing spreading mechanisms. For information on how to configure the format for this additional data, see Configuring the Format for Additional Data on page 147.

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The following table describes how to configure the Excel spreadsheet for use in importing generic network data:
Table sheet 1st Sheet (Network data per Cell) COMPULSORY Description The first row must contain a description of the data, for example, Network Data Per Cell. The second row is empty. The third row contains three columns which are fixed (Cell Technology, Cell ID, Cell Layer / 3g Carrier). The subsequent columns represent a network data counter, such as Traffic, Congestion or Dropped Calls. The first sheet should always have one data column representing Traffic. To import additional data, you can add more columns with different names. For information on how to configure the format for this additional data, see Configuring the Format for Additional Data on page 147. Data starts on the fifth row. The first column identifies the technology type (e.g. GSM or UMTS). The second column is the cell ID, the third the cell layer / 3g carrier name. Subsequent columns represent the per cell value, which may be blank. 2nd Sheet (Network Handover data, per cell pair) OPTIONAL The first row must contain a description of the data, for example, Network Data Handovers. The second row is empty. The third row contains six columns which are fixed (Cell Technology, Cell ID, Cell Layer / 3g Carrier for both the handover source and destination cell). The subsequent columns represent a handover data counter, such as Handover due to Link Budget. Note : Handover data can be defined between a GSM and a UMTS cell. But ADVANTAGE will only (at present) consider handover data for cells of the same technology. Also, ADVANTAGE will ignore handover data defined for the same cell (for example, Site3A GSM-900 -> Site3A GSM-900). Data starts on the fifth row. The format is the same as for network data, with the addition of entries for the handover source and the destination cells.

Note : If you are using OPTIMA, the import file format could match the (optional) report generated by the Data Array Wizard. This enables you to import from an OPTIMA database, generate a report, and import the data from the report whenever the database is not accessible.

Configuring the Format for Additional Data


As well as data types such as traffic and congestion, which are automatically recognised by ADVANTAGE, you can import additional cell-specific data, for example, revenue per cell. To configure this data to be in the correct format for import: 1 Ensure you have a column with the required counter name, containing the data of interest, in the Network Data Excel file.

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Add a key named as the required counter to the registry, under HKEY_CURRENT_USER\ Software\AIRCOM\ENTERPRISE\ Settings\Server (the name of the server where the database of interest is located) \Instance (the database ID)\Project (the ENTERPRISE project number saved in the database) \User (the ENTERPRISE user ID)\ADVANTAGE \Counters, with String values similar to the ones created for Traffic, assuming that traffic has already been spread and a registry entry has been created. - or Rename one (or more) of the default counter registry entries and then change the rest of the related settings in the Data Array Wizard.

Note : If an OPTIMA database is used, only the table and view for the consideration of network data should be appropriately defined. If you require assistance in setting this up, please contact the support team at the address described in Obtaining Support on page 16.

Examples of the ADVANTAGE Import Format


The following pictures show examples of configured Excel spreadsheets, depicting the import format. Note : The values shown in these pictures are only for representative purposes. This picture shows an example of the first sheet (Per Cell) of an Excel spreadsheet used to import network data:

Example of the first sheet (Per Cell) of an Excel spreadsheet used to import network data

This picture shows an example of the second sheet (Handovers) of an Excel spreadsheet used to import network data:

Example of the second sheet (Handovers) of an Excel spreadsheet used to import network data

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About Spreading Network Data


ADVANTAGE enables you to import and use network data, enabling you to use information that is crucial to understanding the performance of your network. After importing the cell-specific information (or cell pair-specific) into ADVANTAGE, it is spread intelligently in the area of interest and used in the statistics analysis and optimisation. Using measured data, ADVANTAGE can model the network more accurately, basing its results on measured performance, and consider the measurements in the analysis and optimisation. You can also use the imported network data to identify and visualise particular areas and/or cells of the network that are underperforming. You can then focus the optimisation on these areas and/or cells, thus ensuring that the resulting changes will respond directly to real problems. For more information on this, see Identifying Problematic Areas and Cells in your Network on page 129. Using the ADVANTAGE-specific spreading mechanisms, you can import and spread on a pixel basis any Key Performance Indicator (KPI) data. The default types of network data that you can import in ADVANTAGE for 2g and 3g networks are: Traffic levels Congestion percentage Dropped call statistics Handover statistics Note : For details about how other data types can be imported, see Configuring the Format for Importing Network Data on page 146. Prerequisites Before spreading network data, you need to have: Set up a project with the necessary planning data. For more information, see the ENTERPRISE and ASSET User Reference Guides. Specified the Clutter Parameters and General Clutter Parameters (Importance) in the Optimiser Workflow. For more information, see Specifying Clutter Parameters on page 100 and About the Optimisation-Based Spreading Algorithms on page 169. Created a Plan (defining the area, and cell filters), using the Plan Manager. For more information, see Using the Plan Manager on page 46. Defined the Details (specific vectors, drive test routes, terminal types, array-based options). For more information, see For more information, see Setting Up and Activating the Details for the Plan on page 51. Correctly configured the format (based on an Excel file or a Performance Engineering management database) of the data that you want to import. For more information, see Configuring the Format for Importing Network Data on page 146.

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Spreading Network Data


To import and spread network data: 1 2 3 Ensure you have performed the required prerequisites, as described in About Spreading Network Data on page 149. From the Arrays menu, point to Network Data and click Data Array Wizard. In the dialog box that appears, select the appropriate plan. This contains the required information in terms of cells and region. Note : If you have selected to use vectors in the active Details, then the resulting data spreading will be constrained to the defined vector locations. 4 To specify the folder where the cached traffic arrays will be saved, click the button in the Cached Array Path pane, browse to the folder where you want to save the arrays, and click OK. Click Next. Select the data you want to import: To import from a file, select Import from file and click the Browse button. Locate the file, click Open and then click Next. To import directly from an OPTIMA database, select Import from Database and choose an application and data source. Type in your user ID and password and then click Next.

5 6

Select the checkboxes for the specific network data types you want to spread, and (if you wish to change the default mechanism for that type) click in the Spreading Mechanism column and choose from the resulting list. Each list is dependent on the specific network data type (for example, only the handover-related spreading mechanisms are available for data described as HandoverLinkBudget). If required, you can also enter or modify the unit for each network data type. Note : If you are importing from an OPTIMA database, you can choose to filter the data, by selecting a start date and an end date and a time. (Currently, the most recent data matching these conditions is loaded).

To generate a report about the spreading of network data: Select the Generate Report box. Click Next. In the dialog box that appears, select the format for your report. If you choose a text file, select a program to open it with. Click OK.

The results are displayed in your chosen format. You can save the report if required.

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Click Finish. The network data is spread, and a summary list is displayed:

10 Click Done. After you have spread network data, you can then display it, in either: The Map View window - or The Network Data Values dialog box

Displaying Spread Data on the Map View


In the Map View window, you can view the network data you have spread, enabling you to identify geographical areas or cells where problems in the network may be experienced. To do this: 1 2 3 Open a Map View window displaying the area you want to view. On the Map View toolbar, click the Show Data Types button Information & Control button , or click the Map

and then click the Data Types tab.

From the list of Data Types, expand Processed Performance Data, then the required technology (GSM or UMTS), and then select the data you want to display.

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Click Redraw. The chosen network data array is displayed. Note : If you want to change how the data is displayed, double-click on the data you want to display in the list of Data Types. Select the start colour, the Start value (this is the minimum value to be displayed), the Interval value (this is the step value), as well as the Units (for example, Erlangs). Click OK and then click OK and Redraw.

5 6 7

If you want to view the value per pixel for this array, ensure Show Map View Gadgets is selected from the View menu on the Map View window. On the pane, click the Edit Map Information button .

In the dialog box that appears, in the Available Items pane, select Processed Performance Data, and click the button.

8 9

Click OK. Double-click the 'Please select Data Array' text at the bottom of the Map View window:

10 In the dialog box that appears, select the array for which you want to display information, and click OK. 11 As you move the mouse cursor over the map, the pane at the bottom of the Map View window displays the network data value for the specific pixel under the cursor:

Displaying Spread Data in the Data Values Pixel Analyser


As well as viewing spread network data in the Map View, you can view more detailed information in the Data Values Pixel Analyser. The values are per pixel, and are based on the chosen area and network, the data spread and the resolution selected for spreading. To display network data in this way: 1 2 Ensure you have opened the Map View window, and displayed the area of interest. From the Arrays menu, point to Network Data and click Data Pixel Analyser. The Data Values dialog box appears.

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Hover the mouse pointer over the pixel where you wish to view the data values. The corresponding values for this location are displayed:

The types of data you can view correspond to the four tabs on the Data Values dialog box. The following table describes these tabs:
Click this tab Spread Data To view The estimated values per pixel for the data imported through spreading. Note : If handover data has been considered, information on the estimated traffic in handover (denoted as Traffic Affected) is also displayed. Clutter Thresholds The estimated threshold values per clutter type for the used Spreading Mechanisms that involve an optimisation; these thresholds are the traffic density for Traffic and the minimum signal strength and interference thresholds for Signal Strength and Interference (if applicable) spread data. Note : You need to have displayed clutter data on the Map View for this to be applicable. Cell Modifiers The estimated modifier values per best server cell (pilot for UMTS) for the used Spreading Mechanisms that involve an optimisation. These modifiers may be required for all the considered cells and traffic, signal strength and interference (if applicable) spread data to ensure that the respectively imported (measured) and estimated network data information is identical. The estimated Coverage and Quality Probability per pixel. Note : The Coverage Probability is actually calculated during the traffic spreading process; the non-signal strength-based Quality Probability is not, and will return zero values, unless a Qualitybased Spreading Mechanism is considered, or the Problem Cell Identification Quality criterion is used. See Identifying Problem Areas and Cells on page 134 for more information.

Probabilities

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Re-Spreading Network Data


Re-spreading network data enables you to view estimated network data after an optimisation plan has been considered. Note : To re-spread network data, you should have already spread network data. This is because re-spreading is based on the initially spread data, as well as the Site Database information for the appropriate cells. You cannot re-spread network traffic data, so if there is no other type of network data, the Re-Spread Data option will not be applicable. To re-spread data: 1 2 3 From the Arrays menu, point to Network Data, and click Re-Spread Data. In the dialog box that appears, select the appropriate plan. This contains the required information in terms of cells and region. Click OK.

Once the network data is re-spread, you can view the estimated network data in the Map View window in the same way as you view spread network data. For more information, see Displaying Spread Data on the Map View on page 151.

About Cached Traffic Arrays


Each time you spread data, the resulting traffic array is stored (cached), which means you do not have to recreate the same array again. In ADVANTAGE, you can easily load these stored arrays. For information on how to do this, see Loading Cached Traffic Arrays on page 127.

Performing Network Data Array Operations


In ADVANTAGE, you can perform a number of network data array operations. You can: Manipulate network data arrays: Scale the arrays Combine the arrays Rename, load, save or delete the arrays

Manage network data arrays: You can also re-spread network data, which enables you to view estimated network data after an optimisation plan has been considered. For more information, see ReSpreading Network Data on page 154.

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Scaling Network Data Arrays


After you have spread network data, you can scale the network data arrays. By scaling arrays, you can see the effects on your network of, for example, doubling, or halving an array's data values. Scaling increases or decreases the values present in a spread data array at a given ratio. This ensures that the data values are uniformly increased or decreased. To scale arrays: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the Arrays menu, point to Network Data and click Data Array Operations. On the Manipulate Data Array tab, select the array you wish to scale. In the Array Scaling pane, click .

Type the required scaling (between 0 and 10) into the box, or drag the bar horizontally to the required scaling value. Click Apply Scaling Factor. Click Close.

Combining Network Data Arrays


After you have spread network data, you can combine the network data arrays. By combining arrays, you can visually compare the results from different arrays. To combine arrays: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 From the Arrays menu, point to Network Data and click Data Array Operations. On the Manipulate Data Array tab, select the first array you wish to combine. In the Array Combining pane, click the upper . .

Select the second array, and in the Array Combining pane, click the lower Important : The two arrays must be of the same resolution and same area.

To add, subtract, or multiply the two arrays, select the appropriate button. A new combined array is created. If you want to change the name of the new combined array, type the new name. Click to add it to the list.

Click Close.

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Managing Network Data Arrays


After you have spread network data, you can rename, load, save and delete arrays in the Data Array Operations dialog box. To open this: From the Arrays menu, point to Network Data and click Data Array Operations. Remember that if you are saving and loading arrays, you should only use them for the respectively considered network data sets and network. To rename network data arrays: 1 2 On the Manage Data Array tab, select an array. In the Array Management pane, type in a new name for the array and then click Rename. You array is renamed. To load network data arrays: 1 2 On the Manage Data Array tab, click Load. In the dialog box that appears, browse to a saved array and click Open. The array appears in the list. Important : The array can only be used for editing and visualisation purposes. To save network data arrays: 1 2 On the Manage Data Array tab, select an array and click Save. In the dialog box that appears, browse to a suitable location in which to save your file and click Save. Your array is saved. You can now load the array in the future, rather than re-create the array. To delete network data arrays: On the Manage Data Array tab, select an array and click Delete. The array is deleted from memory.

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About Drive Test or other Area and Cell-Specific Data


Area and cell-specific measurement data (typically drive test data) can be used for several purposes in ENTERPRISE: Carrier Wave (CW) Measurement Analysis Model Tuning (Calibrating) Generating Measurement-based Pathloss Files, in order to influence coverage predictions, and/or run a drive test route-based analysis/optimisation. This is described later in this section. For more information on Analysis and Tuning, see the ASSET User Reference Guide. Prerequisites Before loading drive test or other area and cell-specific data, you need to have: Set up a project with the necessary planning data. For more information, see the ENTERPRISE and ASSET User Reference Guides. Configured the data in an appropriate import format. You can load any type of measurement data, as long as it is in one of the supported file formats: Grayson-Invex3G Grayson WMI data Rohde and Schwarz survey data Signia CW data TMR CW data Nemo Outdoor 4.x (for this type, each file should contain data for a single cell)

For more information on all the formats, see the File Formats section of the ENTERPRISE Technical Reference Guide. Note : You can also use a RANOPT database for the conversion process. In the case of TEMS data, you can instead use the TEMS Utility (for both GSM and UMTS networks), as described in the following sectionConverting TEMS Data to Signia Data.

Converting TEMS Data to Signia Data


In ADVANTAGE, for both GSM and UMTS networks, you can convert TEMS (drive test) data into Signia files, and, once this is done, you can then load them in memory directly to use the data in the generation of measurement-based pathloss files, CW analysis and model tuning. TEMS data must be provided in an appropriate (.FMT) text format, as exported from the TEMS Investigation tool using the original drive test (.LOG) files and a specific text export (.TEX) file. For more information, contact Product Support. Note : You can select the appropriate region of interest, and the cells of interest (using filters), directly in the TEMS Utility dialog box. This selection of region and cells is completely independent from the optimisation plans.
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To convert TEMS (.FMT) data into Signia data: 1 2 From the Tools menu, click TEMS Utility. In the dialog box that appears, define the region of interest. If you have more than one Map View open, and you require a different view from the one displayed in the wizard, select a different view using the button. Alternatively, you can choose to enter the coordinates instead. Select one or more filters to determine which cells are to be included. Click the first Browse button that you want to convert. Click the second Browse button store the converted Signia files. , and locate the folder containing the TEMS data , and locate the folder in which you want to

3 4 5 6 7 8 9

If you want to clear any data already loaded in the CW Measurements dialog box, select the Clear Existing CW Measurements From Memory checkbox. From the Resolution dropdown list, select the required mapping resolution and click OK. Click Convert. In the dialog box that appears, select whether or not you want to apply bin averaging to the raw data. Note : The binning option applies to the loading of data in memory, not to the produced Signia files; the measurements for the latter are not binned. The drive test data is converted.

10 From the Tools menu, click CW Measurements. In the CW Measurements dialog box, you can view the converted drive test data. You can now use this data to generate measurement-based pathloss files, CW analysis, or perform model tuning. Note : For information about the other CW Measurements options, see the ASSET User Reference Guide.

Loading and Viewing CW Measurement Data


To load a CW (Carrier/Continuous Wave) Measurement survey file: 1 Ensure you have performed the required prerequisites (including the file format requirements), as described in About Drive Test or other Area and Cell-Specific Data on page 157. From the Tools menu, click CW Measurements. In the CW Measurements dialog box that appears, click the Add button. Browse to the measurement data file you require and click Open. In the dialog box that appears, if you wish to apply bin averaging for your analysis, click Yes.

2 3 4 5

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Note : The dialog box title bar indicates which resolution will be used for the averaging. You can select a different resolution, if necessary, as described in the following step. The CW Measurement survey file is loaded, and appears in the CW Measurements Loaded pane. 6 Set the options (such as map resolution, filtering and area exclusions) for the CW data. For information on how to do this, see Setting the Options for CW Measurement Data on page 159. 7 You are now ready to perform an analysis, model tuning or generate measurement-based pathloss files. In the CW Measurements dialog box, select the required Site ID and click the Info button. This dialog box displays important information about the survey files such as power, frequency, antenna height and type. To perform a valid analysis you need to ensure the radio parameters are correctly defined. Note : If you load a Nemo Outdoor v4.x file, any missing BTS information is listed in the Message Log. To add the missing information, click Info and type the required values on each tab.

To view information about loaded survey data:

How Bin Averaging Affects CW Measurement Analysis


When you are loading a survey file, you have the option to apply Bin Averaging to the raw data. During the drive test, data is collected either at a fixed time intervals or whenever a position or new signal measurement becomes available. This results in many measurements over a small area. When analysing this data, each measurement is compared to a predicted signal level. The predicted level will be the same for many of the measurements that are close together due to the resolution of the map data. The Bin Averaging option enables you to average the measurements into bins corresponding to the map data pixels, reducing the overall number of measurements and computation time when performing survey data analysis. The averaging process is based on mean signal strength in each pixel.

Setting the Options for CW Measurement Data


After you have loaded CW measurement data, you must set the map resolution. If you are analysing or tuning a model, you must also select a propagation model. You can also set various filtering options. Note : See the ASSET User Reference Guide for information about other CW Measurements options. 1 2 Ensure you have loaded the survey file(s). In the CW Measurements dialog box, click the Options button.
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On the Model Tab, choose the mapping resolution at which you want to use the propagation model. Bin averaging, if chosen when you loaded the CW data, will be performed at the resolution you select here. Tip : If you are using bin averaging to analyse your survey data, it is recommended that you start your analysis with a low resolution. If you choose a high resolution and wish to reduce it during analysis, you will have to reload your survey measurement file. Important : If you are setting options for generating measurement-based pathloss files, and wish to use these to influence the predictions, you must ensure that the resolution chosen here matches the resolution you use when you create the prediction files.

Choose the propagation model that you want to compare against in the analysis. Note : If you are setting options for generating measurement-based pathloss files (as opposed to analysing or tuning a model), the selection of a propagation model is not relevant at this stage.

On the Filter tab, you can choose any clutter types you want to exclude from the analysis or tuning process. For example, in this picture, three clutter types are to be excluded from the analysis. Only the remaining clutter types will be used.

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You can also choose areas you want to exclude from the analysis or tuning process. These exclusion areas are based on polygons. For information on creating polygons, see the ENTERPRISE User Reference Guide. To filter on areas, ensure Use Exclusion Polygons is selected, and then click Select Polygons. You can now select any combination of polygons for exclusion, as in this example:

When you are satisfied with your changes, click Apply and then Close. Important : If you want these area exclusions to be saved, ensure that you subsequently click OK on the CW Measurement Options dialog box. Also ensure that the Use Exclusion Polygons checkbox is selected before you click OK, in order to activate these area exclusions for the analysis or tuning process. You can deactivate the area exclusions at any time by deselecting this checkbox.

Tip : You can also view the selected areas of CW excluded signal on the Map View. 8 For the clutter types and/or areas that you have not excluded, set a radius and signal range that you want to consider, and choose whether to include Line of Sight and/or Non-Line of Sight data. Also choose whether to exclude bins outside the horizontal 3dB beamwidth. Click OK.

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Displaying CW Measurement Survey Data in the Map View


After you have loaded CW measurement data, you can display these items on the Map View:
Item CW Measurement Route CW Route Tags CW Signal CW Signal Error CW Excluded Signal CW Excluded Signal Error Description A line showing the route that was driven during the survey. Markers showing the start and end points of a route and any markers you have entered during the survey. The value of the received signal in dBm at each measurement point. The value of the difference between measured and predicted signal level (in dBm) at each point on the survey route following analysis against a specified model. Areas of CW point exclusion, activated in CW Measurement Options. The value of the difference between measured and predicted signal for areas of CW point exclusion (activated in CW Measurement Options).

To do this: 1 2 Ensure you have loaded the survey file. In the Map View window, click the Show Data Types button and in the Data Types list, under CW Measurements, select the item you want to display:

Right-click on the map and select Redraw.

Note : You can customise the display properties, such as value categories and colours, by double-clicking the item.

Example of CW Signal displayed on the Map View

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About Using Measurement-Based Pathloss Files


The inclusion of drive test data measurements in ADVANTAGE has been designed specifically to support optimisation activities in the field. ADVANTAGE enables you to use your own drive test data (or other area and cellspecific data) to generate measurement-based pathloss files, which you can then use to: Influence coverage predictions, substituting measured values for predicted values wherever they are available - and/or Run an analysis/optimisation that is specifically focused on a drive test route

Example of Drive Test Route displayed on the Map View

Incorporating Drive Test Data into Pathloss Predictions

Prerequisites Before generating measurement-based pathloss files, you need to have: Loaded the data and set the options, as described in the previous sections.

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Generating Measurement-Based Pathloss Files


To generate measurement-based pathloss files: 1 2 Ensure you have performed the required prerequisites, as described in About Using Measurement-Based Pathloss Files on page 163. Click the Generate button.

This generates a set of pixel-specific measurement-based pathloss files, which contain: The co-ordinates of the measurement-based pathloss data The measurement-based pathloss values The generated files are automatically saved into the directories already designated for the project's normal pathloss prediction files.

Using Drive Test Data to Influence Predictions


You can use the generated measurement-based files to influence the normal pathloss predictions that you create in ADVANTAGE. The amount of influence they have depends primarily on the percentage weightings that you specify in Array Settings. You can also use interpolation to influence surrounding pixels that do not contain measurement-based data.

Representative illustration of Combining Predicted data with Measured Data

If you want to influence the pathloss predictions: 1 2 3 From the Arrays menu, select Array Settings. Click the CW Measurements tab. Select the Use Measurements in Pathloss Predictions checkbox.

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Enter appropriate percentage weightings, as in this example:

The resulting value for each pixel containing measurement-based data would be a new combined value derived from the Measured value and the Predicted value, according to the weightings you specify. So, for each pixel, the resulting pathloss value is: Measurement value w% + Prediction value (100-w)% These weightings (and any changes to them) will be automatically invoked whenever you create a coverage/interference array, or when you run the Simulator, or when you use the Pathloss Prediction Generator. Note : If weightings are selected without interpolation, the weightings will only be used at pixels for which measurement data exists. The pathloss value for any pixels where this is not the case will be calculated using 100% pathloss prediction. If you have selected to use measurements to influence pathloss predictions, you can also choose to use interpolation to influence surrounding pixels that do not contain measurement-based data. This is explained in the following section.

Using Interpolation from Surrounding Pixels


If you have selected to use measurements to influence pathloss predictions, you can also choose to use interpolation to influence surrounding pixels that do not contain measurement-based data.

Representative illustration of Combining Predicted data with Measured Data using Interpolation

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To do this: 1 2 Select the Interpolate checkbox. Enter your preferred Roll-off Factor, as in this example:

The difference ( ) between the Measurement value and Prediction value is used to influence the surrounding pixels. The Roll-off factor, which must be greater than 1, determines the rate at which the value of reduces as it moves from directly adjacent pixels to more distant pixels. The pixels which already contain measurement data are not affected by this interpolation. The resulting pathloss value for each surrounding pixel is: Measurement value w% + Prediction value (100-w)% where the interpolated Measurement value is derived from an adjusted from the formula: , derived

Where: = Number of adjacent pixels that contain measurement data (between 1 and 4) = Difference between the Measurement value* and Prediction value * (real or interpolated) = Count of each adjacent pixel (up to maximum of 4) = Roll-Off Factor specified (must be greater than 1) These weightings (and any changes to them) will be automatically invoked whenever you create a coverage/interference array, or when you run the Simulator, or when you use the Pathloss Prediction Generator.
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Note : If weightings AND interpolation are selected, the weightings and roll-off factor will be invoked at all pixels within the predicted region, including those that do not contain a pathloss prediction value. However, the pixels which already contain measurement data are not affected by interpolation.

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APPENDIX A

Technical Reference
This appendix provides more in-depth technical information about how ADVANTAGE works.

In This Section
About the Optimisation-Based Spreading Algorithms About the Network Optimisation Domain About the Network Optimisation Cost Function About Efficient Network Optimisation About the Voronoi Diagrams About Optimisation Problem Definitions About Adaptive Simulated Annealing 169 170 170 172 173 174 175

About the Optimisation-Based Spreading Algorithms


The following optimisation-based algorithms can be used to spread live network data, such as Performance Engineering data or other cell-specific data: 1 Traffic spreading. The cost function takes the following shape:

Where

are clutter-specific optimisation parameters,

is cell (k)-

specific PE data and is a model intended to be calibrated against PE data by means of a least squares fit (as defined in the cost function). In addition, the traffic spreading algorithm imposes a set of user-defined constraints, which require relationships between some of the optimisation parameters to be upheld, for example . These relationships are uniquely defined using the Importance (priority) settings in the General Clutter Parameters tab of the Optimiser Workflow dialog box.

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Signal strength (clutter coverage) and interference (clutter interference) spreading. The cost function takes the following shape:

Where

are clutter-specific optimisation parameters,

is cell (k)-

specific PE data and is a model intended to be calibrated against PE data by means of a least squares fit (as defined in the cost function).

About the Network Optimisation Domain


The cost function for automatic network optimisation is defined over a constrained ndimensional parameter space possible network states (the domain of optimisation) representing . The initial network configuration is based on the . It

current Applied state of the database and denoted by ; it is also a member of should be noted that the optimisation problem is well defined through the cost function alone, because already accounts for any parameter constraints.

The parameters represent possible changes in network objects such as antennas. The optimisation algorithm determines which network objects to change and how to change them. All objects with plan/readonly status can generate costs, but only objects with plan status can be changed.

About the Network Optimisation Cost Function


Automatic network optimisation uses a composite cost function which expresses the overall cost of a network configuration taking into account various types of costs. These costs can be categorised as follows: 1 Action costs. These are understood as the budget/manpower costs of actions (in other words, changes) performed on the network, such as costs of changing an antenna. Action costs are calculated as aggregates of user-defined unitary cost values. They are not normalised in any way, and therefore are proportional to the magnitude of changes in a given network. Note : Antenna planning also considers antenna unit costs, while Grid Planning also considers Property, site and cell unit costs. Strictly speaking, these differ from the rest of action costs and are only budget-related. Furthermore, it is possible to consider a number of actions and their respective costs as a single combined action and cost on a location, Property, site or cell basis.

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Performance costs. These are understood as costs generated for a network based on various performance metrics such as coverage probability. Contrary to action costs, performance costs depend on the state of the network, not on the changes themselves. However, the considered actions influence network performance indirectly, as well as the performance risk factor, which may be taken into account in an optimisation. Performance costs are calculated in percentages based on various normalisation schemes that ensure their objectivity with respect to networks of arbitrary sizes.

These costs are broken down into various sub-components so that every subcomponent can be modelled individually and then added to the other subcomponents to produce the overall cost. The synthesis bias is controlled through a set of multi-stage weights. The cost function for automatic network optimisation is defined over a constrained n-dimensional parameter space (as described in About the Network Optimisation Domain on page 170):

Where: is the total action cost due to changing the network configuration from state to state

is the action cost generated by one of the action cost components (for example budget or manpower) is the total performance cost generated for the network at state

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is the performance cost generated by a particular cost mechanism (i) is the cost generated by component (k) of optimisation cost mechanism (i) is the performance risk coefficient due to changing the network configuration from state to state

are cost conversion coefficients expressing the number of budgetary cost units corresponding to one unit of non-budgetary costs, in other words manpower and performance are normalised weights combining action costs and performance costs at the global level are normalised weights combining performance costs generated by cost mechanisms are normalised weights combining costs generated by the performance cost components of the optimisation cost mechanism (i)

About Efficient Network Optimisation


You can use the following list of guidelines in order to maximise the ability of the optimisation algorithm to find an optimised network configuration quickly:
Concentrate on the region and cells of interest. Use the Plan Wizard to specify the region

and cells of interest, and ignore areas or cells that should not be part of the optimisation.
Restrict the optimisation calculations to vectors and/or drive test routes (if possible). Use the

relevant option in the Details to specify the pixels to include in the optimisation array and cost calculations.
Do not use a higher array resolution than required. If you can get realistic network

performance results by specifying a low resolution for the optimisation, there is no point in using a higher resolution.
Restrict the number of servers/cells considered for array generation. If you can get realistic

results (for example, with respect to interference) by specifying fewer servers/cells for the optimisation, there is no need to use more.
Limit the optimisation cost calculations to a lower number of servers/cells (if appropriate). Use the

Servers/Cells per Pixel option in the Settings of the Optimiser Workflow to do this.
Focus on problematic cells/areas. Use read-only filters (for network objects that should

be considered, but not modified) and/or the Problem Cells options to ensure that the Optimiser concentrates on cells that are performing badly.
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Do not under- or over-constrain the optimisation problem. Make sure that the specified

actions/constraints are reasonable, so that inappropriate configurations are not evaluated, but also flexible enough to allow the Optimiser to produce the best possible plan.
Fine-tune the algorithm. The nature of the algorithm is general enough to apply to a

wide range of optimisation problems. Although the algorithm can be fine-tuned per specific scenario to further maximise its efficiency (the algorithmic fine-tuning depends on the setup and user permissions), it is not an easy task and must be approached with caution.

About the Voronoi Diagrams


Given a set of n distinct points on the plane, a Voronoi diagram is the partition of the plane into n polygons such that the borders of these polygons are equidistant between neighbouring pairs of points. This picture shows a typical two-dimensional Voronoi diagram, consisting of polygons with equidistant borders between points in the displayed configuration:

A two-dimensional Voronoi diagram

This picture shows a three-dimensional convex hull, whose projection constitutes the two-dimensional Voronoi diagram for the displayed set of points on the plane:

A three-dimensional convex hull

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About Optimisation Problem Definitions


An optimisation problem can be defined when the following are given: A real-valued cost function, mapping parameter configurations in its domain into costs in its range.
Parameter constraints, in other words, additional information on admissible states

within the domain of the cost function. Note : Constraints can be incorporated into the domain of the cost function, but for practical reasons they are normally treated separately. The notion of optimisation is then understood as follows: Find any parameter configuration within the domain of the cost function that satisfies the parameter constraints and minimises the cost function. A few remarks are made below on possible optimisation scenarios, which highlight some key aspects of an optimisation problem: An optimisation problem may have many local minima, and this can produce problems for optimisation algorithms that are not capable of escaping them. Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) is designed to overcome local minima trapping. Important : These are different from the global minimum of the cost function, and should not be confused. An optimisation problem may not have a global minimum at all. If this is the case, any sufficiently small cost function value will be appropriate for a parameter configuration to be regarded as optimum. Any change to the cost function or parameter constraints results in a different optimisation problem, whose solutions may be completely different from those of the original problem. With most network optimisation problems involving a large number of variables (as many as 500), the algorithm that can identify the best possible solution within a reasonable amount of time must be very sophisticated. The current ADVANTAGE optimisation algorithm is based on a proprietary adaptation of ASA, specifically tuned to mobile communications problems. The algorithm combines the reliability of ASA in identifying the best solution with a sophisticated 'greedy' algorithm designed to rapidly target the largest immediate gains. A comprehensive research program has identified major speed benefits (as much as 300% difference in some cases) over the standard ASA implementation.

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About Adaptive Simulated Annealing


Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) is a powerful optimisation algorithm especially suitable for finding the global minimum of cost functions that have a large number of local minima. It is based on an analogy with the thermodynamics of crystallisation. More specifically, when liquids freeze or metals anneal, they undergo a process of structural change that leads to the crystal state (the state of minimum energy). A crucial factor in reaching this state by a physical body is the rate at which temperature decays. If temperature is lowered at an appropriately low rate, particles in the liquid are given more time to make the transition into the perfect crystal state. If the body is cooled quickly, or quenched, it does not reach this state, ending up in a quasi crystal/amorphous state. In adaptive simulated annealing, energy is generalised into the mathematical concept of a cost function defined over an ndimensional parameter space. The optimisation variables are analogues of molecules in thermodynamics, and any admissible configuration of these parameters with respect to the optimisation problem is an analogue of a molecular configuration in thermodynamics. A physical fact of paramount importance to the way the algorithm is designed is that molecules wander around quasi-chaotically based on their current temperature; this allows them to escape from configurations of locally minimised energy in favour of finding the global minimum. Simulated annealing uses a probability distribution to generate candidate states and to establish acceptance criteria for these states. Adaptive simulated annealing uses an exponential rate of temperature decay, so that even the global minimum can be found very quickly compared to other forms of annealing, and indeed, to any other nonlocal optimisation algorithm being used to this day.

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D
Drive test data converting TEMS data 157 for Pathloss Predictions 159, 164 loading 163

Index
A
Action-Constraints about 29 dialog box 59, 71 setting 29 templates 66 ADVANTAGE benefits 12 process flow 27 workflow 26, 45 Algorithms spreading 169 Analysis network improvement 94 network performance 92 Application environment 11 Arrays combining 155 deleting 156 loading 156 loading cached traffic 127 renaming 156 saving 156 scaling 155

E
Editing data arrays 156

G
Global Edit setting constraints in site database 43

L
Loading cached traffic arrays 127

M
Measurement data using 141 Menus arrays 23 configuration 22 optimiser 25 tools 24

N
Network Improvement Analysis 94 Network Performance Analysis 92

C
Cached traffic arrays editing 156 loading and deleting 127 Clutter/Vector parameters 100 Configuring problem area thresholds 130 problem cell thresholds 132 site constraints 29 Constraints about 29 Action-Constraints dialog box 59 BTS equipment and mast 31 GSM cell antenna 38 GSM site grid 36 GSM site installation 36 GSM subcell antenna/TRX 39 in Site Database 29 Property antenna 32 Property grid 34 UMTS cell load and power ctrl 42 UMTS cell params 42 UMTS node antenna 40 UMTS node grid 41 UMTS node resource 39

O
Operational environment, ADVANTAGE 11 Optimiser Workflow about 26 using 45

P
PE data cell modifiers 152 configuring the format for importing 146 deleting arrays 156 displaying 152 loading and saving arrays 156 renaming arrays 156 scaling and combining arrays 155 spreading 149, 150 Plan Manager, using 46 Plans concept 47 creating 49 Plan Details 51 using the Plan Manager 46 viewing and using 48 Problem areas, identifying 134

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Problem cell weights, configuring 138 Problem cells, identifying 134

R
Reports problem area 135 problem cell 137 Re-spreading, network data 154

S
Signia data, converting to 157 Spread PE data displaying 151, 152 editing 154 importing 146, 150 managing 154 Spreading, network data 142 Statistics Analysis about 89 for a single plan 92 to compare plans 94

T
TEMS data, converting to Signia format 157 Thresholds problem area 130 problem cell 132 Traffic loading cached arrays 127

V
Voronoi diagrams, about 173

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