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The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime

between 1820 and 1840 This transition included going from hand production methods to machines! new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes! improved efficienc" of water power! the increasing use of steam power and the development of machine tools It also included the change from wood and other bio#fuels to coal It began in $reat %ritain and within a few decades had spread to &estern 'urope and the (nited )tates

The Industrial Revolution mar*s a ma+or turning point in histor", almost ever" aspect of dail" life was influenced in some wa" In particular! average income and population began to e-hibit unprecedented sustained growth In the words of .obel /ri0e winner Robert ' 1ucas! 2r ! 34or the first time in histor"! the living standards of the masses of ordinar" people have begun to undergo sustained growth .othing remotel" li*e this economic behavior is mentioned b" the classical economists! even as a theoretical possibilit" 3526

The period of time covered b" the Industrial Revolution varies with different historians 'ric 7obsbawm held that it 8bro*e out8 in %ritain in the 1780s and was not full" felt until the 1890s or 1840s!596 while T ) :shton held that it occurred roughl" between 1760 and 1890 546

)ome 20th#centur" historians such as 2ohn ;lapham and .icholas ;rafts have argued that the process of economic and social change too* place graduall" and the term revolution is a misnomer This is still a sub+ect of debate among historians 5<6566 $=/ per capita was broadl" stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist econom" 576 The Industrial Revolution began an era of per#capita economic growth in capitalist economies 586 'conomic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the histor" of humanit" since the domestication of animals and plants 5>6

The 4irst Industrial Revolution evolved into the )econd Industrial Revolution in the transition "ears between 1840 and 1870! when technological and economic progress continued with the increasing adoption of steam#powered boats! ships and railwa"s! the large scale manufacture of machine tools and the increasing use of machiner" in steam powered factories 510651165126 ;ontents

1 't"molog" 2 Important technological developments 2 1 Te-tile manufacture 2 2 ?etallurg" 2 9 )team power 2 4 ?achine tools 2 < ;hemicals 2 6 ;ement 2 7 $as lighting 2 8 $lass ma*ing 2 > /aper machine 2 10 :griculture 2 11 ?ining 2 12 @ther developments 2 19 Transportation 2 19 1 ;anals 2 19 2 Roads 2 19 9 Railwa"s 9 )ocial effects 9 1 )tandards of living 9 1 1 4ood and nutrition 9 1 2 7ousing 9 1 9 ;lothing and consumer goods 9 2 /opulation increase 9 9 1abour conditions 9 9 1 )ocial structure and wor*ing conditions

9 9 2 4actories and urbanisation 9 9 9 ;hild labour 9 9 4 1uddites 9 9 < @rganisation of labour 9 4 @ther effects 4 Industrialisation be"ond $reat %ritain 4 1 ;ontinental 'urope 4 1 1 %elgium 4 1 1 1 =emographic effects 4 1 2 4rance 4 1 9 $erman" 4 1 4 )weden 4 2 (nited )tates 4 9 2apan < )econd Industrial Revolution 6 Intellectual paradigms and criticism 6 1 ;apitalism 6 2 )ocialism 6 9 Romanticism 7 ;auses 7 1 ;auses in 'urope 7 2 ;auses in %ritain 7 9 Transfer of *nowledge 7 9 1 /rotestant wor* ethic 8 )ee also > References

> 1 %ibliograph" > 2 7istoriograph" > 9 .otes 10 '-ternal lin*s

't"molog"

The earliest use of the term 3Industrial Revolution3 seems to be a letter of 6 2ul" 17>> b" 4rench envo" 1ouis#$uillaume @tto! announcing that 4rance had entered the race to industrialise 5196 In his 1>76 boo* Ae"wordsB : Cocabular" of ;ulture and )ociet"! Ra"mond &illiams states in the entr" for 3Industr"3B 3The idea of a new social order based on ma+or industrial change was clear in )outhe" and @wen! between 1811 and 1818! and was implicit as earl" as %la*e in the earl" 17>0s and &ordsworth at the turn of the 51>th6 centur" 3 The term Industrial Revolution applied to technological change was becoming more common b" the late 1890s! as in 2DrEme#:dolphe %lanFui description in 1897 of la rDvolution industrielle 5146 4riedrich 'ngels in The ;ondition of the &or*ing ;lass in 'ngland in 1844 spo*e of 3an industrial revolution! a revolution which at the same time changed the whole of civil societ"3 7owever! although 'ngels wrote in the 1840s! his boo* was not translated into 'nglish until the late nineteenth centur"! and his e-pression did not enter ever"da" language until then ;redit for popularising the term ma" be given to :rnold To"nbee! whose lectures given in 1881 gave a detailed account of it 51<6 Important technological developments

The commencement of the Industrial Revolution is closel" lin*ed to a small number of innovations!5166 beginning in the second half of the 18th centur" %" the 1890s the following gains had been made in important technologiesB

Te-tiles G ?echani0ed cotton spinning powered b" steam or water increased the output of a wor*er b" a factor of about 1000 The power loom increased the output of a wor*er b" a factor of over 40 5176 The cotton gin increased productivit" or removing seed from cotton b" a factor of <0 5116 1arge gains in productivit" also occurred in spinning and weaving of wool and linen! but the" were not as great as in cotton 5186

)team power G The efficienc" of steam engines increased so that the" used between one#fifth and one#tenth as much fuel The adaption of stationar" steam engines to rotar" motion made them suitable for industrial uses The high pressure engine had a high power to weight ratio! ma*ing it suitable for transportation )team power underwent a rapid e-pansion after 1800

Iron ma*ing G The substitution of co*e for charcoal greatl" lowered the fuel cost of pig iron and wrought iron production 51>6 (sing co*e also allowed larger blast furnaces!5206 5216 resulting in economies of scale The cast iron blowing c"linder was first used in 1760 It was later improved b" ma*ing it double acting! which allowed higher furnace temperatures The puddling process produced a structural grade iron at a lower cost than the finer" forge 5226 The rolling mill was fifteen times faster than hammering wrought iron 5226 7ot blast H182>I greatl" increased fuel efficienc" in iron production in the following decades

Te-tile manufacture ?ain articleB Te-tile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution

In the late 17th and earl" 18th centuries the %ritish government passed a series of ;alico :cts in order to protect the domestic woolen industr" from the increasing amounts of cotton fabric that were being imported from 'ast India 52965246

There was also a demand for heavier fabric! which was met b" a domestic industr" around 1ancashire that produced fustian! a cloth with fla- warp and cotton weft 4lawas used for the warp because wheel spun cotton did not have sufficient strength! but the resulting blend was not as soft as 100J cotton and was more difficult to sew 5246

)pinning and weaving were done in households! for domestic consumption and as a cottage industr" under the putting#out s"stem @ccasionall" the wor* was done in the wor*shop of a master weaver (nder the putting#out s"stem! home based wor*ers produced under contract to merchant sellers! who often supplied the raw materials In the off season the women! t"picall" farmers8 wives! did the spinning and the men did the weaving (sing the spinning wheel it too* an"where from four to eight spinners to suppl" one hand loom weaver 5186524652<6 The fl"ing shuttle patented in 1799 b" 2ohn Aa"! with a number of subseFuent improvements including an important one in 1747! doubled the output of a weaver! worsening the imbalance between spinning and weaving It became

widel" used around 1ancashire after 1760 when Robert Aa"! 2ohn8s son! invented the drop bo- 5266

&atch videoB =emonstration of fl" shuttle on KouTube

1ewis /aul patented the roller spinning machine and the fl"er#and#bobbin s"stem for drawing wool to a more even thic*ness! developed with the help of 2ohn &"att in %irmingham /aul and &"att opened a mill in %irmingham which used their new rolling machine powered b" a don*e" In 1749! a factor" was opened in .orthampton with fift" spindles on each of five of /aul and &"att8s machines This operated until about 1764 : similar mill was built b" =aniel %ourn in 1eominster! but this burnt down %oth 1ewis /aul and =aniel %ourn patented carding machines in 1748 (sing two sets of rollers that travelled at different speeds! it was later used in the first cotton spinning mill 1ewis8s invention was later developed and improved b" Richard :r*wright in his water frame and )amuel ;rompton in his spinning mule ?odel of the spinning +enn" in a museum in &uppertal Invented b" 2ames 7argreaves in 1764! the spinning +enn" was one of the innovations that started the revolution

In 1764 in the village of )tanhill! 1ancashire! 2ames 7argreaves invented the spinning +enn"! which he patented in 1770 It was the first practical spinning frame with multiple spindles 5276 The +enn" wor*ed in a similar manner to the spinning wheel! b" first clamping down on the fibers! then b" drawing them out! followed b" twisting 5286 It was a simple! wooden framed machine that onl" cost about L6 for a 40 spindle model in 17>2! 52>6 and was used mainl" b" home spinners The +enn" produced a lightl" twisted "arn onl" suitable for weft! not warp 5906

The spinning frame or water frame was developed b" Richard :r*wright who! along with two partners! patented it in 176> The design was partl" based on a spinning machine built for Thomas 7igh b" cloc* ma*er 2ohn Aa"! who was hired b" :r*wright 5916 4or each spindle! the water frame used a series of four pairs of rollers! each operating at a successivel" higher rotating speed! to draw out the fiber! which was then twisted b" the spindle The roller spacing was slightl" longer than the fiber length Too close a spacing caused the fibers to brea* while too distant a spacing caused uneven thread The top rollers were leather covered and loading on the rollers was applied b" a weight The weights *ept the twist from bac*ing up before the rollers The bottom rollers were wood and metal! with fluting along the length The water frame was able to produce a hard! medium count thread suitable for warp! finall" allowing 100J cotton cloth to be made in %ritain : horse powered the first factor" to use the spinning frame &ater power was

used b" :r*wright and partners at a factor" in ;romford! =erb"shire in 1771! giving the invention its name

&atch videoB =emonstration of water frame on KouTube

The onl" surviving e-ample of a spinning mule built b" the inventor )amuel ;rompton

)amuel ;rompton8s )pinning ?ule! introduced in 177>! was a combination of the spinning +enn" and the water frame in which the spindles were placed on a carriage! which went through an operational seFuence during which the rollers stopped while the carriage moved awa" from the drawing roller to finish drawing out the fibers as the spindles started rotating 5926 ;rompton8s mule was able to produce finer thread than hand spinning and at a lower cost ?ule spun thread was of suitable strength to be used as warp! and finall" allowed %ritain to produce good Fualit" calico cloth 5926

&atch videoB =emonstration of spinning mule on KouTube

Interior of ?arshall8s Temple &or*s

Reali0ing that the e-piration of the :r*wright patent would greatl" increase the suppl" of spun cotton and lead to a shortage of weavers! 'dmund ;artwright developed a vertical power loom which he patented in 178< In 1776 he patented a two man operated loom! that was more conventional 5996 ;artwright built two factories, the first burned down and the second was sabotaged b" his wor*ers ;artwright8s loom design had several flaws! the most serious being thread brea*age )amuel 7orroc*s patented a fairl" successful loom in 1819 7oroc*8s loom was improved b" Richard Roberts in 1822 and these were produced in large numbers b" Roberts! 7ill M ;o 5946

The demand for cotton presented an opportunit" to planters in the )outhern (nited )tates! who thought upland cotton would be a profitable crop if a better wa" could be found to remove the seed 'li &hitne" responded to the challenge b" inventing the cotton gin! an ine-pensive device &ith a cotton gin a man could remove seed from as much upland cotton in one da" as would have previousl" ta*en a woman wor*ing two months to process at one pound per da" 5116

@ther inventors increased the efficienc" of the individual steps of spinning Hcarding! twisting and spinning! and rollingI so that the suppl" of "arn increased greatl"! which fed a weaving industr" that was advancing with improvements to shuttles and the loom or 8frame8 The output of an individual labourer increased dramaticall"! with the effect that the new machines were seen as a threat to emplo"ment! and earl" innovators were attac*ed and their inventions destro"ed

To capitalise upon these advances! it too* a class of entrepreneurs! of which the most famous is Richard :r*wright 7e is credited with a list of inventions! but these were actuall" developed b" people such as Thomas 7ighs and 2ohn Aa", :r*wright nurtured the inventors! patented the ideas! financed the initiatives! and protected the machines 7e created the cotton mill which brought the production processes together in a factor"! and he developed the use of powerNfirst horse power and then water powerNwhich made cotton manufacture a mechanised industr" %efore long steam power was applied to drive te-tile machiner" ?anchester acFuired the nic*name ;ottonopolis during the earl" 1>th centur" owing to its sprawl of te-tile factories 59<6 ?etallurg" The Reverberator" 4urnace could produce wrought iron using mined coal The burning coal remained separate from the iron ore and so did not contaminate the iron with impurities li*e sulphur and ash This opened the wa" to increased iron production The Iron %ridge! )hropshire! 'ngland ;oalbroo*dale b" .ight b" /hilip 2ames de 1outherbourg! painted 1801 This shows ?adele" &ood Hor %edlamI 4urnaces! which belonged to the ;oalbroo*dale ;ompan" from 1776 to 17>6

: ma+or change in the metal industries during the era of the Industrial Revolution was the replacement of wood and other bio#fuels with coal 4or a given amount of heat! coal reFuired much less labor to mine than cutting wood!5966 and coal was more abundant than wood 5976

(se of coal in smelting started somewhat before the Industrial Revolution! based on innovations b" )ir ;lement ;ler*e and others from 1678! using coal reverberator" furnaces *nown as cupolas These were operated b" the flames pla"ing on the ore and charcoal or co*e mi-ture! reducing the o-ide to metal This has the advantage that impurities Hsuch as sulfur ashI in the coal do not migrate into the metal This technolog"

was applied to lead from 1678 and to copper from 1687 It was also applied to iron foundr" wor* in the 16>0s! but in this case the reverberator" furnace was *nown as an air furnace The foundr" cupola is a different Hand laterI innovation

This was followed b" :braham =arb"! who made great strides using co*e to fuel his blast furnaces at ;oalbroo*dale in 170> 7owever! the co*e pig iron he made was used mostl" for the production of cast#iron goods such as pots and *ettles 7e had the advantage over his rivals in that his pots! cast b" his patented process! were thinner and cheaper than theirs ;o*e pig iron was hardl" used to produce bar iron in forges until the mid#17<0s! when his son :braham =arb" II built 7orseha" and Aetle" furnaces Hnot far from ;oalbroo*daleI %" then! co*e pig iron was cheaper than charcoal pig iron )ince cast iron was becoming cheaper and more plentiful! it began being a structural material following the building of the innovative Iron %ridge in 1778 b" :braham =arb" III

%ar iron for smiths to forge into consumer goods was still made in finer" forges! as it long had been 7owever! new processes were adopted in the ensuing "ears The first is referred to toda" as potting and stamping! but this was superseded b" 7enr" ;ort8s puddling process

7enr" ;ort developed two significant iron manufacturing processesB rolling in 1789 and puddling in 1784 5986 Rolling replaced hammering for consolidating wrought iron and e-pelling some of the dross Rolling was 1< times faster than hammering with a trip hammer /uddling produced a structural grade iron at a relativel" low cost

/uddling was a means of decarburi0ing pig iron b" slow o-idation! with iron ore as the o-"gen source! as the iron was manuall" stirred using a long rod The decarburi0ed iron! having a higher melting point than cast iron! was ra*ed into globs b" the puddler &hen the glob was large enough the puddler would remove it /uddling was bac*brea*ing and e-tremel" hot wor* 4ew puddlers lived to be 40 /uddling was done in a reverberator" furnace! allowing coal or co*e to be used as fuel The puddling process continued to be used until the late 1>th centur" when iron was being displaced b" steel %ecause puddling reFuired human s*ill in sensing the iron globs! it was never successfull" mechani0ed

(p to that time! %ritish iron manufacturers had used considerable amounts of imported iron to supplement native supplies This came principall" from )weden from the mid# 17th centur" and later also from Russia from the end of the 1720s 7owever! from 178<!

imports decreased because of the new iron ma*ing technolog"! and %ritain became an e-porter of bar iron as well as manufactured wrought iron consumer goods

Two decades before the Industrial Revolution an improvement was made in the production of steel! which was an e-pensive commodit" and used onl" where iron would not do! such as for cutting edge tools and for springs %en+amin 7untsman developed his crucible steel techniFue in the 1740s The raw material for this was blister steel! made b" the cementation process

The suppl" of cheaper iron and steel aided a number of industries such as those ma*ing nails! hinges! wire and other hardware items The development of machine tools allowed better wor*ing of iron! causing it to be increasingl" used in the rapidl" growing machiner" and engine industries )team power ?ain articleB )team power during the Industrial Revolution The 16>8 )aver" 'ngine G the world8s first commerciall" useful steam engineB built b" Thomas )aver"

The development of the stationar" steam engine was an important element of the Industrial Revolution, however! for most of the period of the Industrial Revolution! the ma+orit" of industrial power was supplied b" water and wind In %ritain b" 1800 an estimated 10!000 horsepower was being supplied b" steam %" 181< steam power had grown to 210!000 hp 59>6 )mall power reFuirements continued to be provided b" animal and human muscle until the late 1>th centur" 5406

The first real attempt at industrial use of steam power was due to Thomas )aver" in 16>8 7e constructed and patented in 1ondon a low#lift combined vacuum and pressure water pump! that generated about one horsepower HhpI and was used in numerous water wor*s and tried in a few mines Hhence its 3brand name3! The ?iner8s 4riendI )aver"8s pump was economical in small horspower ranges! but was prone to boiler e-plosions in larger si0es )aver" pumps continued to be produced until the late 18th centur" .ewcomen8s steam powered atmospheric engine was the first practical engine )ubseFuent steam engines were to power the Industrial Revolution

The first safe and successful steam power plant was introduced b" Thomas .ewcomen before 1712 : number of .ewcomen engines were successfull" put to use in %ritain for draining hitherto unwor*able deep mines! with the engine on the surface, these were large machines! reFuiring a lot of capital to build! and produced about < hp H9 7 *&I The" were e-tremel" inefficient b" modern standards! but when located where coal was cheap at pit heads! opened up a great e-pansion in coal mining b" allowing mines to go deeper =espite their disadvantages! .ewcomen engines were reliable and eas" to maintain and continued to be used in the coalfields until the earl" decades of the 1>th centur" %" 172>! when .ewcomen died! his engines had spread HfirstI to 7ungar" in 1722! $erman"! :ustria! and )weden : total of 110 are *nown to have been built b" 1799 when the +oint patent e-pired! of which 14 were abroad In the 1770s! the engineer 2ohn )meaton built some ver" large e-amples and introduced a number of improvements : total of 1!4<4 engines had been built b" 1800 5416 )cottish mechanical engineer and inventor 2ames &att

: fundamental change in wor*ing principles was brought about b" )cotsman 2ames &att In close collaboration with 'nglishman ?atthew %oulton! he had succeeded b" 1778 in perfecting his steam engine! which incorporated a series of radical improvements! notabl" the closing off of the upper part of the c"linder thereb" ma*ing the low pressure steam drive the top of the piston instead of the atmosphere! use of a steam +ac*et and the celebrated separate steam condenser chamber The separate condenser did awa" with the cooling water that had been in+ected directl" into the c"linder! which cooled the c"linder and wasted steam 1i*ewise! the steam +ac*et *ept steam from condensing in the c"linder! also improving efficienc" These improvements increased engine efficienc" so that %oulton M &atts engines used onl" 20#2<J as much coal per horsepower#hour as .ewcomen8s %oulton and &att opened the )oho 4oundr"! for the manufacture of such engines! in 17><

%" 1789 the &att steam engine had been full" developed into a double#acting rotative t"pe! which meant that it could be used to directl" drive the rotar" machiner" of a factor" or mill %oth of &att8s basic engine t"pes were commerciall" ver" successful! and b" 1800! the firm %oulton M &att had constructed 4>6 engines! with 164 driving reciprocating pumps! 24 serving blast furnaces! and 908 powering mill machiner"