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Abstract: The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) defines carbon steel as follows: Steel is considered to be carbon steel when no minimum content is specified or required for chromium, cobalt, columbium [niobium], molybdenum, nic el, titanium, tun!sten, "anadium or #irconium, or any other element to be added to obtain a desired alloyin! effect$ when the specified minimum for copper does not e%ceed &'(& per cent$ or when the ma%imum content specified for any of the followin! elements does not e%ceed the percenta!es noted: man!anese )'*+, silicon &'*&, copper &'*&' Steels can be classified by a "ariety of different systems dependin! on: • The composition, such as carbon, low,alloy or stainless steel' • The manufacturin! methods, such as open hearth, basic o%y!en process, or electric furnace methods' • The finishin! method, such as hot rollin! or cold rollin! • The product form, such as bar plate, sheet, strip, tubin! or structural shape • The deo%idation practice, such as illed, semi, illed, capped or rimmed steel • The microstructure, such as ferritic, pearlitic and martensitic • The required stren!th le"el, as specified in AST- standards • The heat treatment, such as annealin!, quenchin! and temperin!, and thermomechanical processin! • .uality descriptors, such as for!in! quality and commercial quality'
accordin! to "arious deo%idation practices. and boiler plate' Medium-carbon steels are similar to low.&'3+4 /) in order to produce adequate formability and weldability. tun!sten. copper &'*&' /arbon steel can be classified. copper. railway wheels and rail a%les' 1i!h. with hi!her man!anese content up to )'+4' These materials may be used for stampin!s.carbon steels e%cept that the carbon ran!es from &'7& to &'*&4 and the man!anese from &'*& to )'*+4' Increasin! the carbon content to appro%imately &'+4 with an accompanyin! increase in man!anese allows medium carbon steels to be used in the quenched and tempered condition' The uses of medium carbon. silicon &'*&. couplin!s and for!in!s' Steels in the &'(& to &'*&4 / ran!e are also used for rails. or illed steel' 0eo%idation practice and the steelma in! process will ha"e an effect on the properties of the steel' 1owe"er. less than &')&4 /. for!in!s. and they ha"e man!anese contents up to 3'&4' Small quantities of chromium. man!anese steels include shafts.rolled and annealed condition' The carbon content for these hi!h. "anadium. with up to &'(4 -n' Typical uses are in automobile body panels. molybdenum. carbon steels contain up to 34 total alloyin! elements and can be subdi"ided into low.carbon steels. columbium [niobium].carbon steels. are desi!ned to pro"ide better mechanical properties and. and ultrahi!h. tin plate. rolled products (sheet or strip). niobium. and wire products' 8or rolled steel structural plates and sections. or microalloyed steels. molybdenum.or !reater resistance to atmospheric corrosion than con"entional carbon steels in the normal sense because they are desi!ned to meet specific mechanical properties rather than a chemical composition' The 1S:A steels ha"e low carbon contents (&'&+. carbon steels$ each of these desi!nations is discussed below' As a !roup.formability steels is "ery low. cobalt. equia%ed !rains of spherical. as rimmed. cran shafts.carbon steels contain from &'*& to )'&&4 / with man!anese contents ran!in! from &'7& to &'9&4' 1i!h. discontinuous proeutectoid carbide particles' High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels 1i!h.carbon steels are used for sprin! materials and hi!h. titanium and #irconium are used in "arious combinations' 1S:A /lassification: .stren!th low. or any other element to be added to obtain a desired alloyin! effect$ when the specified minimum for copper does not e%ceed &'(& per cent$ or when the ma%imum content specified for any of the followin! elements does not e%ceed the percenta!es noted: man!anese )'*+. usually in the cold. semi. seamless tubes. capped. nitro!en. illed. carbon steels are by far the most frequently used steels' -ore than 5+4 of the steel produced and shipped in the 6nited States is carbon steel' Low-carbon steels contain up to &'7&4 /' The lar!est cate!ory of this class of steel is flat. "anadium or #irconium. hi!h.Carbon Steels The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) defines carbon steel as follows: Steel is considered to be carbon steel when no minimum content is specified or required for chromium. with increasin! carbon content leadin! to increased hardness and stren!th' As such. !ears. nic el. "ariations in carbon ha"e the !reatest effect on mechanical properties.carbon steels. titanium. nic el. carbon steels are !enerally cate!ori#ed accordin! to their carbon content' 2enerally spea in!. a%les. medium.alloy (1S:A) steels. the carbon content may be increased to appro%imately &'7&4.stren!th wires' Ultrahigh-carbon steels are e%perimental alloys containin! )'3+ to 3'&4 /' These steels are thermomechanically processed to produce microstructures that consist of ultrafine.
hardened steels' -any of these steels are co"ered by SAA. and the molybdenum increases stren!th at ele"ated temperatures' They are !enerally supplied in the normali#ed and tempered.stren!th acicular ferrite structure rather than the usual poly!onal ferrite structure Dual-phase steels. rare earth elements.carbon martensite. nic el.AISI desi!nations or are proprietary compositions' ?roduct forms include billet. corrosion resistance.alloy steels constitute a cate!ory of ferrous materials that e%hibit mechanical properties superior to plain carbon steels as the result of additions of alloyin! elements such as nic el. thus pro"idin! a hi!h. bar. annealed' >ecause of the wide "ariety of chemical compositions possible and the fact that some steels are used in more than one heat. chromium. which contain a minimum of )&4 Cr' 8or many low.molybdenum steels are widely used in the oil and !as industries and in fossil fuel and nuclear power plants' Classification of Stainless Steels .alloy steels. molybdenum steels. desi!nated to e%hibit superior atmospheric corrosion resistance Control-rolled steels. and weldin! wire' earing steels used for ball and roller bearin! applications are comprised of low carbon (&')& to &'3&4 C) case. and (() heat. rod. similar steels. and molybdenum' Total alloy content can ran!e from 3'&<4 up to le"els =ust below that of stainless steels. alloy additions are used to reduce en"ironmental de!radation under certain specified ser"ice conditions' As with steels in !eneral. or #irconium for sulfide inclusion shape control' Low-alloy Steels :ow. and.)&&. processed to a micro.AISI desi!nations' Chromium-molybdenum heat-resistant steels contain &'+ to 94 Cr and &'+ to )'&4 Mo' The carbon content is usually below &'34' The chromium pro"ides impro"ed o%idation and corrosion resistance. as well as other. hot rolled accordin! to a predetermined rollin! schedule. desi!ned to de"elop a hi!hly deformed austenite structure that will transform to a "ery fine equia%ed ferrite structure on coolin! Pearlite-reduced steels. condition. stren!thened by "ery fine. sheet. such as quenched and tempered.• • • • • • Weathering steels.carbon quenched and tempered (.)'&4 /) throu!h. some o"erlap e%ists amon! the alloy steel classifications' In this article. (7) bearin! steels.chromium steels. tubin!.!rain ferrite and precipitation hardenin! but with low carbon content and therefore little or no pearlite in the microstructure Microalloyed steels.stren!th steels. or weldability' The "arious steels ha"e different combinations of these characteristics based on their intended applications' 1owe"er. quenched and tempered or annealed condition' /hromium. "ery low carbon steels with sufficient hardenability to transform on coolin! to a "ery fine hi!h.treated. the primary function of the alloyin! elements is to increase hardenability in order to optimi#e mechanical properties and tou!hness after heat treatment' In some cases. (3) medium. for!in!s.structure of ferrite containin! small uniformly distributed re!ions of hi!h. low. such as 1@. carbon ultrahi!h.or titanium for refinement of !rain si#e and. ductility. howe"er. such as nic el steels.T) steels. are produced as for!in!s or castin!s' Medium-carbon ultrahigh-strength steels are structural steels with yield stren!ths that can e%ceed )75& -?a' -any of these steels are co"ered by SAA. a few steels. are co"ered by military specifications' The steels listed are used primarily as plate' Some of these steels. resultin! in a product with low yield stren!th and a hi!h rate of wor hardenin!. normali#ed and tempered. with "ery small additions of such elements as niobium.alloy steels can be classified accordin! to: • • Chemical composition. molybdenum steels Heat treatment.stren!th steel of superior formability' The "arious types of 1S:A steels may also ha"e small additions of calcium. "anadium.or precipitation hardenin! Acicular ferrite steel.hardened steels and hi!h carbon (. chromium.resistant chromium. four ma=or !roups of alloy steels are addressed: ()) low.molybdenum steels' Low-carbon quenched and tempered steels combine hi!h yield stren!th (from 7+& to )&7+ -?a) and hi!h tensile stren!th with !ood notch tou!hness.5& and 1@.
fabrication characteristics. te%tile plants. niobium.finished products. fasteners. foil. and the pharmaceutical and transportation industries' Some of these applications in"ol"e e%posure to either ele"ated or cryo!enic temperatures$ austenitic stainless steels are well suited to either type of ser"ice' -odifications in composition are sometimes made to facilitate production' 8or instance. pittin! attac . semi. processin! plants. silicon.rich o%ide surface film' This o%ide forms itself in the presence of o%y!en' Bther elements added to impro"e characteristics include nic el.Abstract: Stainless steels are commonly di"ided into fi"e !roups: martensitic stainless steels. health and sanitation applications. and equipment for use in chemical plants. semi. aluminum. e"en when present in only part. and selenium' /arbon is normally present in amounts ran!in! from less than &'&74 to o"er )'&4 in certain martensitic !rades' The selection of stainless steels may be based on corrosion resistance.austenitic) stainless steels. tubes.bloc nations were also prime sources of the element' This led to the de"elopment of a series of alloys (AISI 3&& type) in which man!anese and nitro!en are partially substituted for nic el' These stainless steels are still produced today' B"er the years.hardenin! stainless steels' The de"elopment of precipitation-hardenable stainless steels was spearheaded by the successful production of Stainless C by 6'S' Steel in )9(+' The problem of obtainin! raw materials has been a real one.per. decorati"e architectural hardware. and /old Car politics played a role because Aastern. copper. and precipitation.based alloys containin! at least )&'+4 Cr' 8ew stainless steels contain more than 7&4 Cr or less than +&4 !e' They achie"e their stainless characteristics throu!h the formation of an in"isible and adherent chromium. and inter!ranular attac in sensiti#ed material such as weld heat. cre"ice corrosion in ti!ht spaces or under deposits. wire. particularly in re!ard to nic el durin! )9+&s when ci"il wars ra!ed in Africa and Asia. basic compositions are altered to ma e it easier to produce stainless steel tubin! and castin!' Similar modifications are made for the manufacture of stainless steel weldin! electrodes$ here combinations of electrode coatin! and wire composition are used to produce desired compositions deposited weld metal' Martensitic stainless steels are essentially alloys of chromium and carbon that possess a distorted body. sheet. molybdenum. and carbon content may e%ceed )'34' The chromium and carbon contents are balanced to ensure a martensitic structure after hardenin!' 2eneral corrosion is often much less serious than locali#ed forms such as stress corrosion crac in!. ferritic stainless steels. and tubin!' Stainless steels are iron. sheet. austenitic stainless steels.finished products. bar. titanium. and are !enerally resistant to corrosion only to relati"ely mild en"ironments' /hromium content is !enerally in the ran!e of )&'+ to )54. pipes.million concentrations$ by heat transfer throu!h the steel to or from the corrosi"e medium$ by contact trimmed only on the ends' Stainless steels are a"ailable in the form of plate. hardenable by heat treatments. cutlery. stainless steels ha"e become firmly established as materials for coo in! utensils.rolled product in coils or cut len!ths at least *)& mm wide and less than ('<* mm thic ' Stainless steel sheet is produced in nearly all types e%cept the free machinin! and certain martensitic !rades' . sulfur. ferritic stainless steels. duple% (ferritic. and precipitation. strip. a"ailability. mechanical properties in specific temperature ran!es and product cost' 1owe"er. flatware. foil. dairy and food. corrosion resistance and mechanical properties are usually the most important factors in selectin! a !rade for a !i"en application' Stainless steels are commonly di"ided into fi"e !roups: martensitic stainless steels. pipes. and tubin!' Sheet Sheet is a flat. tubes. centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure (martensitic) in the hardened condition' They are ferroma!netic. petroleum and petrochemical plants. wire. strip. nitro!en. duple% (ferritic. and therefore must be considered carefully in the desi!n and selection of the proper !rade of stainless steel' /orrosi"e attac can also be increased dramatically by seemin!ly minor impurities in the medium that may be difficult to anticipate but that can ha"e ma=or effects. prime sources of nic el.austenitic) stainless steels. bar.hardenin! stainless steels' Stainless steels are a"ailable in the form of plate. austenitic stainless steels.affected #ones (1AD)' Such locali#ed corrosion can cause une%pected and sometimes catastrophic failure while most of the structure remains unaffected.
(3&.finished product obtained by hot.rolled or for!ed product more than 3+& mm ()& in') in width and at least ('<* mm (&')5<+ in') in thic ness' A%ceptions include hi!hly alloyed ferritic stainless steels. surface finish is important more often than any other e%cept corrosion resistance' Stainless steels are sometimes selected because they are a"ailable in a "ariety of attracti"e finishes' Surface finish selection may be made on the basis of appearance. ((&A.rollin! slabs or billets and is produced for con"ersion to finished strip by cold rollin!' Heat "reatment# Strip of all types of stainless steel is usually either annealed or annealed and s in passed.Sheet from the con"entional !rades is almost e%clusi"ely produced on continuous mills' 1and mill production is usually confined to alloys that cannot be produced economically on continuous mills. such as certain hi!h. ((&>. or cut sheets may be produced by shearin! len!ths from a coil and flattenin! them by roller le"elin! or stretcher le"elin!' Strip Strip is a flat. some of the martensitic stainless steels. and pic led strip (or from slit sheet) by rollin! between polished rolls' 0ependin! on the desired thic ness. it is recommended that such requirements be indicated so that the producer will ha"e all the information necessary to ensure that he supplies the proper type and condition' Chen stretcher strains are ob=ectionable in ferritic stainless steels such as type (7&.rolled strip in types ()&.machinin! !rades' ?late is usually produced by hot rollin! from slabs that ha"e been . and drawin! operations are in"ol"ed. bendin!.rolled. "arious numbers of cold rollin! passes throu!h the mill are required for effectin! the necessary reduction and securin! the desired surface characteristics and mechanical properties' 1ot. less than *)& mm wide and &')7 to ('<* mm thic ' /old finished material &')7 mm thic and less than *)& mm wide fits the definitions of both strip and foil and may be referred to by either term' /old. or combinations thereof Temperature Temperature "ariations Aeration of the medium B%y!en content of the medium >acteria content of the medium Ioni#ation of the medium Fepeated formation and collapse of bubbles in the medium Felati"e motion of the medium with respect to the steel /hemical composition of the metal Eature and distribution of microstruc. ()(.liquid. the steel may be continuous cast directly into slabs that are ready for hot rollin! on a finishin! mill' The current trend worldwide is toward !reater production from continuous cast slabs' Sheet produced from slabs on continuous rollin! mills is coiled directly off the mill' After they are descaled. frictional characteristics. they can be minimi#ed by specifyin! a Eo 3 finish' /old. temperature alloys' The steel is cast in in!ots.rolled stainless steel strip is manufactured from hot.rolled stainless steel strip is a semi. (7). dependin! on requirements' Chen se"ere formin!. and ((&/ can be produced in the hardened and tempered condition' A%perience in the use of stainless steels indicates that many factors can affect their corrosion resistance' Some of the more prominent factors are: • • • • • • • • • • • • /hemical composition of the corrosi"e medium includin! impurities ?hysical state of the medium. solid. ()*. and the in!ots are rolled on a slabbin! mill or a bloomin! mill into slabs or sheet bars' The slabs or sheet bars are then conditioned prior to bein! hot rolled on a finishin! mill' Alternati"ely.tural constituents etc' Surface !inish# Bther characteristics in the stainless steel selection chec list are "ital for some speciali#ed applications but of little concern for many applications' Amon! these characteristics.rolled product. or sanitation' $late ?late is a flat. in coils or cut len!ths. and a few of the free. these hot bands are cold rolled to the required thic ness and coils off the cold mill are either annealed and descaled or bri!ht annealed' >elt !rindin! to remo"e surface defects is frequently required at hot bands or at an intermediate sta!e of processin!' 8ull coils or len!ths cut from coils may then be li!htly cold rolled on either dull or bri!ht rolls to produce the required finish' Sheet may be shipped in coils. annealed. !aseous.
7&(. 7)*:. by a decrease in thic ness' ar >ar is a product supplied in strai!ht len!ths$ it is either hot or cold finished and is a"ailable in "arious shapes.rolled product. and for width and thic ness tolerances. for!ed.directly cast or rolled from in!ots and that usually ha"e been conditioned to impro"e plat surface' Some plate may be produced by direct rollin! from in!ot' 8or strip.finished bar is commonly produced by hot rollin!.rolled flat stoc at least 7'3 mm thic and up to 3+& mm wide' 1ot. hot. 7)*. second. which are subsequently hot rolled. 3&3. tolerances. 7&). 7&+. and ductility is lowered. si#es. and surface finishes' This cate!ory includes small shapes whose dimensions do not e%ceed <+ mm and. for!in!. mechanical properties of foil "ary with thic ness' Tensile stren!th is increased somewhat. 7&3. "ary amon! producers' Mechanical $roperties# In !eneral. or square) Eo'7 ed!e (as slit) Eo'+ ed!e (square ed!e produced by rollin! or filin! after slittin!) !oil 8oil is a flat. in coil form. 7&(:. 73). or pressin! in!ots to blooms or billets of intermediate si#e. condition unspecified) Eo') ed!e (ed!e rolled. or e%truded to final dimensions' . and mechanical properties of foil differ from those of strip because of limitations associated with the way in which foil is manufactured' Eomenclature for finishes. as well as from certain proprietary alloys' The finishes. up to &')7 mm thic and less than *)& mm wide' 8oil is produced in slit widths with ed!e conditions correspondin! to Eo'7 and Eo'+ ed!e conditions for strip' 8oil is made from types 3&). rounded. and ((3. (7&. 7(<. ed!e condition is often more important than it usually is for sheet' Strip can be furnished with "arious ed!e specifications: • • • • -ill ed!e (as produced.
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