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BEB11103; Introduction To Electronic Introduction To Semiconductor 2

Chapter 1. Page 1

INTRODUCTION TO SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES


After completing this section, you should be able to;

1. 2. 3. 4.

Describe a diode and how a PN junction is formed Discuss diffusion across a PN junction Explain the formation of the depletion region Define barrier potential and discuss its significance

Typical diode packages with terminal identification

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BEB11103; Introduction To Electronic Introduction To Semiconductor 2 THE PN JUNCTION

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If we combined a block of silicon ( trivalent impurity ) and the other a ( pentavalent impurity), a boundary called the PN Junction is formed between the resulting P-type and N-type portions and a basic diode is created.

FORMATION OF THE DEPLETION REGION 1. The free electron the near junction in the N region begins to diffuse across the junction into P region and combine with the holes near the junction. 2. 3. 4. The loses of electrons in N region creates a layer of positive charges near the N junction. The excessive of electrons creates a layer of negative charge near the P junction. If intrinsic silicon is doped, N-type and P-type, a PN junction forms at the boundary between the two regions. 5. This region has expended to a point where symmetry is establish and there is no furthers diffusion of electrons across the junction. In other words, the depletion region acts as a barrier to avoid further movements of electron across the junction. 6. Put in mind that the depletion is formed very quickly and the width is very thin compared to P and N region.

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BEB11103; Introduction To Electronic Introduction To Semiconductor 2

Chapter 1. Page 3

BARRIER POTENTIAL 1. The forces between the opposite charges from 'field of force' called electric field. This electric field is a barrier to the free electrons in the N region. How to move it .... we have to expand the energy of the electrons by apply external energy to get electrons move or diffuse. 2. Potential difference of the field is amount of energy required to move electrons. This is called barrier potential and its expressed in volts. 3. The typical barrier potential for germanium is 0.3V and silicon is 0.7V at 25C.

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BEB11103; Introduction To Electronic Introduction To Semiconductor 2 BIASING THE PN JUNCTION

Chapter 1. Page 4

Biasing is refers to the use of a dc voltage to establish certain operating conditions for an electronic device. In diode, there are two bias conditions: forward and reverse.

After completing this section, you should be able to Discuss the bias of a diode Define forward bias and state the required conditions Define reverse bias and state the required conditions Discuss the effect of barrier potential on forward bias Explain how current is produced in forward bias Explain reverse current Describe reverse breakdown of a diode Explain forward bias and reverse bias in terms of energy

FORWARD BIAS

To bias a PN junction, you apply a dc voltage across it. Forward bias is the condition that allows current through the PN junction.

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BEB11103; Introduction To Electronic Chapter 1. Page 5 Introduction To Semiconductor 2 1. What happens when a PN junction is forwarded-biased? The negative side of the Vbias " pushes " the free electrons toward the PN junction. 2. The free electrons have sufficient energy to overcome the barrier potential of the depletion region and move on through into the P region. 3. Once in P region, these conduction electrons have lost energy to immediately combine with holes in the valence band. 4. The holes in the P region provide the medium or `pathway' for these electrons to move through the P region. 5. The electron move from one hole to the next toward the left.

The effect of forward Bias on the Depletion Region 1. As more electrons flow into the depletion region, the number of positive ions is reduced. 2. As more holes effectively flow into depletion region on the other side of the PN Junction, the number of negative ions is reduced. 3. The reduction causes the depletion region to narrow.

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BEB11103; Introduction To Electronic Introduction To Semiconductor 2 REVERSE BIAS Is condition that prevents current through the PN junction. How the connection?

Chapter 1. Page 6

The positive side of VBIAS is connected to the N region and the negative side is connected to the P region.

1. The positive side of the Vbias 'pulls' the free electrons, which are majority carriers in the N region, away from the PN junction. Additional positive ions are created. 2. In P region, the electron from Vbias enter as valence electrons and move from hole to hole toward the depletion region where they created additional negative ion. 3. The results in a widening of the depletion region. 4. As the depletion region increased, the electric field increases in strength until the potential across the depletion region equals the bias voltage, VBIAS.

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BEB11103; Introduction To Electronic Introduction To Semiconductor 2 REVERSE CURRENT

Chapter 1. Page 7

1. The extremely small current that exists in reverse bias after the transition current dies out is caused by the minority carriers in the N region and P regions that are produced by thermally generated. 2. The minority electrons in P region are pushed toward the PN junction and fall down the energy hill and combine with minority holes as valences electrons and flow toward the positive bias voltage, creating a small current.

REVERSE BREAKDOWN If the external voltage is increased to a value called the breakdown voltage, the reverse current will drastically increase. 1. The high reverse voltage imparts energy to the free minority electrons so that as they speed through the P region, they collide with atoms with enough energy to knock valence electrons out of orbit and into the conduction band. 2. The newly created conduction electrons are also high in energy and repeat the process. 3. The multiplication of conduction electrons just discussed is known as avalanche and results in a very high reverse current that can damage the PN structure.

CURRENT-VOLTAGE CHARACTERSTICS OF A PN JUNCTION We will examine more closely the relationship between the voltage and the current in a PN junction on a graphical basis.

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BEB11103; Introduction To Electronic Introduction To Semiconductor 2 I-V CHARACTERISTIC FOR FORWARD BIAS

Chapter 1. Page 8

1. When forward bias, the current through the junction is called forward current and designated IF. 2. With 0V, no forward current flow through the junction. If you

gradually increase the voltage, the IF and VF also increase. 3. When the applied voltage is increased to a value 0.7V, the forward current begins to increase rapidly.

4. As you increase the bias voltage, the forward current continues to increase very rapidly.

I-V CHARACTERISTIC FOR REVERSE BIAS 1. When a reverse-bias voltage is applied across a PN junction, there is a small reverse current (IR) through the junction. 2. With 0v across the PN junction, there is no reverse current. 3. As you slowly increase the voltage bias, there is a small reverse current and the voltage across the PN junction increases. 4. When VBIAS reach the breakdown value (VBR), the reverse current begins to increase rapidly

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BEB11103; Introduction To Electronic Introduction To Semiconductor 2 THE DIODE

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Diode is a PN junction device. The structure and the symbol is shown below. The N region is called the Cathode and the P region is called the Anode. The arrow in the symbol points in the direction of conventional current (opposite to electron flow).

FORWARD AND REVERSE BIAS OF A DIODE.

The method is the same as we applied in PN junction. 1. A diode is forward-biased when the positive terminal of the source is connected to the anode through a current-limiting resistor and the negative terminal of the source is connected to the cathode. 2. A diode is reverse-biased when the positive terminal of the source is connected to the cathode and the negative terminal of the source is connected to the anode.

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BEB11103; Introduction To Electronic Introduction To Semiconductor 2

Chapter 1. Page 10

Data sheet.

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BEB11103; Introduction To Electronic Introduction To Semiconductor 2

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