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Appearance Evaluation of Hot-Dipped Galvanized Coating

Table of Content

1 Title . 2 2 Objectives .. 2 2

3 Evaluation of Appearance ... 4 Dark gray coating with gray areas or networks

. 2 3 3 3 3 4

5 Rough coating ....... 6 Lumpiness and runs .... 7 Dross protrusions .......

8 Wet storage stains (white rust) ..... 9 Black spots (uncoated areas) ... 10 Inspection of surface characteristics

..... 4 - 6

11 Site Repair ...... 6 12 Conclusions ... 6 13 Standards ..... 14 References ..... 7 7-8

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Appearance Evaluation of Hot-Dipped Galvanized Coating


1 Title Appearance evaluation of Hot-Dipped Galvanize Coating 2 Objectives The main objective of this documentation is to give knowledge on how to evaluate the appearance of hot dip galvanized coating as well as on how to repair it on site. 3 Evaluation of Appearance The evaluation on the appearance of coating is very important. The coating required should be complete, firm, and smooth and has a standard thickness. However, the appearance of coating of fabricated article differs from mechanically wiped products such as galvanized sheet, wire and pipe. The corrosion resistance of coating will not be affected by the gloss, color, and the presence or absence of spangle. The following section is evaluation about the appearance: 4 Dark gray coating with gray areas or networks Steel contains certain chemical elements like carbon (C), silicon (Si), phosphorus (P), manganese (Mn) and so on. With increasing Si, P content in steel the Fe-Zn reaction rate increases and the Fe-Zn alloy layers can grow up to the surface of the coating. Steel galvanize containing high Si, the accelerated Fe-Zn reaction results in the formation of the coating with matte gray patches or networks. The dark-gray coating has less pleasing appearance, but usually it is thicker than bright coating and is corrosion resistance is never reduced. The influence of silicon and phosphorous content when galvanizing cold- and hot rolled steel:
Cold rolled steel Acceptable cases. surface finish in Hot rolled steel most Acceptable surface finish in most cases.

Si + P < 0.03

Thickness according to standard. Shiny Thickness according to standard. Shiny coating. coating. If the appearance of the galvanized If the appearance of the galvanized surface is very important, the following surface is very important, the following expression should be used : expression should be used : Si < 0.02 and Si + 2.5 P < 0.09 Si < 0.03 and Si + 2.5 P < 0.04 Not suitable Thicker coatings than in standard. Not suitable Thicker coatings than in standard.

0.03 < Si + P < 0.14 0.15 < Si < 0.21

Internal oxidation reactivity.

may

change

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Appearance Evaluation of Hot-Dipped Galvanized Coating


0.22 < Si < 0.28 Significant thicker coatings than in Significant thicker coatings than in standard. standard. Grey appearance. Thick coatings that may be brittle. 0.29 < Si < 0.35 Grey appearance. Grey appearance. Grey appearance. Thick coatings that may be brittle.

5 Rough coating Normally rough coating is formed due to the uneven growth rate of Fe-Zn alloy layers. The distribution of Si on the surface of steel is not uniform, causing various thicknesses of Fe-Zn alloy layers. Furthermore, if the surfaces of steel are not smooth, a rough coating is created after galvanizing. However, the rough coating will not affect the usage of products. If buyers have special requirement on the roughness of coating, they should consult with galvanizing experts and provide materials that have uniform chemical compositions and smooth surface. 6 Lumpiness and runs When liquid zinc draining back into zinc bath is delayed due to the shape and size of articles, redundant liquid zinc accumulates on the article, lumpiness and runs will be formed. The additional zinc, though wasteful, is clearly not detrimental except in those instances where a smooth finish is essential. If buyers have special requirements, they should discuss with suppliers to accept improved design and treatment method for galvanizing. 7 Dross protrusions Dross protrusions are formed due to zinc dross particle (Fe-Zn alloy) which floats in the zinc bath and adheres to the surface of article during galvanizing. Because dross has a corrosion rate similar to zinc's, it has little effect on the normal life of the coating. A few and dispersed dross protrusions do not affect the usability of zinc coating. Yet excessive and over large dross protrusions will seriously destroy the completeness and appearances of the coatings. 8 Wet storage stains (white rust) White rust is mainly the complex compound of zinc oxide and zinc hydroxides. It occurs when the galvanized products are exposed to a humid or moist environment without access to freely circulating air. Galvanizers are not responsible for this problem unless a large amount of white rust had already occurs before the products leave the factory. If the products are exposed in rain and unventilated environment during the transport and storage, white rust is most likely to form. If the thickness of the coated layer still meets the required standard after removing the
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Appearance Evaluation of Hot-Dipped Galvanized Coating


white rust, the coating function will be not affected; the products will be still qualified. One way to avoid white rust is to stack the products in a dry and well-ventilated environment during the storage and transport, and avoid the products to overlap each other. Covers should be placed on the top of the articles; the other way is to passives the articles after galvanizing. 9 Black spots (uncoated areas) Inadequate pretreatment of the steel surface is the major cause of uncoated areas. However some common causes of black spots, such as welding flux residues do not removed clearly; rolling defects in steel (laminations, laps, folds, and noon-metallic impurities rolled in to the steel surface); cannot be controlled by galvanizer. Therefore each country has a relevant standard in which the size of the uncoated area permitted to repair and the materials permitted for repairing the uncoated area are provided. Generally speaking, if black spot is less than 3mm in width and 40mm in area, it may be renovated by the use of good quality zinc-rich paint or by zinc thermal spraying according to the relevant regulation. 10 Inspection of surface characteristics The quality of galvanizing process can be confirmed visually. At a glance it is easy to identify problems with the coating. We can also use magnetic gauges that provide simple nondestructive testing methods for coating thickness. The following listed below shows the surface finish in relation to acceptability. Surface Finish: Description: Condition: Dull Grey coating Due to thicker Zinc-Fe Alloy Acceptable

Surface Finish: Description: corroded steel Condition: stain

Rust Stains Due to contact with rust from other

Acceptable when present as surface

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Appearance Evaluation of Hot-Dipped Galvanized Coating

Surface Finish: Description: Condition:

Rust Stains Due to uneven drainage of molten zinc Acceptable

Surface Finish:

Bare Spots

Description: Due to air pockets or under preparation surface, and number of factors beyond control Condition: Acceptable if area is small

Surface Finish: Description: Condition:

Roughness Thicker than normal coating Acceptable

Surface Finish: Description: Condition: coating

Dark spots / flux staining / ash inclusions By product of the galvanizing process Acceptable if removal reveals sound

Surface Finish: Description: coating Condition:

Pimples Due to incursion of impurities into

Not Acceptable

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Appearance Evaluation of Hot-Dipped Galvanized Coating

Surface Finish:

Wet storage stain or bulky white deposit

Description: Closely stacked articles become damp under poor ventilation during storage or transportation Condition: Acceptable if deposit is removed and coating thickness is not substantially thinner. Surface Finish: Description: Condition: 11 Site Repair The preferred method of repair is by zinc metal thermal spraying. Due to the remoteness of most sites, however, and the unavailability of metal spraying equipment, repairs by zinc rich epoxy or zinc rich paint have to date generally been more popular. Site repairs should be limited to small coating defects and areas that have been cut or welded on site. Should excessive amounts of grease or oil be present at the affected area, it should be removed by means of an approved solvent. All residues are to be thoroughly removed by washing with clean water. The affected area should then be abraded with abrasive paper (roughness 80 grit) or alternatively thoroughly cleaned using, preferably a stainless steel brush. All dust and debris should be completely removed. Repair can now be carried out using an approved product. Single pack zinc rich paints are good materials and can easily be applied. They, however, require several coats to achieve a reasonable repair. Multiple coats will also necessitate longer drying time between coats. Blisters Due to absorbed hydrogen expelled during galvanizing, extremely rare. Acceptable small intact blisters

12 Conclusions Three appearance classifications have been composed based on visual appearance (spangle size), coating roughness and Fe/Zn alloy layer growth and formation. The following conclusions can be drawn from the present conditions: 1. Hot dip galvanized coating appearance may be divided into 3 classes. 2. The substrate steel chemical composition has major effect on coating appearance. 3. The substrate roughness and surface defects also have an impact on coating appearance.
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Appearance Evaluation of Hot-Dipped Galvanized Coating


13 Standards British Standard BS 729 Hot-dipped galvanized coatings on iron and steel articles Hot-Dipped Galvanized coatings on fabricated iron and steel articles - Specifications and test methods

EN ISO 1461:1999 -

American Standard ASTM A 123 Zinc (Hot galvanized) coatings on products fabricated from rolled, pressed, and forged steel, steel shapes, plates, bars, and strips Recommended practice for safeguarding against embrittlement of Hot-Dip Galvanized structural steel products and procedure for detecting embrittlement

ASTM A 143

ASTM A 153 ASTM A 384

Zinc coating (Hot-Dip) on iron steel hardware Practice for safeguarding against war page and distortion during Hot-Dip Galvanizing of steel assemblies Standard practice for providing high quality zinc coatings (Hot-Dip) Standard specification for zinc coated (galvanized) steel bars for concrete reinforcements

ASTM A 385 ASTM A 767

14 References 1) ZALAS ( Zinc and Lead Asian Services ) Handbook 2) Super Galvanizing Singapore website: http://www.supergalvanising.com/main.html 3) Industrial Galvanizers Australia website: http://www.corp.indgalv.com.au/technical/manual.htm 4) Rust: - How Stuff Works: http://science.howstuffworks.com/question445.htm/printable 5) http://www.azom.com/details.asp?ArticleID=1075

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Appearance Evaluation of Hot-Dipped Galvanized Coating


6) http://www.nkcoatings.com/service 7) HOT DIP GALVANIZERS ASSOCIATION SOUTHERN AFRICA - www.hdgasa.org.za

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