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# Lesson Planning

Waynesburg University

Pre-Instructional Planning:
The thought process that leads to the development of quality,
meaningful lesson plans

Guiding questions that will provide the framework for the lesson. (Respond to each question.)
Who will you be teaching? (Identify student grade level as well as academic functioning level and specific needs of individual
students)

The target classroom consists of 10th – 12th grade coed students. The students range in age from16 to 18 years old. The population size of the
student body is 23 students, 13 male and 10 female. The mathematics class is a “general” probability and statistics classroom. When taken as a
whole the functioning level of the students can be considered average. However, academically there is a variance in the individual’s overall
abilities. 4 of the students are quite advanced and require activities that are challenging and engaging. Three of the male students have been
struggling to achieve passing grades. These students require additional support and modified instructional pacing. Additionally, the low
achieving students prefer activities of a kinesthetic nature. Furthermore, the three boys struggle with reading from a statistics textbook. The
student’s grades have improved markedly through the use of graphic organizers, small group instruction, and cooperative learning.

Who (if anybody) will assist with the presentation of this lesson, and what will their role be?

The computer teacher will be invited to provide the students with a presentation of the procedures for using Microsoft Excel and PowerPoint.
The computer teacher will provide the students with lecture and assistance as students develop their charts using Excel and PowerPoint. The
mathematics teacher will provide supplementary instruction and assistance to the students as necessary. The math teacher will ensure that the
student’s are correctly applying mathematical algorithms. Finally, a member of the school paper will help evaluate the student’s presentations
and determine if the project should be included in the school paper.

## What is the long range goal(s) that is tied to this lesson?

The main purpose of the project is to learn how to plan, collect, organize, and write using statistical information. In actually attempting to do
research, a potential researcher becomes acutely aware of the problems that all researchers must face. Problems such as missing data,
measurement, accurate reporting and recording, and depth of analysis must be faced. The researcher becomes a more critical consumer of other
statistical information by attempting to do a project. Ultimately the student should be able to research a topic, use statistics to support an
argument, and present the study to an audience as a persuasive piece.

The project has seven specific learning objectives for the student: (1) selection of a central idea and population of interest, (2) selecting and
measuring the variables of interest, (3) sampling from the population, (4) collection of data, (5) data analysis, and (6) writing the results in a
understandable form and (7) presenting those results as a persuasive piece to an audience.

## What is the specific learning objective(s) for this lesson?

The specific learning objectives for this lesson are for the students to select a topic and create an online survey for their peers to complete. The
students will create the survey using Survey Monkey. The survey should be anonymous and consist of 5 to 10 questions that are designed to
find a correlation about a specific topic.

What prerequisite skills/knowledge will students need to effectively access and participate in this lesson?

The student will be required to read for comprehension, learn and apply vocabulary words, complete scientific charts, form and test a hypothesis,
engage in discussions, use the computer and internet, conduct a survey, interpret results, graph data on a Cartesian plane, write persuasively,
conduct a presentation, and make comparisons. Additionally, the student will be required to work cooperatively, obey classroom rules and
instruction, adhere to a schedule, self monitor, think abstractly and concretely, and operate in a student based educational setting.

When within the stages of learning will this lesson be presented? (Is it a learning acquisition lesson, learning fluency lesson, learning
maintenance lesson, or learning generalization lesson?)

The lesson will address all four stages of learning. The students will acquire skills in Survey monkey through direct instruction and guided
practice. Additionally, the students will learn how to fluently interact with the software. Finally, maintenance and generalization will be
encouraged through independent practice and incorporation of the survey into their final project.

When will this lesson be completed? (Will it be a one-day lesson or a multiple day lesson?)

The lesson will take 2-3 days to complete. One day will be required for the introduction to Survey Monkey and the students will have an
additional day or two to complete their group’s surveys.

Where should this lesson be presented to ensure maximum student access and participation? (computer lab, classroom, science
lab…) AND what materials will be needed?

The lessons will occur between the computer lab and general math classroom. The lessons will require the following materials: pens, pencils,
markers, dry erase board, Smart Board, computers with internet, journals, and Survey Project handout.

Why are you planning to teach this lesson? Why must this information/skill be presented to the students?

This lesson serves as the first step of creating a statistical study. The students will discover the potential difficulties of creating and
implementing a survey (i.e. biasness, double barreled questions, confidentiality). Additionally, the lesson will be taught to the students because it
serves as an investigation of the real life application of statistics. The lesson utilizes an autonomous student centered approach where the
individual is empowered to make choices. The student is able to explore statistics through their individual interests and is limited only by their
creativity. By the end of the lesson the student should be able to use the statistics to support theories and opinions. Most importantly, the
survey project will create enthusiasm and spark the student’s interest and encourage a further study of statistics or potentially a career in
mathematics.

## How does this lesson relate to the PA Academic Standards?

The lesson directly relates to the PA Academic Standards set forth for statistics in mathematics. Finally, the lesson utilizes all of the components
of mathematics (as they are recognized by Pennsylvania): nature of math, unifying themes of math, knowledge, inquiry, problem solving,
process skills, and mathematical thinking. The following standards are directly addressed throughout the lesson:
2.6.11.A. Design and conduct an experiment using random sampling. Describe the data as an example of a distribution using statistical measures
of center and spread. Organize and represent the results with graphs. (Use standard deviation, variance and t-tests.)
2.6.11.B. Use appropriate technology to organize and analyze data taken from the local community.
2.6.11.E. Determine the validity of the sampling method described in a given study.
2.6.11.G. Describe questions of experimental design, control groups, treatment groups, cluster sampling and reliability
2.6.11.H. Use sampling techniques to draw inferences about large populations.

How does this lesson relate to the previous lesson? How does this lesson relate to future lessons?

During the previous lesson the students selected topics to survey their peers on. Additionally the students created and revised questions that
could be utilized in a questionnaire. This lesson will require that the student is able to utilize statistics methodically. The student will develop an
online survey to distribute to their peers on a central topic. The survey will enable the students to analyze data, create charts, and present their
findings. Future lessons will serve to further familiarize the student with statistical concepts and using technology to analyze data. Ultimately,
the student will gain an understanding of the principles behind statistics and incite into the close connection of statistics and persuasive writing.

How will you determine if students have met the lesson objective? (Think assessment)
The students will be assessed via classroom discussions, observations, summative assessment (online survey), journal responses and formative
assessments (submission of drafts).

How should this lesson be presented to ensure maximum student access and participation? (lecture, whole group activities, small
group activities, cooperative learning groups…)

The lesson will incorporate whole group activities, lectures, cooperative learning, interactive media, small group activities, independent
activities, and teacher directed discussions. A variety of activities are used, including: journals, classroom lectures, and classroom discussions.
The lesson will be presented using auditory (direct instruction/discussions), kinesthetic (survey project/computer lab activity), and visual aids
(sample surveys). Ultimately it is the goal of these interventions to provide differentiated instruction that will address the learning needs of all
students.

Lesson Planning
Waynesburg University

## Writing the lesson plan:

Translating thoughts into a plan of action
_____________________________________________
(Provide Standard number and statement)

2.6.11.A. Design and conduct an experiment using random sampling. Describe the data as an example of a distribution using statistical measures
of center and spread. Organize and represent the results with graphs. (Use standard deviation, variance and t-tests.)
2.6.11.B. Use appropriate technology to organize and analyze data taken from the local community.
2.6.11.E. Determine the validity of the sampling method described in a given study.
2.6.11.G. Describe questions of experimental design, control groups, treatment groups, cluster sampling and reliability
2.6.11.H. Use sampling techniques to draw inferences about large populations.

Lesson Objective(s)
(Stated in observable and measurable terms)

At the end of the lesson the students should create an online survey using Survey Monkey. The goal of the lesson is for the students to collect
data that will present a central idea back through statistical research. The students will provide the teacher with a link to their Survey Monkey
forms at the end of class. The students will be graded based on a 15 point rubric, 10 being the minimal passing grade.

The students will be encouraged to discuss their feelings, thoughts, engage in activities, and work cooperatively. The students will demonstrate
these abilities through classroom discussions and participation in classroom activities. Finally at the end of each day’s lesson the student will be
required to hand in a copy of the days work for teacher evaluation. The teacher should provide corrective feedback and ideas that the student
might implement to improve their work. Students will earn 3 points per day for daily classroom participation as observed by the teacher.

Assessment Plan
(What will be done to determine if lesson objectives have been met?)

Informal Assessment: Discussions, observations, oral readings, think-pair-share, journal entries, daily submission of work.

## Formative Assessment: Class participation: 3 points/day

Survey Monkey computer lab activity: 10 points possible. 10/15 constitutes a passing grade
Summative Assessment: (End of Unit) the students will participate in a statistical survey research project. The students will form a hypothesis,
collect results using survey monkey, test the hypothesis, draw conclusions, create a chart using Excel, and present their findings using
PowerPoint. The students will be assessed based upon ideas, content, organization, voice, understanding of adaptations, creativity, and
presentation. A minimum score of 70 out of 100 would be indicative of a passing grade.

Materials:
The lessons will require the following materials: pens, pencils, markers, dry erase board, Smart Board, computers with internet, journals, and
Survey Project handout.
Inclusion Techniques for Students with Special Needs:

Several techniques for including students with special needs are utilized throughout the lesson. The students will engage in a variety of
independent and cooperative learning tasks. The students will work cooperatively in heterogeneous ability based groups. This will allow the
educators to provide assistance or enrichment as necessary. Additionally, the teacher will be able to select students to answer questions on
various levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy. This enables the low achieving student to actively participate in the lesson and attain critical information
through auditory channels. Time accommodations could allow the students to take the assignment home or work on the assignments during a
study period. Instruction is varied as much as possible allowing for kinesthetic (survey project/computer use), auditory (discussions/lectures),
and visual (examples of student work/survey) approaches to be utilized. Furthermore, the students will independently engage in an activity that
incorporates technology through Microsoft Office. However, the students will be encouraged to engage in quiet conversation to allow for the
exchange of ideas. Also, the low-achieving students have shown to be responsive to graphic organizers and checklists. These students will be
provided with checklists and graphic organizers for completing lab and group projects. Finally, summative assessment will occur in the form of a
project. Consequently, the student will be enabled to demonstrate their knowledge of concepts in a non-test format. Ultimately, these
adaptations are merely suggestions and the least restrictive interventions will be utilized to support the learning of each individual student.

Enrichment Techniques:

leadership/management roles during group work. Furthermore, the advanced students will be encouraged to study more advanced topics as
suggested by the teacher. Advanced learners may also become engaged by answering questions that require synthesis, evaluation, and an
advanced understanding of statistical concepts. Finally, the open ended nature of the survey project allows the student to be hindered only by
their creativity and time. Accordingly, advanced students will be able to present or create complex components of the statistics survey project.

Lesson Differentiation (What modifications/accommodations will be made to ensure that ALL students have access to and are able to
participate in the lesson):

The lesson will utilize kinesthetic, visual, and auditory presentations to address the needs of all learner profiles and abilities. First, advanced
learners will be heterogeneously grouped during the unit. Students will be assigned roles to encourage interdependence and accountability.
Advanced students and students that finish quickly will be encouraged to further revise their work and compare their findings to others.
Students who are struggling will be grouped to be provided with additional support from the cooperative learning group and secondary
education teacher. Second, classroom discussions will occur at the guidance of the teacher and the direction of the student. This allows the
teacher to guide and tailor discussions to address the specific learning needs of the class. Advanced students may be asked to answer questions
involving predicting, synthesizing, and evaluating. Students who struggle may be asked to answer lower level questions and reiterate important
concepts. Third, the lesson plan thoroughly addresses differentiation as regards to content, process, and product. Consequently, the class’s
activities are relatively opened ended. The tasks allow the student to express opinions and multiple correct ideas at different levels of
complexity. Furthermore, a variety of types of assignments will be utilized to encourage creative products geared towards the student’s interest..
Fourth, the students will be responsible for a variety of rules during the lesson. At times the student will passively listen to lecture, work
cooperatively and independently, and lead presentations. Students who struggle with multi-tasking may be provided with graphic organizer and
checklists. Finally, the lesson was designed to engage a variety of students based upon interests and through a variety of activities. It is the goal,
of the instructor that the lesson becomes a unique learning experience that will form a lasting connection with the student.

Lesson Presentation
Introduction/Motivational Activities/Anticipatory Set:

## • Do you think that surveys are a valid method of gathering information?

• What kinds of questions are used in surveys?

## • Why do you think it is important to evaluate surveys?

After a few minutes, invite students to share their answers with the class.

## Detailed Teaching Sequence:

(Provide sufficient detail that would enable a substitute to effectively present this lesson. Bulleted statements are preferred)

• The teacher will return the students’ revised survey questions and selected group topics.

• The teacher will provide a tutorial of how to use the Survey Monkey website. The teacher should lead the students through the process
of creating an account, managing a survey, designing a survey, collecting results, adding questions, and design fundamentals.
• Students should be referred to a link of videos if they require further help; the videos are located at the Survey Monkey Website.
• The students will return to their small groups of four and begin translating their survey over to Survey Monkey.
• At the end of class, the students will provide the teacher with a link to their survey.
• The teacher will provide the students with revisions and recommendations.
• Finally, the surveys will be submitted to a peer group of the students choosing, including their math class, computer classes, and their
fellow students.

## Guided Practice/Independent Practice/Assessment Activities

Guided practice and assessment will consist of the creation, revision, and publication of an online survey. The project may take 2-3 days to
complete. The time will be adjusted according to the students needs and pacing. The teacher will revise and grade the students’ final published
surveys.

Closure:

Closure will take the form of a journal question and discussion: What are some of the relationships that the students will predict that they will
see from their surveys results?