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Scientific American: Biology for a Changing World Study Guide Answer Key for Short-Answer Questions

Chapter 1 Read the summary of the peer-reviewed article Insufficient Sleep Undermines Dietary Efforts to Reduce Adiposity by edeltcheva et al! "Annals of Internal Medicine #$%&'%$-''#( $ )ctober *+#+, and answer the -uestions! ote that some -uestions address the scientific study itself while others address the way in which the study is reported! .oth are important/ Sleepin0 1elps 2ou 3ose/ Researchers from the University of 4hica0o and the University of 5isconsin( 6adison( recently reported new findin0s on the relationship between sleep and wei0ht loss! In a clinical randomi7ed trial( sub8ects 0ettin0 $!$ hours of sleep over a two-wee9 period lost the same amount of wei0ht as their counterparts 0ettin0 :!$ hours of sleep! .ut sub8ects on the low-sleep re0imen lost si0nificantly more lean muscle and si0nificantly less body fat than did sub8ects on the lon0-sleep re0imen! Stintin0 on sleep( therefore( may counteract other wei0ht-loss measures such as restrictin0 calories and;or e<ercisin0! =he study e<amined sleep and wei0ht loss in #+ overwei0ht( non-smo9in0 individuals "% women and > men,! Sub8ects were randomly assi0ned to two treatments& :!$ hours of sleep or $!$ hours of sleep! All sub8ects were 0iven the same moderately restricted diet and studied for * *-wee9 periods in a sleep laboratory! ?ood( drin9( and e<ercise were controlled! Investi0ators measured fat loss and fat-free body mass as well as several physiolo0ical variables related to how the body uses ener0y! #! 5hat type of study is this@ Dia0ram the study "Hint: Use the scheme illustrated in Info0raphic #!%,( bein0 sure to identify "a, the -uestion bein0 as9ed or hypothesis bein0 testedA "b, the controls usedA "c, the independent variableA "d, the dependent variable and how it was measuredA and "e, the conclusions the authors reached! Answer: =his is a randomi7ed trial( but it is not blind! Buestion& Does sleep affect wei0ht loss@ 4ontrols& Same diet( all overwei0ht( non-smo9in0( both men and women included( food( drin9( e<ercise controlled Independent variable& Amount of sleep Dependent variables& ?at loss( fat-free body mass( other physiolo0ical variables 4onclusions& Reducin0 sleep doesnCt decrease wei0ht loss but does decrease lean muscle rather than fat!

*! 5hat is the sample si7e@ Does the si7e of the sample influence the confidence you have in the results of the study@ E<plain! Do any of the other features of the study desi0n reduce your confidence in the results@ E<plain! Answer: Sample si7e is #+! =his is a small sample and therefore reduces the si0nificance of the study! >+D of participants were male! 5e donCt 9now a0es or how overwei0ht each participant was! %! Does the study report a correlation( a causal relationship( or both@ If itCs a correlation and not a causal relationship( offer at least one e<planation for the correlation other than the effects of sleep itself! Answer: 4orrelation! 5ith such a small sample si7e( some other factor "medical condition( prior diet patterns( etc!, could have caused the difference! '! Does the report include sufficient detail about the study for you to ma9e an informed decision about the stren0th of the authorsC conclusions@ If not( which details are missin0 and why are they important@ Answer: 2es and no! =he small sample si7e alone is enou0h to indicate that the results should be interpreted cautiously! .ut other factors were left out& a0es( wei0ht( prior medical history( prior diet patterns( etc! =hese could have affected the results! Chapter 2 A friend as9s you about viruses& Specifically( she wants to 9now if they are alive! 2ou e<plain that viruses consist of 0enetic material "R A or D A, surrounded by a protein coat( which may or may not be enclosed in a small membrane! 5hen a virus infects a cell( the 0enetic material in the virus overwrites the cellCs 0enetic instructions( and the cell produces more of the components of the virus and assembles the components for it! =hen( you reali7e you have to e<plain to your friend the characteristics of livin0 or0anisms and whether or not a virus fits those characteristics& Does a virus 0row@ Answer: Eiruses do not 0row! =hey cannot add any e<tra matter to themselves! Does a virus reproduce@ Answer: ot by themselves( only by ta9in0 over the machinery of a host cell! Does a virus maintain a stable internal environment@ Answer: o( a virus is not able to do this! Does a virus sense and respond to stimuli@ Answer: o! Does a virus obtain and use ener0y@ Answer: o!

#! Feepin0 these characteristics in mind( what is your answer@ Is a virus alive@ Answer: o! .y definition( a virus is not alive! *! In a virus that has both a protein coat and a membrane( which of the four classes of macromolecule is not li9ely to be present@ E<plain your answer! Answer: 6embranes are made of lipids( the coat has proteins( and the interior will have D A or R A( so itCs possible that the virus would not have carbohydrates! %! Grions are proteins that can cause cells to reproduce them! =hey are even simpler than viruses because they are only proteins and have no 0enetic material! Are they alive@ Answer: o( for the same reasons that viruses are not considered alive! Chapter 3 2ou have a friend with a cold! 1e went to his doctor and was annoyed that his doctor would not prescribe him an antibiotic to 0et rid of his cold! 2ou decide you need to set the record strai0ht! #! Does your friendCs doctor thin9 he has a bacterial infection@ 1ow do you 9now@ Answer: o( the doctor would have prescribed an antibiotic for a bacterial infection( so the doctor probably does not believe that the infection is bacterial! *! 5hat sort of infection is your friendCs cold@ 1ow do you 9now based on his doctorCs actions@ Answer: 1is doctor probably believes he has a viral infection since antibiotics donCt wor9 a0ainst viruses! %! 1ow would you e<plain to your friend the importance of not ta9in0 an antibiotic for a cold@ Answer: 2ou could 0ive him these reasons& Antibiotics do not affect virus-caused coldsA antibiotics could harm the beneficial bacteria that live in your bodyA and usin0 antibiotics improperly can cause infectious bacteria to become resistant to them! =riclosan is a compound added to many soaps( deodorants( mouthwashes( and other 0roomin0 products as an antibacterial a0ent "in fact it is often hard to find soaps without it,! =riclosan also has a medical use as a cleansin0 a0ent for antibiotic-resistant s9in infections! =here is evidence

that some bacteria are becomin0 resistant to triclosan( and research has also shown that washin0 hands thorou0hly with plain soap and water removes or 9ills as many bacteria! #! 1ow do you thin9 that bacteria can become resistant to triclosan@ Answer: .acteria accumulate mutations in their D A! If one of these mutations conferred resistance to triclosan( the bacterium that had the mutation would be selected for and reproduce despite bein0 treated with triclosan! *! Do you use antibacterial soap now@ Do you plan to continue usin0 antibacterial soap in the future@ 5hy@ Answer: Answers will vary! Chapter 4 #! 2ou are discussin0 diet with two of your friends( both of whom wish to lose wei0ht! )ne has heard about hi0h protein( low carbohydrate diets and has decided to eliminate virtually all carbohydrates "includin0 carbs from fruits and ve0etables, from her meals! =he other has heard that fats are the bi00est culprit in wei0ht 0ain and has decided to eliminate virtually all fats from his meals! .ecause youCve studied this chapter( you feel that they are ta9in0 the wron0 approach! Usin0 what you 9now about macronutrients and how theyCre used in the body( set your friends strai0ht! Answer: 5e need both carbohydrates and fats as sources of ener0y and as raw materials to build macromolecules! A balanced diet that includes whole 0rains and healthy fats and 9eeps 4alories within chec9 is the best way to lose wei0ht safely! *! 4ellulose "the predominant form of plant fiber, is the most abundant carbohydrate on the planet( but we canCt use it as a macronutrient! Starch is made of 0lucose( but we canCt use the same en7yme to brea9 starch down into 0lucose subunits and to 8oin 0lucose subunits to ma9e starch! 5hy is this the case@ 5hat does your answer tell you about the relationship between structure and function in en7ymes "and( in fact( in proteins in 0eneral,@ Answer: 5e canCt brea9 down cellulose because we donCt have the ri0ht en7yme! 5e need different en7ymes to brea9 down starch and build starch from 0lucose! =his is because en7yme active sites must have the ri0ht shape to match the molecules they either build or brea9 down! In 0eneral( en7yme function depends on en7yme functionHthe same is true of all proteins! %! 2our friendCs 0randmother( aunt( and mother all developed =ype II diabetes in their I+s! 2our friend 9nows little about the condition( e<cept that it has somethin0 to do with not eatin0 su0ar! She 9nows that her history puts her at ris9 of developin0 the condition( and has heard that eatin0

properly at a youn0er a0e can help reduce the ris9 of developin0 it! Fnowin0 that you have studied diabetes in this class( she has come to you for answers to some -uestionsHspecifically& 5hat( e<actly( is =ype II diabetes@ 5hat does it have to do with not eatin0 su0ar@ 5hat 9ind of healthy eatin0 can she practice now( and how does it wor9@ If she does develop the condition( does it mean she will never be able to eat sweets of any 9ind@ 5hy or why not@ Answer: =ype II diabetes is a condition that occurs because your body canCt re0ulate blood su0ar properly! Insulin is produced( but doesnCt wor9 correctly! Reducin0 su0ar inta9e is one element of controllin0 blood su0ar when insulin doesnCt wor9! A healthy balanced diet that includes whole 0rains and moderates 4alories will reduce the ris9 of developin0 the condition! If she does develop it( she may still be able to eat sweets occasionally because her insulin system still functions at least a little bit( but too many sweets will cause her to build up hi0h levels of blood su0ar! '! In his boo9 In Defense of Food: An Eaters Manifesto, writer 6ichael Gollan encapsulated the conclusions of his years of studyin0 about food into this simple advice! Eat food! ot too much! 6ostly plants! .y Eat food( Gollan meant that we should avoid processed foods! =he other rules are self-e<planatory! Reviewin0 what youCve learned about the importance of macroand micronutrients and their sources( do you a0ree or disa0ree@ 5hy or why not@ Answer: A0ree& 6ostly plants HAll scientifically based food pyramids emphasi7e plant foods in the forms of whole 0rains( ve0etables( fruits( and healthy "plant, oils! Grotein is important( but too much animal protein and dairy products can be harmful! ot too much H5e need to balance 4alories to maintain healthy wei0ht! Eat food HGrocessed foods often contain hidden calories in the forms of fat and hi0h-fructose corn syrup! =hey are hi0h in salt and contain potentially harmful additives! Chapter 5 2ou have a friend who wants her ne<t car to be as 0reen as possible( and she as9s you for advice! #! She is considerin0 an electric car that can be char0ed overni0ht from your homeCs electric system! =he car uses a small 0asoline en0ine to rechar0e the battery on lon0 trips! 5hat is 0reen about this car@ 5hat is not 0reen@ Answer: JreenHUses very little 0asoline and has very few emissions! ot 0reenHDoes still use 0asolineA also uses electricity( which most often comes from a coalburnin0 power plant! *! She is also considerin0 a diesel car that could run on biodiesel! She wants to 9now where biodiesel comes from and what it is! 5hat would you tell her@

Answer: .iodiesel is produced from the oil made by plants or al0ae! It could be recycled coo9in0 oil from crop plants li9e soy or corn( or it could come from plants that produce it from al0ae! %! 2our friend wants to 9now why burnin0 biodiesel is any better than burnin0 0asoline or petrodiesel since they all release carbon dio<ide into the air! 1ow can you use your 9nowled0e of photosynthesis to e<plain to her why biodiesel is better in terms of increasin0 levels of carbon dio<ide@ Answer: Althou0h burnin0 petroleum-based fuels and biodiesel both release carbon dio<ide into the atmosphere( the carbon dio<ide released from burnin0 biodiesel was 8ust recently ta9en from the atmosphere by photosynthesis "when the oil used to ma9e the biodiesel was created by plants or al0ae,! =herefore( it is not considered a net 0ain of carbon dio<ide! Chapter 6 2ou have been chosen to participate in a new reality-based television show in which avera0e colle0e students play the roles of e<perts in various fields! 2ou have been assi0ned the role of personal fitness consultant to a 0roup of overwei0ht hi0h school freshmenA to win the competition at the heart of the show( you must help the students become more physically fitH with particular emphasis on improvin0 body composition! ?ortunately( you reali7e that your mastery of this chapter 0ives you a startin0 point! #! 2our first 8ob is to persuade the students that they will truly benefit from the hard wor9 you are about to put them throu0h! E<plain to them how to determine their .6Is and e<plain why a healthy body composition is so important! =o ma9e sure they donCt blame themselves for bein0 overwei0ht( e<plain how biolo0y and culture have contributed to their problem "include at least one line of evidence to support this/,! Answer: .6I is an indicator of body compositionA havin0 too much body fat puts us as ris9 of developin0 heart disease( diabetes( and some forms of cancer! .iolo0y and culture have combined to put us at ris9 of 0ainin0 wei0ht& atural selection leads us to crave su0ar( salt( and fat( while our current culture emphasi7es lar0e( unhealthy meals and little e<ercise! )ne line of evidence supportin0 this thin9in0 is that Americans are( on avera0e( more overwei0ht than are the ?renchA in ?rance( portion si7es are smaller in restaurants( supermar9ets( and even coo9boo9s! *! =he first phase of your fitness plan for these students involves educatin0 them about how to eat better! E<plain to the students the 9inds of molecules that deliver ener0y to the body( which deliver the most ener0y( the two main ways in which that ener0y is stored( and the order in which that ener0y is released!

Answer: 4arbohydrates( proteins( and fats all deliver ener0y to the body( with fats deliverin0 more than carbs and proteins! 4arbs and fat ma9e the best ener0y food! E<cess carbohydrates are stored as 0lyco0en for short-term ener0y needs and e<cess ener0y from proteins and fats are stored as fat for lon0-term ener0y needs! 5hen we e<ercise( we use our 0lyco0en stores first( then fat! %! =he second phase of your plan is to develop an e<ercise pro0ram that will help the students burn off their e<cess fat and build ener0y-burnin0 lean muscle "which burns ener0y even while theyCre sleepin0/,! Durin0 the first wor9out( you discover that the students all love liftin0 wei0hts "which builds muscle, but hate their cardio sessions "the aerobic wor9outs,! Describe the forms of respiration used in each type of e<ercise and use that to teach them why wei0ht liftin0 "or sprintin0( for that matter, alone wonCt help them burn their e<cess fat stores! Answer: 5ei0ht liftin0 and sprintin0 are short-term( burst e<ercises that rely on anaerobic respiration( which burns relatively few 4alories! 4ardio e<erciseHsustained periods of activityHuses aerobic respiration and burns many more 4alories! '! 4on0ratulations/ 2ouCve won the contest at the heart of the show/ )ne of your pri7es is a 0rant to ma9e chan0es to the food service and G!E! pro0rams at your former studentsC hi0h school desi0ned to help all the students resist the dan0ers of overwei0ht and obesity! 5hat will your ideas for food and G!E! pro0rams loo9 li9e( and why@ Answer: ?ood in the cafeteria should emphasi7e whole 0rains( abundant fruits and ve0etables( healthy protein and fats( and no fried or processed food! =his provides appropriate nutrients while avoidin0 empty 4alories! G!E! should be a daily activity and emphasi7e both cardio and wei0ht-bearin0 e<ercise( with an emphasis on the former! =his will burn a lot of 4alories and help students lose fat and build lean muscle "which itself burns a lot of 4alories,! Chapter 7 2ou are a forensics e<pert called to testify on behalf of a woman that Innocence Gro8ect lawyers believe has been falsely imprisoned for murder! 2our 8ob is to answer a series of -uestions that will help the 8ury understand the D A evidence that was collected at the crime scene but only recently analy7ed! =o that end( the lawyer will as9 you a series of -uestionsA your answers must be scientifically accurate but 0iven in lan0ua0e that the 8ury( members of which may not 9now anythin0 about D A( can understand! 1ere are the -uestions& #! =he ori0inal conviction rested( in part( on hair and bite mar9 samples ta9en from the crime scene! 5hatCs wron0 with this evidence( and why should D A evidence outwei0h it@ "Hint: .e sure to e<plain what D A is and where it comes from!, Answer: 1air and bite mar9s are not uni-ue to each individual! D A is our 0enetic materialA it is the molecular instructions for buildin0 and maintainin0 our bodies! Every personCs D A is uni-ue( unli9e hair and bite mar9s!

*! Grosecutors have ar0ued that the amount of D A obtained at the crime scene is minute! 1ow can such a small sample be reliably used as evidence@

Answer: =he polymerase chain reaction "G4R, allows scientists to rapidly reproduce D A! .ecause G4R doubles the amount of D A durin0 every round( it allows investi0ators to multiply a small amount of D A into a lar0e sample of identical D A!

%! 5e 9now that D A has somethin0 to do with our 0enes! Does that mean that forensic scientists loo9 at D A evidence to fi0ure out a perpetratorCs hei0ht( eye color( and other traits that tell us what he or she mi0ht loo9 li9e@ If not( what 0enes are analy7ed and why@

Answer: ?orensic scientists loo9 at 0enes that donCt appear to have any function! =hese 0enes are called sin0le tandem repeats "STRs, and are hi0hly variableA they are therefore very li9ely to vary from one individual to the ne<t!

'! 5e see people who share common traits all the timeHeven non-family members can have the same eye color( face shape( etc! 1ow do we 9now that two matchin0 D A profiles came from the same person if traits can be shared amon0 people@ 4ouldnCt the profiles come from two different people who 8ust happen to share the profiles by chance@ Answer: ?orensic scientists build a D A profile by usin0 many different STR 0enes! =hey can measure the probability of a sin0le STR allele bein0 shared by two unrelated individuals! =he probability of two individuals sharin0 multiple STR 0enes is calculated by multiplyin0 the probabilities of each allele bein0 shared! =he probability of two individuals sharin0 the same D A profile usin0 these techni-ues is vanishin0ly small! Chapter 8 2ou are a plant scientist developin0 ways to 0enetically en0ineer crop plants for subsistence farmers in developin0 countries! 2our specific focus is on findin0 ways to en0ineer potatoes that can 0row in soils too salty for normal potatoes to survive! In a recent series of brea9throu0hs( you have isolated a salt-tolerance 0ene "which you call SA3=2, from a marsh 0rass and a 0ene

that is only e<pressed in the roots of your tar0et potato variety "you call this new 0ene E5R))=,! 2our challen0e now is to secure fundin0 for the ne<t steps in your research! A non-profit a0ency is interested in your wor9 and has as9ed you to present your plans! .ecause the a0ency only funds scientists who are also able to communicate their wor9 clearly to laypeople with little biolo0y education( its members have as9ed you to present some basic bac90round information as well as your plans for creatin0 your trans0enic plant! 1ere are the -uestions they have as9ed you to address& #! 5hat is D A( what are 0enes( what are chromosomes@ 5hat do 0enes actually do@ Answer: D A is 0enetic materialA it is a set of molecular instructions for buildin0 and maintainin0 or0anisms! In plant and animal cells "and some others as well,( D A is bundled into structures called chromosmes( each consistin0 of a uni-ue piece of D A wrapped around a set of proteins! Each piece of D A consists of a series of 0enesHpieces of D A that contain the instructions to build a sin0le protein! *! Describe the process of 0ene e<pression so we can understand how insertin0 a new 0ene into an or0anism can chan0e the or0anism! Answer: Jene e<pression is the process by which the instructions contained in a sin0le 0ene are used to build a uni-ue protein! =he process starts in the nucleus( where the 0ene is copied into a len0th of mR A( a molecule similar to D A! mR A leaves the nucleus and attaches to a ribosome! =he ribosome reads the mR A and builds a protein from the information it contains! =he protein will have a specific shape which will( in turn( determine how it functions in the or0anism! %! 1ow will you use the two new 0enes youCve identified to produce a trans0enic potato@ 5hy do you need two 0enes@ 5hy canCt you 8ust insert the SA3=2 0ene into the potato@ Answer: Each 0ene includes both a codin0 se-uence( which determines the proteinCs structure( and a re0ulatory se-uence( which the or0anism uses to turn the 0ene off and on! SA3=2Cs re0ulatory se-uence can be reco0ni7ed by the o0anism it comes fromHnot potatoes! SA3=2 needs to have its codin0 se-uence combined with a re0ulatory se-uence the potato can reco0ni7e Hthis is what E5R))= is for! A new( hybrid 0ene will be created that has SA3=2Cs salttolerance protein and can be re0ulated by the potato! '! 5hen trans0enic potatoes 0row( will the new 0ene be confined to root cells( or will it be present in every cell in the potato "includin0 pollen and e00s,@ If it is present in all cells( could this be a problem@ 5hy or why not@

Answer: 2es( the new hybrid 0ene will be present in all cells of the new potatoes! =he presence of the hybrid 0ene in all cells( includin0 reproductive cells( could be a bi0 problem because the new 0ene could potentially be incorporated into undesirable! ?ortunately( SA3=2Cs codin0 se-uence is lin9ed to E5R))=Cs re0ulatory se-uenceHand E5R))= is only e<pressed in root cells! So althou0h the hybrid 0ene will be present throu0hout the plant( the protein it produces will only be found in the roots! Chapter 2ou have a friend whose father has prostate cancer and will be under0oin0 both chemo and radiation therapies! 2our friend wants to 9now your opinion on whether the father should consider combinin0 these conventional treatments with herbal supplements such as saw palmetto e<tract! She also wants to 9now if you can 0ive her a simpler e<planation of how cancer occurs than her fatherCs doctor 0ave her! #! Are there any more facts you would li9e to 9now about your friendKs father before you be0in your e<planation@ Answer: Answers may vary! 2ou may want to 9now whether the tumor is locali7ed or spreadin0( the fatherCs 0eneral health( etc! *! 1ow would you e<plain to your friend how conventional cancer treatments wor9@ 6a9e sure to compare and contrast the actions( benefits( and side effects! Answer: .oth chemo and radiation therapies wor9 by inhibitin0 the division of cells! =hey do this by inhibitin0 some essential part of the cell cycle! 4hemo therapies have some or0anic molecule or other compound that inhibits en7yme pathways! Radiation therapies ioni7e 0enetic material and disrupt enou0h so that it is no lon0er functional and the cells die! .oth therapies help slow cancer 0rowth because cancer is made of rapidly dividin0 cells! )ther cells that normally divide rapidly in the body are also affectedHincludin0 hair( the intestinal linin0( and blood cells! =his can lead to hair loss( nausea( and anemia( respectively! %! 5ould you e<plain the cell cycle to your friend@ If so( what parts do you thin9 are the most important and why@ Answer: Answers will vary( but it mi0ht be helpful! 6itosis and cyto9inesis are particularly important because these processes actually produce new cells( and many therapies tar0et them! =he S phase is also important because it is tar0eted by radiation therapy! Refer to Info0raphics L!$ML!> for more information! '! 5hat advice would you 0ive your friend about determinin0 if the herbal supplements were worth tryin0@

Answer: See9 the advice of her fatherCs doctor( loo9 for scientific papers on the use of the supplements( etc! Chapter 1! 2our 0randmother was recently dia0nosed with and is currently under0oin0 treatment for colorectal cancer! ?ortunately( the cancer was detected very early and her pro0nosis is e<cellentA you have every e<pectation that she will ma9e a full recovery! 2our cousin( who is still in hi0h school( 9nows very little about cancer and has many -uestions about what the oncolo0ist has told youHincludin0 whether or not the two of you are at increased ris9 of developin0 this cancer yourselves! 1ow would you answer her -uestions@ 2ouCll need to address at least the followin0! #! 5hat( e<actly( is cancer@ It has somethin0 to do with cells 0rowin0 out of control( but what normally 9eeps cells 0rowin0 under control@ Answer: 4ancer is a disease of the cell cycle& 5hen the cell cycle isnCt properly re0ulated( cells accumulate mutations and become cancerous! =he cell cycle is normally 9ept under control by proteins made by a number of different 0enes! 5hen they are functionin0 properly( these proteins control when and how often a cell dividesA they also detect D A dama0e( repair it( or cause the cell to be 9illed if the dama0e is irreparable!

*! =he oncolo0ist said that your 0randmother has a mutation in a 0ene called K-ras and that the mutation made her cells divide too fast and caused polyps! 1e also said somethin0 about K-ras bein0 a proto-onco0ene( or maybe an onco0ene! 5hat is a mutation and where do mutations come from@ 1ow can a mutation ma9e cells divide too fast@ 5hat are proto-onco0enes and onco0enes@

Answer: 6utations are chan0es in our 0enes "our D A, that occur durin0 D A replication! 6ost mutations are corrected( but some arenCt! If they arenCt( they may cause the cell to ma9e defective proteins! A mutation could ma9e a cell divide too fast if it occurred in a 0ene that builds a protein that normally slows down cell division! =he altered D A could result in a protein that couldnCt slow down cell division properly! In this case( the normal version of the 0ene would be called a proto-onco0eneA the mutated 0ene would be the onco0ene( or cancercausin0 0ene!

%! 2our 0randmother has had polyps before! =he oncolo0ist said that she probably had other mutations besides the K-ras one and that somethin0 probably went wron0 with her tumor-

suppressor 0enes( especially somethin0 called p53! 5hat are tumor-suppressor 0enes( whatCs p53( and why would somethin0 0oin0 wron0 with them ma9e polyps become cancerous@

Answer: =umor-suppressor 0enes code for proteins that slow the cell cycle so that mista9es in D A replication can be correctedA if mista9es canCt be corrected( proteins from other tumorsuppressor 0enes cause the cells with the dama0ed D A to be 9illed! =hatCs what p53 does! 5hen a mutation in p53 occurs( one result is that cells that would normally be destroyed are allowed to continue dividin0! In the colon( this continued division can cause a harmless polyp to become cancerous!

'! =he oncolo0ist also said that your 0randmotherCs type of cancer can be hereditaryHthat you and your cousin could also have the mutated K-ras 0ene! If the mutation is in your 0randmotherCs intestines( how could the two of you have it@ If you do have it( will you 0et cancer@ Answer: =he two of you could have the 0ene because you inherited it from your 0randmother! 1avin0 the 0ene doesnCt mean you will 0et cancer! 4ancer only develops after cells accumulate multiple mutations in their proto-onco0enes and tumor-suppressor 0enes! Chapter 11 2ou have a friend whose brother has 4?! 2our friend wants to 9now if she could be a carrier of the 4? 0ene and( if so( what chance she has to pass it on to her children! 1ow would you help her answer her -uestions@ #! 5hat does bein0 a carrier mean in this conte<t@ Answer: .ein0 a carrier would mean bein0 hetero7y0ous for the 0ene! *! 5hat is the chance your friend is a carrier@ "Use a Gunnett s-uare or similar dia0ram to ma9e and illustrate your predictions!, Answer: Assumin0 that neither of her parents have 4?( then they must both be hetero7y0ous for 4? to be able to each pass a defective 0ene to your friendCs brother! =he chance that your friend is carrier is $+D! "Refer to Info0raphic ##!> for a wor9ed e<ample!,

%! 5hat would your friend need to 9now to determine if her children are li9ely to have 4?@ If she married a man who also had a siblin0 with 4?( could you determine the chance she could have a child with 4?@ Answer: =o 9now absolutely( she would have to 9now her 0enotype and that of the father of her children! If her husband also had a $+D chance of bein0 a carrier( then the chance they would both be carriers would be $+D $+D or N N( which e-uals O( or *$D! =he chance that two carriers have a 4? child is *$D( or OA so the chance that both will be carriers and have a 4? child is *$D *$D or O O( which is #;#I( or I!*$D! Students should not be e<pected to complete this calculation( but they should be able to determine that it is possible! '! 5hat advice would you 0ive and what additional -uestions would you as9@ Answer: Answers will vary! 2ou could su00est that she loo9 closely at any potential partnerCs family medical history! 2ou could as9 if sheKs ever thou0ht of 0oin0 to a 0enetic counselor! Chapter 12 As a 0enetic counselor( your 8ob is to help prospective parents predict what traits their children will have and advise them on how to anticipate or avoid problems! A couple has come to as9 you -uestions about their future children! S e is %+ years old with strai0ht hair( $K%P( and =ype AQ blood! either she nor her family has had a history of depression( but she 0rew up as a refu0ee and had a traumatic childhood! He is *> years old with very curly hair( IK#P( and =ype )M blood! 1e is currently ta9in0 a serotonin upta9e inhibitor for chronic depression! =hey want to 9now more about amniocentesis! 5rite a report for this couple in which you prepare this couple for what to e<pect in their children! 6a9e sure to warn them of any potential dan0ers to themselves or their children! 1ere are some -uestions to as9 yourself or the coupleA the answers should 0o in the report& #! 5hat traits( physical or otherwise( can you predict to occur in their children@ If you can predict them( is there more than one possible outcome@ Answer: .lood type will be A or )( RhM or RhQ 1air will most li9ely be wavy! *! 5hat traits are impossible to predict with any surety@ Answer: =hereCs a chance the child mi0ht inherit depression( but itCs hard to tell from this! 1ei0ht canCt be determined from this! %! Are there any more facts you would li9e to 9now about the couple that could be found easily@

Answer: .oth of their parentsC traits would help determine their own 0enotypes and help ma9e a more accurate prediction! '! 5hat warnin0s would you 0ive the couple and why@ Answer: Answers will vary! 2ou could warn them a0ainst havin0 too many e<pectations about the child since inheritance of most traits is complicated! 2ou could also warn them that depression is often 0enetically based! $! 5hat advice would you 0ive the couple about amniocentesis@ Answer: Answers will vary! Amniocentesis is routine and a 0ood idea for many couples! It can help find 0enetic and chromosomal abnormalities!

Chapter 13 )ne of your friends has been assi0ned stem-cell research as a debate topic in one of her classes! 1avin0 attempted to untan0le the comple< history of stem cell research law in the United States( she has come to you in frustration! =his is a hu0e mess( she says( and I 8ust donCt see what the bi0 deal is! 2ouCre ta9in0 biolo0yHplease( help me/ I need a 0ood 0rade on my debate/ ow that youCve studied the topic( youCre ready( so you as9 her what her -uestions are! 1ow would you answer them@ #! 5hat are stem cells anyway( and why are they important in research and medicine@ 5hat 9inds of diseases mi0ht they be used to treat@ 5hat else can they be used for( and why are they better than what we can do now@ Answer: Stem cells are the ori0inal cells from which all the cells in our bodies develop! 5hen an adult cell divides( it can only produce dau0hter cells of the same type! 5hen stem cells divide( their dau0hter cells can develop into multiple cell types! =his ma9es them important in research into how cells differentiate and in medicine for treatin0 diseasesHsuch as Gar9insonCs disease and diabetesHin which cells are destroyed and canCt normally be replaced! =hey can also be used to 0enerate new tissues and or0ans for transplantationHtissues and or0ans that are 0enetically identical to the host! =hey will therefore not be sub8ect to re8ection the way donated tissues and or0ans are!

*! 5hat are the different 9inds of stem cells and where do they come from@ 5hy are embryonic stem cells such a bi0 dealHcanCt we use adult stem cells for everythin0@

Answer: =he two types of stem cells are embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells! Embryonic stem cells come from early-sta0e embryos and can develop into any type of cell in the body! Adult stem cells are found in body tissues and can only develop into the types of cells that form the tissues from which they come! =his means that adult stem cells are more restricted in what they can do( which is why embryonic stem cells are more useful!

%! 4an we ma9e cells that behave li9e embryonic stem cells without actually 9illin0 embryos@

Answer: 2es! Scientists have created induced pluripotent stem cells from fully differentiated adult cells! .y in8ectin0 specific 0enes and;or proteins into adult cells( they cause the adult cells to dedifferentiate Hthat is( to re0ain the ability to develop into multiple adult cell types!

'! 5hat do you thin9Hshould we use federal funds to support stem cell research@ If so( what limits( if any( should we place on the 9inds of research we fund@ Answer: ")pinion -uestion answers will vary!,

Chapter 14 1IE is the virus that causes AIDS! 3i9e all viruses( 1IE canCt reproduce on its own& It needs a cellular host! )nce 1IE enters a "human, host cell( it uses an en7yme called reverse transcriptase to copy its 0enome into the 0enome of the host cell "this characteristic places 1IE into a class of viruses called retroviruses,! =he host cell then becomes an 1IE-ma9in0 factory( usin0 its own cellular machinery to transcribe and translate the 0enes to ma9e more 1IE viruses that will( in turn( infect new cells! 1IE replicates e<traordinarily rapidly! It also has one of the hi0hest mutation rates 9nownH especially in its reverse transcriptase 0ene! Use this information and your understandin0 of natural selection to answer the -uestions! #! =he first dru0 treatment for 1IE was a dru0 called AR=! AR= interferes with reverse transcriptaseCs ability to copy and insert the 1IE 0enome into the 0enome of the host cell! Unfortunately( many individuals who were treated with AR= became resistant to the dru0 "or( more specifically( their 1IE did,! E<plain how this must have happened( be0innin0 with a characteri7ation of the ori0inal 1IE population and endin0 with 1IE resistance! Answer: =he population of 1IE viruses within an infected personCs body would include a few individual viruses with mutations that allow their reverse transcriptase to wor9 even when AR= is present! 5hen AR= is first administered( it would 9ill the non-resistant virusesA the resistant viruses would continue to survive and reproduce( passin0 their AR=-resistant 0enes to their offsprin0! )ver time( this mutation would be the most common form of the 0ene in the population and the individual would be resistant to AR=! *! =he current protocol for treatin0 1IE is to use hi0hly active antiretroviral therapy "1AAR=,! In 1AAR=( a patient is treated with a combination of three different antiviral dru0s from at least two different 0roups! 5hy is this a better treatment strate0y than usin0 a sin0le dru0@ Answer: An individualCs 1IE could become resistant to a sin0le dru0 with as little as a sin0le mutationHif the mutation conferred resistance( it would spread rapidly! =o become resistant to three dru0s from two different 0roups would re-uire multiple( simultaneous mutationsA the chances of that occurrin0 are much lower than the chances of a sin0le favorable mutation! %! AIDS patients under0oin0 1AAR= are counseled e<tensively about adherence to their treatment plans! 5hy is adherence "ta9in0 the medications on schedule( not s9ippin0 doses( etc!, so important@ 5hat mi0ht happen if patients did not adhere to their treatments@ Answer: 1IE has a very hi0h mutation rate( so chances are that at least some viruses mutate to become resistant to one of the 1AAR= dru0s! As lon0 as an individual ta9es his;her medication on schedule( a sin0le mutation alone wonCt be able to spread! If the medication schedule is interrupted( the viruses are no lon0er bein0 9illed and those with resistance to individual

components of the therapy will survive and reproduce! )ver time( this could allow the buildup of a virus population that has multiple resistance! '! Some AIDS patients become resistant to many different dru0s over timeA they may also e<perience many harmful side effects as a conse-uence of ta9in0 many different 9inds of dru0s! A controversial treatment option for these individuals is called strate0ic treatment interruption! As the name implies( patients are ta9en off all medications for at least a limited period of time in order( as one scientist said( to 0et natural selection wor9in0 for them! 1ow would this strate0y( at least in theory( 0et natural selection wor9in0 for the patient@ 5hat characteristics( besides resistance( would the tar0et 1IE populations need for the strate0y to wor9@ Answer: =his strate0y could( at least in theory( wor9 for the patient if the tar0et 1IE population remained variable and if the mutations that conferred resistance to dru0s were disadvanta0eous in an environment in which the dru0s were absent "they could( for e<ample( reproduce more slowly than non-resistant viruses in the absence of the dru0s,! Under those conditions( interruptin0 a patientCs medication would create a new environment for the viruses in which the resistant individuals were selected a0ainst and the non-resistant individuals were favored! )nce the non-resistant individuals became widespread( a return to treatment would reduce their population! Chapter 15

## **


=he dia0ram above represents three mountaintops in the desert southwest! Each is( in effect( a habitat island of relatively cool( moist habitat dominated by conifer forest separated from the others by a sea of hot( dry( desert dominated by a variety of annual plants( cactus( and desertadapted shrubs! 6ountaintop # is the northernmost of the threeA mountaintop % is the southernmost!

2ou have discovered a s-uirrel species on mountaintop #! Similar s-uirrels "not necessarily identical, e<ist on mountaintops * and %! 2ou suspect that the s-uirrels on mountaintop # are a new species found nowhere elseHrelated to( but not the same as( the s-uirrels on the other mountaintops! #! Surveyin0 s-uirrel populations on all three mountaintops( you find that s-uirrels on mountaintop # have smaller and more dis8unct "separated, populations than do the s-uirrels on the other mountains! Is this a reason to be concerned@ 5hy or why not@ Answer: Species with small( separated populations are at hi0her e<tinction ris9 than those with lar0e( conti0uous populations because 0ene flow amon0 populations will be reduced! =his( in turn( reduces 0enetic diversity and can lead to the accumulation of harmful mutations! If the s-uirrels on mountaintop # are a new species( this would be a cause for concern! *! Durin0 your population surveys( you collected both nuclear and mtD A samples from each population of s-uirrels from each mountaintop! 2ou analy7e the nuclear D A samples for the fre-uencies of four alleles in three populations from each mountaintop! 1ere are the results! =he numbers separated by ; are the fre-uencies for alleles # throu0h ' in that order! 6ountaintop #& Gop! #& #+;#+;:+;+A pop! *& #+;$+;+;+A pop! %& *+;*+;I+;+ 6ountaintop *& Gop! #& +;#+;:+;#+A pop! *& *+;%+;*+;%+A pop! %& :+;#+;#+;+ 6ountaintop %& Gop! #& #+;#+;*+;I+A pop! *& *$;*$;*$;*$A pop! %& %+;$+;#+;#+ .ased on these results( is it possible that the s-uirrels on mountaintop # represent a founder event or the results of a 0enetic bottlenec9@ 5hat can you conclude about the e<tent of 0ene flow both amon0 populations on mountaintop # and between mountaintop populations@ If the s-uirrels on mountaintop # are a new species( are these new findin0s cause for concern@ 5hy or why not@ Answer: =he s-uirrels on mountaintop # only have three of the four alleles e<amined( which could be the result of a founder event or the result of a 0enetic bottlenec9! =he second population on mountaintop # is missin0 the third allele( which is present in the other populations on the mountain( indicatin0 that 0ene flow amon0 populations is reduced! 6ountaintop * has less diversity than mountaintop % but more than mountaintop #( indicatin0 that 0ene flow between mountaintop populations is not very hi0h! If the s-uirrels on mountaintop # are a new species( the lac9 of 0ene flow amon0 its populations is cause for concern for the reasons discussed above! %! An analysis of your mtD A samples shows that the s-uirrels on mountaintop # have only one mtD A variant and that this variant is found in small numbers in the s-uirrels on mountaintop %! S-uirrels on mountaintop % have a total of si< mtD A variants( and s-uirrels on mountaintop * have four( all of which are also present on mountaintop %! Gonderin0 these results( you bear in mind that the southwestern United States underwent lon0 periods of ma8or climate chan0e durin0

the ice a0esHat some times( overall climates were cool and moist even at desert elevations! Does this information support your hypothesis that the s-uirrels on mountaintop # are a new species@ If so( which is the li9ely ancestral species@ E<plain! If this is a new species( does its pattern of mtD A diversity worry you@ 5hy or why not@ Answer: 2es( this information supports the hypothesis! If mountaintop % were the ancestral species( we would predict that it would have the 0reatest 0enetic diversity( and it does! 6ountaintop * has intermediate diversity( su00estin0 that s-uirrels mi0rated from % to *! If the mtD A variant on mountaintop # is present on *( it would support the hypothesis that the s-uirrels on # mi0rated from *! If the s-uirrels on mountaintop # are a new species( the low mtD A diversity would be problematic as it is further evidence of low 0enetic diversity! $! 2ou now turn your attention to the anatomy( physiolo0y( ecolo0y( and behavior of the s-uirrels on all three mountaintops! 2ou find that all three species share the common features that allow you to determine that they are s-uirrels& characteristics of the s9ulls( teeth( shape( fur( etc! =he s-uirrels from mountaintops * and % are identical in appearance( have the same breedin0 season( and feed e<clusively on pine cone seeds and whatever other tree nuts are available! =he s-uirrels from mountaintop # have dar9er fur and carry more body fat than do the other s-uirrels( they breed later in the summer( and they feed on fun0i( tree buds( bird e00s( and tree bar9 in addition to pine cone seeds and tree nuts! Do these results support your hypothesis that the s-uirrels on mountaintop # are a separate species@ )ffer a step-by-step hypothesis for how they mi0ht have evolved from their most li9ely ancestral species( includin0 potential reproductive isolatin0 mechanisms! Answer: =hese differences do support the hypothesis that the s-uirrels are a new species that could have evolved via allopatric speciation! A small foundin0 population could have mi0rated from mountaintop *! 4onditions in their new habitat could be different enou0h to select for new adaptations( leadin0 to 0enetic diver0ence from the other s-uirrels! )ver time( these differences could lead to reproductive isolation! ?or e<ample( the s-uirrels on mountaintop # breed later in the year than do the other s-uirrelsA this is an e<ample of temporal reproductive isolation! )nce reproductive isolation is achieved( a new species is formed! Chapter 16 2ou are visitin0 your local natural history museum with some friends to see the new e<hibit on whales! =he e<hibit includes models of e<tinct animals thou0ht to be( if not direct whale ancestors( then 0roups that shared at least common ancestry with whales! E<aminin0 the display( you reali7e that it not only offers an e<planation for how whales evolved( but also serves as an e<cellent e<ample of several types of evidence for evolution! =he 0raphic below represents the s9eletons you mi0ht have seen( alon0 with reconstructions of what the animals mi0ht have loo9ed li9e! Use the information to answer the -uestions!

#! 2our friends are suitably impressed with the fossilsHbut not -uite in the same way! )ne friend e<presses ama7ement that so many fossils e<istA the other wants to 9now why more havenCt been found! .ased on what you 9now about the process of fossili7ation "and on where whales live( and how bi0 they are,( how can you satisfactorily answer both friends@ Answer: ?ossili7ation is a relatively rare event because it re-uires a precise se-uence of events to ta9e place after an animal dies& It must be rapidly buried rather than decomposin0( and must be sub8ected to appropriate conditions for the bones to become minerali7ed! .ecause they are very lar0e and live in marine habitats where burial in sediments is more li9ely than it is in other habitats( whales were luc9y Hstatistically more li9ely than many other 9inds of or0anisms to leave fossils behind! *! 1avin0 ta9en this course( you immediately remember the dia0ram you studied of horse evolution! 5ow( you e<claim! =his is 8ust li9e that dia0ram in my biolo0y boo9Hit shows evidence for descent with modification/ 2our pu77led friends immediately demand an e<planation! 5ell( first( you say( thereCs the se-uence itself! 1ow do you continue@ Answer: Descent with modification proposes that all species are descended from previously e<istin0 species( with chan0es accumulatin0 over time! If this is correct( then when we arran0e fossils in a series accordin0 to their a0e( we should see two patterns! ?irst( we should see chan0e over timeHwhich we do! Second( we should see that the fossils become less li9e modern animals the older they are! And we see that as well! %! Suitably impressed with your e<planation( your friends as9 whether or not more evidence for evolution can be seen in these fossils! )h( yes( you reply confidently! =hereCs anatomy! 2our friends are pu77led! 5hat do you say to them@ Answer: Descent with modification predicts several 9inds of anatomical evidence for evolution! ?irst( it predicts that we should find homolo0ous structures in related or0anisms! =hat means structures that share underlyin0 similarities even if they are superficially similar! =he bones of a modern whaleCs flu9es have the same pattern as the front le0s of its oldest ancestorHeven thou0h a front le0 and a front flu9e donCt loo9 anythin0 ali9e superficially! Second( modern whales have vesti0ial hind le0s( even thou0h you canCt see any evidence of hind limbs e<ternally! Descent with modification e<plains such vesti0ial structures as characteristics inherited "and reduced, from their ancestors!

'! As you wind down your visit( you and your friends are marvelin0 at how much weCve learned about the evolution of whales from land-dwellin0 mammalian ancestors! )ne of your friends summari7es the e<hibit by sayin0( So what we have here is a line of evolution& Diacode!"s evolved into #a$icet"s( which evolved into A%&"locet"s( which evolved into D"rodon( which

evolved into humpbac9 whales! =hatCs pretty cool/ ItCs cool( you reply( but thatCs not e<actly what we have here! E<plain what you do have! Answer: 5e canCt tell for sure whether or not any of the species in the e<hibit are the actual ancestors of any of the others! 5hat we can say is that each species represents at least a close relative of shared ancestorsHthey mi0ht be siblin0s or cousins rather than parents or 0randparents! Chapter 17 #! Jeolo0ists and paleontolo0ists had be0un establishin0 a 0eolo0ical timeline of life on Earth by the #>++s! 1ow were they able to do this "i!e!( what 9ind of information did they have available to them,@ 5hen did radiometric datin0 be0in( and how did that chan0e our understandin0 of the history of life on Earth@ Answer: Jeolo0ists used fossils to establish a 0eolo0ical timeline of life on Earth! ?ossils found in the deepest sediments were assumed to be the oldestA this produced a relative time scale in which 0eolo0ical strata "and the fossils they contained, could be arran0ed from oldest to youn0est! Radiometric datin0 be0an in the early #L++s and allowed scientists to determine a real timelineHmeasured in millions of yearsHfor the history of life on Earth! *! 6arsupials "pouched mammals, are diverse in Australia "9an0aroos( wallabies( many 9inds of small mammals, and South America "opossums,! )nly one species( the Eir0inia opossum( is found in the United States( and its distribution is restricted to the Southern United States! E<plain this distribution pattern! Answer: 6arsupials must have arisen when the continents of South America and Australia were connected and diversified in each place after they separated! =he Eir0inia opossum must have mi0rated from South America to orth America after the formation of the Isthmus of Ganama( which now connects them! %! .ased on the numbers and 9inds of different or0anisms on Earth( which 0roup do you predict has the most comple<( difficult classification@ E<plain your answer( bein0 sure to include a discussion of the relationship between classification( evolutionary relationships( and diversity! Answer: Usin0 the scheme presented in Info0raphic #>!I( invertebrate animals are the most diverse 0roup of or0anisms on Earth! .ecause we have so many different species of invertebrates( their evolutionary relationships "family tree, must be comple<! .iolo0ical classification systems are supposed to reflect patterns of evolutionary relationship( so we should predict that their classification is comple< and difficult!

'! Draw the best evolutionary tree that can be inferred from the followin0 classifications! Sustify your result!

6aidenhair fern Jiant redwood 3ive oa9 Domain Eu9arya Eu9arya Eu9arya Fin0dom Glantae Glantae Glantae SuperdivisionT 6onilophyta Spermatophyta Spermatophyta DivisionTT Gteridophyta 4oniferophyta 6a0noliophyta 4lass ?ilicopsida Ginopsida 6a0noliopsida )rder Golypodiales Ginales ?a0ales ?amily Gteridaceae 4upressaceae ?a0acea Jenus Adiant"% Se'"oiadendron ("erc"s Species A) capill"s S) *i*ante"% () a*rifolia TSuperdivision is a ta<on between the levels of Fin0dom and Division! TTDivision is the botanical e-uivalent of Ghylum!

Di<ie iris Eu9arya Glantae Spermatophyta 6a0noliophyta 3iliopsida 3iliales Iridaceae Iris I) e!a*ona

Answer: Accordin0 to the classification( di<ie iris is most closely related to live oa9( then to 0iant redwoods( and finally to maidenhair fern! =he best evolutionary tree that can be conferred from this pattern is&

Chapter 18 2ou have a friend who is 0erm-phobicA he washes his hands several times a day and uses hand saniti7er in between! 1e told you he wishes he could 0et rid of all the 0erms! #! Is it li9ely that the 0erms your friend refers to are pro9aryotic or0anisms@ 5hy or why not@ Answer: Answers will vary! =here are many disease-causin0 microscopic or0anisms on surfaces( and many more that do not cause disease! Dependin0 on the situation most will be

bacteria( but microscopic fun0i are plentiful as well! Eiruses( which are not alive( may also be found on surfaces! *! Describe two different 9inds of bacteria and two different 9inds of archaea that probably have a positive impact on your friendCs life! Answer: Answers will vary! E<amples& Some 9inds of bacteria and archaea are important for the nitro0en cycle and plant health! Some bacteria and archaea live in the intestines and help brea9 down food and wastes and release nutrients or even vitamins! Some bacteria are decomposers and help remove waste matter from the environment! %! 1ow could you e<plain to your friend that many 0erms are tou0her than people@ Answer: Answers will vary! Any of the descriptions of the e<tremophiles would wor9 here! Chapter 1 2our friend says that he doesnCt understand why people canKt 8ust be satisfied with animal( ve0etable( or mineral as a way to cate0ori7e the world! 2ou decide to ta9e it upon yourself to e<plain to him why thereCs so much more to life! #! 5hy is it limitin0 to only consider or0anisms as animals or plants@ 5hat other 0roups are there@ 5hat are the similarities and differences between them@ Answer: =here are plants( animals( fun0i( the various protists( bacteria( and archaea! Answers are many and will vary about the similarities and differences! E<amples& All but animals and some protists have cell walls! All share the 0eneral characteristics of livin0 or0anisms! 6ost protists( some fun0i( some plants( and all pro9aryotes are unicellular! 6ost plant and animals and some fun0i are multicellular! Animals( fun0i( plants and protists all have the 0eneral characteristics of eu9aryotes! *! 5hat would you tell your friend about the protists@ Answer: Answers will vary! E<amples& 6ost are microscopic and unicellular! =hey have characteristics similar to plants( animals( or fun0i( or a combination thereof! %! 1ow could you e<plain to your friend that we are animals and we are distantly connected to the bacteria and archaea@

Answer: 5e have all the characteristics of animals! Specifically( we are multicellular heterotrophs that do not have cell walls! )ur cells are thou0ht to derive from an early archaean( and our mitochondria are thou0ht to derive from early aerobic bacteria! '! Do +o" care that there are other 9inds of life besides the ve0etable and animal@ 5hy@ Answer: ")pinion -uestion( answers will vary!, Chapter 2! #! In a study reported in ovember *+#+ "Jrant( 5m! .!( and Alan Geiris( ,o"rnal of t e A%erican Medical Directors Association( ovember +#( *+#+( ##"L,& I#>MI*:,( researchers speculate that vitamin D deficiency mi0ht e<plain some of the differences in health and mortality between African Americans and white( non-1ispanic Americans! =hey note that all-cause mortality is si0nificantly hi0her in African Americans than in white( non-1ispanic Americans and that recent studies su00est important roles of vitamin D in many aspects of health beyond its role in bone formation! 5hy would these two pieces of information lead to the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency mi0ht e<plain differences in health outcomes between these two populations@ .e sure that your e<planation addresses the -uestion from the perspective of both African American and white( non-1ispanic populations! Answer: Eitamin D is produced in s9in e<posed to UE radiation! =he dar9er the s9in( the less UE li0ht is absorbed and the less vitamin D is produced! =his could lead to a difference in vitamin D levels between African Americans and white( non-1ispanic populations( with the former havin0 less vitamin D than the latter! If vitamin D is important for more than its role in bone formation( these differences could lead to differences in health and mortality between populations! 5hat would be the first way in which you would test this hypothesis@ Answer: =he hypothesis predicts that the two populations have different vitamin D levels( so measurin0 vitamin D levels in lar0e samples from both populations would be the first way to test it! *! ?or a number of years( scientists debated two competin0 hypotheses for the ori0ins of modern humans "Ho%o sapiens,) Accordin0 to the candelabra hypothesis( modern humans arose in separate evolutionary events from populations of Ho%o erect"s in Africa( Asia( Europe( and AustralasiaA these evolutionary events would have be0un nearly * million years a0o! In contrast( accordin0 to the out of Africa hypothesis( modern humans had a sin0le( common African ori0in much more recentlyHaround *++(+++ years a0o!

If you were testin0 these hypotheses usin0 mtD A( what findin0s would you predict if the candelabra hypothesis were correct@ 5hat if the out of Africa hypothesis were correct@ Answer: If the candelabra hypothesis were correct( we would e<pect to find distinct mtD A differences amon0 African( Asian( European( and Australasian populations! If the out of Africa hypothesis were correct( we would e<pect to see mtD A similarities in all human populations( and we would e<pect to see the hi0hest level of diversity in African populations! %! Geople who havenCt studied evolution often have misconceptions about human evolutionary history! 1ow would you address each of the followin0 misconceptions@ 1umans are descended from chimpan7ees! Answer: 1umans share similarities with chimpan7ees because we shared a common ancestor( not because we are descended from them! =o put it in 0enealo0ical terms( they are our very distant cousins( not our very distant 0randparents! 6itochondrial Eve was the only female in her 0eneration from whom all modern humans descended! Answer: 6itochondrial Eve was the female whose mtD A we inherited( meanin0 that she is our most recent common 0reat-0reat-0reat ! ! ! 0randmother! .ut her offsprin0 married the offsprin0 of other females( so we descended from many( many different females of her 0eneration! 1umans are no lon0er evolvin0! Answer: 1umans are still sub8ected to natural selection and are still evolvin0! 5e can see this in recently evolved traits such as those that help people of African descent ward off malaria "the sic9le-cell trait,A help people of European descent di0est dairy productsA and help =ibetans live at hi0h elevation! Every time allele fre-uencies chan0e in a population( evolution is occurrin0! '! 5hile you are at lunch with a 0roup of friends( one of them loo9s around and notes that you all have different s9in colors and tonesHsome dar9( some li0ht( some more brown;blac9 and some more red;yellow! 5ow( he says( where do all these s9in colors come from@ 2ou 0ive an answer based on the anatomy and physiolo0y of the s9in! 5hat is that answer@ Answer: =he types and distribution of the pi0ment molecule melanin in the upper layer of the s9in determine s9in color! 6elanin is produced by special cells called melanocytes( which distribute melanin in the epidermis! 6ore melanin means dar9er s9inA different forms of melanin determine s9in tone! =annin0He<posure to UE li0htHcan also chan0e s9in color!

1earin0 your reply( your friend responds( o( I donCt mean thatHI mean why( if we are all the same species that evolved in Africa( do people in different parts of the world have different s9in colors@ 1ow do you answer@ Answer: S9in color is an adaptive trait( and different s9in colors are beneficial in different environments! Scientists currently believe that s9in color represents an adaptive tradeoffH specifically( our need to balance vitamin D production a0ainst folate destruction! =he li0hter the s9in( the more vitamin D we produceHand vitamin D prevents pre-eclampsia and hi0h blood pressure in pre0nant women( as well as bein0 necessary to build stron0 bones! At the same time( thou0h( the li0hter the s9in( the more folate is destroyed! And we need folate to prevent spinal cord defects in babies! 5here UE radiation is stron0 "around the e-uator( for e<ample,( dar9 s9in provides the best balance! 5here UE radiation is wea9 "in the far north and south( for e<ample,( li0ht s9in provides the best balance! Chapter 21 2ou have a friend who was dismayed to find out that huntin0 of deer was allowed in local natural areas! 1e as9s if overpopulation is that bi0 a deal! 2ou thin9 about the e<ample of moose and wolves at Isle Royale( reali7e that this is a similar situation and formulate your responses! #! 5hat are the abiotic factors you can assume control deer populations in your area@ Answer: Answers will vary& 4limate "e<treme temperature( drou0ht( catastrophic weather( etc!,( traffic deaths( etc! *! 5hat are the biotic factors you can assume control deer populations in your area@ Answer: Gredation "but this may be limited to people huntin0,( food availability( disease %! Do you 9now if there are any predators li9e wolves in your area@ Answer: Answers will vary! '! 1ow could you e<plain to your friend that huntin0 some deer would probably help the other deer@ Answer: If the number of deer is brou0ht well below the populationCs carryin0 capacity( there will be more resources for all the remainin0 deer( and they will live healthier lives! $! 1ow would huntin0 deer help other or0anisms in your area@

Answer: Answers will vary! E<amples& E<cessive 0ra7in0 by deer can put rare plants at ris9! E<cessive 0ra7in0 can also reduce the food available to other animals! 3ar0e herds of deer can increase the number of parasites li9e tic9s in the area! I! 1ow would huntin0 the deer help humans@ Answer: Answers will vary! E<amples& Reduced dama0e to crops and vehicles! ?ewer tic9s! Chapter 22 2our friend says that he hates honey bees& =heyCre a nuisance( theyCre scary( and heCs happy theyCre dyin0 off! 2ou si0h heartily and once a0ain feel obli0ed to show him the flaws in his opinions! 2ou decide to start by e<plainin0 to him that honeybees are 9eystone species and are important to many species besides themselves! #! 1ow do honeybees affect plants@ Answer: =hey help flowerin0 plants reproduce! *! 1ow do honeybees affect herbivores@ Answer: =hey help flowerin0 plants reproduce( thereby ensurin0 herbivores have somethin0 to eat! %! 1ow do honeybees affect carnivores@ Answer: =hey help flowerin0 plants reproduce( thereby ensurin0 herbivores have somethin0 to eat! =his ensures that carnivores will have herbivores to eat! Juessin0 that your friend may not care about other or0anisms you continue to e<plain how bees are helpful to people! '! 5hy is it important to plants for bees to pollinate crops@ 5hat sort of symbiosis is this@ Answer: Gollination is essential for many crops to produce the fruit we use for food! Gollination is also essential for the production of seeds so that crops can be replanted! =he association between bees and plants is beneficial to both so it is termed a mutualism!

$! 5hy is it important to humans that bees pollinate plants@ 5ould you say that humans have a symbiotic relationship with bees@ 5hy or why not( and( if not what 9ind of relationship is it@ Answer: .ecause we need pollination to happen for our crops to be productive! 5e need bees for our food( and we provide bees with many flowers so we have a mutualistic association with them! Chapter 23 2our friend the s9eptic says that he believes that 0lobal warmin0 is 8ust a hoa< invented to raise ta<es on oil! 1e further says he doesnCt believe in the 0reenhouse effect! 2ou decide to set him strai0ht! #! 5hy should your friend believe in the 0reenhouse effect@ Answer: =he 0reenhouse effect is not in dispute! =he fact that the atmosphere helps trap heat at the earthKs surface is well established! *! 5hat evidence is there that risin0 carbon dio<ide levels in the past coincided with risin0 temperatures@ Answer: =here are various lines of evidence includin0 0as bubbles in ancient ice cores( and direct measurement of carbon dio<ide! %! 5hat evidence is there that atmospheric carbon dio<ide levels are risin0 now@ Answer: Direct measurement of levels for the past $+ years! '! 5hat evidence is there that humans are the cause of risin0 carbon dio<ide levels and risin0 levels of other 0reenhouse 0ases@ Answer: =he rise in carbon dio<ide levels coincided with the industrial revolution and accelerated with the invention of the internal combustion en0ine! $! 1ow would you advise your friend to reduce his carbon footprint( both directly and indirectly@ Answer: Answers will vary! E<amples& 5al9 or bicycle( eat less beef( install ener0y efficient li0hts and appliances( etc! Chapter 24

2our friend is complainin0 about all of the recent chan0es that have been happenin0 to products he li9es to ma9e them more 0reen! 2ou e<plain to him why each chan0e is for the 0ood! ?or each of his complaints( ma9e a convincin0 ar0ument to chan0e his mind or correct his assumptions! #! =hose waterless urinals at rest-stops and public buildin0s are dis0ustin0/ Answer: ot only does flushin0 toilets and urinals waste a lot of water( itCs usually treated water( which means resources and ener0y have been used to ma9e it drin9able( even thou0h itCs bein0 used to flush waste! *! 5hy should I eat this rabbit food@ I want a bi0( 8uicy stea9/ Answer: Raisin0 cattle ta9es land( water( 0rain( and fuel! =he water and 0rain used to raise one cow could support #+M*+ people! %! I thin9 people have started to 0ive me nasty loo9s when they see me in my SUE! Answer: It is often not an option to ta9e public transportation or wal9 to wor9( but( for those who must drive( there are more ener0y efficient options than many SUEs! '! I hear that they 8ust ta9e all that recyclin0 to the same landfill anywayHwhy bother@ Answer: =here are many urban le0ends about unscrupulous recyclin0 companies( but recyclin0 services do wor9 and they do reduce the amount of resources and ener0y used to produce thin0s we use every day! =his means we save ener0y and money! $! I saw this picture of a street in 4hina and everyone was on a bicycle! 2ouCd thin9 theyKd rather drive!!! Answer: ot every country has e-ual access to resources!