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Energy storage and applications with supercapacitors Dr. P. Barrade/A.

Rufer

Supercapacitors: Summary
Generalities on Supercapacitors
Principle Model of a supercapacitor Series connection of supercapacitors

Sizing of a supercapacitive tank


Sizing method Energy efficiency and power availability

Applications and converters


Voltage drop compensation for weak distribution networks Energy buffers for elevators Uninterruptible power supplies

Conclusion

Energy storage and applications with supercapacitors Dr. P. Barrade/A. Rufer

Generalities on Supercapacitors
Principle
Supercapacitors: electrochemical double layer capacitor High energy density, together with a high power density
Separator
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + -

Electrolyte
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + -

+
Energy stored by charge transfer at the boundary between electrodes and electrolyte Amount of stored energy is a function of : Electrode surface, size of ions, level of electrolyte decomposition voltage

Electrodes

Current collector

Energy storage and applications with supercapacitors Dr. P. Barrade/A. Rufer

Generalities on Supercapacitors
Principle : technology
Electrodes: activated carbon High surface area part Define the energy density Current collectors High conducting part Membrane Avoids electronic contacts between the electrodes Allows the mobility of the charged ions Electrolyte Supplies and conducts ions Dissociation voltage of organic electrolytes less than 3V Organic electrolytes have a lower ionic conductivity (reduced power capability)
Separator
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + -

Electrolyte
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + -

Electrodes

Current collector

Energy storage and applications with supercapacitors Dr. P. Barrade/A. Rufer

Generalities on Supercapacitors
Model of supercapacitors
ic Rs
r1 r2 c2 rn cn

uc

Rl

u Co

Cu

c1

Voltage dependant capacitance Series resistor Leakage resistor rc sub-circuits (relaxation phenomena)

Energy storage and applications with supercapacitors Dr. P. Barrade/A. Rufer

Generalities on Supercapacitors
Series connection of supercapacitors
Voltage sharing solution, using power electronics solutions to offer a high efficiency.

i1

D1 Ns1

C1

forward dc-dc converter with distributed primary


Np

i1

C1
i'2 i2

T1

D1 il1 D2

i2

D2 Ns2

L1
T2

C2

i1

Np1 T1 D1

T' 2

D'2 il2

C2 L2 C3
i3

C1
T i3 D3 Ns3

T' 3

D'3

C3

i2

Np2 T2 D2

Nf Df

C2

Centralized flyback dc-dc converter with distributed secondary

i3

Np3 T3 D3

C3

association of buck-boost dc-dc converters

Energy storage and applications with supercapacitors Dr. P. Barrade/A. Rufer

Sizing of a supercapacitive tank


Sizing method
Energy stored in a supercapacitor

1 2 WM = CU M 2
Voltage discharge ratio: the minimum voltage during the discharge has to be limited for efficiency reasons

d=

Um 100 UM

The usable energy is then only part of the maximum stored energy

d 2 Wu = WM 1 100
Number of supercapacitors for a given usable energy

Ns =

2Wu
2 d 2 CU M 1 100

Energy storage and applications with supercapacitors Dr. P. Barrade/A. Rufer

Sizing of a supercapacitive tank


Sizing method
Example

The needed energy is Eu=20.55MJ(5.7kWh)

Ns 4872 5709 7164

Wu=0.55MJ (5.7kW.h) C=1800F, UM=2.5V, IM=200A d (%) Volume (m3) Weight (kg) 50 1.46 1948 60 1.71 2283 70 2.15 2865

E (kw.h) 7.6 8.92 11.2

Energy storage and applications with supercapacitors Dr. P. Barrade/A. Rufer

Sizing of a supercapacitive tank


Energy efficiency and power availability
Due to the series resistor, energy efficiency of supercapacitors has to be taken into account during the sizing of the supercapacitive tank Energy efficiency has also an influence on the power availability Two cases have to be investigated: Energy efficiency for a constant current charge/discharge Energy efficiency for a constant power charge/discharge

ic

L Ue ic

Rs C uc

P=Cte

Rs u I uc C

Energy storage and applications with supercapacitors Dr. P. Barrade/A. Rufer

Sizing of a supercapacitive tank


Energy efficiency and power availability : Example of a 2600F/2.5V/0.7m Scap
Charge Discharge

Time for loading energy has to be kept up to 10s for a 90% energy efficiency (Ic<320A or P<700W) Time for unloading energy has to be kept up to 10s for a 90% energy efficiency (Ic<320A or P<400W) Taking into account the necessity of 90% of energy efficiency, the current or the power for charging/discharging have to be limited: the power density is only 806W/kg (instead of 4300W/kg)

Energy storage and applications with supercapacitors Dr. P. Barrade/A. Rufer

Applications and converters


Voltage drop compensation for weak distribution networks
Using supercapacitors to provide/absorb the energy needed to maintain at a constant level the end-of-line voltage.

End of line Supercapacitive Tank DC DC Val-Vert Station 3 km Supply Station 675Vdc Bellefontaine Station

TL

Energy storage and applications with supercapacitors Dr. P. Barrade/A. Rufer

Applications and converters


Voltage drop compensation for weak distribution networks
Typical waveforms on the line No7 (Lausanne, CH)

Power Profile At the Bellefontaine station

Voltage at the end of line Val-Vert Station

Energy storage and applications with supercapacitors Dr. P. Barrade/A. Rufer

Applications and converters


Voltage drop compensation for weak distribution networks
It is necessary to use a double stage power converter to interface the supercapacitive tank to the end of the line.

End of Line Supercapacitive Tank

Energy storage and applications with supercapacitors Dr. P. Barrade/A. Rufer

Applications and converters


Voltage drop compensation for weak distribution networks
Special control algorithm have to be implemented
DOUBLE-STAGE DC/DC CONVERTER CONTROL
Iref_charge_scaps_max DeltaVline
Rline

R_Vscaps Iline_r
G2

ymax

Vscaps_max + -

R_Vendline Voline + Vinter_ref + + + R_Iinject


G1

Vendline_ref

+ R_Vinter

Itransfer

-1 +

+ R_Iscaps

Vendline

Iinject

PWM

Vinter

PWM

Iscaps

Vscaps

L1 RL1 Cinter

L2 RL2 Cscaps

RECTIFIER SUBSTATION

LINE (CATENARY)

SUPERCAPACITORS-BASED SUBSTATION

Energy storage and applications with supercapacitors Dr. P. Barrade/A. Rufer

Applications and converters


Voltage drop compensation for weak distribution networks
Simulation results
800

U end-of-line (V)
600

U Scaps (V)
400

200

-200

I Scaps (A)

-400

-600

-800

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

t (s)

Energy storage and applications with supercapacitors Dr. P. Barrade/A. Rufer

Applications and converters


Application in transportation : reduction of emissions and energy savings
Diesel-electric trains: reduction of emissions and energy savings Partner : Stadler Rail/ ABB

Convertisseur AC - DC unidirectionnel

Convertisseur DC - AC bidirectionnel

MG
Diesel

Principle of operation

RECUPERATION Scap
Elmerts stockeurs dnergie Convertisseur DC - DC bidirectionnel

Energy storage and applications with supercapacitors Dr. P. Barrade/A. Rufer

Applications and converters


Application in transportation : reduction of emissions and energy savings

The track

Altitude trajet COMPLET


1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 0

Altitude (m)

Altitude
2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000
P nette P moy

temps (s)
x 10
6

Puissance des moteurs de traction trajet COMPLET


Pmoy = 42.46 kW

Puissance (W)

0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000

Instantanous value of power


temps (s)

Energy storage and applications with supercapacitors Dr. P. Barrade/A. Rufer

Applications and converters


Application in transportation : reduction of emissions and energy savings
Reduction of the maximal delivered power of diesel motors in dependency of the amount of stored energy
Rduction de la puissance max des moteurs diesel en fonction de la quantit d`nergie stocke
700

Rducion de la puisance des moteurs diesel (kW)

600

500

400

300

200

100

0 0

100

200

300

400

500

600

Energie stocke (MJ)

Energy storage and applications with supercapacitors Dr. P. Barrade/A. Rufer

Applications and converters


Energy buffers for elevators
3

I D1

Is

Us

I D2

Id

Ud

Uc

Energy storage and applications with supercapacitors Dr. P. Barrade/A. Rufer

Applications and converters


Energy buffers for elevators :
simulations regarding a real system car weight : 720kg, counter weight : 1440kg,
Speed, Position for a 10-floors up/down run

load : 1400kg

Power and Energy for a 10-floors up/down run

The needed energy is 220kJ (61Wh)

Energy storage and applications with supercapacitors Dr. P. Barrade/A. Rufer

Applications and converters


Energy buffers for elevators
Simulations regarding a real system The power provided by the network has only to compensate the losses of the lift drive
Scaps voltage/current (10-floors up/down run) Powers for a 10-floors up/down run

Energy storage and applications with supercapacitors Dr. P. Barrade/A. Rufer

Conclusion
Supercapacitors are new components for energy storage
High energy density (even if lower than batteries) High power density

Model of supercapacitors have to take into account


The voltage dependence of the capacitance The series/leakage resistors Relaxation phenomenon

Energy efficiency
Power availability of supercapacitors is affected by their energy efficiency

Applications
Main applications use supercapacitors as energy buffers In applications where supercapacitors are used as main energy source (UPS), the reduced energy density is compensate by their high power density, combined with an increased lifetime compared to batteries.