# Solutions

**Math Tournament Ciphering
**

1. If (x + 1)(x - 1) = 8, determine the numerical value of (x

2

+ x)(x

2

- x).

Solution:

Since(x + 1)(x -1) = 8, then x

2

- 1 = 8 and x

2

= 9.

Thus (x

2

+ x)(x

2

- x) = x

2

(x + 1)(x -1) = 8x

2

= 72

Answer: 72

2. The function g(x) satisfies the equation g(x) = g(x + 1) + g(x - 1) for all values of x.

If g(1) = 1 and g(2) = S, what is the value ofg(7)?

Solution:

g(x + 1) = g(x) - g(x - 1)

So g(S) = g(2) -g(1) = S - 1 = 2

g(4) = g(S) - g(2) = 2 - S = -1

g(S) = g(4) -g(S) = -1 - 2 = -S

g(6) = g(S) - g(4) = -S - (-1) = -2

g(7) = g(6) - g(S) = -2 -(-S) = 1.

Answer: g(7) = 1

3. A carpenter wishes to construct a ladder with nine rungs whose lengths decrease

uniformly from 24 inches at the base to 18 inches at the top. What is the length of

the rung fourth from the top?

Solution:

18 + 8J = 24 Where J is the common difference. Solving for J yields;

J =

3

4

, So the length of each rung is increasing by

3

4

of an inch.

The length of the fourth rung is given by 18 + SJ = 2u

1

4

inches.

Answer: 2u

1

4

4. A triangle has side-lengths equal to 8√SS , 1S√SS and17√SS. What is its area?

Solution:

The triangle is a right triangle since(8√SS)

2

+ (1S√SS)

2

= (17√SS)

2

. Hence area is

given by

1

2

(bosc)(bcigbt). Thus

Area=

1

2

(8√SS)(1S√SS) = (6u)(SS) = 198u sq. units.

Answer: 198u

5. Find the value of log

2

S ∙ log

3

4 ∙ …∙ log

2012

2u1S ∙ log

2013

2 .

Solution:

Using change of base formula, rewrite in base c to obtain,

log

b

o =

Inu

Inb

for each of the log factors. We obtain

lnS

ln2

∙

ln4

lnS

∙

lnS

ln4

∙ …∙

ln2u12

ln2u11

∙

ln2u1S

ln2u12

∙

ln2

ln2u1S

= 1

Answer: 1

6. Compute the exact value of (sin22.S

°

- cos 22.S

°

)

2

.

Solution:

Expansion gives (sin22.S

°

)

2

- 2 sin22.S

°

∙ cos 22.S

°

+ (cos 22.S

°

)

2

Using trigonometric identities sin

2

0 + cos

2

0 = 1 and sin20 =2 sin0 cos 0, we obtain

(sin22.S

°

)

2

- 2 sin22.S

°

∙ cos 22.S

°

+ (cos 22.S

°

)

2

= (sin22.S

°

)

2

+(cos 22.S

°

)

2

- sin4S

°

= 1 -

√2

2

Answer: 1 -

√2

2

7. Suppose the functions ¡(x) and g(x) satisfy the system of equations

¡(x) + Sg(x) = x

2

+ x + 6

2¡(x) + 4g(x) = 2x

2

+4

for all x. Find g(x).

Solution:

The second equation has a common factor 2, so the system reduces to

¡(x) + Sg(x) = x

2

+ x + 6

¡(x) + 2g(x) = x

2

+ 2

Subtracting the second equation from the first yields g(x) = x + 4 .

Answer: g(x) = x + 4

8. If oc + oJ + bc + bJ = 1u2 and c + J = 6, what is the value of o + b + c + J?

Solution: Factoring gives

oc + oJ + bc + bJ = o(c + J) + b(c + J) = (c + J)(o +b) = 1u2.

Since c + J = 6, then o + b = 17 and o + b + c + J = 2S.

Answer: 23

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4. Given angles A and B such that,

sin

2

A + cos

2

B =

S

2

x

cos

2

A + sin

2

B =

1

2

x

Determine the value of x.

Solution:

Adding the two equations, and using the trigonometric identity sin

2

0 +cos

2

0 = 1, we obtain

2x = 2, x = 1

Answer: x = 1

5. Evaluate

1

8

+ log

2

2

¸

2√2.

Solution:

Using properties of logarithms

log

2

2

¸

2√2 = log

2

2 +

1

2

(log

2

2 +

1

2

log

2

2).

Noting log

2

2 = 1,

1

8

+ log

2

2

¸

2√2 =

1

8

+

7

4

=

15

8

Answer:

15

8

6. Let o be a solution of x

2

+ x + 1 = u. What is the value of

o

6

+o

5

+ o

4

+o

3

+ o

2

+ o + 1.

Solution: Factoring by grouping three terms from the left yields

o

4

(o

2

+o +1) + o(o

2

+o +1) + 1 = 1. Since o

2

+ o + 1 = u.

Answer: 1

7. Rectangle ABCD is made up of six squares. The areas of two of the squares are shown.

Find the perimeter of rectangle ABCD, in centimeters.

Solution: The lengths of the squares with area S6 cm

2

and 2S cm

2

are 6 cm and S cm

respectively. The smallest of the six squares has length1cm, the larges square has

length7cm. The two other squares have equal lengths4cm, thus the rectangle has length

1Scm and width11 cm. Perimeter is48 cm.

Answer: 48 cm

8. If S = S

2013

+ S

-2012

and I = S

2013

- S

-2012

, what is the exact value of S

2

- I

2

?

Solution: S

2

- I

2

= (S + I)(S -I) = (2 ∙ S

2013

)(2. S

-2012

) = 12

Answer: 12