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BS PROGRAM Mass Media in Pakistan Topics to be Covered

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

What is Mass Media? Its comparison with Mass Communication and Journalism. The functions of Mass Media. How Journalism started and evolved world wide and the start of journalism in the sub continent. The growth of Muslim press in the sub continent. Role of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Moulana Hasrat Mohani, Moulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar, Moulana Abul Kalam Azad, and Zafar Ali Khan in the development of Muslim Journalism in sub continent. The role of press in Pakistan Movement. The history and development of print journalism in Pakistan since independence. Major prospects and problems of print journalism in Pakistan. Government-Press relations Press Laws. Growth & expansion of Radio, and Television in Pakistan. Growth of Cable television and its cultural and ethical dimensions. Pakistan Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA), Online Journalism: Development and Future Prospects The structure, development and future perspective of News agencies in Pakistan.


MASS MEDIA IN PAKISTAN Topic One_The Mass Media and its Comparison with Mass Communication and Journalism

Journalism defined.
The term journalism embraces all the forms in which the news reach the public. All the happenings in the world which hold interest for the public, and all the thought, action and ideas which these happening stimulate become the basic material for the journalist. To the cynic journalism is merely a trade; and to the idealist it shines as a responsibility and a privilege. Journalism is the conveying of information from here to there with accuracy, insight and dispatch, and in such a manner that the truth is served, and rightness of things is made slowly, even if not immediately, more evident.( Eric Hodgins)


Defining Mass Communication.

It refers to the process by which complex organization with the aid of one or more machines produces and transmits public messages that arte directed at large, heterogeneous, and scattered audiences.


Defining Mass Media. Medium is the channel through which a message travels from the source to the receiver (media is its
plural), Mass media use different channels to carry the message including the light and sound waves. The definition of mass medium include not only the mechanical devices that transmit and sometimes store the message( TV cameras, radio microphones, printing presses), but also the institutions that use these machines to transmit messages. When we talk about the mass media of television, radio, newspaper, magazines, sound recording., and film, we will be referring to the people, the policies, the organizations, and the technology that go into producing and distributing mass communication. The Evolution of Mass Media. The history of communication is very old. There is sufficient evidence to prove that element of large scale (mass) dissemination of ideas was present at a very early point in time for the propagation of political and religious awareness. More than any one else the church was in the forefront to promote communication for transmission of religious thoughts to every one without any exception. However the communication got a boost when Gutenberg invented printing press in year 1450. Some researchers are of the view that Chinese and Koreans were first to use printing techniques much before the invention of printing press in Europe in 1450.


The development of Mass Media in about last six hundred years is not merely due to technological expertise. The communicative needs of the people in an evolving society, the creativity of human intellect, and the type of governance played important role in the advancement of mass media. Dennis McQuail (2005) is of the view that more open the society, the more inclination there has been to develop communication technology to its fullest potential. More closed or repressive regimes either limit development or set strict boundaries to ways in which technology can be used. McQuail describes that the institutional framework of mass media all over the world has been drawn from the Western perspective ( European or North American) despite the cultural differences. A big question which remains unanswered is that why other nations could not evolve their own value system till today.

The Components of Mass Media. The following main components of mass media have been identified on the basis of technology, material form, typical formats, perceived uses and institutional setting.

The Book and the Library. The history of modern mass media begins with the printed book. Before the advent of printing
press, the books were hand written and were available to a selected few. The invention of printing press made it possible to publish books on mass scale with changed content making it more secular, practical and popular. It played a very significant role in the transformation of the medieval world. In this period of time the book was not regarded primarily as a medium of communication, rather it was considered a store of wisdom and specially used for publishing the religious texts. The later development of libraries on an organized basis compelled intelligentsia in mid nineteenth century to consider libraries as a medium of mass communication and mass enlightenment.

The successful application of print technology to reproduction of texts in place of handwriting, about the mid fifteenth century, was only the first step in the emergence of a media institution. With the printing the trades people became publishers and authors and were later considered as key personnel in the context of print media.

The Newspaper. Prior to the invention of printing press, the handwritten pamphlets. Handbills and newsletter were generally used
as medium of communication. This practice continued even after the invention of printing press for about two hundred years. The commercial issues, religious issues and government proclamations were generally the main content of these newsletters and pamphlets, It was only in 1621 when the first English newspaper CORANTO was published from England. THE OXFORD GAZETTE made its appearance in year 1665.

From its early days the newspaper was considered to be an adversary of established power, notwithstanding that early
newspapers did not generally seek to offend authorities. It was after sometime when newspapers started identifying themselves with the interests of their readers. From here started a struggle for more press freedom and a watchdog role. Following main variants have been identified in developed world of the newspapers (press).

The party political press. A common early form of newspaper where the party interests are safeguarded. The newspaper becomes the mouthpiece of the party and is dedicated to the task of activation, information and organization for the party. This kind of press is hallmark of democratic politics. The prestige press. This kind of press emerged in late nineteenth century and is considered to be high point in press history and has contributed much to our modern understanding of a modern newspaper. M cQuail terms it as bourgeois newspaper. This press is the product of events taking place in period after 1850, which included more liberalism, absence of censorship, converting the newspaper into a business establishment and some other technological and social changes.

The prestige press was independent from the state and from vested interests and was often recognized as a major institution of political and social life. it tended to show a highly developed sense of social and ethical responsibility.

The popular press. The popular press in developed world came into being in 20 century. The main characteristics of this press


It is created for urban population and is designed to be read by almost every one. It is fundamentally a commercial enterprise. It generates a large amount of revenue through advertising. It is specialized in human interest stories.

It has often played a political role at key moments in national societies. In some case the press tends to become more sensational, trivial and


Radio. Radio emerged as a medium of mass communication in US in 1920. Due to some inherent qualities- like the vast range, radio
portability, easy access- the radio became a very popular medium very rapidly in US. Now it is being used both in developing and developed world as an effective means of communication, information, education, entertainment and for social welfare purposes. Radio has shortened the distances. Now any important news event taking place in any corner of the world can become known in no time whereas prior to the invention of radio it could take months, Radio is also being used for mass education both in developed and developing countries. A vast majority of the people use radio for entertainment particularly for listening the music. The government has been using radio for uplift in the society. New innovations are being introduced in this important mass media. In 1980 FM radio was introduced which has added to its popularity manifold. In US at present half a billion radio sets are in use and about 12000 radio stations are engaged in broadcasting all over United States. Radio relies excessively on advertising for its sustenance. Television. Television became commercial in United States about 50 years back. Due to its profound inherent characteristics- audio video combination, live coverage of important events, sense of intimacy and personal involvement- the television has emerged as the most massive media in terms of reach, time spent and popularity. It adds to its global audience with every passing day. As a medium of mass communication, TV is primarily used for entertainment all over the world. That does not undermine its vital role in modern politics. It is considered to be the main source of news and information for most people and the main channel communication between politicians and citizens, especially at election times. Many technological innovations have taken place in making the television an effective mass medium. At present in US about 99%of the homes have at least one working television which remains on for average seven hours a day. The addition of cable television has made it possible to watch a large number of tv channels with much ease. Film. The film began in at the end of the nineteenth century and has emerged as popular medium of mass communication. The film transferred entertainment to poor population at cheaper cost by presenting stories, spectacles, music, drama, humor and technical tricks which were earlier on o nly available to the rich in society.

The medium of the film is being used not only for the entertainment but for propaganda as well. The propaganda is inbuilt quietly. McQuail has observed that in the aftermath of the 9/11 attack on the Twin Towers, US government leaders sought a meeting with leaders of the film industry to discuss ways in which film could make a contribution to newly announced war on terror. In the modern days film has become more integrated wih other media, especially book publishing, music and television. It has acquired greater centrality despite the reduction of its immediate audience. (JOWETT and LINTON1980) the film continues to be mass culture creator.

The Internet. THE internet began as a medium for non commercial intercommunication and data exchange between the
professionals but soon it emerged as a popular means of interpersonal communication. Now due to its extensive diffusion in developed world it is fastly becoming a popular mass medium of communication. The internet has following distinctive qualities:

a. b. c. d. e. f.

Unique technology Manner of use Range of content and services Not owned, controlled or organized by any single body, but is simply a network of internationally interconnected computers operating according to agreed protocols. Low degree of regulation. Internet is not subject to any single set of national laws or regulations.

Handout 2/BS/3

Mass Media in Pakistan Topic-2-The Functions of Mass Media

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Following important functions are performed by Mass Media: The news function. The factual presentation of news of the day is the elementary function of mass media. Some researchers have named this function as Surveillance. This means that media keeps informed all about what is happening around them. This fun ction can be divided further into two main types. Warning, or beware surveillance occurs when the media inform us about threats from natural disasters, depressed economic conditions or military attack. Another kind is Instrumental surveillance. It has to do with the transmission of information that is useful and helpful in every life. The modern mass media performs this function quite efficiently throughout the world. Now any event taking place in the world can be made to the whole world in minutes whereas it used to take








months when mass media was not there. But it should be known that all what is presented by the media is not 100 percent correct. This is the dysfunctional side of the mass media. The interpretation function. Closely allied with the surveillance function is the interpretation function. The mass media do not supply just facts and data. They also provide information on the ultimate meaning and significance of those events. Not every thing that happens in the world is interpreted by the media. The stories that ultimately make it into the paper , the newscast, or a media organizations website are judged by the various gatekeepers on the basis of their appeal for the masses. The interpretation can be performed through editorials, articles, commentaries on radio and television, the editorial cartoons etc. Through this function the media enables the audience to understand an issue in its entirety. On the dysfunctional side there is no guarantee that interpretations by media commentators and experts are accurate and valid. Further there is also a danger that an individual may, in the long run, come to rely too heavily on the views carried in the media and lose his or her critical ability. The opinion function. The media performs the role of opinion formation through analytical content carried by the media. On the other hand it acts as the mirror of public opinion. The rulers make their policies in the light of opinions expressed in the media. The government can win public opinion by using the media intelligently. On the dysfunctional side media can get involved in propaganda against the adversaries and become tool of yellow journalism and thus spoil the political and social environments. Education function. The mass media also acts as a great public educator. It educates the people on every topic; social, literary, political and scientific. It provides uptodate information on the current topics and benefits every class of the people. In addition mass media also runs specific formal education programs and help the people to improve their academic qualifications. The linkage function. The mass media are able to join different elements of society that are not directly connected. For example, mass advertising attempts to link the needs of buyers with the products of sellers. Legislators may try to keep in touch with constituents feelings by reading their hometown paper. Voters in turn learn about the doings of elected officials through newspapers, TV, radio and websites. Telethons that attempt to raise money for the treatment of certain diseases are another example of the linkage function. The needs of those suffering from the disease are matched with the desires or those who wish to help the ailing humanity. The linkage also occurs when geographically separated groups that share a common interest are linked by the media. The best example of linkage, however are various websites, newsgroups and chat rooms on the internet. Transmission values. The transmission of values is an important function of the mass media. It has also been called the socialization function. Socialization refers to the ways an individual comes to adopt the behavior and values of a group. The mass media present portrayals of our society, and by watching listening, and reading, we learn how people are supposed to act and what values are important. Sometimes the media consciously try to instill values and behavior in audience. For example due to popular and genuine health concerns electronic media avoids showing smoking scenes in dramas and thus encourage anti smoking campaign. On dysfunctional side media has been found promoting negative stereotypes. For example the electronic media in US promoted a negative image of blacks. In tv characters they were depicted as criminals, murderers, and doing menial and subordinate roles. The black community had to work very hard to get such type of images changed from media. Status conferral. The media; rightly or wrongly , confers the status to certain people or events. It means that certain individuals or issues receive media attention out of proportion and thus become prominent. Parades , demonstrations, publicity stunts, and strange behavior are commonly employed to capture airtime or column inches so that status conferral effect occurs. Entertainment. Entertainment is becoming the primary function of mass media. Newspapers of today have 12 to 14% entertaining content, in case of television % broadcasts fall in the category of entertainment. The entertainment content of radio varies with the format of radio stations. The film is purely entertainment. It is the entertainment function which has multiplied the audience and in this area television is on the top.

Handout 3/BS/3

Mass Media in Pakistan The Beginning of Journalism and How it Evolved in Subcontinent
The Beginning of Journalism. 1.
In Rome, in 60 BC, Julius Caesar was the first to introduce steps for dissemination of information about the state activities to the people. This was done through a bulletin board named Acta Diurna or the Daily Acts. It continued for many years. The se cond and more serious attempt was in China. The Tang dynasty in the 7 or 8 century saw the establishment of the Peking Gazette. It was a significant step forward, not only because it happened in the East , but because it imparted a great fillip to invention of paper, ink and type. It was centuries later that these Chinese inventions reached the Western civilization, where they were utilized much more effectively. In the meantime, news used to be circulated by spoken word. There were town criers who we re responsible for the circulation news,. Later the kings and monarchs, rulers and noblemen banked on letter writer for news of foreign land or of the remote corners of their own country. The history of modern press is closely linked up with the invention printing and printing press. The art of printing around 594 BC was known in China and from there spread to the West . Somewhere between 868 A.D. and 1045 A.D. the Chinese developed movable type. Towards the middle of the 15 century Johann Gutenberg developed printing press with movable type, By this single act,
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Gutenberg, perhaps unknowingly set off spark which spread all over Europe and then over the whole world. It revolutionized the whole idea of dissemination of information.

The Beginning of Journalism in India n Pakistan subcontinent 3.

In the India n Pakistan subcontinent news gathering started in the period of Chandragupta (321-298 BC). It is also known that Ashokas administration too had well-knitted news- gathering system. The history of printed journalism started with the Portuguese establishing first printing press in Goa. First publication was a religious book published by missionaries in year1557. East India company set up printing press in year 1684 at Bombay, but no newspapers were started till 1780. The first attempt was made by William Bolts in September 1768. He announced publication of a newspaper by affixing notices at public places, but he was forcibly removed by East India company s officials and deported out of India. First successful attempt was made by James Augustus Hickey. 4. The Bengal Gazette or Calcutta General Advertiser, was the first published newspaper of India. Its owner cum editor was James Augustus Hickey. Its first issue appeared on January 29, 1780 as a weekly political and commercial paper. It carried the embl em, open to all parties, but influenced by none . Much of its pages were devoted to advertisements. Ti was two sheet paper, about 12 inches b8 inches, with three columns printed on both sides. It published mostly extracts from the English newspaper and correspondence from local and distant writers. Its special features were addresses to the public from Mr Hickey a poets corner and all t e local gossips relating to British community in Calcutta. For the first few months the Gazette was politically harmless though it tended after the fashion of the times to abroad humour. Its public was mainly merchants and traders, and at first the non official European class. There was opposition from officials not only in Bengal from the very outset, many of them feared that the newspaper would at anearly date turn to attack on them. But Warren Hastings, the Governor General, seems to have been fairly tolerant. However the attitude of Mr Hickey was very insolent. He published a few unfounded reports against the governor and a priest, on which he was taken to the court . He was convicted to one years imprisonment and a fine of rupees two thousand on the first occasion . however he was pardoned by the Governor. Second time again Hickey published news items against the Governor General. After this Hickeys press was confiscated in March 1782 and thus Bengal Gazette was silenced for ever. 5. The India Gazette or Calcutta Public Advertiser was the second newspaper to be started in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent in 18 century. This was launched by Mr. P. Reed and Mr. Messink in November 1780. This paper consisted of four pages, each divided into three columns,.The types was bold and printing was fair. The editor was addressed as the Monitor. In most of the issues nine or ten months old news from England were reproduced, because for Europeans in India these were latest news. In some of issues affairs of different princely states were discussed, mostly condemning the Nawab or Raja ot the state . news of British victories over various Nawabs were also published prominently. A constant criticism of Hickeys Gazette was seen in almost every issue of the India Gazette and correspondents charged Mr HIckeys paper of endeavors of malcontents to effect a total subversion peace and ;harmony amongst us Hickey;s Gazette was also condemned for publishing personal scandals in its columns. This newspaper also published extracts from local newspapers and also the accounts of battles between Haider Ali and the British army. 6. The other prominent newspaper published in 18 century were Calcutta Gazette , Bengal Journal, Oriental Magzine or Calcutta Amusement and Calcutta Chronicle. The Madras Courier was published by the Company in 1785. Hurkaru was started in 1893. The Madras Gazette appeared in 1795 . From Bombay, the prominent newspaper were Bombay Herald (1789), Courier (1790), the Bombay Gazette. 7. The Characteristics of 18th Century Journalism of subcontinent.
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The contents of the press in the 18 century reveal the influence of Hickey and particularly the views of English natives living in India. News gathering was not so organized. Sometimes months old stories were published. Foreign news was lifted from foreign newspapers. Most of the newspaper were edited and published single handedly by the editors. Almost all the news was written by the editor himself. At some important places correspondents were also appointed to write newsletters for the newspapers. News writing was not so developed as it is today. There used to be no intro in the news items and no headline displaying the news. All the newspapers were in English language not only in the 18 century but also as late as 1822. These were started by Englishmen who had score to settle with the East India Company officials. This kind of journalism was more or less personal and had not hing to do with the aspirations of local population.
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TH Century Journalism. In 19 century missionary newspapers were started by Baptist missionaries at Serampur. Jam e Jahan Numa was also started by Baptist missionaries. It made its debut on 27 march 1822 from Calcutta under the editorship of Mr Sada Sukh. It was first urdu newspaper but soon it was converted into a Persian newspaper. After one year it again started publishing an Urdu edition alongwith the Persian edition. This remained in publication for hardly 4 years and had a circulation less than 100. The paper used very simple language. The news were collected from contemporary handwritten newspapers of India and English newspapers. It was primarily published for English speaking segment of East India Company so as to teach them local languages. This newspaper carried the stamp of East India Company of the top of first page which indicated that it had the support of the government. . The Bengal Gazett, was the first Indian owned . It was launched in 1816 by Gangadhar Bhattacharya. It was the pioneer of hundreds of Indian owned newspapers. The Bengal Gazett had no commercial interest. It represented a school of thought- progressive Hinduism- rather than any commercial or business interest. Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the first among the Indians of those days to realize the significance of the English rule and he went all out to infuse life into the depressed Indian society. His contributions towards the growth of newspapers in India are very significant. There were many newspapers that he either owned, edited or

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circulated. In 1822 he started a Persian language weekly, Miraat-ul- Akhbar. It was meant for that section of the Indian soeiety whIch did not understand either English or Bengali . it was a Persian newspaper and was started from Calcutta on 20 April 1822, a month after the publication of Jam-e-Jahan Numa. Mirat-ul Akhbar was a newspaper of class. It published domestic as well as international news. It adopted moderate policy and supported on most issues. It acted as a medium between general public and the rulers for better understanding. The newspaper was closed down be Raje Ram Mohan Roy under protest against the stringent press ordinance promulgated by Viceroy in December 1823. 9. A total of about 406newspaper appeared in subcontinent from 1801 to 1857, in eight different languages of the country. Of these paper largest number or newspapers (127) were in English. While Bengali and Urdu following closely with a number of 108 and 102 newspapers and periodicals respectively. Persian language press occupied the fourth place with total number of 16 newspapers from 1801 to 1857. 10. Calcutta remained the most important and largest press centre during 19 century, followed by Madras, and Bombay. A total number of about 210 newspapers and periodicals were launched in Calcutta from 1801 to 1857.

Handout 4

Muslim Press During the War of Independence 1857 and aftermath

1. The disintegration of Mughal Empire started after the demise of the Emperor Aurangzeb. East India Company expanded their rule in India after success in Battle of Plasey in connivance with some native Indians. They unleashed oppression against local population so as to strengthen their hold of occupied lands. This resulted in general resentment against the rulers and a movement was started by natives to get independence. The Muslims were more conspicuous in this struggle. Later on the movement turned into an armed struggle. But the struggle could not succeed. After the failure of this struggle the British rulers held the Muslims mainly responsible for the armed struggle and unleashed a wave of terror. The press was particularly targeted as the newspapers owned by the Muslims were repressed and disappeared from the scene, immediately after the 1857 War of independence. During the war of independence the majority of local press sided with the cause of the freedom fighters. They launched strenuous efforts to boost up the morale of people by proving cause of the struggle as just and justified. It published progress of the war constantly and kept the people in touch with the latest developments. The press, though feeble it was, raised criticism against the oppressive policies and atrocities of the Britishers. In this struggle, Delhi Urdu Akhbar, Khulasatul Akhbar, and Sadiqul Akhbar actively took part in advancing and justifying the cause of the freedom fighters. They gravely criticized and condemned the atrocities and oppression committed by Britishers. Their policies, editorials and writings caused alarm among the British ruling party. Muslim Press Point of View. The muslim press raised their voice against the high-handedness meted out to the muslims. The press quoted examples of such atrocities. The whole exercise was aimed at finishing the muslims ,their institutions and culture once and for all. On the other hand the anglo Indian press issued highly provocative statements in the form of editorials and correspondence columns. They openly incited their own community to avenge the English murders and even propagated ethnic rivalry, by freely lavishing abuses on natives. The y accused the native press of causing great embarrassment to the government by daily publishing. In following their policies of repressing the native press, they made the target of oppressive policies those newspapers which openly sided with the freedom fighters. They made them their main target of their vengeance and crushed ruthlessly. They were soon obliterated from the scene after the War of Independence. All those





6. 7.

related to rebels, suspected to have taken part or aided or sympathized with the freedom fighters were all ruthlessly crushed. Two Muslim editors of Doorbin, and Sultanul Akhbar, were prosecuted, and the editor of Delhi Urdu Akhbar, Maulvi Muhammad Bqir, was shot dead. The Britishers made the Urdu newspapers of Delhi and North Western provinces, the special targets of their oppression and suppressive policies. In short Muslim press was finished in the sub-continent, whereas the Hindu-owned newspapers were forgiven. As a result of repressive policies of rulers, the Muslims had to suffer badly. They turned into second rate citizens of India with no opportunities for progress, education and employment. The life had become very miserable indeed. On the other hand the Hindus enjoyed all the privileges and were getting rewarded for their betrayal in the War of Independence. These were the circumstances when Muslims needed a MESSIHA. Notes on Sir Syed Ahmed khan available on hard copy.

Handout 5


1. Muhammad Ali Jauhar_a life sketch. Muhammad Ali Jauhar was borne in 1878 . His father died when he was only two years old. His mother well known as Be Amma gave full attention towards his education . he learned Urdu and Persian at home and graduated from Ali Garh university in 1896 with distinction. He went to Oxford afterwards for higher education and earned good name as the first ever Indian secretary of the society in Oxford University. Muhammad Ali on return from England served on a good post in state o Rampur and also contributed articles in English newspapers. He entered practicing journalism in 1911, when he launched his English weekly newspaper, COMRADE from Calcutta. Later it was shifted to Delhi. The purpose of starting this newspaper was to develop political consciousness in the circles of educated Muslims. Secondly to provide up to date point of view o Muslims to ruling class. Articles of national and international interest were published in the newspaper. Sometimes a poem was also published Jauhars Concept of Journalism. His concept of journalism was as under: A newspaper ought to be impersonal and criticism should be based on principles with no consideration of friend and foe. Content of the newspaper should be written with sobriety and a purpose. The aim of newspaper should be to work for the betterment of own nation and it should not think of harming the interest of other nations. Religious controversies to be avoided.


The newspaper should carry maximum news and these must be credible. The editorial should be written about most important current event with proper research and study of relevant material. A journalist is not only spokesman of the people but he also guides and helps people in formulating public opinion. Political views of Muhammad Ali Jauhar. Muahammad Ali Jauhar was a political activist and struggled for the rights of Indian Muslims bravely. He once wrote in Comrade:


We dont have any faith in slogan that India is united however a united nation can be created with mutual understanding and good will. Ours would not be a marriage created through love and poetry but based on convenience of two participants . Today united India does not exist we have to create it and for that it is essential to accept now that India is not united . 4. Muhammad Ali Jauhar propagated the concept of two nation theory a time when it was still passing through infancy. He wrote many editorials to support separate electorate for Muslims. He supported the partition of Bengal and later protested against its annulment. He was amongst the founders of Khilafat Movement and actively participated in the struggle for restoration of Khilafat in Turkey. In London Round Table Conference he spoke for the rights of Muslims of whole world. 5. COMRADE. Weekly Comrade was an English newspaper and was started on 11 January1911 from a scratch. It appeared with a bang. It was first English newspaper owned and edited by a Muslim. It added to Muslims pride. All other English newspapers which were either owned by British or Anglo-Indians supported the government, but Comrade stood against the government. Its language and the conceptualization was admired by other contemporaries. Muhammad Ali Jauhar combined knowledge with intellect and conviction, which enhanced it appeal. The objective of Comrade was firstly to make government aware of the problems faced by the people and secondly to communicate with educated elite of native Indians and other Muslim countries as well. In 1914 at the start of First World War a British newspaper.London Times published an anti Turk article The Choice of Turks. Jauher produced an article in defence of Turks after working for 40 hours. It was published on Sep26, 1914. The British government took it seriously and Comrade was closed and Jauhar was put behind bars along with his brother Shaukat Ali . 6. HAMDARD. It was an Urdu newspaper. It was started so as to communicate with bulk of native Muslim population in their own language; its first edition was published on February 23, 1913. It grew from one page to 16 pages. It used to be published on naskh printing, but it was not liked by the readers hence was reverted to llitho printing in nastaliq. People gave good response and its circulation went up to 10,000, however it was closed down in august 1915 as soon as first world war started. 7. Contribution of Muhammad Ali Jauhar in Jounalism. Main contributions are as under: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. It promoted sober, solemn and rational journalism with particular focus on factual correctness. Not only reflected the public opinion, but also guided it. Increasing the circulation by commercial consideration was never accepted at cost of professional ethics. Promoted Quality Journalism viz-a-viz Popular Journalism of Zamindar. Hired services of Reuter and AP. Also appointed correspondents. Editorial conference was started like English newspapers. Wrote with caution but at the same time did not hesitate giving his views on issues. Collected the writers of high caliber, like Syed Hashmi, Qazi Abdul Ghaffar, Jalib Delhvi, Abdul Haleem sharar.

Handout 6

Abul Kalam Azad Role in the Development of Muslim Journalism







Abul Kalam Azad entered the field of journalism at very young age (15 years) and due to superb abilities rose to the high post of editorship. At 24 he had started his own newspaper Al - Hilal. Abul kalam Azad was an apt writer cum journalist. He was highly impressed by Sir Syeds style of writing but differed with his political ideology. Indian Prime Minister Pandit Nehru paid rich tributes to Azad in these words,Azad spoke in a new language to Muslim Intelligentsia in his weekly Al Hilal. It was not only a new language in thought and approach, even its texture was different. Azads style was tense and powerful, though sometimes a little difficult because of its Persian background. He used new phrases for new ideas and was a definite influence in giving shape to the Urdu language as is today. Al- Hilal was started on 13 July 1912 as weekly. It was first journal to contain pictures as well. Its articles were scholarly and objective. It was more of a journal than newspaper. It had 16 pages. Sometimes number of pages exceeded. The subjects of articles were ; religion, politics, economics, psychology, geography, sociology, biographies and current affairs. It also published advertisements. Its maximum circulation was 11000. Abul Kalam Azad opposed Muslim League policies and Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. He was a diehard Congress follower and remained in party through out his life. He remained very critical of the role of Muslims in Indian politics. Once he wrote, 70 million Muslims in Indian politics will always be remembered as a wretched, greedy community who proved to e obstacle in the ways of progress and freedom of the country, a toy in the hands of rulers and as a wound on forehead of India.India owes its development and progress and freedom to the courage and sacrifices of Hindus. Muslims were hiding when Hindus faced threats to their lives. Muslims have disgraced politics and are slur on its forehead. ( Professor Abdus Salam Khurshid Sahafat Pak o Hind mein) From time to time British rulers demanded securities from Azad under 1910 Press Act. Ultimately on Nov16, 1914 his press was confiscated. After a lapse of two years in 1916 Azad brought out another weekly with the name of AL BLAGH, but it too met same fate when Azad was arrested and interned in Ranchi jail and kept there for four years. Notwithstanding his political philosophy, Abul Kalam Azad stands out as a prolific writer, a superb intellectual, and a man of vision. His contributions in the field of journalism cannot be ignored. He strongly advocated fro practical changes among Muslims religious practices, social attitude and mindset, as without it , he thought, political and educational transformation of Muslims was not possible. Hasrat Mohani and Urdu e Moallah. Hasrat Mohani was a political activist and only Muslim leader at that time who supported the political philosophy of Bal Ganga Dhar Tilak and others. He started his monthly magazine URDU E MOALLAH; it used to publish political articles along with non political essays. He opposed foreign rule and favored movement for freedom; he was the first one to raise slogan of (SATYA GRAH) passive resistance . Due to his extremism, was jailed a number of times but did not compromise on his political philosophy. Hasrat Mohani advocated understanding between Hindus and Muslims without dividing India.

Handout 7

Moulana Zafar Ali Khan and Zamindar


2. 3.



The newspaper Zamindar was founded by Moulana Sirajuddin Ahmed in 1903. On his death the newspaper was taken over by his son Zafar Ali Khan in 1909. During the lifetime of Sirajuddin Zamindar primarily focused on the problems of agriculturist community and its circulation never increased 2000 mark. But Zafar Ali Khan revolutionized the newspaper and took it to the heights which were touched by no other newspaper of that day. Zafar Ali Khan was a graduate of Aligarh. He served in various capacities. He earned good name as a high caliber translator after he translated the book Gardens of Persia written by Governor Lord Curzon. After assuming the editorship of Zamindar in 1909 Zafar ALI Khan took zamindar on the heights of popularity and political activism. During period 1909-1919 the circulation of the paper reached 30,000 mark. No other newspaper had touched this figure. On the other hand due to its highly emotional stance on certain issues it was asked eleven times to deposit fresh security amounts. Most of the time people deposited the amount. Zafar ali khan was also interned more than once for lengthy periods. During First World War( 1914- 1919), Zamindar was asked not to publish any war news. Without mentioning the war attraction of newspaper for the public was difficult to maintain. So it was closed down temporarily and Zafar Ali Khan started another magazine Sitara-e- Subah. It was a literary and non political weekly magazine. Zafar Ali Khan discovered a new target for his inflammatory and emotional journalism. This time it was Pir and Soofi. He campaigned against corrupt pirs and soofi both in prose and poetry and disclosed many malpractices exercised in the garb of religion. Comments on contents of Zamindar. Zamindar emerged at a time when two leading newspapers of that time ; Akhbar e Aam and Paisa Akhbar were very popular among people of Punjab. It took the lead and soon it was much ahead of them. This was due to the reason that Zafar Ali Khan made Zamindar areal newspaper. Its contents are worth commenting: For the first time , Zamindar purchased news from Reuter and Associated Press of India. All other newspapers used to translate news from English papers and publish next day. These were stale news . Zamindar was the first newspaper which published fresh news like English contemporaries. In order to enable the readers to carry out comparison , Zamindar also published the translation of news and essays taken from prominent newspapers of Muslim world. Translation of articles from English newspapers were published by all urdu newspaper, but the quality of translation cum content published in Zamindar was of a very high standard. The selection of articles was also very good. Zafar Ali Khan redesigned editorial page and made so attractive and interesting that attention of readers was instantly grabbed. Zafar Ali Khan created elegance in Urdu journalism. His style of writing was new which combined reason with literary touch. He promoted variety in selection topics. He was the first one to use poetry with political touch in an impassioned manner with effect. In those days the make up of the newspapers used to be very dull. Zamindar made innovations in this field as well. It introduced two column headlines and bigger headline so as to attract the people and also enable them to have a fair idea about main news in short time. It projected the Muslim cause effectively. It covered Battle of Tripoli and Battle Balkan in support of Turkey. It published the news of Muslim world and motivated the Muslims about the unity and Muslim brotherhood.



c. d.




Contributions of Zamindar.


b. c. d. e. f.

It developed the taste for newspaper reading and became a symbol of popular journalism. People used to wait for the newspaper. In Khyber Pakhtunkhaw people used to buy newspaper in one anna and spend another anna to make somebody to read aloud the newspaper for them. For ;the first time newspaper was used effectively as a part of political campaign and t mould peoples opinion for a cause. It developed techniques to influence the people effectively. It refined a number of journalists. Prominent among them are; Niaz Fatehpuri,Moulana Abdullah, Munshi Wajahat Hussain, Abdul Majid Salik, and Ghulam Rasul Mehar. Invented new phrases, words and political terminologies which are used even today. Zafar Ali Khan gave the courage to the press to speak truth without the fear of foreign rule or the fear of closure of newspaper and confiscation of printing press. In the words of Mohammad Ali Jauhar Zamindar was best newspaper of its time but lacked the elegance of Wakil. It adopted an emotional oratory in journalism which was the hallmark of Lahore journalists.


Conclusion. At the end of first world war in 1919 Zamindar was restarted by Zafar Ali Khan, till 1937 Zamindar followed policy of Indian National Congress, i.e. fighting against foreign rule and stressing Hindu-Muslim collaboration to gain independence . After 1937, Zamindar favored Muslim League for a separate homeland for Muslims. It criticized those who were against the demand for a separate identity of Muslims including Majlis-e-Ahrar and Khaksar Tehrik.

Hand out 8

The Role of Press in Pakistan Movement

1. The role of press in Pakistan movement can be traced back to the Muslim owned newspapers to the post 1857 War of Independence era, when Sir Syed Ahmed khan decided to use the power of press to communicate his message to the Muslims of sub continent through Tehzibul Akhlaq and Akhbar Scientific Society. He was the first prominent Muslim leader to lay the foundation of two nation theory. After him the movement for recognizing the separate entity of Muslims continued and significant contributions were made by Mohammad Ali Jauhar, and Zafar Ali Khan through Hamdard, Comrade and Zamindar. At that time the Hindu owned newspapers were comparatively better organized due to financial support of rich Hindu society than the Muslim newspapers which lacked the financial support. However the lack of resources was generally compensated with the ideological commitment of the Muslim journalists. After the adoption of Pakistan Resolution in 1940 at Minto Park Lahore by All India Muslim League, Quaid e Azam felt the need for a strong and an active press to mould and express public opinion of the Muslims of SubContinent. At that time there were very few Muslim owned newspapers to voice the Muslim point of view in politics. As the movement for the demand of an independent sovereign state consisting of Muslim majority areas gained momentum, devoted and sincere people came forward to fill the gap in field of Muslim Journalism. In Bengal AZAD, STAR OF INDIA, THE MORNING NEWS, expressed the Muslims point of view. From Delhi ANJAM, MANSHOOR and JANG played their role in Pakistan Movement. ZAMINDAR, SHAHBAZ and EHSAN were pro Muslim newspapers from Lahore. At that time the English press was predominantly Hindu owned or directed/edited by the anti Muslim Britishers. Quaid e Azam wanted that Muslims in India should have at least on high quality English newspaper. DAWN was the beginning in that direction.






The role of DAWN. The Dawn was initially a weekly newspaper which failed to serve the purpose as envisaged by Quaid e Azam. It was due to the concerted efforts of Mr. Hassan Ispahani and Raja Sahib of Mehmoodabad that paper was converted into an impressive daily newspaper. They also provided sufficient funding to make the newspaper a success. The DAWN was started from Delhi in 1941. Its first editor was Joseph Pothen but soon he was replaced by renowned journalist Mr. Altaf Hussain. Initially the circulation of the newspaper was 3500 but gradually the demand kept increasing. It followed the policies of Muslim League and played a very important role in making the Pakistan Movement a success. In 1947 the DAWN shifted from Delhi to Karachi. It is being regularly published from there till today as part of Herald Publications. The role of Nawa-e-Waqt. While the Dawn made its mark after appearing from Delhi, the Nawa-e-Waqt contributed a lot in the field of Urdu journalism from Lahore. Nawa-e Waqt was started after the adoption of Pakistan Resolution on 23 March 1940 as a fortnightly periodical. Hamid Nizami, a prolific writer, was the founder editor of this newspaper. Hamid Nizami was a student leader and a political activist who did a lot in organizing Muslim League in Punjab. After two years the fortnightly was turned into a weekly and finally a daily in 1944. Quaid e Azam was appreciative of services rendered by Hamid Nizami both as a political leader and the editor of Nawa e Waqt. He was asked by Muslim League to sell the paper to the party, but Nizami declined. However he never stepped back from the support which he rendered to the cause of Muslim League. For funding Nizami did not accept any financial support from the Party. Qasim Mehmood and some other friends supported him financially. After independence the newspaper continued, however it was subjected to political victimization in Punjab. At present it is one of the three largest newspaper concerns and is being published from Lahore, Karachi, Multan, and Rawarpindi. The role of Pakistan Times. After the popularity of DAWN from Delhi, a need was felt to start an English newspaper from Lahore as well. Realizing the need , Mian Iftikhar uddin , a liberal graduate from Oxford and belonging to landed aristocracy of Lahore floated a company, Progressive Papers Limited, and launched English daily Pakistan Times, urdu daily Imroze, and weekly Lail o Nahar. Pakistan Times started playing its role in Pakistan movement in February 1947, a few months before the creation of Pakistan. It had luminaries like Faiz Ahmed Faiz, Chiragh Hasan Hasrat, Syed Sibt e Hasan, Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi, Zaheer babar, Ahmed Ali Khan, and Mazhar Ali Khan. All the publications of this company supported a leftist school of thought. After the independence the company suffered heavily due to confiscation by Ayub Khan regime. The company does not exist anymore. Pakistan Times is available on internet only without any print version. The role of Jang. Daily Jang was started during second world war by Mir Khalil ur Rehman from Delhi. It also supported Pakistan movement along with some other newspapers. Mir Khalil ur Rehman contributed a lot in making daily Jang as the largest Newspaper chain. Mir Khalil ur Rehman was the owner, the reporter the editor and publisher. He started Jang with no financial assets but due to his hard work the paper stands as the most read newspaper of Pakistan.

___________________________ END___________________________________

Handout 9

The History and Development of Print Journalism In Pakistan since Independence



At the time of independence the number of newspaper in Pakistan was not very high. Of all the major cities, Lahore was the largest newspaper center. It housed about one dozen dailies, including Zamindar, Nawa e Waqt, Ehsan, Inqilab, and Shahbaz. Partab and Milap were owned by Hindus and these shifted to India after independence. Among the English papers Civil & Military Gazette and Pakistan Times were leading newspapers. Karachi, Quetta and Peshawar had very few newspapers which had very low circulation. After the independence the number of newspapers increased manifold. The old newspapers like Jang, Dawn, Anjam migrated from Delhi to Karachi, while Morning News shifted from Calcutta to Karachi. A number of new newspapers appeared from Karachi, Lahore and Rawalpindi Islamabad while old ventures were closed down. Daily Inquilab , Zamindar, Afaaq, Ihsan, Tasneem and Shahbaz ceased publication. New ventures like Daily Imroze, Koshistan, Mashriq, Hurriet, and many others started. According to one estimate the average rise of the newspapers was at the rate of 7%. The circulation of newspapers increased 20 times of previous level.


The Development of Urdu Newspapers in Pakistan.

Urdu press has gone through rapid and consistent development since independence and has now emerged in a strong position. Now the urdu newspapers and journals are published from all major cities of Pakistan from Khyber to Gawadar. In addition to Lahore and Karachi, Peshawar, Quetta, Multan, Rawalpindi, Faisalabad, and Muzaffarabad have also emerged as major centers of urdu print media. Urdu newspapers, national as well as regional, have increased their circulation manifold as compared to the figures of late 40s. they have also acquired the technology and manpower to gather news from different parts of the world in the shortest possible time and pass it on promptly to the readers. Some urdu newspapers are being published simultaneously from several major cities and are also available on internet which indicates the expansion and range of access. The notable newspapers are Jang, Nawa i-Waqt, Express, Khabrain, Pakistan, and some others. Urdu newspapers have developed greater objectivity, in reporting , news analysis, and expression of opinion. They now play a far greater role in shaping public opinion. Unlike the past the volume and size of newspapers have increased. They are printed on automatic photo-offset machines, produce special colorful editions and supplements on several occasions. These measures have added to the circulation and the outlook and have also attracted advertisers significantly.

The urdu newspaper organizations have grown in size. Major newspapers have a staff in hundreds and are in a position to pay better wages and job security to the employees. This was not possible 40 years back. Magazine journalism has also made substantial progress as periodicals are now being published on specialized subjects such as healthcare, fashion, sports, showbiz etc. Newspapers have now become a necessity with their readers. In addition to news they also provide small pieces of information, classified advertisements, announcements regarding the sale and purchase of items of daily use, train/plane timings, market and currency rates, weather forecasts, entertainment page, and host of other information which help the common man in daily routine.

A major breakthrough in urdu journalism was made by daily Jang when it introduced Noori Nastaleeq, computerized calligraphy. This was followed by some other newspapers as well. Another innovation introduced by JANG was concerning the display on news. Given the strict economy of space, it takes pains to squeeze more and more headlines into the front page. While most of the news is capsule in the headlines, the text is carried forwarded to inner pages. The Development of English Newspapers in Pakistan. At the time of partition there were only two English newspapers in Pakistan . these were Civil & Military Gazette and Pakistan Times. Daily Dawn came to Karachi afterwards.


In seventies and eighties major English newspapers emerged. These were THE NEWS, NATION, MUSLIM, and FRONTIER POST A number of new newspapers have emerged in last few years. These include, EXPRESS TRIBUNE, DAILY TIMES, FRIDAY TIMES The quality of reporting, analysis and presentation have improved in English newspaper significantly. However their circulation is not very high. It has a limited following but has always enjoyed more prestige and credibility than the urdu language papers. The Suppression of Print Media. Right from the start the print media had to suffer at the hands of democratically elected governments in Pakistan. The print media wanted to enjoy total press freedom like other democratic countries. But the government did not allow that, which resulted in strained relations between the press and the government. In the period 1947-57, the newspapers were suppressed through: (1) cancellation of declaration on some flimsy grounds, (2) cutting short or totally stopping the newsprint quota (3) withdrawing the governments advertisements, (4) asking the printing press not to print the paper. The daily Safeena of Viqar Ambalvi was banned in July 1949 for publishing an adverse news item. The literary monthly Javed was ordered to stop publication because it had published a so-called obscene short story by Saadat Hassan Manto. During period 1950-57, dozens of dailies and periodicals published from Lahore, Karachi, Quetta, Peshawar and other towns were made to suffer in one way or the other y the federal and provincial governments because these


publications did not see eye to eye with the establishment. Many papers had to cease publication because they could not deposit fresh security. Publication of some papers was stopped because their editors were jailed. Zamindar,Pakistan oldest newspaper was closed down in 1953 for one year by a government order. A year later it revived its publication but could not sustain itself and was finally wound up. Daily Imroze was to furnish security. Pre censorship was imposed on Nawa-i-Waqt and its declaration was cancelled on some technical grounds. The weekly Chattan of Shorish Kashmiri and weekly Asia were both banned for one year. Hilal e Pakistan from Lahore, Mussalman from Karachi, weekly Istiqlal from Quetta, Satluj and Insaaf , both weeklies from Bahawalpur and many other publications were forced to stop publication because they were critical of government policies. In 1958 Martial Law was imposed in Pakistan by Field Martial Ayub Khan. The press was subjected to severe restrictions by the military rulers. Some of the harsh measures include: (1) censorship was imposed on the newspapers and other publications, (2) PPL papers, i.e. the Pakistan Times, Imroze, and Lail-o- Nahar were taken over by military regime, ( 3) National Press Trust was formed by putting many newspapers including the PPL papers under the trust so as to sponsor the propaganda in favour of the government, (4) the draconian anti

press law the press and publication ordinance(PPO) was promulgated (5) many newspapers and journalists were subjected to restrictions and punishment.

During Peoples party rule the situation of press freedom was not much different. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto br ought all NPT papers under his

direct control . Several urdu paper including PUNJAB PUNCHM , ZINDAGI, JASARAT, AND ALFATAH were closed down.

In 1977 the country was again put under martial law by General M. Zia ul Haq. During his rule the print media suffered the most. The journalists were given the punishments of flogging and imprisonment. The newspapers were subjected to pre censorship. The newspapers which did not tow the line of military ruler were either closed down or subjected to restrictions. During the two elected governments of PPP and Muslim League (N) the press did not enjoy total press freedom; however the situation was slightly better. Use of indirect methods to control the press, including the distribution of newsprint quota, the allocation of advertisements, bribing of journalists, and administrative leverage continued. In 1999 the martial law was again imposed by General Pervez Musharraf by overthrowing the elected government of Nawaz Sharif. The new ruler was a little accommodative towards the media, particularly the electronic media. No major sanctions were imposed on the press and media got emboldened to criticize the government as and when required.


Print Media as it stands today. At present over 120 dailies are published from Pakistan. It indicates
substantial progress of print media in over 60 years. It is heartening to note that despite three successive martial law regimes and numerous restrictions the growth of print media had continued at a steady pace. The print media has developed quantitatively as well as qualitatively. According to one report the print media in Pakistan is boldest in South Asia. It is performing its watchdog role with considerable courage and tenacity. The leading urdu and English newspapers are as under:

Urdu Newspapers

Jang Nawa-e- Waqt Express Pakistan Khabrain Ummat

English Newspapers

DAWN The News The Nation Express Tribune Business Recorder Friday Times

Handout 10

Major Prospects and Problems of Print Journalism in Pakistan

The Problems of Print Journalism in Pakistan
1. Illiteracy. Of all the socio economic factors, the illiteracy is the major hurdle in the development of print journalism in Pakistan. The existing literacy rate in Pakistan is below 50%. In rural areas, where the bulk of population lives, the literacy rate is much lower. In urban areas one person out of ten buys the newspaper. Under such circumstances the print journalism can develop at snails pace, because the circulation of the newspapers remains restricted due to less buying. So if we have to increase the circulation of newspapers we have to promote literacy in the country. Low Purchasing Power. In Pakistan the majority of population has a low income which restricts their purchasing power. The existing price of the newspaper is not less than Rs. 12. A common man can hardly afford to spend Rs 360 per month on the purchase of newspapers alone. The low purchasing power restricts the circulation of newspapers. Dependence on Advertisements. At present main source of revenue for newspapers is advertisement. These are of two kinds, government ads and private sector ads. The dependence of the newspapers on advertisements becomes their weakness. The one who gives advertisements expects preferential treatment from the newspapers. Obviously how can newspapers criticize their paymasters? Quality of Journalists. Highly educated and brilliant youth hardly opts for field of journalism. They would rather prefer to go for civil service or some other greener pastures. Generally the youth with average qualifications and mediocre abilities join this field. It results in production of sub standard products in print media. The kind of creative writings, analysis, opinionated essays, editorials fall below the desired standard and may result in lack of readers interest and finally the reduction in circulation. Social trend. After the induction of radio, television, and internet , the reading habits of people are changing worldwide. Another contributory factor is the social engagements and the work environments of the people. The life has become very busy these days. You have to make a deliberate effort to take out the time for newspaper reading, which at times becomes difficult to cope up. It is thus not very uncommon to rely on electronic media for a quick go through on the news content. Competition with On line Newspapers . Digital papers provide more content which is becoming more attractive, timely and accessible free of cost. The printed counter parts are loosing readership to digital newspapers because of the aforementioned characteristics. In Pakistan it is not yet a potent threat because the number of computer literate people is not very high and the internet facility is not available across the country on affordable rates. Salary package. The salary package of journalists in the newspapers is not very attractive. Barring a few key personnel, the middle and lower cadres are not paid handsomely. Most of the newspapers are defying the recommendations of Government appointed Wage Boards. The cub reporters are not even paid the monthly dues in time. This situation causes disenchantment among the workers which leads to lowering of professional standards. Violence against Journalists, The violence against journalists in Pakistan is increasing with every passing day. The government has failed in providing security to journalists. Whenever any bold journalist tries to expose the malpractices he is threatened by affected parties. In past a number of journalists have lost their lives while performing their duties. The recent killings of Wali Babar in Karachi and of Salim Shehzad in Islamabad are a few examples. In an environment of coercion and lack of personal security the journalist cannot be expected to perform their journalistic duties honestly.








The Prospects in the field of Print Journalism in Pakistan.

9. The Technical Growth of Print Media. Despite all the odds including the curbs levied by the government, the print media has continued its journey for the development. Technically, innovations are being incorporated to maximize the output. The induction of computers, offset printing, and numerous other advanced technologies has not only made the presentation attractive and useful but has also led to fast printing of newspapers. At present many newspapers are planning to install microwave system of copy transfer which would further enhance the efficiency. 10. Expansion in Newspaper s Organizations. The size of newspapers organizations has also expanded considerably and there is still more room for further expansion. It has made the print media powerful to an extent that it can exercise significant pressure on the government. Some newspapers have been transformed into chain organizations. Jang Group is having a number of publications including television channels. Its publications are also available of internet. Similarly other large newspapers are also having a number of publications, TV channels, and internet access. The circulation of newspapers in Pakistan may be comparatively less but the trends which are prevalent are also having influence on our print media. 11. Mediatization and Political Culture. In todays Pakistan the media has transformed the political culture and has also assumed a leading role in spreading political awareness. The political parties are dependent on the media for access to the people, for their image building and for propagation of their policies. It is the media gives spin to the political developments and make the political leaders hero or zero. The relegation of political parties to a secondary role by the media is called mediatization . it means it is not the political leaders but the spin masters in the media who shape the political events through framing or relegate an event to non event. 12. Print media as a source of influence. Nowadays the newspapers are also used as the source of power and influence. A newspaper owner exercises more influence than Member of Parliament. A visible example is that the death of grandmother of a print media journalist inspires the political leadership to send condolence messages or visit the homes of such journalists to express condolence. All the famous journalists have become very rich within no time. Every body knows that what are their sources of income? All the key journalists have friendly relations the political leadership of the country which they utilize for personal motives. 13. The Political Economy. The motivating force behind the journalism is not the high ideals but the hard facts of political economy. Today media is run like an industry in which the emphasis is how to make more money or add to the influence which could be used for commercial purposes. The advertisements have become an important source of revenue and the newspapers can go to any extent to earn maximum advertisements. 14. Print media as Agenda Setter. The print media in Pakistan has emerged as a powerful agenda setter. Whatever issues are taken up by the media, are also acknowledged as public agenda. The institutions like Parliament, Supreme Court, and Government departments take the cues from media reports. In some cases their decisions are influenced by the media evaluations. 15. Print media as Formulator of Public Opinion. The print media in Pakistan has assumed the role of public opinion formulator. Gone are the days when it was just a source of information only. Now it guides the public in formulating public opinion on the issues through interpretative reports, editorials, and opinionated essays. It can even instigate people to launch a movement and also sustain it. The cases in point are the role of print media in ousting General Musharraf, and restoration of CJ Iftikhar Mohammad Ch.

Handout 11

[Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation

(Radio Pakistan)

The Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation, popularly called Radio Pakistan came into being as Pakistan Broadcasting Service on 14 August 1947 when Pakistan emerged on the world map as a new country. It was a direct descendant of the Indian Broadcasting Company which later became All India Radio. At independence Pakistan possessed three radio stations at Dhaka (established in 1939), Lahore (1937) and Peshawar (1936. A major program of expansion saw new stations opened at Karachi and Rawalpindi in 1948, and a new broadcasting house at Karachi in 1950. This was followed by new stations at Hyderabad (1951), Quetta (1956), a second station at Rawalpindi (1960) and a Receiving Centre at Peshawar (1960). In 1970, training facilities were opened in Islamabad and a station opened at Multan. A major step was the establishment of the Radio Pakistan World Service on 21 April 1973 for overseas Pakistanis followed by new stations at Khairpur (1974) and Bahawalpur (1975). The main broadcasting unit of PBC at Islamabad moved to the new National Broadcasting House in 1977 and the service reached the remotest parts of Pakistan with stations at Gilgit (1977) and Skardu (1977) in the far north and Turbat (1981) in the far southwest. From 1981 to 1982 stations and transmitters were also established at Dera Ismail Khan,

Khuzdar and Faisalabad.

Radio Pakistan opened a new broadcasting house in Khairpur on 7 May 1986, followed by relay stations in 1989 at Sibi and Abbottabad. The remoter parts of the country began to receive coverage with new stations opened in the 1990s at Chitral, Loralai and Zhob. In 1997, the Federal Minister of Information inaugurated the computerization of the PBC news processing system and availability of the news bulletins on the Internet in text and audio form . In October 1998, Radio Pakistan started FM transmission and over the period 20022005, new FM stations were opened at Islamabad, Gwadar, Mianwali, Sargodha, Kohat, Bannu and Mithi. In last two and a half years three new networks have been launched by PBC. On August 28, 2008 PBC launched National Broadcasting Service (NBS) the first dedicated Current Affairs Channel. It is a combination of 5 (100 KW) AM transmitters permanently linked together to broadcast a single national program beamed across Pakistan. Islamabad, Peshawar, Lahore, Quetta and Karachi are the main stations generating the national programming. It is a 17 hours programming on major national and international issues, target audience and literary and cultural programs. PBC launched a new Community FM channel after February 2009 Station Director Conference. The network is called FM-93 Network with 22 stations across Pakistan. Gilgit, Muzaffarabad, Mirpur, Abbottabad, Chitral, Bannu, Kohat, Dera Ismail Khan, Sargodha, Mianwali, Faislabad, Lahore, Multan, Larkana, Khairpur,Bhit Shah, Hyderabad, Mithi, Karachi and Gwadar transmit the FM 93 network. On November 14 PBC launched its first English Music Channel in Islamabad called Planet 94. The network operates on FM 94. The second and third stations of the English channel are soon to start their transmissions from Lahore and Karachi.

Legal basis of Broadcasts

According to PBC Act the Corporation is mandated "to broadcast such programmes which promote Islamic ideology, national unity and principles of democracy, freedom equality, tolerance and social justice as enunciated by Islam, discourage parochial, racial, tribal, sectarian, linguistic and provincial prejudices and reflect the urges and aspirations of the people of Pakistan" (s. 10(1)(b)).

PBC Services
The PBC provides several services including:

Home Service (domestic network) World Service (for overseas Pakistanis) External Service PBC News o News & Current Affairs Channel (NBS = National Broadcasting Service; launched August 28, 2008) Sautul Qur'an (religious broadcasting; launched January 26, 1998) FM 101 (service in major towns and cities; launched October 1, 1998) FM 93 (service in major towns and cities) FM - 94 (Pakistan First(government owned) all English Channel run from Islamabad and soon to be opened in Karachi National Sound Archives

PBC News

The PBC News service broadcasts 149 news bulletins in 31 languages daily, covering world, national and regional news as well as sports, business and weather reports .

External Service
Radio Pakistan is the official international broadcasting station of Pakistan. Radio Pakistan was able to start its external services on regular basis on 1949. As Pakistan is strategically located and is a close neighbor of China, India, Middle Eastern countries and Central Asia, it is necessary to use Radio Pakistan and its external services as an instrument to project the country's policies in true perspective so that a message of peace and friendship is disseminated to the world specially to its neighbors. The programmes of External Services are so designed as to project Pakistan's view point on domestic and foreign policy issues. Another special aim of these services is to disseminate knowledge about the art, culture, history, values and way of life of its people among foreign listeners in order to generate feelings of friendship, goodwill and mutual understanding which help create an environment of peace and tranquility and make co-existence possible in the region. They broadcast in 34 languages: Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Balochi, Seraiki, Potowari, Pashto, Hindko, Kohistani, Khowar, Kashmiri, Dhatki, Gojri, Pahari, Burushaski, Balti, Shina, Wakhi, Hazargi, Brahvi, English, Chinese, Dari, Persian, Hindi, Gujarati, Tamil, Sinhala, Nepali, Russian, Turkish, Arabic, and Bangla.

Contributions of Radio Pakistan. As a medium of mass communication, Radio Pakistan has played a very important
role in providing information to the people living in far flung areas, educating them and development. Radio covers 100% population of Pakistan thus can rightly claim to be the most effective medium of mass communication having the maximum access to the people. Its contributions can be enumerated as under :

Has promoted national cohesion through its motivational programs. Has projected the identity of Pakistan in the comity of nations. Played a very important role during 1965 War with India. It motivated the soldiers by broadcasting milli songs, raised the morale of nation and defeated the nefarious designs of the enemy. Has contributed towards raising the literacy rate by broadcasting educational programs of Allama Iqbal Open University and Virtual University. However in this regard these contributions have been much lesser than India, UK, Germany and Japan. Has played role in the development of rural cottage industries through its training programs. Played an admirable role in imparting agricultural information and education. This program proved so popular that at present all stations except Karachi and Islamabad broadcast agricultural programs. These programs have helped in introduction of mechanization, use of fertilizer and insecticides and hybrid seeds in agriculture and thus help in bringing green revolution. Has provided free entertainment to rural population which is virtually starved of recreational facilities.

Handout 12

Pakistan Television Corporation

Pakistan Television is a public sector corporation and acts in accordance with the policies laid down by the Ministry of Information, Government of Pakistan. The evolution of Pakistan Television Corporation can be briefly described in bullet form as under:

1961 Phillips Conceptual B&W Test at Expo Fair in Karachi, Pakistan.

1962 Private Test Transmissions in Lahore, Pakistan. 26 Nov,1964 Television service (PTV) in monochrome started at Lahore with Nippon Electric Company (NEC Japan) Collaboration. 1965 Television service starts in Dhaka, East Pakistan (presently Bangladesh). 1965 transmission begins in Rawalpindi/Islamabad. 1966 transmission begins in Karachi. 1973 National Microwave Network commissioned linking TV centers.. 1974 Quetta/Peshawar centers commissioned. 1976 colour transmission started. 1987 Federal TV centre at Islamabad commissioned. 1992 Second TV Channel (PTV 2) for education commissioned. (One TV station at Islamabad & 16 rebroadcast stations). 1996 Local area transmission from four (4) stations started and extended to 3 more stati ons. 1998 Transmission of PTV World programmes started. 1998 Up to 6 production centers (Lahore, Karachi, Quetta, Peshawar, Islamabad-I & Islamabad-II). 35 rebroadcast stations in operation for PTV-1. 16 rebroadcast stations in operation for PTV-2.

Although Pakistan Television was started as an educational project, but it created its mark as an entertainment channel.During the decades of 1970s, 1980s and 1990s, PTV dramas and teleplays were considered as the best in Indian Subcontinent, like Khuda Ki Basti, Unkahi, Tanhaiyaan, Aangan Terha, Fifty Fifty, Studio Dhai (2-1/2), Studio Ponay Teen (2-3/4), Andehra Ujala, Sona Chandi, Uncle Urfi, Taleem-eBaalighan, Alif Noon, Waaris, Dhoop Kinare, Sunehray Din, Alpha Bravo Charlie, Ana, Akhri Chatan, Zair Zabar and block buster serials like Pesh, Dhuwan, Kath Putli, Wafa Ham Nibhaein Gai, Bandhan, Kaghaz Kay Phool, Muqqdas, Bint-e-Adam, Malangi, Sawan, Sheela Bagh, Tinkay, Aisa Bhi Hota Hai bhar,rasta de zindgi,Chuban,Kuch Lamhay,khuwahesho kay sarab and many others.

The Policy
The broader perspective to start electronic media in the country was to inform and educate the people through wholesome entertainment and to inculcate in them a greater awareness of their own history, heritage, current problems and development as well as knowledge of the world at large. In fulfillment of its broad and main objectives, PTV's telecast policy concerning various matters of national and international interests has always been motivated and guided by the cardinal principles of educating viewers about the values that are vitally important in building a united, integrated and disciplined society. These objectives have successfully been achieved through a variety of programs on religion, education, entertainment and culture. The projection of new emerging social order is highlighted in PTV's general programming focusing directly and indirectly on the themes like morality, civic or national responsibilities, drive against narcotics, environmental pollution, agricultural reforms in discussions, shows, and through anchorpersons in the transmission. PTV channels are family oriented and the salient features of its policy are as follows:

PTV Corporation's broadcasts are family oriented and they carters the need of local audience by showing eastern family programs. It also acts on social development theory of media, thats why it shows informative programs about health and social issues. It also censors commercials and holds a conservative standard as compared to other channels. It supports government policies on national and international matters.

Administrative Divisions of PTV


News Division

Pakistan Television News informs its viewers across the country on the latest newsworthy the national and international events. During the past few years, there has been rapid expansion in the area and scope of news coverage. Following are the salient features of its news transmission:

PTV News gives on-camera reporting and special news reports.

PTV news broadcasts stretch over from early morning till midnight. There are news bulletins in Urdu, English, Arabic and Kashmiri languages. All the news bulletins after 6.00 p.m. are being aired on the national network which are also beamed through satellite to more than 38 countries. Regional language bulletins include Punjabi from Lahore Centre, Sindhi from Karachi Centre, Pushto and Hindko from Peshawar, and Baluchi, Pushto and Bravi from Quetta Centre are telecast. To bring home maximum coverage of international events, PTV news has made arrangements with Reuters TV, London, to satellite news items to PTV Islamabad round the clock. PTV news covers all visits abroad of VVIPs, international conferences and important other events through its own camera teams and makes possible to air them same night. Like international networks, PTV news also sent its camera team to Afghanistan to cover the fighting between different groups and plight of the common man there.

2. Current Affairs
Current Affairs programmes have been regular features of PTV transmission, ever-since its inception. A separate PTV Current Affairs Directorate was however, established in 1982. Current Affairs programmes, including regional languages, produced by each of the TV Centre are accommodated in regular PTV transmission. The themes of Regional Language program's mainly revolve around local and provincial matters of current affairs nature. Current Affairs Division also produces program's on special occasions such as live telecast of Armed Forces Parade on Pakistan Day, Live telecast of Flag Hoisting ceremony on Independence Day, Head of State's Address to the Nation, Documentaries on important national projects, live telecast of certain sessions of Senate and National Assembly.

3. Sports Division
PTV Sports Division was created in 1983 to provide healthy entertainment to viewers. It has emerged as an extremely productive and earning division for the PTV. The chief objectives of this division are to arrange healthy sports entertainment through the coverage of exciting moments and happening in the field of sports and to keep the viewers abreast with the National and International sports event. Presently Sports Division is producing 200 minutes regular weekly transmission on PTV apart from occ asional International / National sports coverage. PTV also televises live national and international sports around the world, keeping in view the interest of Pakistani viewers.

4. International Relations
I R Division of PTV participates in the International Television Festivals/Competitions held in different countries by sending best PTV-Programs. PTV has won distinguished prizes and commendations. A large number of programs have been sold for telecast in different counties which resulted strength of the financial condition of PTV. M/s Shalimar Recording and Broadcasting Company and M/s Sports Star International are the major distributor of PTV programmes. A lot of PTV plays and documentaries have been provided to foreign countries through Ministries and our missions abroad on gratis basis for the projection of Pakistan and its people. Dubbing and editing is carrying out by I.R.Division. Some selected programs are sub-titled in English and Arabic Languages for overseas projection especially for Muslim countries. Documentaries of National Geographic have been televised with Urdu dubbing. A series of animated imported programme "Treasure Island "was also dubbed in Urdu language for telecast.. PTV has procured foreign canned programs on hire/rental basis. PTV procures foreign programs including feature films, cartoons, science fiction, comedy, adventure, classic drama serials/series and general programs.

5. PTV Film Censor Board

PTV Censor Board was formed in 1968 headed by Director Programs Administration. It was separately instituted within PTV in December 1980 to clear and certify bulk of imported and locally acquired programs with speed and efficiency. Consultant News/Current Affairs/Presentation presently heads the Board.

6. Engineering
The Engineering Division takes care of the day to day operations and maintenance of PTV Centers and Rebroadcast Stations, new projects, Planning & Procurement, as well as research and Development activities. An engineering feat at the time Pakistan began television transmissions in 1964 at Lahore long before its neighbors Iran in [1967] and India in [1971]. Over the years the system has grown into a Countrywide network offering two programming channels. PTV-1 - Area covered: 38%; Population covered: 86.48 % PTV-2 - Area covered: 24.19%; Population covered: 55.83 %

7. Training Academy

Established in 1987 Pakistan Television Academy is an apex TV institution in Pakistan, which imparts professional training in various disciplines of television broadcast technology. Headed by a full time Director, and assisted by a team of television professionals who are members of the academic faculty. Till June 1998, over 3100 persons have attended training programmes conducted by PTV Academy. These participants attended training courses in Engineering, Computer, Finance, Administration, News, Current Affairs and Programmes Production. They also include visiting participants from other countries including SAARC members. Unlike other state-run corporations, the television company was allowed by the Government of Pakistan to raise a sizable amount of private capital to finance the stations. This includes Rs.35 per month TV fee charge to all the consumers of electricity.

PTV Today (Pakistan Television Network)

Currently, PTV can be received via satellite in South Asia, East Asia and the Middle East. Selected programming can be seen on Prime TV (with a partnership) in the United Kingdom and Europe. Today, PTV is split up into the original channel feed:

PTV Home 24-hour entertainment channel, the transmission is broadcast across Pakistan on terrestrial network and world wide through
satellite. Its programming also include live telecast of Pakistan's cricket matches.

PTV News 24-hour news channel which can be viewed in many parts of the globe. PTV National- An emphasis on broadcasting programmes in different languages to represent the whole of Pakistan. AJK TV - For the residents of Azad Kashmir. PTV Bolan - For speakers of Balochi Pashto and Brahvi. PTV Global - Offered exclusively for the United States on Dish Network, and recently launched in Europe.

Planned Channels

PTV English - an 24-hour English channel. PTV Sports - a 24-hour Sports channel .

Handout 13


Following Pakistan's independence, Associated Press of Pakistan was established in private sector. As the new-born country's press was economically weak, and was thus unable to financially support the agency. APP asked the Government of Pakistan for financial support, which was granted in the form of loans and subsidies. Government support enabled APP to subscribe to the services of the world's news agencies and to open offices in major cities of the country. The financial situation of APP continued to deteriorate until it was on the verge of collapse. It owed about Rs. 8 laks to the government's Post and Telegraph Department and another Rs. 12 laks in unpaid subscription fees to foreign news agencies. The Government of Pakistan intervened and took over the agency on 15 July 1961. The take over followed many changes in the administration and the role of APP. It was converted into a corporation under an ordinance and was put under the operational control of Ministry of Information. Obviously, after the governments control it started of giving the stories with a pro-government bias.

The Policy
The APP is Pakistans premier news agency. It functions under Ministry of Information. Its head and other directors are appointed by government .Their roles and charter of APP are defined by the government. The agency safeguards the interest of Pakistan like any other national news agency. However not to be out rightly pro government while preparing news reports.

Editorial operation
Besides its head office in Islamabad, APP maintains three bureaus at Karachi, Lahore and Rawalpindi and nine news centers at Sukkur, Multan, Quetta, Faisalabad, Larkana, Hyderabad, Bahawalpur, Peshawar and Muzaffarabad. The editorial function of any news agency is same as that of a newspaper i.e. it is divided between reporting teams and the news desk. In smaller centres, the editorial staff consists of a reporter and a sub-editor. In the larger bureaus of Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad, the reporting team is composed of about twelve reporters, responsible for specific beats such as economy, sports, crime, national and provincial assemblies or major government departments. These news desks are responsible for copy-writing and for coordinating activities of the reporting team. They also handle press releases of government information and private companies. The whole news operation is monitored by a Central News Desk (CND) located at the head office. News stories from all bureaus are sent to Islamabad for editing and from there the combined service is distributed nationally. The CND is connected with at least four international satellite circuits for receiving foreign news via a computer network:

Reuters from Hong Kong Agence France- from Paris Associated Press from London Xinhua from Hong Kong

Communication networks
Despite APP being considered Pakistan's premier news agency, for decades the agency ran on old, obsolete and unreliable equ ipment. News copy was being carried on a 50-baud duplex circuit between Islamabad, Karachi and Lahore. However a qualitative change took place in 1991, up gradation saw a transformation of data output speed from 50 words per minute (WMP) to 1200 WPM, most of which is now directly fed into the computers of the subscribers simultaneously throughout Pakistan and overseas. The outdated teleprinters have been replaced by state of the art LAN equipment.

Being the national news agency of Pakistan, APP collects and disseminate domestic and international news to over 100 newspapers of Pakistan besides Radio, television and government offices and some foreign media. APPs subscription rates are higher than other agenc ies in Pakistan because of its monopoly of world news agencies. For this reason every newspaper in Pakistan cannot subscribe to its services.

The number of APP's employees is estimated at between 350 and 400, of whom over 100 are journalists and photographers. The remainder is administrative staff, including computer engineers, technicians, peons, traffic attendants, data entry operators and finance staff. Four senior journalists are posted as special correspondents in Washington D.C., London, Beijing and New Delhi. In addition there are a small number of "stringers" (part time correspondents) at various district headquarters in Pakistan and aboard.

. There is no long-term financing in place for APP, Allocations are made on an annual basis by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. APPs annual expenditure is now placed at Rs. 140 million. APP receives 60% of its budget from the government, and th e remainder is raised through subscription from electronic media including television and radio and newspapers as well as foreign news agencies, business and nonmedia subscribers.

Services provided by APP

News service The APP News Service is mainly divided into three main areas: official, political and district news. Official news APP gives a more detailed coverage to the activities and statements of government dignitaries. Newspapers and the government-controlled radio and television rely to the greater extent on APP for government news.."

Political news Being the government agency, APP has extensively concentrated more on government news and relegating cultural, political, economic and other sectors of national a second priority. According some critics the opposition political parties are not treated fairly by APP. District news APP's district news service is not highly regarded, as its resources are so thinly-placed across the country that most of the information from this department comes from government information officers.
Foreign news

APP has become the main source of international news for the Pakistani media. The agency subscribes to Reuters, AFP, and the Associated Press of America (AP). APP has co-operation agreements with some 35 news agencies, mainly in third world countries. Under these agreements, news is exchanged on a barter basis. Prominent among these are the Islamic Republic News Agency (Iran), the Press Trust of India, and MENA (Egypt).
Commercial service

The commercial service of APP provides currency and commodity rates from Reuters, financial and economic services, banks and large business houses. APP planned to expand this service, but suffered a setback in the mid-1980s when Reuters bypassed APP and began to sell its financial services directly to business houses and newspapers in Pakistan. Photo service APP has its own photographic section equipped with photo receivers and photo transmitters in Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad and Quetta respectively. Islamabad is the head office to receive photographs from within Pakistan and aboard, and transmits them to the agency's bureaus and stations which distribute them to local newspapers. Urdu service The agencys Urdu language service started in the 1980s to cater for the needs of growing fleet of Urdu language dailies in Pakistan. The idea behind the setting up of the service was to avoid errors and ensure accuracy. As a practice, Urdu speech was often translated into English by the APP and then back into Urdu by newspaper editor greatly increasing the chances of translation, emphasis or context errors..

National University of Modern Languages Mass Communication Department

Mid-Term Examination Oct 2011

Paper: Mass Media in Pakistan Semester: 3 (BS Program)


Course Code: MCF 231 Marks: 50 Time: 2 hours

Note: Attempt any five questions.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. a. b.

What are different components of Mass Media? Discuss. What are the important functions of Mass Media? Elaborate. Recount the services rendered by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan in the field of journalism with particular emphasis on his publications. Comment on the contents and contributions of Zamindar in the context of Muslim journalism in Indian subcontinent prior to 1947. Highlight the problems and prospects of print journalism in Pakistan. Write short notes on the following:

Radio Pakistan. Pakistan Television Corporation

Handout 14

Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority

The Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) is a regulatory body established by Pakistan on 1 March 2002. PEMRA's Mandate

Improve the standards of information, education, and entertainment. Enlarge the choice available to the people of Pakistan in the media for news, current affairs, religious knowledge, art, culture, science, technology, economic development, social sector concerns, music, sports, drama, and other subjects of public and national interest. Facilitate the devolution of responsibility and power to the grass roots by improving the access of the people to mass media at the local and community level. Ensure accountability, transparency, and good governance by optimizing the free flow of information

Composition of Authority

The Authority Is headed by a chairman who is appointed by Federal Government for a period of four years. It has twelve members including one executive member. In addition four members are ex-officio members. They are secretary information, secretary interior, chairman FBR, and chairman PTA. Seven other members are taken from the general public. Representation from all the provinces is ensured while appointing these members. Its head office is in Islamabad and regional offices at all provincial head quarters. It has also established sub-offices at Mirpur, Sargodha,

Gujranwala, Faisalabad, Multan, Sialkot, Gilgit, Hyderabad, Dera Ismail Khan, Abbottabad and Sukkur. All operational activities are managed through these offices.

Functions of the Authority

The Authority is responsible for facilitating and regulating the establishment and operation of all private broadcast media and distribution services in Pakistan established for the purpose of international, national, provincial, district, and local or special target audiences. PTV and Radio Pakistan are not controlled. Its main functions are as under:1. Regulates the establishment and operations of private electronic media in Pakistan. 2. Issues licenses for broadcast media in following categories: a. International and National scale stations. b. Provincial scale broadcast c. Local area or community based Radio and TV broadcast. d. Specific and specialized subjects. e. Distribution services. f. Uplinking facilities. 3. Regulates distribution services for broadcast in Pakistan. 4. Regulates distribution of foreign and local TV and radio channels in Pakistan. 5. Prescribes standards for establishment of broadcast media stations, installation of broadcasting, distribution services, transmitters, receivers , boosters, converters, distributors and common antennas. 6. Can authorize any of its 0fficers to conduct inspection of any broadcasting stations or distribution services. 7. Can levy a fine of Rs one million, revoke or suspend the license on nonpayment of renewal fee or on the violation of any provisions of PEMRA ordinance. It can also seal the premises or seize the equipment on violation.

Code of Conduct
No program shall be aired which:

Passes derogatory remarks against any religion. Promotes communal or sectarian disharmony Contains anything obscene or indecent. Contains abusive comment against individuals or group of individuals. Contains anything defamatory or false. Likely to encourage violence. Contains anything amounting to contempt of court. Contains aspersions against armed forces. Maligns any individual. Brings into contempt Pakistan or its people. Contains material which is detrimental to the Pakistans relations with other countries Against ideology of Pakistan. No objectionable language in children programs No programs against sanctity of home and family Expunged remarks will not be broadcast.

Code of ethics for advertisements

1. The advertisement conforms to the law of the land and is not offensive to morality, decency and religious sects of the people. 2. No advertisement shall be permitted which:

Promotes sedition, anarchy or violence. Is against any provision of constitution of Pakistan. Glorifies lustful passion or alcoholic drinks or non-Islamic values. Distorts historical facts, traditions of Pakistan or the person of national leader or a state dignitary. Fans racial, sectarian, parochial or class hatred. Promotes social inequality and degrades concept of human dignity and labour. Is directed against sanctity of home, family and marriage. Airing or telecasting of false ads. Contains indecent themes. Contains themes which are against the ideology of Pakistan. Urge children directly to purchase goods of a particular brand or ask their parents to do so.

3.The advertisement should not take the form of news or documentary. 4. All channels are bound to have maximum12 minutes duration per hour for advertisements. 15 channels were fined Rs. One lac each in last one year for violating this provision of PEMRA Rules. 5. All channels are required to air/telecast public health and public service messages free, like messages for prevention of epidemics and flood victims. 6. The propagation of banned outfits /individuals is also prohibited. Council of complaints. Councils of complaints have been constituted at Federal and provincial levels by PEMRA with a view to receive complaints from general public on the television programs telecast by private TV channels. After processing these complaints the council recommends appropriate action to the PEMRA, which takes action against concerned channel or cable network. The Council of complaint monitors at random all aspects of broadcasts, including the programs content, quality of standards of the transmissions of the broadcasts or cable TV stations. It thus performs the duties of watchdog of cultural norms and cultural values. But its role is only recommendatory and it cannot initiate any action against any broadcasting station or cable network. Financial position. PEMRA enjoys sound financial position as it earned Rs. 591 million through different sources in last financial year. The major heads of its income are cable license fee, FM licensing fee, and broadcasting channels licensing fee.

The licenses issued by PEMRA


2. 3.



6. 7.

Satellite TV channels. PEMRA has granted 85 licenses to private satellite TV channels out of which 69 are operational. Eleven registered companies hold the landing right permission for marketing and distributing 26 satellite TV channels across Pakistan. Cable TV Licenses. PEMRA has issued 2500 cable TV licenses so far in whole of Pakistan. FM Radio Licenses. PEMRA has granted 138 FM Radio licenses out of which 114 licenses are commercial while 24 are non-commercial. Amongst the commercial licenses 94 are operational while 20 are still not operational. In 24 noncommercial licenses 21 are operational. Uplinking. Up linking means the transmission of a signal from a ground station on Earth to satellite. There are two kinds of up linking; short term and long term. Three companies have been granted long term up linking permission while four companies have been granted short term up linking permission. Multi-Channel Multi-Point Distribution Service.(MMDS) It is known as wireless cable. This service was started in 1996 with 10 television channels. Now 80 channel are using this facility. Three companies hold licenses for using this facility. Around 330500 people with television through this facility in Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Sahiwal, and Okara. Direct to Home(DTH). It means direct reception of TV channels. The licensing regime for the award of DTH licenses including eligibility criteria, terms and conditions, bidding procedure etc is in the process of finalization by PEMRA. Mobile TV. It is latest technology to provide TV services on mobile and hand held devices. Three mobile TV licenses have been issued by PEMRA. At presen t Mobilink and Telenor are using this service and providing television service on mobile.

Bottom of Form

Handout 15

Press Laws in Pakistan

All the countries have certain laws to check the press from saying/writing any thing which is against the solidarity of the country, or which is detrimental to the collective welfare of the society or which gives out state secrets and cause agitation. Besides the laws framed by the government the journalists are required to follow the code of ethics which has universal acceptance. In developing countries like Pakistan, where democracy has not yet been fully established the press is regulated more by executive authority of the government than judiciary. It places the press in an environment where the fear of punishment is the main restricting force than enlightened principles of free press. In our country government has two kinds of pressures to control the press. They are visible and invisible measures which are as under: Visible measures All enactments, regulations and ordinances made by the government to regulate the press. The violation/infringement of these entail punishment in the form of imprisonment, fine, confiscation, or closure, of the particular journalist or publication. Invisible measures

Cancellation of state advertisements Delay in payment Bestowing/withdrawing perks. Withholding newsprint


Veiled suppression Clause 124-A . this clause was introduced in1837 by East India Company to punish journalists for criticizing the government. It was retained by Government of Pakistan after independence and made part of Pakistan Penal Code (PPC). Under this clause a number of politicians and journalists were punished by the government. Nawaz sharif, when he was prime minister, included this clause in anti terrorist ordinance and instituted case against Mir Shakil ur Rehman, Dr Maliha Lodhi, and reporter Saeed Ahmed for publishing a poem against Nawaz sharif. But later on it was withdrawn after the protest of APNS. Clause 505-A. This is also a PPC clause and can be used against the journalists. It says that if any person creates hatred amongst different groups of society or armed forces would be liable to undergo imprisonment for a period of two years or fine or both. Official Secrets Act. Under this act all those including journalist who disclose state official documents branded as secret can be punished with imprisonment or fine or both. Foreign Relations Act. This act binds the newspapers not to publish any material which might defame the rulers or premiers of friendly countries. Defaulters could undergo 2 years imprisonment or fine or both. Telegraph Act, this act allows the authorities to check the messages sent through telegraph services during emergency. Messages found against the interest of state can be stopped. This act can be applied on journalists as well. Post Office Act. According to this law objectionable newspapers may be denied postal services. Sea customs Act. Under this law Custom authorities may check and seize any parcels containing publications banned in Pakistan. Security of Pakistan Act. Clause 11 and 12 are meant for journalists. Under clause 11 government can demand from newspapers to disclose the source of information, pertaining to national security and international relations. Under clause 12 censorship can be imposed on press or newspaper can be closed down when the security of defense or international relations are under threat. Law and order Ordinance. This law was promulgated in 1960. It empowers the executive to close down newspaper or a magazine for a certain period of time if it indulges in a breach of law and order situation. Clause 292. Under this law government can close down the press which published immoral or obscene material and prosecute the publisher. Contempt of Court Law. Contempt of court has been made a cognizable offence under clause 499 and 500 of PPC. A journalist can be charged for contempt of court, if he/ she commits following: Disrepute a court, judge or magistrate. Comment on subjudice cases. To write or publish such matter which could affect the opinion of the people before judgment is given by the judge. Not obeying the rulings given by the judge during the trial of a case. After a person is arrested for an offence but the trial is yet to start, comments will be taken as contempt of court.

b. c. d. e. f. g. h.

i. j. k.

A person committing contempt of court may be punished with 6 months imprisonment.


Law of Libel Slander. Unwritten defamation is called slander. Libel. Written defamation is called libel. Defamation is spreading hatred, mockery or feelings of disliking and disrespect against a person through oral or written means which lowers his esteem in the eyes of public. Usually defamation cases end up in paying compensation which may amount to millions of rupees. These are called damages and decided by court keeping in view the status of defamer and defamed. Inability to pay damages results in imprisonment Exemptions.

_ When newspaper can prove veracity of allegation. _when newspaper comments collective character of individual. _if one year has passed after publishing _if newspaper prints apology, the gravity gets reduced. m. Copy Right Act. It enables an author to protect his creation. It is like registration of property. Copy Rights Act prohibits other persons to reproduce novels, dramas, books, journals, articles, maps, paintings, tunes, cartoons, photographs, movies etc without the consent of creator. This act safeguards the right of a creator to gain financial benefit from his creation. He can pass on this right to any other individual, institution or nation. Copy right act does not apply after 50 years of the death of author. n. Pakistan safety Act. This act was imposed after independence. Under this law government could declare any written as contrary to the law and order and take action against printer and publisher. The newspaper or magazine could be closed down for any period of time and the publisher could be given three years imprisonment. Action was taken against Faiz Ahmed Faiz, editor Imroze and Nawa I Waqt by Dultana ministry under this act. o. Wage Board Awards. So far 5 wage boards have been constituted from time to time. These boards have determined wage, leave entitlement, provident fund, emoluments, protection of job,timings of duty and other misc provisions about employment. These are mandatory provisions and the administration of newspaper/journal is bound to administer these failing which legal action could be taken against.


Press and Publication Ordinance (PPO) 1960. The important aspects are as under: Declaration. It will be issued by District magistrate after satisfying that printer/publisher has not been convicted in last five years, has sufficient capital to run the newspaper/ magazine and educated preferably in journalism. He could refuse declaration if he finds that newspaper could be used for negative purposes. The applicant may go in appeal. Final decision rests with the government. Ownership. Foreigners are not permitted to own a newspaper or hold shares without from the government. Even then he will not be allowed to own more than 25% shares. Parliamentary Proceedings. Newspapers would not publish off the record proceedings of provincial and national assembly. Speaker has the right to prohibit publishing of the part of the proceedings which he considers against public or state interest. Court proceedings. If the judge of the court rules against publishing of court proceedings then newspapers are bound to act accordingly. Various punishable offences. Under clause 24(1) a list of punishable offences have been provided. The important ones are as under:Incitement of violence. Glamourizing sex and crime Black mailing Indecent, vulgar, abusive and defaming conten Rumour mongering Expressing views against creation of Pakistan Inciting agitation against government Creating bitterness with a friendly state Demoralizing armed forces or police Penalty by courts. Only court will award six months imprisonment or Rs 2000 fine or both for offences mentioned below:Not publishing the print line Operating a printing press without declation False declaration Printing, publishing or editing a newspaper against the ordinance. Inquiry commission. Under article 35Government IS empowered to appoint an inquiry commission to investigate some affairs of newspapers. Tribunal for appeal. An appeal can be lodged by any aggrieved newpaper aginst any government order. The tribunal will be equivalent of the civil court and its verdict will be ultimate and irrevocable. Registration of Printing Press and Publication ordinance-1988. This ordinance was promulgated after a decision by Federal Shariat Court against PPO 1960 and the death of President Zia in a plane crash. Its prominent provisions (which are different than the ones given in PPO 60 are given below) If the district magistrate does not issue declaration within 4 months the declaration will be considered issued automatically. Decision of district magistrate will be challenged in the court If a newspaper is not published within three months of declaration it will be cancelled. If printer/publisher wants to change the language, location of press and publishing time, district magistrate ought to be informed. New declaration not required. Change of province will require new declaration. Provision of submitting bank guarantee by publisher /printer was relaxed. Intelligence/ police report for issuing declaration was dispensed with. Printer/publisher were granted the right of appeal against the decision of district magistrate/tribunal. High court was asked to give verdict within 90 days on the appeal of printer/publisher. New Presidential Press Ordinance 1995.The clauses pertaining to declaration, publishing the name of publisher and printer, restriction on foreigner to publish and publishing the content remain almost the same as mentioned in RPPPO-1988.Clauses regarding defamation has been made more strict as the period of imprisonment has been fixed and the amount of fine has also been laid down. It was nto done in RPPO-88. Pakistan Press Counsil ordinance 2002. The newspapers have been bound to comply with the code of conduct jointly prepared by the representatives of the government and press. PEMRA 2002. The electronic media has been bound to comply with the code of conduct prepared by the Government.



s. t.

Handout 16


Press Council of Pakistan

Establishment of the Press Council .

The ordinance for the establishment of Press Council of Pakistan was issued on 26 Oct 2002,but it came into being recently when President Zardari announced the appointment of Justice Abbasi as the president of Press Council of Pakistan (PCP). It has been established to implement the Ethical Code of Practice. The head office of the Council shall be at Islamabad. The sub-offices of the Council may be established one in each provincial capital. The Council shall have its own ancillary professional and secretarial staff to be appointed on such terms and conditions as may be prescribed. The Council shall make decisions through a majority vote. In case of a tie, the Chairman shall have a casting vote.

Composition of the Council.


The Council shall consist of nineteen members including a Chairman.

(2) The Chairman shall be appointed by the President of Pakistan, in his discretion, from amongst retired judges of the Supreme Court or a person qualified to be judge of the Supreme Court .Other members shall be nominated as under:(a) Four members by the All Pakistan Newspapers Society. (b) Four members by the Council of Pakistan Newspaper Editors. (c) Four members by the professional bodies of journalists: Provided that none of the organizations mentioned above shall nominate any member from its office bearers, nor any member of the Press Council shall contest an office of the Organization. (d) Vice Chairman Pakistan Bar Council. (e) Chairperson or nominee of the Higher Education Commission. (f) One member by the Leader of the House on the National Assembly. (g) One member by the Leader of the Opposition in the National Assembly. (h) One mass media educationist to be nominated by the Council. (i) One women member to be nominated by the National Commission on the Status of Women in Pakistan. 3) The members of Council, excluding the Chairman, shall not be entitled to any salary and shall function in honorary capacity, except out of pocket expenses as may be prescribed. The Chairman shall be entitled to such salary, allowances and privileges as may be prescribed.

Nomination of members.
(1) All organizations and bodies representing the press and the public as mentioned in section 6 shall send the nominations to the Registrar within thirty days of the commencement of this Ordinance in accordance with such procedure as may be prescribed. (2) The Government shall notify within thirty days the names of the persons nominated as members under section 6 and every such nomination shall take effect from the date on which it is notified in the Official Gazette.

(3) The Chairman shall hold office for a period of three years. No person shall hold office as Chairman for more than two consecutive terms. (4) Subject to sub-section (5), (6) and (7) a member shall hold office for a term of three years. (5) Any member, including the Chairman, shall be removed by the Government upon the passing of a resolution for his removal by two-third majority of the total strength of the Council on the ground of misconduct, incapacity, and impropriety or moral turpitude. (6) The Chairman may resign his office by giving notice in writing to the Council and any other member may resign his office giving notice to the Chairman. (7) Where a vacancy is caused due to death, resignation or removal, the vacancy shall be referred to the professional body being represented by the member to replace the member with a suitable representative. The member so nominated shall hold office for the remaining term of the member in whose place he has been nominated. In case of Chairman, the vacancy shall be filled in the manner as provided in sub-section (1) of section 6. (8) The Council, subject to rules, shall appoint its Registrar and such officers and servants as it considers necessary for the efficient performance of its functions on such terms and conditions as it may deem fit. The first Registrar shall be appointed by the Federal Government, as possible, after the commencement of this Ordinance.

Functions of the Council.

(1) The Council shall perform the following functions, namely: (i) The Council, while preserving the freedom of the press, shall maintain highest professional and ethical standards of newspapers and news agencies with a view to making them more responsive to the issues and concerns of the society in Pakistan. (ii) to help newspapers and news agencies to maintain their independence; (iii) to keep under review any development likely to restrict the dissemination of news of public interest and importance; (iv) to revise, update, enforce and implement the Ethical Code of Practice for the newspapers, news agencies, editors, journalists and publishers as laid down (v) to receive complaints about the violation of Ethical Code of Practice relating to newspapers, news agencies editors and journalists; (vi) to appoint Enquiry Commissions to decide complaints at the head office, all provincial sub-offices and regions, as the case may be necessary for its proper functioning; (vii) to manage the funds and properties of the Council; (viii) levy and collection of fees as may be prescribed; (ix) control and audit funds of the Council; (x) to exercise such control and disciplinary powers over the members and employees of the Council as may be prescribed; (xi) to make regulations; (xii) to undertake all research relating to the newspapers, including the studies of foreign newspapers, their circulation and impact; (xiii) to undertake any additional studies as may be entrusted to Council by the Government; and (xiv) to do such other acts as may be incidental or conducive to the discharge of above functions. (2) The Council shall also act as a shield to freedom of the press. It may receive a complaint by a newspaper, a journalist or any institution or individual concerned with a newspaper against Federal Government, Provincial Government or any organization including political parties for interference in the free functioning of the press.

Inquiry Commission.
(1) The Council shall constitute as many Inquiry Commissions as may be necessary for the purpose of deciding complaints. (2) The Commission shall consist of three members to be appointed by the Council, consisting of the following; (a) One retired High Court Judge or a person qualified to be the judge of the High Court as Chairman. (b) One nominated by APNS, and (c) One nominated by CPNE;

Appeal to the Council.

(1) An aggrieved party may prefer an appeal to the Council within thirty days from the decision of the Commission. (2) The appeal against the decision of the Commission shall be heard by a committee of five members of the Council constituted by the council. (3) No member shall be appointed either the member of the Commission or member of a committee constituted for the hearing of appeal who is directly or indirectly related to the parties or is interested in them.

Procedure for Filing Complaint
(1) Every complaint made to the Council shall contain a statement in a concise form of the material on which the complainant relies and all contents shall be divided into paragraphs, numbered consecutively, and dates sums and numbers shall be expressed in the figures. . (2) The Commission, as the case may be, shall dispose off a complaint referred to it within thirty days. If an appeal against the decision of the Commission is preferred to the Council, the Council shall decide the same within sixty days . Action in case of Violation of Directions of the Commission or Council . Whoever publishes or circulates any matter in contravention of the Ethical Code of Practice or directions of the Commission or Council may; (a) require him to publish an apology promptly on the page specified by the Commission or the Council, as the case may be; (b) issue him a warning to be carried or circulated by the newspaper or news agency concerned promptly and prominently; and (c) ask other newspapers to publish or news agencies to circulate the decision, in case of non-compliance of the decision by concerned newspaper or news agency and recommend to the competent authority to suspend the publication for a specific period not exceeding seven issues or recommend cancellation of the declaration in the event of persistent non-compliance.

Power of the Council Censure. Where the Council has reason to believe that a newspaper or news agency has offended against any provision of the Ethical Code of Practice, the Council may, after giving the newspaper, or news agency, the publisher, editor or journalist concerned, an opportunity of being heard, hold an inquiry in the matter and, if it is satisfied that it is necessary so to do, it may, for reasons to be recorded in writing, warn, admonish or censure the newspaper, the news agency, the publisher, editor or the journalist or disapprove their conduct. Indemnity.
No suit or legal proceedings shall lie against the Council or Commission, or any member or employee thereof or any authority or person, in respect of anything done or intended to be done in good faith under this Ordinance or the rules or regulations made thereunder. .

Ethical Code of Practice

An Ethical Code of Practice is formulated as under for the press for the purpose of its functioning in accordance with the canons of decency, principles of professional Conduct and precepts of freedom and responsibility to serve the public interest by ensuring an unobstructed flow of news and views to the people envisaging that honesty, accuracy, objectivity and fairness shall be the guidelines for the press while serving the public interest in any form of publication such as news items, articles, editorials, features, cartoons, illustrations, photographs and advertisements; etc (1) The press shall strive to uphold standards of morality and must avoid plagiarism and publication of slanderous a libelous material. (2) The Press shall strive to publish and disclose all essential and relevant facts and ensure that information it disseminates is fair and accurate. (3) The press shall avoid biased reporting or publication of unverified material, and avoid the expression of comments and conjecture as established fact.

(4) The Press shall respect the privacy of individuals and shall do nothing Which tantamount to an intrusion into private, family life and home. (5) Rumors and unconfirmed reports shall be avoided and if at all published shall be identified as such. (6) The information, including picture, disseminated shall be true and accurate. (7) The Press shall avoid originating, printing, publishing and disseminating any material, which encourages or incites discrimination or hatred on grounds of race, religion, caste, sect, nationality, ethnicity, gender, disability, illness, or age, of an individual or group. (8) The press shall not lend itself to the projection of crime as heroic and the criminals as heroes. (9) The press shall avoid printing, publishing or disseminating any material, which may bring into contempt Pakistan or its people or tends to undermine its sovereignty or integrity as an independent country. (10) The press shall rectify promptly any harmful inaccuracies, ensure that corrections and apologies receive due prominence and afford the right of reply to persons criticized or commented upon when the issue is of sufficient importance. (11) Sensationalism of violence and brutalities shall be avoided. All reporting shall be accurate, particularly when court proceedings are covered and an accused person must not be presented as guilty before judgment has been pronounced. (12) In the case of sexual offences and heinous crime against children, juveniles and women, names and identifying photographs shall not be published. (13) Confidentiality agreed upon at briefings and background interviews must be observed. (14) The press while publishing findings of opinion polls and surveys shall indicate the number of people, geographical area on which the polls and surveys were conducted, and the identity of the poll-sponsor. (15) Any kind of privilege or inducement, financial or otherwise, which is likely to create conflict of interest and any inducement offered to influence the performance of professional duties and is not compatible with the concept of a reputable, independent and responsible press, must be avoided.

All Pakistan Newspapers Society

All Pakistan Newspapers Society (APNS) is the organization of the major Pakistani newspapers owners. Its election is held every year and three major groups of newspapers are the major players, and they are: Jang Group, Dawn Group and Nawa-i-Waqt Group. In the year 1953, it was decided to form the All Pakistan Newspapers Society, merging all the existing groups of publishers. It was also decided to establish the headquarters of this organization at Karachi, as at that time the majority of the major publications originated from there. It took some time to be organized on a professional basis. The formation of an organization of publishers was critically required to facilitate the exchange of their views on matters of common interest among newspaper owners. The APNS successfully afforded to newspaper owners the means to watch over, protect, preserve and promote the rights and interests of the newspaper industry on matters directly or indirectly affecting their rights and interests. The APNS remained very active in handling the problems faced by its members vis--vis the provincial and central governments relating to advertisements, clearance of dues, taxes and duties and newsprint. It became a force to be reckoned with in the publishing and advertising world and laid down rules of conduct for member publications as well as the advertising agencies. One of the major rules framed being the accreditation of advertising agencies by the All Pakistan Newspapers Society, introducing security deposits and clearance schedule to member publications within a specified period. Nonpayment of bills of any publications, big or small, carried the penalty of suspension till such time that all the bills were cleared. Thus the Society has successfully evolved a mechanism of streamlining advertisement and clearance system protecting the collective interests of its member publications, advertising agencies as well as advertisers. The APNS Secretariat not only handles the complaints of its members against nonpayment by advertising agencies but it also puts its best efforts to settle the disputes between advertising agencies and their clients. The significance of this Organization is duly reflected in the fact that it provides a bridge between the newspapers and the advertising agencies. It was an accepted reality that the newspapers and the advertising agencies are the two wheels of the same carriage and not antagonistic rivals. They compliment each other and the existence of one is inextricably linked with that of the other. However, in order to make the liaison between newspapers and advertising agencies closer and firmer the APNS had taken positive steps to consolidate the mutual relationship. The Society also endeavored to encourage, promote and develop the science and art of journalism and newspaper industry and in this connection, in 1981, the APNS instituted advertising awards in various categories to promote advertising, particularly designing and copy writing, giving a big fillip to advertising profession in Pakistan. Subsequently the Journalist Awards were launched in 1982. The awards ceremonies are being

regularly held since 1981. The APNS has extended its protective umbrella to publications from small towns and also to the regional language press that had enhanced the representative character of the Society. Over the years the APNS has grown into a true representative body of newspapers and magazines all over the country. In 1971 there were 41 publications on the roll of the Society whereas in 2003 the number rose to 262. The member publications are rapidly adopting modern techniques and facilities and trained manpower in all fields to cope with the challenges ahead especially due to the growth of the electronic media. It is heartening that many newspapers and magazines brought out in Pakistan maintain journalistic and publishing standards in line with the international press and are enjoying the facilities offered by information technology.

Awards of the APNS

Journalists and advertisers both are encouraged to achieve the best by standards set by the APNS. Should they surpass these standards, they receive awards at an annual awards ceremony (the last of which was held on 31 March 2006). The Advertising Awards were initiated in 1981, with Journalist Awards following in 1982. Advertising Awards are given on a 1st, 2nd, 3rd basis and include: Business Performance Awards Client Performance Awards Product Launch Award Best Copy Award (English and Urdu) Best Visual Design (colour and black and white) Public Service Campaign The Journalist Awards, however, are awarded differently, with only one person winning each category. The categories include: Best Scoop Best Column Best Feature (English, Urdu, Regional) Best Investigative Report Best Cartoon Best Photograph Best Article (English, Urdu, Regional) The Wage Board Award is a salary package given to newspapers. The APNS has been consistently denying the Wage Board award to its journalists, and has come under fire for it but consistently refuses to give it, which, according to the Pakistan Federal Union of Journalists, is against the law, but no one dares to do anything against the countys elite. To sum up, then, the APNS is a clearing house and an enforcer of press freedom rules/laws. It is quite successful with the former the latter is not as easy. The freedom of the media in Pakistan has come a long way, even though it might not have reached where it has without the contribution of the APNS.

Pakistan Federal Union of Journalists (PFUJ)

Pakistan Federal Union of Journalists (PFUJ) is body which safeguards the interests of working journalists both at collective and individual levels. It claims to be the South Asias first association representing the journalists of an entire country. To its credit, in the 50-odd years since its inception it hasPFUJs constitution was adopted at the Pakistan Working Journalists Convention , which was held in Karachi in April of 1950. Delegates from home as well as from abroad took part in the event which paved the ground for the establishment of PFUJ... As per its constitution, PFUJ was to work towards the betterment of the economic conditions of journalists. It was also tasked with the onerous responsibility of creating conditions in which the media could work without coercion and intimidation

Council of Pakistan Newspaper Editors

The Council of Pakistan Newspaper Editors (CPNE) has worked since its foundation in 1957 as the combined body of Newspaper Editors in Pakistan to campaign for defence of press freedom and the right of access to information in the service of democratic practice and strengthening of democratic institutions in the country. The members of this s organization of the newspapers Editors have also adopted a Code of Ethics which lays down the norms for maintaining the dignity of the print media as a non-partisan and professional high standard in member publications in respect of publications of news, views, comments and other write-ups. The CPNE has maintained collaborative relations with several international print media organizations and has also sought the promotion of bilateral and regional ties among the newspaper editor bodies of the countries in the region and the world. In keeping with the UN Charter, the CPNE in its code of ethics has placed great stress on defending fundamental human rights in which access to information is of great and critical significance. The CPNE has sponsored collaboration at the SAARC level and at the bilateral level with neighboring countries. Currently this organization is faced by internal rifts which has led to its bifurcation. One group is led by Khushnood Ali Khan, while Mr Athar leads the second group. The litigation is continuing.

National University of Modern Languages Mass Communication Department End Term Examinations- December 2011

1. Write short notes on the following:

a. b. c.

Contempt of Court Law of Libel Registration of Printing Press and Publication Ordinance 1988.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

What is composition of Press Council of Pakistan and how the nomination of members is carried out? Discuss. What is PEMRA and what are its major functions? Elaborate. PEMRA has prepared a code of conduct which is to be followed by all satellite channels. Describe any ten points from it. What do you know about APNS? What are the awards distributed by APNS among journalists? Discuss. Write brief notes on the following:

a. b.