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Demam Infections such as pneumonia, bone infections (osteomyelitis), appendicitis, tuberculosis, skin infectionsor cellulitis, and meningitis Respiratory

infections such as colds or flu -like illnesses, sore throats, ear infections, sinus infections,infectious mononucleosis, and bronchitis Urinary tract infections Viral gastroenteritis and bacterial gastroenteritis Pada awal permulaan penyakit AIDS, dapat terjadi demam terus-menerus mencapai 39 derajat, disebut Aids Related Complex (ARC)

Children may have a low-grade fever for 1 or 2 days after some immunizations Teething may cause a slight increase in a child's temperature, but not higher than 100 F. Autoimmune or inflammatory disorders may also cause fevers. Some examples are:

Arthritis or connective tissue illnesses such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus

Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease Vasculitis or periarteritis nodosa The first symptom of a cancer may be a fever. This is especially true of Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and leukemia. Other possible causes of fever include:

Blood clots or thrombophlebitis Medications, such as some antibiotics, antihistamines, and seizure medicines Chest Pain Pulmonary embolism Pneumonia Pneumothorax Bronkitis

Tuberculosis Lung Malignancy Sindrom koroner akut Stable angina pectoris Myocarditis Aritmia Aneurisma aorta Hyperventilation syndrome Myocardial infarction Pericarditis Aortic dissection Peptic ulcer


Anemia (including iron deficiency anemia) Depression or grief Medications such as sedatives or antidepressants Persistent pain Sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, or narcolepsy Thyroid gland that isunderactive or overactive Use of alcohol or drugs such as cocaine or narcotics, especially with regular use

Fatigue can also occur with the following illnesses:

Addison's disease Anorexia or other eating disorders Arthritis, including juvenile rheumatoid arthritis Autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus Cancer Congestive heart failure Diabetes Fibromyalgia

Infection, especially one that takes a long time to recover from or treat, such as bacterial endocarditis(infection of the heart muscle or valves), parasitic infections, AIDS, tuberculosis, and mononucleosis

Kidney disease Liver disease Malnutrition Poliuria 1. Intake cairan berlebih. Misalnya pada polidipsia primer, kondisi ini terjadi pada orang dengan gangguan psikologis yang mana orang tersebut tidak sadar minum air begitu banyak. 2. Peningkatan muatan cairan tubular. Intinya muatan yang terkandung di dalam darah meningkat melebihi kondisi normalnya. Misalnya saja kadar ureum meningkat pada gagal ginjal kronis atau kadar glukosa meningkat pada diabetes mellitus. 3. Gradien konsentrasi medula yang terganggu. Penyebabnya adalah penyakit pada medula ginjal seperti nefrokalsinosis, nefropati analgesik, nekrosis papiler ginjal atau penyakit kistik medula. 4. Menurunnya produksi hormon antidiuretik (ADH) pada diabetes insipidus. Kondisi ini bisa terjadi karena ada trauma kepala, atau tumor pada hipotalamus maupun hipofisis sehingga terjadi gangguan produksi ADH. Disebut juga diabetes insipidus kranial. 5. Respon tubular terhadap ADH terganggu. Kalau yang ini, ADH-nya berhasil diproduksi. Cuma sayangnya tidak bisa direspon. Akibatnya terjadi hiperkalsemia, menurunnya kadar kalium, toksisitas lithium, dan bisa diwariskan ke keturunannya karena dapat bertaut dengan kromosom X. Kondisi ini disebut juga diabetes insipidus nefrogenik. 6. Poliuria juga bisa terjadi karena orang tersebut baru saja sembuh dari obstruksi (penyumbatan) saluran kemih sehingga urinenya baru bisa keluar dan langsung tergolong banyak jika dibandingkan normal. Oligouria


Dehydration is the most common cause of decreased urine output. Typically, dehydration occurs when you are ill with diarrhea, fever, or another sickness and cannot replace the fluids that you are losing and your kidneys retain as much fluid as possible. Infection Infection is a less typical cause of oliguria. A severe infection can lead the body to go into shock, which reduces the blood flow to your organs. Shock is a medical emergency and requires immediate attention. Urinary Tract Obstruction A urinary tract obstruction, or blockage, occurs when urine cannot leave your kidneys. This can affect one or both kidneys and usually results in a decreased urine output. A blockage can also cause other symptoms, such as body pain, nausea, vomiting, swelling, and fever. Medications Some medications may cause you to release less urine. Medicines that are known to possibly cause this condition include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), high blood pressure medications (ACE inhibitors), and gentamicin (a type of antibiotic). If your medication is causing you to release less urine, you should discuss your concerns with your doctor. He or she may change your medication or adjust your current dosage. Never change your dosage or stop taking a medication without first consulting your doctor.

Edema Causes of edema include

Eating too much salt Sunburn Heart failure Kidney disease Liver problems from cirrhosis Pregnancy Problems with lymph nodes, especially after mastectomy Some medicines

Standing or walking a lot when the weather is warm

Edema can also result from medical conditions or problems in the balance of substances normally present in blood. Some of the causes of edema include: Low albumin (hypoalbuminemia): Albumin and other proteins in the blood act like sponges to keep fluid in the blood vessels. Low albumin may contribute to edema, but isn't usually the sole cause. Allergic reactions: Edema is a usual component of most allergic reactions. In response to the allergic exposure, the body allows nearby blood vessels to leak fluid into the affected area. Obstruction of flow: If the drainage of fluid from a body part is blocked, fluid can back up. A blood clot in the deep veins of the leg can result in leg edema. A tumor blocking lymph or blood flow will cause edema in the affected area. Critical illness: Burns, life-threatening infections, or other critical illnesses can cause a whole-body reaction that allows fluid to leak into tissues almost everywhere. Widespread edema throughout the body can result. Edema and heart disease (congestive heart failure): When the heart weakens and pumps blood less effectively, fluid can slowly build up, creating leg edema. If fluid buildup occurs rapidly, fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema) can develop. Edema and liver disease: Severe liver disease (cirrhosis) results in an increase in fluid retention. Cirrhosis also leads to low levels of albumin and other proteins in the blood. Fluid leaks into the abdomen (called ascites), and can also produce leg edema. Edema and kidney disease: A kidney condition called nephrotic syndrome can result in severe leg edema, and sometimes whole-body edema (anasarca). Edema and pregnancy: Due to an increase in blood volume during pregnancy and pressure from the growing womb, mild leg edema is common during pregnancy. However, serious complications of pregnancy such as deep vein thrombosis and preeclampsia can also cause edema. Cerebral edema (brain edema): Swelling in the brain can be caused by head trauma, low blood sodium (hyponatremia), high altitude, brain tumors, or an obstruction to fluid drainage (hydrocephalus). Headaches, confusion, and unconsciousness or coma can be symptoms of cerebral edema.

Medications and edema: Numerous medications can cause edema, including:

NSAIDs (ibuprofen, naproxen) Calcium channel blockers Corticosteroids (prednisone, methylprednisolone) Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone Pramiprexole Bleeding Traumatic Bleeding Traumatic bleeding is caused by an injury. Injuries can vary in severity, but most will cause bleeding to some degree. Common types of traumatic injury include:

abrasions or grazes that do not penetrate below the skin hematoma or bruises lacerations or incisions puncture wounds from items such as a needle or knife crushing injuries gunshot wounds (caused by a weapon such as a gun) Medical Conditions There are also a number of medical conditions that can cause bleeding. This is generally rarer than traumatic bleeding but can still happen to varying degrees. Conditions that can cause bleeding include:

haemophilia leukemia liver disease menorrhagia thrombocytopenia Von Willebrands disease vitamin K deficiency brain trauma bowel obstruction congestive heart failure

lung cancer acute bronchitis Medicines Some medicines can increase your chances of bleeding or even cause bleeding. Typically, you will be warned about this and advised what to do when you are first prescribed the medication. Medications that may be responsible for bleeding include:

blood-thinning medications antibiotics, when used on a long-term basis radiation therapy Xerostomia -

AIDS juga menimbulkan kelainan di dalam mulut yang tidak diketahui penyebabnya
dehydration pain relievers stress appetite suppressants autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis or Sjgren's syndrome botulism chemotherapy radiation therapy of the head and neck blood pressure medication antidepressants urinary incontinence medications tranquillizers marijuana

Trombosis Pada kelompok pasien tertentu telah dikenali bahwa mereka terutama cenderung mengalami thrombosis : Gagal jantung kongestif kronik Penyakit aterosklerosis vaskuler

Keganasan Pasien yang hamil Pasien yang diimobilisasi setelah pembedahan

Anemia Defisiensi zat besi, Apabila jumlah besi menurun terus maka eritropiesis semakin terganggu sehingga kadar hemoglobin mulai menurun, akibatnya timbul anemia hipokromik mikrositer, disebut sebagai iron deficiency anemia. Leukimia akut Thalasemia mayor Pasca perdarahan akut Kehamilan Long-term (chronic) diseases such as chronic kidney disease, cancer, ulcerative colitis, or rheumatoid arthritis Oral Burning Sensation
damage to nerves that control pain and taste hormonal changes dry mouth, which can be caused by many medicines and disorders such as Sjgrens syndrome or diabetes nutritional deficiencies oral candidiasis, a fungal infection in the mouth acid reflux poorly-fitting dentures or allergies to denture materials anxiety and depression.

Dyspnea Sindrom koroner akut Gagal jantung kongestif Asma COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) Pneumothorax

Pneumonia Anemia, level hemoglobin yang rendah Anaphylaxis Pulmonary embolism

Certain foods. The things you eat contribute largely to your oral health, including your breath. Items such as garlic and onions, or any food, are absorbed into the bloodstream, become transferred into the lungs, and are expelled in the air you breathe. Until that food becomes eliminated by the body, it has the potential to affect a person's breath. Poor oral health care. Without proper and consistent brushing and flossing, and routine examinations by your dentist, food remains in the mouth, which is a breeding ground for bacteria. Food that is allowed to collect on the teeth, gums, and tongue may rot, which causes an unpleasant odor and taste in the mouth. Improper cleaning of dentures. Dentures that are not cleaned properly may be collecting bacteria, fungi, and remaining food particles, which cause bad breath. Periodontal disease. One of the primary symptoms of this gum disease is foul, odorous breath, and an unpleasant taste in the mouth. This condition requires immediate car e by an oral health professional. Xerostomia (dry mouth). This condition is often a primary contributor to halitosis. Characterized by a significant decrease in saliva production, the mouth is unable to cleanse itself and remove debris and particles left behind by food. Xerostomia may be caused by certain medications, a salivary gland disorder, or by continuously breathing through the mouth instead of the nose. Tobacco products. Not only do tobacco products such as cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and snuff stain the teeth and put the body at risk for a host of diseases, they also contribute to bad breath. Tobacco users also are at an increased risk for the following: Periodontal disease A loss of taste abilities Irritated gums Oral cancer A medical condition. Bad breath may be an indicator or symptom of any of the following conditions. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Consult your physician for a diagnosis: A respiratory infection Diabetes A gastrointestinal disorder A liver or kidney disorder



Infection: Regional lymphadenopathy draining primary infection: Viral: adenovirus, mumps, enterovirus, arbovirus, rubella, herpes simplex virus,infectious mononucleosis Bacterial: staphylococcal and streptococcal infection, tuberculosis (TB), cat scratch disease, brucellosis, plague, filariasis,tularaemia, syphilis, melioidosis, glanders,lymphogranu loma venereum (chlamydia),chancroid, scrub typhus Fungal: blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis Protozoal: trypanosomiasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis Generalised lymphadenopathy: many of the infections above show a predisposition to certain sites but may also cause generalised lymphadenopathy, particularly secondary syphilis. Others causes include: Viral, eg HIV, cytomegalovirus (CMV), hepatitis B, mumps, measles, dengue fever (arbovirus) Bacterial, eg TB, typhoid fever, septicaemia Protozoal, eg toxoplasmosis, visceral leishmaniasis Primary haematological causes: Leukaemia Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (including mycosis fungoides) Myeloproliferative disorders, (including polycythaemia rubra vera) Regional lymphadenopathy draining local malignancy Granulomatous lymphadenopathy, eg TB, leprosy, atypical mycobacteria, Crohn's disease, Wegener's granulomatosis Other causes include sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, dermatomyositis, Sjgren's syndrome, and drug reactions (eg penicillins,allopurinol, captopril, carbamazepine)

Weight changes Pada awal permulaan penyakit AIDS, berat badan turun tanpa sebab

Albuminuria manifestasi kardinal dari penyakit ginjal kronis