15 views

Uploaded by Iastra

fluid mechanics introduction

- Syl
- Oscillating Flow of a Simple Fluid in a Pipe
- Introduction to Fluid Mechanics
- MCP Methods
- Boundary
- Fluid and Particle Dynamics in an Aerosol
- What is the Importance of Reynold Numbers in Flow of Fluid
- SIMULATION-85624049-210616-0120-15522.pdf
- Fluids 1
- Fluent-Intro_14.5_L03_Turbulence&HeatTransfer&Transient.pdf
- Fluid Mechanics Chemical
- fluid-mech.pdf
- 04-Boundary_Conditions.pdf
- Syllabus
- Syllabus GEEN 3311 101 Spring 12-13 D
- 12 Fluid Dynamics
- huser1993
- Fluid Mechanics From the Beginning to the Third Millennium
- lect22_2
- UNSTEADY THREE-DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL STUDY OF LAMINAR FLOW IN SUDDEN EXPANSION CHANNEL(EFFECT OF ASPECT RATIO)

You are on page 1of 49

by J ames O. Wilkes

Arthur F. Thurnau Professor

Emeritus of Chemical Engineering

University of Michigan

Wednesday 16 February 2011

wilkes@umich.edu

Southampton (England) Guildhall Organ (Oct. 2010)

Published in 2006

I: Macroscopic FM

II: Microscopic FM

773 pages

82 Examples

(incl. 14 CFD)

352 Problems

Two-phase flow

Microfluidics

Computational

fluid dynamics

Two parts, with opportunities

for questions after each.

Macroscopicor relatively large-scale

phenomena: basic & simple concepts of mass,

energy, and momentum balances commensurate

with the PE and FE examinations.

Microscopicor small-scale phenomenastarts

with the relatively complicated partial differential

mass and momentum equations of fluid motion.

Solutions are often best made by computational

fluid dynamics (CFD) software.

Part I

Macroscopic Fluid Mechanics

Characteristic of a Fluid

FluidDeforms continuously when subject to a tangential

or shear force.

Velocity profile: shows how velocity varies with position;

note the no-slipcondition at each surface.

StressForce Per Unit Area, F/A

(a) Normal stress = F/A: pressure is the most important case.

(b) Shear stress = F/A: acts tangentially to an area (that due to

viscosity is important example).

(a)

(b)

Viscosity

For Newtonian fluids (a broad class), the shear stress = F/A (A =

area of plate) is proportional to the velocity gradient du/dy, in

which the constant is the viscosity (with dimensions M/LT):

=

du

dy

=

V

h

.

Volume and Mass Flow Rates (Fluxes)

(a) Uniform velocity

Volumetric flow rate: Q = uA

Mass flow rate: m = Q = uA

Momentum flow rate:

(b) Variable velocity

M

.

= mu = u

2

A

Q= udA,

A

m = udA,

A

M

.

= u

2

dA.

A

The diagram shows a system and transports to and from it. Ignoring the

created and destroyed terms (necessary for reactions but generally not needed in

fluid mechanics), the basic conservation or balancelaw is:

X

in

X

out

= X

System

x

in

x

out

=

dX

System

dt

.

Or, if x (lower case) denotes a rate of transfer of property X, then:

(1)

(2)

Energy Balance (Bernoullis Equation)

Assumptions:

Steady flow

No work effects (no pump or turbine)

Frictionless (OK for short runs of straight pipe)

Incompressible (constant density)

Under these circumstances, the sum of the kinetic energy, potential, and

pressure energy remains constant between points 1 and 2:

u

1

2

2

+ gz

1

+

p

1

=

u

2

2

2

+ gz

2

+

p

2

A related form is also available if there are significant work and frictional

effectsespecially useful for pumping and piping problems. Eqn. (1) can also

be divided through by g, so each term has units of length, called either the

velocity, hydrostatic, or pressure head,with H being the constant total head.

u

1

2

2g

+ z

1

+

p

1

g

= H =

u

2

2

2g

+ z

2

+

p

2

g

(1)

(2)

Dynamics of a

distillation

column

Whats the

connection

between

this photo

and the

dynamics

of a plate

distillation

column?

End of Part I

Questions?

Part II

Microscopic Fluid Mechanics

Representative Computational Fluid

Mechanics (CFD) Software

(Usually based on the finite-element, finite-

difference, or finite-volume methods)

Adina

Ansys

COMSOL

Flow-3D

Fluent

FlowLab

FloTHERM

OpenFOAM

OpenFLOWER

Etc.

For a good overview, see:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computational_fluid_dynamics

Screw Extruder for Increasing the

Pressure of a Polymer Before a Die

r

Axis of

rotation

Metering section

Feed hopper

Barrel

Flights

Exit

to die

Screw

Primary feed

heating region

W

L

0

Compression

section

Motion of Barrel as Seen by an Observer

on ScrewCouette (Relative Motion) +

Poiseuille (Pressure-Driven) Flow

x

W

h

Flight axis

Flight

Screw

Barrel

V

x

V

y

V

Flight

z

y

Cross Section between Barrel

(Moving Left) and Screw (Fixed)

p =0

z

x

y =0

x =0

2

4

No slip

x =0.1

y =0.005

1

3 No slip No slip

=800

=500

V

x

= - 0.1

A

B

1

2

3

4

Barrel

Screw

Plots: Arrows, Streamlines, Isobars

Horace Lamb (18491934)

(to the British Association for the

Advancement of Science, 1932)

I am an old man now, and when I die and go

to heaven there are two matters on which I

hope for enlightenment. One is quantum

electrodynamics, and the other is the turbulent

motion of fluids. And about the former I am

rather optimistic.

Arrows and Streamlines for Turbulent

J ets

Turbulent Kinematic Viscosity

T

Turbulent Kinetic Energy k

Flow of a shear-thinning polymer in a die

(a) Extrusion from a pipe forming a tube

(b) Rotation, also

exploiting symmetry

Velocities

A B

A

B

x

+

+

+

+

Stern

layer

Potential

(negative)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

-potential (negative)

Diffuse layer

x = 0

y

Solid

surface

E

y

= 0

+

Electric Double Layer

=

dV

dy

x

-potential

The electric potential rises to

zero over a very thin electric

double layer next to the wall

Debye length,

D

0

v

y

v

y

=

y

E

x

Velocity

Profile

Electric

Potential

The velocity changes quickly

from zero at the wall to a

constant value everywhere else

0

(constant)

Electroosmosis (Multiphysics problem:

Navier-Stokes + Conductive Media DC )

Channel Geometry

H =0.00005, L =0.0005 m, = 0.1 V

Finite-element Mesh

y

x

y =0

x =0

2

x =L

y =H

1

3

4

A

B C

D

Electric insulation

Electric insulation

1 V

0 V

Velocity Vectors (Arrow Plot)

Streamlines

Electroosmotic Switching1

Electroosmotic Switching2

End of Part II

Questions?

Postscript

Whats the

connection

between this

Memphis juke

box and fluid

mechanics?

Thanks for

your attention!

- SylUploaded byShreyas Gupta
- Oscillating Flow of a Simple Fluid in a PipeUploaded bysaede
- Introduction to Fluid MechanicsUploaded byBima El-Mubarok
- MCP MethodsUploaded byAlfie Cocteau
- BoundaryUploaded byromankov
- Fluid and Particle Dynamics in an AerosolUploaded byPankaj gupta
- What is the Importance of Reynold Numbers in Flow of FluidUploaded byyowma
- SIMULATION-85624049-210616-0120-15522.pdfUploaded byasheruddin
- Fluids 1Uploaded bysirali94
- Fluent-Intro_14.5_L03_Turbulence&HeatTransfer&Transient.pdfUploaded byWedye Bagonk
- Fluid Mechanics ChemicalUploaded byUday Prakash Sahu
- fluid-mech.pdfUploaded byAbhipraya Tiwari
- 04-Boundary_Conditions.pdfUploaded byPatrick Silva Oliveira
- SyllabusUploaded byFarwa Rizvi
- Syllabus GEEN 3311 101 Spring 12-13 DUploaded byluqmansulyman
- 12 Fluid DynamicsUploaded byscsa31619
- huser1993Uploaded byMaiman Lato
- Fluid Mechanics From the Beginning to the Third MillenniumUploaded bychuchmv
- lect22_2Uploaded byhubuyar
- UNSTEADY THREE-DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL STUDY OF LAMINAR FLOW IN SUDDEN EXPANSION CHANNEL(EFFECT OF ASPECT RATIO)Uploaded byIAEME Publication
- Fluidity.manual.v.4.1.12Uploaded byAnonymous SlyvspdB
- Critical VelocityUploaded bykalimullah_km
- ART2Uploaded byLuca Simone
- ReducedUploaded byVinay Gupta
- Heat Chap06 039Uploaded byKerem Gönce
- lec36.pdfUploaded byPradyumna Nahak
- Hydraulics Plate 3 & 4asUploaded byNero James Sia
- lec49_nptel_fluid_mechnicsUploaded bySouvikJana
- DantanUploaded byhazemismaeelradhi
- HP 48G Calculator Operations and Review of Fluid MechanicsUploaded byMaría Soledad Regidor

- Fungal Biodegradation of Melanoidin in Distillery SpentwashUploaded byIastra
- STP - Layout IdeasUploaded byIastra
- mass transfer operations model questionsUploaded byIastra
- Status of Water Treatment Plants in IndiaUploaded byRiga Edwards
- Relatório de Avaliação Ambiental e Social – RAAS.pdfUploaded byIastra
- STP Process Flow DiagramUploaded byIastra
- Cpcb Guidelines Analytical Methods - Stp 07.11.2014Uploaded byIastra
- CT Tables - Using USEPA TablesUploaded byIastra
- Protein StructureUploaded byIastra
- Noise Pollution - Prevention and Control -Rules 2000 & Laws & Noise Limits - IndiaUploaded byIastra
- time management & communication skillsUploaded byIastra
- Petroleum Refining IWW Case Study - FinalUploaded byIastra
- Rapid EIA report of an alumina refineryUploaded byIastra
- Petroleum Refineries Waste Water - AssignmentUploaded byIastra
- Air Quality Modelling - Basic TypesUploaded byIastra
- Thermal PollutionUploaded byIastra
- Constructed Wetland - CopyUploaded byIastra

- Design of Heat Transfer Exchanger 2015Uploaded bysandiksha
- HES Bid Set Fire Protection DrawingsUploaded byMansoor Abdul Khader
- 15015 LP Turbine- Stator BladeUploaded byLTE002
- HydraulicsUploaded byEzra Ahumuza
- Krasnov AerodynamicsUploaded bySerdar Bilge
- 2015Trondheim_SubmarineDesignLightUploaded bymehrzad rahdar
- Coupled Pressure Based All Speed SolverUploaded byapoorvs75
- Mae130B+syllabusUploaded byWinslow Thai
- Auto PipeUploaded bysyedatifmalik
- DMV_SE_507_525_GB_Data_Sheet_226609Uploaded bySyed Ghazanfar Ali
- API 570 Course Notes- JoshiUploaded byPrabhakar Kattula
- Aerodynamic Analysis of the NREL 5-MW WindUploaded byaqstax
- jameshUploaded byjammu_d_gr8
- Non Uniform FlowUploaded byhelloyou101
- (Exp # 5)Energy Losses in BendsUploaded byhamZA
- 117_jaa_principles_of_flight_demo.pdfUploaded byLay Almeida
- Equipment and Piping 2Uploaded byDenstar Ricardo Silalahi
- MechannovaUploaded bymasiclj
- Pe 010 403 Hydraulic MachinesUploaded byRandel Rodrigues
- Piping Engineering CourseUploaded bynaveenbaskaran1989
- Flow Measuring DevicesUploaded byAbdul Moeed Kalson
- ValveUploaded byKaran Singh
- entahhhhhUploaded byZati Thz
- Inlets for High Angle s of AttackUploaded bymistrycs
- ASME B31.1 Power Piping Brochure 2014Uploaded byJozsef Magyari
- Bell Delaware Math Cad ExampleUploaded byMohammed A Isa
- CP Catalog 09SUploaded byAyaz
- exp 4.5Uploaded byneez_aryu
- Menter Sst NasaUploaded bytornapp
- (Thai)a Study of Flow in an Ejector Equipped With Variable Throat Area of the Primary Nozzle Using CFD SimulationUploaded byvahidnodet