The need to communicate is part of mans inherent being. Since the beginning of time the human race has communicated using different techniques and methods. Circumstances and available technology have dictated the method and means of communications. Many early forms of communication were writing, depicted on cave walls. Then communication advanced by the development of language and the use of symbols. Papyrus and paper were used to record communication for later use. Smoke signals of the early American Indians; the drums of African tribes; and the towers of the Chinese wall are indications of the desire to communicate beyond the immediate physical boundaries of space. Story tellers around the camp-fire are a good example of communication, using animation, gestures and sound to communicate their message to other members of the tribe. Communication is the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. It is the process of imparting ideas and making oneself understood by others. Communication (from Latin "communis", meaning to share) is the activity of

conveying information through the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, writing, or behavior. Although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender. Hence the requisites of Communication: A sender, a message, a channel and a recipient.


The Nature of communication can be explained using following characteristics of communication: • Two-way process: Communication can occur only when there are at least two individuals. One person has to convey some message and another has to receive it. However, the receiver need not necessarily be an individual. Information may be conveyed to a group of persons collectively. For example, in a classroom, the teacher conveys information to a group of students. If the receiver needs any clarification, he can ask the sender of message immediately, for example, face to face or telephonic conversation. Communication may carried by means of letters, circulars etc. If communication is conducted via post or email, the receiver may respond by a letter or as per the mode desired by him or the respective sender. • Knowledge of language: For successful communication, it is essential that the receiver have thorough understanding of the message. To heighten the possibility of effectual communication, senders must speak in a language the receiver is familiar with. For example, if the receiver cannot understand English and the subsequent sender conveys his ideas in English, the communication will inevitably be a failure. • Meeting of minds necessary: The receiver must comprehend the intended meaning of the message the sender wants him to understand. A consensus is essential, which is nothing but recognizing the meaning of identity of minds. If weekly target declared by a supervisor is misconstrued by a worker as monthly target, there is dearth of agreement. Inattention, poor vocabulary, faulty pronunciation etc., may result in lack of consensus. • The message must have substance: The gist of the message holds importance only until the receiver shows interest in the subject matter. In other words, the sender of message must have something worthwhile for the receiver. E.g., any discussion about cricket will be well received by a cricket fanatic. • Communication can also be conducted through gestures: Communication should not necessarily be verbal or written. Certain gestures or actions can also depict an individual's


willingness or understanding of a given problem. Nodding of heads, rolling of eyes, movement of lips etc., are some of the gestures used for convey certain basic ideas. • Communication is all-pervasive: Communication is omnipresent; it exists in all levels of management. The top management conveys information to the middle management and vice versa. Similarly, the middle management conveys information to the supervisory staff and vice versa. There is flow of communication in all directions in a workplace. • Communication is a continuous process: In every workplace, someone will always be conveying or receiving information in some form. Sharing or exchanging information is a continual process. As long as there is work – personal, official or unofficial, communication will exist.  Communication may be formal or informal: Formal communication follows the hierarchythe official channel established. For example, when a worker wishes to convey certain information to the production manager, it can be channelized only through the foreman. He cannot bypass the foreman and convey information directly to the production manager. Informal communication does not follow the official channel. It provides individuals with the liberty to freely convey information to anybody else without considering the hierarchy. For example, discussion among friends.


The types of communication can be explained by the following figure: TYPES OF COMMUNICATION




Facial Expressions



Postures and Body Orientation



A. Verbal Communication: Anything spoken by mouth is called oral communication. Whatever is uttered from the mouth comprises words and the manners of pronouncing words. The manner of pronouncing words is called articulation. Verbal Communication includes: 1. Oral communication: Oral communication, while primarily referring to spoken verbal communication, can also employ visual aids and non-verbal elements to support the conveyance of meaning. Oral communication includes speeches, presentations, discussions, and aspects of interpersonal communication. As a type of face-to-face


communication, body language and choice tonality play a significant role, and may have a greater impact upon the listener than informational content. This type of communication also garners immediate feedback. 2. Written communication: Over time the forms of and ideas about communication have evolved through progression of technology. Advances include communications psychology and media psychology; an emerging field of study. Researchers divide the progression of written communication into three revolutionary stages called "Information Communication Revolutions". During the first stage, written communication first emerged through the use of pictographs. The pictograms were made in stone; hence written communication was not yet mobile. During the second stage, writing began to appear on paper, papyrus, clay, wax, etc. The third stage is characterized by the transfer of information through controlled waves and electronic signals

B. Nonverbal Communication: Nonverbal communication describes the process of conveying meaning in the form of non-word messages. Research shows that the majority of our communication is non verbal, also known as body language. In fact, 63-93% of communication is non-verbal.

1. Eye contact: This helps to regulate the flow of communication. It signals interest in others and increases the speaker's credibility. People who make eye contact open the flow of communication and convey interest, concern, warmth, and credibility.

2. Facial Expressions: Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits happiness, friendliness, warmth, and liking. So, if you smile frequently you will be perceived as more likable, friendly, warm and approachable. Smiling is often contagious and people will react favorably. They will be more comfortable around you and will want to listen more.

3. Gestures: If you fail to gesture while speaking you may be perceived as boring and stiff. A lively speaking style captures the listener's attention, makes the conversation more interesting, and facilitates understanding.


4. Posture and body orientation: You communicate numerous messages by the way you talk and move. Standing erect and leaning forward communicates to listeners that you are approachable, receptive and friendly. Interpersonal closeness results when you and the listener face each other. Speaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided as it communicates disinterest.

5. Proximity: Cultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interaction with others. You should look for signals of discomfort caused by invading the other person's space. Some of these are: rocking, leg swinging, tapping, and gaze aversion.

6. Vocal: Speaking can signal nonverbal communication when you include such vocal elements as: tone, pitch, rhythm, timbre, loudness, and inflection. For maximum teaching effectiveness, learn to vary these six elements of your voice. One of the major criticisms of many speakers is that they speak in a monotone voice. Listeners perceive this type of speaker as boring and dull.



Noise Noise
Sender has idea Feedback 5 travels to sender

Noise Noise


Sender encodes idea in 2 message

Message travels over channel

Receiver decodes message



Possible additional feedback to 6 receiver



The process of communication as shown in above figure involves exchange of ideas and it can be verbal or non-verbal in nature. The pre-requisite of communication is a message and this message must be conveyed through some medium to the recipient in such a way that it is understood by the recipient in the same manner as intended by the sender. The recipient must respond within a period. The response from the recipient to the sender is called feedback. Therefore, communication is said to be a two way process, which is incomplete without a feedback from the recipient to the sender on how well the message is understood by him.

Following are the components of the process of communication.


1. Context: Communication is affected by the context in which it may be physical, social, chronological or cultural. Every communication proceeds with context. The sender chooses the message to communicate within a context. E.g. The term Labor in relation to manpower or work load.

2. Sender / Encoder: Sender / Encoder is a person who sends the message. A sender utilizes symbols (words, graphic required response. For instance a training manager conducting training programme for new joiners. Sender may be an individual group or an organization.

3. Message: Message is a key idea that the sender plans to communicate. It elicits the response of the recipient. Communication process begins with the planning of the message that needs to be conveyed. One must understand that the content of the message is comprehensible. 4. Medium: Medium is a means of transmitting the message. The sender must chose the proper medium as there are high changes that it may not reached the receiver in a desired manner. The choice of correct medium is important for making the communication effective. However the choice of medium will depend on the feature of the given communication.
5. Recipient / Decoder: Recipient / Decoder is a person for whom the message is intended / aimed / targeted. The degree to which the decoder understands the message is depends on various factors like knowledge of recipient, their responsiveness to the message and the reliance of encoder on decoder. 6. Feedback: Feedback is the main component of communication process as it permits the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It helps the sender in confirming the correct interpretation of message by the decoder. Feedback may be verbal or non-verbal (in form of smiles, sighs, etc.). It could also be in written form (memos, reports, etc).


Effective communication can face multiple barriers. In business communication, obstacles occur because of organisational barriers. The obstacles could be: • Size of organisation • Physical distance between employees • Specialisation of jobs, activities • Power struggles, status of relationships • Defensiveness, distorted perceptions, guilt, distortions from past • Misleading body language, tone or other non-verbal communication • Interpersonal relationships (individual or groups) • Prejudices • The channels used to communicate The barriers to effective communication are as follows: 1. Language Barriers: Clearly, language and linguistic ability may act as a barrier to communication. However, even when communicating in the same language, the terminology used in a message may act as a barrier if it is not fully understood by the receiver(s). For example, a message that includes a lot of specialist jargon and abbreviations will not be understood by a receiver who is not familiar with the terminology used. Regional colloquialisms and expressions may be misinterpreted or even considered offensive.

2. Psychological Barriers: The psychological state of the receiver will influence how the message is received. For example, if someone has personal worries and is stressed, they may be preoccupied by personal concerns and not as receptive to the message as if they were not stressed. Stress is an important factor in Interpersonal relationships.


3. Physiological Barriers: Physiological barriers may result from the receiver‟s physical state: for example, a receiver with reduced hearing may not grasp to entirety of a spoken conversation especially if there is significant background noise.

4. Physical Barriers: An example of a physical barrier to communication is geographic distance between the sender and receiver(s). Communication is generally easier over shorter distances as more communication channels are available and less technology is required. Although modern technology often serves to reduce the impact of physical barriers, the advantages and disadvantages of each communication channel should be understood so that an appropriate channel can be used to overcome the physical barriers. 5. Systematic Barriers: Systematic barriers to communication may exist in structures and organizations where there are inefficient or inappropriate information systems and communication channels, or where there is a lack of understanding of the roles and responsibilities for communication. In such organizations, individuals may be unclear of their role in the communication process and therefore not know what is expected of them. 6. Attitudinal Barriers: Attitudinal barriers are behaviors or perceptions that prevent people from communicating effectively. Attitudinal barriers to communication may result from personality conflicts, poor management, and resistance to change or a lack of motivation. Effective receivers of messages should attempt to overcome their own attitudinal barriers to facilitate effective communication.


Communication plays a very important role in an organisation. In fact, it is said to be the lifeline of the organisation. Everything in the universe, human or otherwise, communicates; though the means of communication may be very different. Communication is very crucial and unavoidable, as we have certain views and opinions, which we want to convey to another person, group or even to the outside world. Communication in an organisation is inevitable. Departments communicate on a periodic basis in respect to daily activities and the organization‟s relationship with the external world. This is done via written and unwritten means, either planned or impromptu. It could be hierarchical, that is, from top to bottom or vice versa. It could be formal, informal, vertical, horizontal or diagonal. Irrespective of the means, modes or types of communication, occurrence of communication is essential and of prime importance. Communication within an organisation could be grapevine or rumor. In totality, communication in an organisation is very complex and needs to be correctly managed handled and monitored to avert chaos, crisis or conflict. The basic functions and roles of the management cannot be conducted without communication. Planning organizing, coordinating, budgeting, monitoring, controlling, staffing, delegation; including marketing, production, financing, staffing (human resource managing), research and development, purchasing, selling, etc cannot be coordinated, harnessed and their goals achieved devoid of communication. Communication plays a key role in meetings, annual general meeting ordinary meeting, urgent meeting, etc. The effectiveness of an organisation also depends on the success of its meetings where goals to be achieved, targets to be met and activities to be carried out are ironed out and discussed. If the ideas are not comprehended at meetings, the workers are bound to then one need to be sure that the workers will mess up everything. Thus, the chairman of the meeting must be an effective speaker or communication capable of ensuring that everyone got what has been discussed correctly. This will help eradicate rumors and grapevine and eventually achieve set standards, goals and/or objectives. In conclusion, everyone in an organisation needs to have good communication skill, not the boss only, but also the subordinates.

1. Effective Functioning of the Organization: The efficient functioning of the organisation totally depends on the effective communication system. A business organisation consists of people and network of decision affecting them. Managing an organisation is getting things done through others Communication serves the management and makes everyone aware of what the organisation wants to achieve. 2. Smooth Running of the Organisation: A smooth running of an organisation greatly depends on the effective system of communication. It is only through a good and effective office communication system that effective leadership, good human relations, high morale and motivation in the organisation can be maintained to ensure success of management objectives. 3. Proper Planning and Co-ordination: Plans and decisions must be effectively conveyed to those who translate them into action. Effective communication is essential for quick and successful implementation of the management decisions. Good communications are essential to co-ordination. Effective communication is a pre-requisite for solving managerial problems. 4. Exchange of Information: Communication helps executives to acquire more knowledge. It also facilitates executives to share the acquired knowledge with their subordinates which results to increase in the overall managerial skill of people in the organization. It also helps in understanding the problems and offering solutions to them. 5. Human Relations: Most of the conflicts arise due to misunderstood motives and ignorance of facts. Proper communication helps to minimize friction and maximize mutual understanding, cooperation and goodwill. A good relation can be created with the help of an effective method of communication.


1. Horizontal Communication: Horizontal communication involves relaying information between people who occupy the same position in a business. The information is relayed in an informal manner. It encourages cooperation and understanding between the employees. Horizontal communication is crucial to the success of a business. If a business has employees working in the same position that does not get along, information will not be relayed properly, leading to lack of efficiency. Good horizontal communication builds stronger relationships between workers. When the workers understand each other well, they are more likely to work more efficiently. 2. Downward Communication: It means the flow of communication from the top management downward to the operating level. It may also be called a communication from a superior to a subordinate. It follows the line of authority from the top to the bottom of the organization hierarchy. Downward communication consists of plans, instructions, orders, rules etc. 3. Upward Communication: Upward communication means the flow of information from the lower levels of the organization to the higher levels of authority. It passes from subordinate to superior, for example, from worker to foreman from foreman to manager, from manager to general manager, etc. Communication of this type includes ideas, suggestions, complaints, appeal, ports etc. Upward communication is very important as it serves as the feedback on the effectiveness of downward communication.


Negotiation: It is a win win situation where both the parties should come together and proposals should be fulfilled without harming each other. Meeting: It is the transformation time among the member of the office where the ideas for improvements are taken. Conferences.: Event Large gathering of individuals or members of one or several organizations, for discussing matters of common interest.


Business writing is an art. Even though letters have transformed into e-mails and SMS, it is still venerated as an art; only the medium has changed. Letters can be broadly classified in two categories- formal letters and informal letters. Formal letters comprise official letters, business letters, letters of complaints, applications, letters to editors etc. while informal letters take account of personal letters, letters that are written to our friends and family. While writing formal letters a certain format has to be adhered to but while writing informal letters, one can be flexible. However, letter writing is a skill that needs to be honed over time with practice.

Certain ground rules need to be followed while writing business writings: • Write your full name, address and date before you begin the letter • The name and the designation of the person you are writing to should be correct. • Start the letter with 'Sir/Madam' or 'Dear sir/Madam' and then mention the name and the address. • State the purpose of the letter in one line titled 'Subject' before beginning to write the letter. • Your letter should be very crisp and precise, giving only the information, which is required. • Your letter should clearly state action/information required/supplied or requesting action to be taken. • While closing, end your letter politely by using phrases like 'thanking you' and undersigning your letter using 'Yours faithfully/sincerely' (Name).

Although this is the basic structure of a letter, it can be appropriated to suit the purpose for which it is written and the person to whom it is addressed. For example, a job application should have a resume enclosed or attached, and this should be mentioned in the application.


Employees' writing skills - or the lack of them - substantially affect the bottom line in ways you may never have considered. Here are just a few:

* Badly written instructions can lead to incorrect procedures, lost time, damaged equipment, lost customers - and lost profit. * Ineffective letters, which often took too long to write in the first place, can create a poor company image, wasted time, bad customer or supplier relations, lost customers - and lost profit. * Interdepartmental miscommunication - often through incomprehensible e-mail exchanges an result in fragmentation of the workforce, loss of corporate loyalty, missed collaboration and innovation opportunities, possibly lost employees resulting in more recruitment and training costs - and lost profit. * Cold, impersonal „boilerplate‟ letters in response to customers' problems or complaints can lead to loss of those customers, bad news spread to their friends and colleagues, loss of present and future income - and lost profit.

Mangled syntax can cause expensive confusion, inconvenience or even danger. Here are just a few examples:

1. A consultant's proposal on a new benefits package for his corporate client read, "By paying a 5% premium on wages, all employees will be enrolled in the company insurance program". Who was supposed to pay the 5%? According to this sentence, the employees would be liable to pay but in reality the company is suppose to pay. It should have read, 'By paying a premium of 5% of wages, the company can enroll all employees in its insurance program'. There is a gaping difference between both.

2. A passenger broke into the flight deck on a commercial airplane. Subsequent investigation revealed that written regulations said, "The doors to the flight deck must be locked only on takeoff and landing". What exactly does that mean? Must they be unlocked at other times or are

they simply permitted to be unlocked at other times? Misinterpretation of this ambiguous message almost resulted in disaster. 3. An airport terminal sign read, "No smoking areas available". Does that mean there are no areas for people to smoke or does it mean there are areas set aside for non-smokers?

4. A company tried to cancel a contract, believing the contract allowed it to do so under current conditions. However, because of the incorrect placement of a comma in the agreement, the other party contested the cancellation and successfully sued the company for $1.2 million. The comma proved to be very expensive.


A business letter is a formal letter of correspondence and is often used to convey official messages. It is usually written by one company to another, to clients, to customers and to any other third party. A well-written business letter helps in enhancing the chances of achieving good friends and good business ventures. Business letters should be written in the correct format. Even before the reader actually reads the letter, the format catches his eyes. Focus on the key points, which grasp the reader‟s attention like the reason for the letter, qualification, experience, date, time, venues etc. • It should be written in a warm and polite tone but not too personal. • Always address a person rather than a department or in general, the supervisor as it gives a personal touch to the letter and grabs the reader‟s attention. • The body of the letter is very important. Clearly mention what and why you are writing about and what action you expect on the letter. Give the details for the request, e.g. attach a resume, invoice receipt etc. • Always keep the letter short and precise. Do not write lengthy letters, be specific and to the point as the reader might not like to spend too much time reading the letter. • Business letter should have a reference that gives the reader knowledge about contents of the letter . • End the letter by restating the reasons for writing the letter and thanking the reader for their time and effort. A Business letter should follow the rule of AIDA (Attention / Attract, Interest, Desire, Action) • Attention/Attract: To grab the attention of the reader, potent words, or pictures can be used. The e-mails should have subject lines that encourage recipients to open them and read the contents. E.g. People can be encouraged to attend a company training session on giving feedback by incorporating the email headline, „How effective is your feedback‟?, which is more likely to grab attention than the purely factual one of, „This week's seminar on feedback‟.

• Interest: The reader should be able to pick out the messages that are pertinent to them quickly. Bullets, subheadings and breaking up the text make the central points of the text stand out. • Desire: As you build the reader's interest, you also need to help them understand that what you are offering can help them in a real way. The main way of doing this is by appealing to their personal needs and wants. • Action: Finally, be very clear about what action you want your readers to take rather than just leaving people to work out what to do for themselves. E.g. order a product, send a report etc.


When creating business letters, employ 8 ½" by 11" unlined paper. Although 24- pound paper with 100+ brightness is a little more expensive, it will make a superior impression than mundane copy paper. Use 1" margins on all four sides. Use a serif font such as Times Roman (12 point), Arial (12 point) or Georgia (11 point). A business letter should be single-spaced and if possible, typed on a computer. Print the letter on only one side of the paper. Fold the letter horizontally into thirds. Mail the letter in a No. 10 security envelope (4 1/8" by 9 ½").

There are several business letter formats, but all of them can be subdivided into two basic groups: the block format and various indented formats. Although the block format is somewhat more common, (perhaps because it is easier), either one is acceptable. All conventional formats contain the same features. The common formats that are been observed are as follows:

1. Return address of the letter writer. 2. The date of the letter 3. Complete name, title and address of the recipient 4. Salutation with a colon 5. Body of the letter 6. Closing 7. Enclosures


There are various kinds of business letters for different purposes. They are divided into two types: the business to business type and the business to client type. A. Business-to-business types are intended for company to company communication. Examples are: • Appreciation letter is a letter of gratitude and appreciation for help extended or a good business deal • Thank you is a letter of gratitude • Congratulations is a letter that praises the recipient for a job well- done • Letter of recognition is a written statement of recognized efforts similar to an appreciation letter • Letter of reference is a character reference letter. It is a letter building up the character of a person to be accepted in a job. • Recommendation is an endorsement letter to hire a certain person • Sympathy letter is a letter of condolences to a person or family • Invitation letter is a letter persuading a person or a company to join an event or an occasion • Letter of credit is a way of endorsing a certain business to be considered for a credit loan • Letter of interest is a reply to an invitation that confirms presence on the event/occasion • Business memorandum is notices that are distributed to the staff. They are reminders of company activities or imminent changes in the company. • Business introduction is done to introduce a new business to the readers • Business letter is a letter that talks about the plans for the business • Donation letter is a letter asking for donations • Termination letter is more popularly known as a resignation letter. It signifies someone's desire to leave a job permanently.

B. Business-to-Client letters are: • Welcome letter welcomes the client and thanks him for choosing the company. • Letter of appreciation thanks the client for having business with the company.

• Apology letter asks the client for reconsideration and apologizes for failing to deliver. • Collection letter gives a notice of outstanding payments due. • Invoice letter template asks the clients to state the invoice number of their transaction. • Letter of invitation invites a client to join a certain gathering. • Marketing letter states the newest products that the company will provide soon or is presently providing. • Rejection letter states the rejection of the client's request.

Business letters are more formal in writing. Follow the formats strictly. Be concise, clear and direct to the point.


1. Confirmation Letter:

12th January 2012 KIND ATTENTION: Mr. O‟Donovan Eugene Northstar Healthcare Limited, 3300 Cork, Airport Business Park, Dublin – Ireland.

Dear Eugene, As per our last teleconference on 5th Januay 2012, Monday, I am pleased to confirm the business meeting between „Alembic Phrmaceuticals Limited „ and „ Northstar Healthcare Ltd‟ at 10 am on 12th March 2012 on Monday at Alembic’s CPHi stall ( Stall Number A – 18). The attandes from Alembic Ltd. for this meeting would be Dr. Ashwin Rao ( Associate Vice – President : Business Development)and Mr. Nirav Chudgar ( General Manager – Business Development). As I mentioned you in the telephonic talk, „Alembic Phrmaceuticals Limited „ is interested in the new range of products that it can market in Europe territory. The detail agenda of the meeting would be mailed to you latest by 19th January 2012 before 13.00 hours GMT( Irish timings). Warm Regards, Mr. Bankesh Patel . Manager – International Business Unit.

Alembic Pharmaceuticals Limited I Alembic Road I Vadodara I Phone: 0265 – 3007718 I Website: www.alembic – india .com

2. Acknowledgement Letter:

Date: 20th January 2012 KIND ATTENTION: Mr. Bankesh Patel Alembic Pharmaceuticals Limited, Alembic Road, Vadodara - 390008 Gujarat – India.

Dear Mr. Bankesh Patel, With reference to your letter dated 12th January 2012, I acknowledge the receipt of the agenda of the meeting on behalf of „Northstar Healthcare‟. As per our last teleconference on 19 th Janaury 2012, the NHL representatives would be Mr. Jimmy Morrisey and Mr. Colm Moyniham. NHL would be sending you the signed business agenda latest by 24th January 2012 at your designated office address. The tracking number of the same would be available to you by mail latest by 21st January 2012.

Thanking you in anticipation,

Best Regards. Eugene – Planner – NHL

Northstar Healthcare I Alembic Road I 3300 Cork I Airport Business Park I Dublin I Ireland


3. Enquiry Letter:

18th March 2012 KIND ATTENTION: Dr. Ashwin Rao – Associate Vice President – Business Development, Alembic Pharmaceuticals Limited, Alembic road, Vadodara – 390007 Dear Dr. Rao, Greetings for the day! It gives me an immense pleasure to inform you that the latest strategic alliance between „ Pfizer Inc‟ and „ Alembic Pharmaceuticals Limted‟ for developing and marketing „Azithromycin 250 mg tablets‟ in Asia Pacific territory has crossed a sales of USD 5 million in the financial year 2011 – 2012. However Pfizer Inc. Market Research team has identified a new business opportunity for „Azithromycin 500 mg tablets‟ in Asia Pacific region whose IMS sales for the current financial year is estimated at of USD 5 million and market growth is estimated at 10% per annum. As „ Alembic Pharmaceuticals Limted‟ has the licensed to develop and market „Azithromycin 500 mg tablets‟ in Asia Pacific territory; „ Pfizer Inc‟ would be interested in accsessing the „Alembic Pharmaceuticals Limted‟ product dozzier. This is new a business opportunity for „ Alembic Pharmaceuticals Limted‟ and the company would be interested for this product. I am expecting the product dossier latest by 31 st March 2012, so that necessary arrangements can be done from our side. Sincerely, Mr. Milin Sonawane. Pfizer Pte Ltd, 1 Science Park Road, Science Park II, #04-01, The Capricorn, Singapore 117528 ; Phone: +65 6403 8888 Website: http://www.pfizer.com.sg


4. Reply Letter: 27th March 2012 KIND ATTENTION: Mr. Milin Sonawane. Pfizer Pte Ltd, 1 Science Park Road, Science Park II, #04-01, The Capricorn, Singapore 117528 Dear Mr. Milin, Thank you for your letter dated 18th March 2012, enquiring about our „Azithromycin 500mg tablets‟. I am also pleased to hear the favouable comments about „Azithromycin‟ in Asia Pacific region. I am enclosing the product dozier giving full information about the product technicalities, protocols and the specifications. Please do not hestitate to contact me and I shall ensure that the your inquiries would be addressed on time.

Best Regards, Dr. Ashwin Rao. Associate Vice President – Alembic Pharmaceuticals Limited.

Alembic Pharmaceuticals Limited I Alembic Road I Vadodara I Phone: 0265 – 3007718 I Website: www.alembic – india .com


5. Collection Letter: 5th June 2012 KIND ATTENTION: Mrs. Monica Garmonnn Heritage Pharmaceuticals Inc, 105 Fieldcrest Avenue Edison, NJ 08837, United States.

Dear Mrs. Monica, On 28th May 2012, we wrote you to remind you that your April 2012 statement showed a balance of USD 4500/ - against Invoice number 221085 dated 4th April 2012. This amount is outstanding and is due for payment. Settlement of this accounts is necessary as there is two months delay. We kindly request you to send the payment earliest so that future dispatches are not impacted. Also attached is the copy of invoice number 221085 dated 4th April 2012 and a statement of accounts for your kind reference. A prompt reply will be appreciated.

Warm Regards, Mr. Bankesh Patel . Manager – International Business Unit.

Alembic Pharmaceuticals Limited I Alembic Road I Vadodara I Phone: 0265 – 3007718 I Website: www.alembic – india .com


1. Interview Letter: It is always a good idea to add an interview letter with your Resume since it provides additional information not given in the resume. The interview letter should grab the attention of the interviewer so that you get a chance for an interview. In an interview letter, every word counts, so carefully select the words that you want to use when writing an interview letter. Before you are called for the interview, a good interview letter or the cover letter is the first communication you have with the prospective employer, so you should spend a good time on preparing it. Be very polite in your approach and show enthusiasm to work with the company. Begin the letter by stating the position you are applying for and why you are interested in that position. Explain why you think you are the best for the position. Try to avoid the contents written in the resume. Focus on your accomplishments, skills and personality, which must match with the job. Let the employer know that you are ready for the interview. Provide your contact details.. After completing the letter, read it once again for any kind of spelling mistakes or grammatical mistakes. Even one small mistake creates a bad impression on the interviewer.

The desired format of an interview letter is as follows: • Your Name • Street Address (including Apartment No) • City, State and Zip code • Country (if other than the USA) • Telephone, Fax Number and Email (recommended) • Company's Name • Employer's Name • Employer's Title • Employer's Division • Company's Street Address (and Suite No.) • Company's City, State and Zip code • Company's Country (if other than the USA)

• Date • (Title) Employer's Name:

First Paragraph: • State the reason for writing the letter. • Name the position or type of work you seek. • Mention how you heard about the opening.

Second Paragraph: • Explain why you are interested in the position and/or working for that company or employer. • Request an employment application (if still needed). • Explicate how you are ready for the challenge, perfect for the position or in what way you can be beneficial to the employer.

Third Paragraph: • Convey that you have enclosed a copy of your resume (and a completed employment application, if appropriate). • Ensure that you will follow-up for an agreeable meeting time to discuss your qualifications and their company's needs. • Include your address and number should they need any additional information. • Explain that you expect to hear from them soon. • Thank them for their time and consideration. • Sign your name by hand (over a typed signature) and use „Sincerely‟. • Suggested Enclosure(s): Resume, Completed Employment Application (if applicable) and writing or other work samples (again if appropriate).


2. Appointment Letter: An appointment letter gives an assurance to a prospective employee of a position in the new company. A letter of appointment is a significant aspect of every person's career. So before issuing an appointment letter, carefully check every detail and information, so as not to miss on any important point in the letter.

An appointment order must carry the following details and have the following format: • Date of appointment • Designation • Job profile • Job timings • Compensation package • Transfer or travel details • Notice period and company rules and regulations

Dear Mr./Ms. <Name>, <Company name>.

I am pleased to offer you employment in the position of <designation> with <Company name> I am eager to have you as part of our team. I foresee your potential skills as a Valuable contribution to our company and clients. Your appointment as <designation> will Commence on <date> As <designation>, you will be entitled to a monthly starting remuneration of Rs 00,000/(Rupees…………. only) which indicates cost to company. You will be on a probation period of six months. Regular performance review will be conducted to assess your performance and suitability. Your continued employment at <company name> is dependent on your successful completion of the probationary period. Your salary will be reviewed after a period of 6 months and thereafter every 12 months. You will be entitled to all allowances ad benefits whatsoever decided by the management. You shall receive your payment before 5th of every month. Leave and other company policies are available at <website link>. These policies are reviewed and posted at our website from time to time by the management of <company name> for your benefit. Your signing this appointment letter confirms your acceptance of the terms and conditions and that you would be joining <company name> on the given date.

I am looking forward to working with you. Sincerely, <Name>, <Designation> <Company name> <Date: dd/mm/yyyy>


3. Resignation Letter: It is a business letter written by an employee to the employer when he is on the verge of leaving the organization. This letter is generally the last form of written communication between the employee and the employer before the exit interview and hence necessary care needs to be taken by the employee to end his journey on a positive note. The following is one of such format of the resignation letter.


Business emails are generally less formal than business letters. Business emails written to colleagues are generally direct and ask for specific actions to be taken. It's important to keep your business emails short, as the easier it is to reply to an email the more likely it is that a business contact will reply quickly. It is amazing to find that in this day and age, some companies have still not realized how important their email communications are. Many companies send email replies late or not at all, or send replies that do not actually answer the questions you asked. If your company is able to deal professionally with email, this will provide your company with that all important competitive edge. Moreover by educating employees as to what can and cannot be said in an email, you can protect your company from awkward liability issues. There are many etiquette guides and many different etiquette rules. Some rules will differ according to the nature of your business and the corporate culture. Below we list what we consider as the 32 most important email etiquette rules that apply to nearly all companies.
32 most important email etiquette tips:

1. Be concise and to the point 2. Answer all questions, and pre-empt further questions 3. Use proper spelling, grammar & punctuation 4. Make it personal 5. Use templates for frequently used responses 6. Answer swiftly 7. Do not attach unnecessary files 8. Use proper structure & layout 9. Do not overuse the high priority option 10. Do not write in CAPITALS 11. Don't leave out the message thread 12. Add disclaimers to your emails 13. Read the email before you send it

14. Do not overuse Reply to All 15. Mailings > use the bcc: field or do a mail merge 16. Take care with abbreviations and emoticons 17. Be careful with formatting 18. Take care with rich text and HTML messages 19. Do not forward chain letters 20. Do not request delivery and read receipts 21. Do not ask to recall a message. 22. Do not copy a message or attachment without permission 23. Do not use email to discuss confidential information 24. Use a meaningful subject 25. Use active instead of passive 26. Avoid using URGENT and IMPORTANT 27. Avoid long sentences 28. Don't send or forward emails containing libelous, defamatory, offensive, racist or obscene remarks 29. Don't forward virus hoaxes and chain letters 30. Keep your language gender neutral 31. Don't reply to spam 32. Use cc: field sparingly


The following is a format of writing business mails with reference to writing the subject, content, text and closing and sending the same to the required recipients.


Business memos are written to an entire office. When writing business memos make sure to clearly mark for whom the memo is intended, the reason for writing the memo and who is writing the memo. Memos tend to inform colleagues of office and procedural changes that apply to a large group of people. They often provide instructions using the imperative voice.

Standard Memo Heading Though the format for a memo may vary from one organization to another, the standard heading consists of a series of clearly labeled lines that convey key information about the memo‟s contents and its distribution. The following are standard elements of a memo header:

Date: The date on which the memo is distributed To: The person(s) to whom it is primarily addressed (sometimes with job title) cc: Name(s) of anyone else who receives a copy (sometimes with job title) From: Name of the writer, usually followed by his/her handwritten initials (sometimes with job title) Subject: or Re: Concise statement of the memo‟s topic

The following points one should Remember When Writing Memos
    

Identify your audience before you begin to write. Ask yourself, should this be persuasive, directive, or technical? Be concise and come straight to the point. Maintain a business-like tone. Use headings, bullets, and/or numbered lists so key points stand out and the document is easy to read.

As when writing anything, each paragraph should contain one main idea. Also, try to keep each paragraph short.

 

Always proofread very carefully. Check all of your facts. Don‟t forget to identify any attachments. If not, a recipient would not realize anything was missing. Never include a closing. The “From” line eliminates the need.



Business agreements are those legal documents that the organization does with its employees, clients, suppliers, government agencies, etc. They tend to have a specific purpose and hence the format and the content do vary with its purpose. The following are the points that should be noted while preparing business agreements as they have legal and binding effect.

1. Get it in writing: Although oral agreements are legal and binding in many situations, they're often difficult to enforce in court (and in some situations, they aren't enforceable at all). In the business world, most agreements should be in writing even if the law doesn't require it. A written agreement is less risky than an oral agreement, because you have a document that clearly spells out each party's rights and obligations in case of confusion or disagreement.

2. Keep it simple: Contrary to what most lawyers think, you don't need a lot of "heretoforces" and "party of the first part" legalese to make a contract enforceable. Instead, create short, clear sentences with simple, numbered paragraph headings that alert the reader to what's in the paragraph.

3. Deal with the right person: Don't waste time negotiating a business agreement with a junior person who has to okay everything with the boss. If you sense that this is happening, politely but firmly request to be put in touch with the person in charge. Make sure the person you negotiate with has the authority to bind the business and has a vested interest in making sure the business performs its obligations under the agreement. If you're not sure who that is, ask. In a smaller business, it might be one of the owners; in a larger organization it might be a chief executive officer or chief operating officer.

4. Identify each party correctly: You'd be surprised how often businesspeople get this wrong and how important it is. You need to include the correct legal names of the parties to the contract so it's clear who is responsible for performing the obligations under the agreement (and who you have legal rights against if things go wrong). For instance, if a business is organized as an LLC or a corporation, identify it by its correct legal name --including the Inc. or LLC suffix -- not by the names of the people who are signing the agreement for the business.

5. Spell out all of the details: The body of the agreement should spell out the rights and obligations of each party in detail. Don't leave anything out; if you discuss something verbally and shake on it but it's not in the contract, it will be next to impossible to enforce. In the world of contract law, judges (with a few exceptions) may only interpret a contract from its "four corners," not from what the parties said to each other. If you forget to include something, you can always create a short written amendment. Or, if you haven't signed the agreement, you can handwrite the change into the contract. If parties initial the change, it becomes part of the contract.

6. Specify payment obligation: Specify who pays whom, when the payments must be made, and the conditions for making payments. As you might guess, money is often a contentious issue, so this part should be very detailed. If you're going to pay in installments or only when work is completed to your satisfaction, say so and list dates, times, and requirements. Consider including the method of payment as well. While some people might be okay with a business check or business charge card, others might want a cashier's check or even cash.

7. Agree on circumstances that terminate the contract: It makes sense to set out the circumstances under which the parties can terminate the contract. For instance, if one party misses too many important deadlines, the other party should have the right to terminate the contract without being on the hook legally for breaching (violating) the agreement.

8. Agree on a way to resolve disputes: Write into your agreement what you and the other party will do if something goes wrong. You can decide that you will handle your dispute through arbitration or mediation instead of going to court, which takes up a lot of time and money.

9. Pick a state law to govern the contract: If you and the other party are located in different states, you should choose only one of your state's laws to apply to the contract to avoid sticky legal wrangling later. In addition, you may want to specify where you will mediate, arbitrate, or bring legal actions under the contract. This will simplify your life if a dispute does crop up.


10. Keep it confidential: Often, when one business hires another to perform a service, the other business will become privy to sensitive business information. Your agreement should contain mutual promises that each party will keep strictly confidential any business information it learns of while performing the contract.


Alembic Pharmaceuticals Limited‟s International Business Unit (IBU) is responsible for following types of business agreements with their global clients.

1. Secrecy Agreement: This agreement to keep confidential the business secrets of both the parties with reference to sales, profits, product technicalities and Research and Development (R&D).

2. Production Agreement: After the business agreement is signed between both the parties, this agreement is prepared whereby Alembic Pharmaceuticals Limited commits the number of batches it will deliver to their global clients and the number of days it will take to deliver the same. 3. Marketing and Distribution Agreement: After the batches are been delivered to the strategic partners, the next question would be the manner in which the profits would be shared between the company and the alliance partner. This agreement takes care of this issue. Again the territorial rights are also been allocated on the basis of the above agreement. 4. Quality Agreement: Being Alembic in the pharmaceuticals portfolio, it is vital to maintain the quality of the product. The quality agreement would guide the quality of the product which Alembic is supposed to maintain for the products. Any failure of the above aspect would lead to rejection of the entire batch. 5. Product Liability Insurance Agreement: Any business is always affected by the external threats. This agreement takes care of the external threat in case of any mishap during the dispatch and distribution of the product. Again this agreement would also guide the extent to which the losses that would be shared in case of any mishap.


Circular letters are sent to a large number of people. They are unsolicited letters. They usually convey information about new product, a new service, a new set of terms and conditions, the opening of a new branch, change of address, telephone numbers, seasonal greetings, discounts, price revision etc. Today, circular letters are printed in computers and sent. They can even be emailed to customers. Generally printed or cyclostyled circular letters have a few advantages such as, less expenses, any number of letters can be posted in a day, to a certain extent the personal meet of the sales agents can be substituted, and the recipient, if interested, may call upon the firm or the sales agent, and so the agent need not wait to have an appointment. The objectives of circular letters are: To obtain publicity for a merchandise, to impress the readers with the facts about the firm and the products, to make the readers more interest in their contents, to attain the confidence of the readers and to stimulate sales. The following is one of the samples of the circular:



Notices can vary in how many people they are aimed at. This is because they primarily function as a way of informing or making people aware of upcoming news, events or actions. For example, you may use a notice to make all of your employees aware of what the company will be doing in the upcoming year. However, you could also issue a notice to a particular department instead to inform them of news that is only relevant to them. These can also be in the form of posters of handouts, but could also appear in a mass email that is sent out to the particular audience

Circulars and notices are written forms of communication within the organization. difference between a circular and a notice is


circulars are announcements those are

distributed to small or selective groups of people within an organization, whereas notices are meant for a larger group of people. The following is one of the samples of the notice.


A press release, news release, media release, press statement or video release is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something ostensibly newsworthy. Typically, they are mailed, faxed, or e-mailed to assignment editors at newspapers, magazines, radio stations, television stations, or television networks.

The use of press releases is common in the field of public relations (PR). Typically, the aim is to attract favorable media attention to the PR professional's client and/or provide publicity for products or events marketed by those clients. A press release provides reporters with an information subsidy containing the basics needed to develop a news story. Press releases can announce a range of news items, such as scheduled events, personal promotions, awards, new products and services, sales and other financial data, accomplishments, etc. They are often used in generating a feature story or are sent for the purpose of announcing news conferences, upcoming events or a change in corporation. Uncritical use or overuse of press releases by journalists has been dubbed churnalism.

A press release is information supplied to reporters. This is an official announcement or account of a news story that is specially prepared and issued to newspapers and other news media for them to make known to the public. This form has also gained huge acceptability in the corporate thanks to the telecom revolution and the reach the media is having. It is widely been used to address the stakeholders which includes share holders, consumers, suppliers, government agencies and the society at large.


After the allegations were made by India Against Corruption (IAC) and by Mr. Arvind Kejriwal against the Chairman of the Reliance Industries Mr. Mukesh Ambani for holding the illegal money popularly known as black money. After the allegations, Reliance Industries instantly issued a press note depicting that all the allegations were baseless. The press release is as follows:


A report can be delineated as a testimonial or account of some happening. It is purely based on observation and analysis. A report explains any circumstance. In today‟s corporate world, reports play an essential role. They are a strong base for planning and control in an organisation i.e. reports give information, which can be utilized by the management team in an organisation for charting plans and for solving complex issues in the organisation.

A report discusses a particular problem in detail. It brings significant and reliable information to the attention of top management in an organisation. Hence, based on such information, the management can make strong decisions. Reports are required for judging the performances of various departments in an organisation.

An effective report can be written going through the following steps: • Determine the objective of the report i.e. identify the problem. • Collect the required material (facts) for the report. • Study and examine the facts gathered. • Plan the facts for the report. • Prepare an outline for the report, i.e. draft the report. • Edit the drafted report. • Distribute the draft report to the advisory team and ask for feedback and recommendations.

The essentials of good/effective report writing are as follows: • Know your objective, i.e. be focused. • Analyze the niche audience i.e. make an analysis of the target audience, the purpose for which audience requires the report, kind of data audience is looking for in the report, the implications of report reading, etc. • Decide the length of report. • Disclose correct and true information in a report.


• Discuss all sides of the problem reasonably and impartially. Include all relevant facts in a report. • Concentrate on the report structure and matter. Pre-decide the report writing style. Use vivid structure of sentences. • The report should be neatly presented and should be carefully documented. • Highlight and recap the main message in a report. • Encourage feedback on the report from the critics. The feedback, if negative, might be useful if properly supported with reasons by the critics. The report can be modified based on such feedback. • Use graphs, pie charts, etc to show the numerical data records over years. • Decide on the margins on a report. Ideally, the top and the side margins should be the same (minimum 1-inch broad) but the lower/bottom margins can be one and a half times as broad as others can. • Attempt to generate reader‟s interest by making appropriate paragraphs, giving bold headings for each paragraph, using bullets wherever required, etc.


There are various kind of reports used in day-to-day business and routine functions of departments. Some of them are as follows: 1. Progress Reports: When a long-term project or work is undertaken, the administration keeps itself informed through progress reports. The project may be the construction of a bridge or a building, the layout of a residential colony, the installation of equipment in a factory or the investigation of some problem. These reports also assist the officers and workers immediately responsible for the job to take stock of what has already been done and to relate it to the total amount of time and money available. The frequency of progress reports depends upon the practice followed in an organisation. These may be written and circulated at the end of each phase or a specified period or completion of the stage of work. If they are prepared at regular intervals, they are sometimes called periodical reports. The Performa for preparation of such reports is specified by each organisation but they contain the following information: • Name of the work or project • Total work to be completed • Date • Work completed to date • Work to be completed • Possible date for completion • Remarks, if any • Signature and designation of the reporting officer

2. Laboratory Reports: A laboratory report is an account of various steps, findings and conclusions put together in a logic order. In fact, no scientific experiment can be considered valid unless it is presented in terms intelligible to other scientists. Thus, writing laboratory reports is considered an essential part of scientific investigation and experimentation. These reports contain the following elements:


• Heading • Experiment No. • Date • Statement of objects • Apparatus used • Method or produce followed • Observations • Conclusions

3. Inspection Reports: Inspection reports are of two types: It is a report, which incorporates the result of the inspection of a piece of equipment to ascertain whether it is functioning properly or requires any repairs or replacement. This may be done as a matter of routine or on receipt of a complaint. It is a report, which indicates the result of inspection of a product as a part of quality control. Most manufacturing organizations have a quality control section or department whose duty is to inspect every product with a view to ensure that it fulfills the required specifications.

4. Inventory Reports: It is customary for every organisation to take stock of equipment, furniture, stationery, etc. at regular intervals. The person who checks the stock fills in his findings in a prescribed form.

5. Annual Confidential Reports on Employees: Most organizations formulate a periodic evaluation of the performance and general conduct of their employees. The assessment thus made is used at appropriate times for rewards such as increments, promotion, and transfer to more responsible job.


It is an established fact that the present era is often called the „Age of Communication and Information.‟ The importance of communication has been greatly emphasized by all management experts. Communication, like birth, death, growth and decay, is a part of individual life as well as organizational existence. Its importance is self-explanatory and is a common experience of all as well. In recent times, communication has turned into business; rarely would you find managers, subordinates, salesmen, technicians, foremen, lawyers, auditors, consultants, teachers, doctors or anyone else who is not concerned with the difficulties associated with communication. It has been rightly observed that „the number one management problem today is miscommunication. Group activities in context with common goals cannot be accomplished without communication. The entire organisation control, coordination and motivation cannot be accomplished in case of lapses in communication. A common practice among many organizations is moving messages vertically, horizontally and diagonally between various officially designated positions. The modern industrial scenario relies heavily on communication for its augmentation and survival. George R. Terry states: "Communication serves as the lubricant, posturing for the smooth operations of the management process". Hence it is vital for an organization to shape and re-shape them considering the changing needs of an office communication.


A. BOOKS:   Business Communication for Managers published by Symbiosis Centre for Distance Learning. Business Communication Volume11 Authors Raymond V.Lesikar, ,Marie E. Flatley, Kathryn Renty, Née raj Pande published by Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited B. SURVEYS:

A Survey on Office Communication by Massachusetts Institute of Technology conducted in
spring 2007.


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