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Experiment No 10 Boundary layer development on a flat plate

Aim:To demonstrate the working of a real life wind tunnel fitted with measuring devices. To study the pressure distribution characteristics over a flat plate model based on boundary layer concept using wind tunnel. Principle:-A boundary layer is that layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface where effects of viscosity of the fluid are considered in detail. Boundary layer concept allows aerodynamicists to simplify the equations of fluid flow by dividing the flow field into two areas: one inside the boundary layer, where viscosity is dominant and the majority of the drag experienced by a body immersed in a fluid is created, and one outside the boundary layer where viscosity can be neglected without significant effects on the solution. The thickness of the boundary layer is normally defined as the distance from the solid body at which the flow velocity is 99% of the free stream velocity. The presence of the boundary layer changes the effective shape of the body, leading to changes in the pressure distribution and to the overall lift and drag. Apparatus: - Wind tunnel, Cuboid (flat plate model), Anemometer, Multi-tube manometer Wind tunnel: - It is one of the most important facilities for experimental work in aerodynamics and fluid flow. Its purpose is to provide a region of controlled air flow into which models can be inserted. This region is termed as WORKING SECTION. Wind tunnel is closed working section with closed bell mouth entry. The tunnel is of simplest tube section open type along which air is propelled. The propulsion is usually provided by a fan downstream of the working section. There are four essential components: MOUTH AND ENTRY: The entry is shaped to guide the air smoothly into the tunnel. An air space of 2-2.5 m is required for entry for proper flow separation, turbulence and non-uniform velocity in the working section. The mouth is followed by a settling chamber which leads to contraction to get velocity increase, which is connected with working section. The settling chamber includes a honeycomb and nylon mesh screen to filter and stabilize the incoming air flow. WORKING SECTION: It is also called test section as we can fit models and use this space for experimentation. Wind tunnel is having 300mmx 300mm test section with meter length and two windows to insert models for probes.

DIFFUSER SECTION: The working section is followed by a divergent duct. The divergence results in corresponding reduction in the flow speed. Diffuser reduces dynamic pressure which leads to power loss reductions at the exit. FAN AND DRIVE: A six blade fan is fitted to a frame work and coupled to a motor. This motor is controlled with a variable frequency drive having digital display. This gives smooth variation of air velocity in the test section which can be seen on the anemometer and one can set the velocity of air to a desired value. Specifications: 1. Type: Open return NPL wind tunnel 2. Test section/ working section Material : Acrylic sheet- 6 mm thick Size: 0.3x0.3x 1m thick 3. Industrial fan : 12 bladed 4. D.C. Motor: Shunt type, 7.5 HP, 50 HZ, 3 phase 5. Frequency drive controller: Thyristor control drive 6. Air velocity in test section: 10-30 m/s 7. Duct : MS sheet 8. Air length: 9.5 m (overall length) 9. Contraction ratio: 9:1 Accessories supplied with wind tunnel: 1. Multi-tube manometer: Height-0.5 m, width- 400 mm No.of tubes : 15 PVC tubes, 1/4 dia Inclination: 0-90 degrees 2. Anemometer: velocity range: 0-30 m/s Display: Digital handheld Probe: Vane type 3. Strain Gauge balance : Two channel Capacity: a) Lift force: 0-5 Kg b) Drag force: 0-5 Kg 4. Two component digital force indicator: Maximum limit of measurement of lift and drag of 5 kg 5. Flat plate model with piezometric tappings. Multi-tube manometer: It has a facility for multi-point pressure measurement. It consists of a reservoir for the manometer liquid open to the atmospheric pressure. The reservoir is connected to a number of tubes at the bottom where all the tubes are at the points of

interest at which pressure is to be measured. There are 15 tubes of same length. Pressure is measured relative to the atmospheric datum.

Procedure:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Fix the flat plate model (cuboid) on a stand firmly, at the test section of the wind tunnel Connect the cuboid to the multi-manometer which shows 15 readings at different places Start the wind tunnel and place the anemometer inside the tunnel to find the velocity of air Change the speed and measure the piezometer readings for 15 tubes Repeat the experiment for 5 trials Plot the graph between pressure vs 15 piezometric tube points for various speeds

Observations and Calculations:Flat plate model RPM Velocity (m/s) 1 2 3 4 Piezometer readings (mm of water) 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Results:Discussions:-

Experiment No 11 Drag and Lift of Aerofoil


Aim:- To determine the characteristics of aerofoil.by measuring lift and drag as functions of angle of attach, for a given velocity of flow. Principle:- A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a surface force on it. Lift is the component of this force that is perpendicular to the oncoming flow direction. It contrasts with the drag force, which is the component of the surface force parallel to the flow direction. Apparatus:- Wind tunnel equipped with lift and drag balance (Strain gauge balance) Strain gauge balance:- This is used to detect the forces and is capable of separating the components of total aerodynamic force. Strain gauge balance has strain gauges as the sensing elements. Procedure:1. Check the zero reading in the lift drag balance and set the aero-foil approximately at zero angle of attack 2. Choose a convenient air speed that is not too low and high 3. Make readings of the drag and lift force for various angles P 4. lot readings for drag and lift verses angle on graph paper Observations and Calculations:S.No Angle of attack Lift force Drag Force Spped (RPM) Velocity

Results:-

Discussions:-