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TRANSLOCATION Source: Leaves - sugars are made during photosynthesis and are converted into sucrose and loaded

into the phloem. Other energy stores in the plants also are sinks. Sink - food storage organs of the plant as well as the meristems. The meristems are areas of growth where sugars are needed for energy to drive growth. Translocation - transport of assimililates, such as sucrose, in the phloem tissue throughout the plant 1. Hydrogen ions pumped out of companion cell (actively). ATP used by the companion cells to do this. 2. A diffusion gradient is set up, and the H+ ions diffuse back in, by co-transporter proteins. Co-transport is a process of transport of molecules where two substances are attached together, so they can diffuse at the same time. Sucrose is a good example of a molecule which co-transports alongside the hydrogen ions as above. It uses transport proteins, because the two molecules together are too large for simple diffusion, and are both polar, therefore it is a form of facilitated diffusion. It uses no energy so is a passive process. 3. Sucrose molecules are brought into the companion cell along with the hydrogen ions. This causes an increases in concentration of sucrose within the companion cell. 4. Thus, sucrose diffuses from the companion cell to the sieve tube elements via the plasmodesmata 5. This decreases the water potential in the sieve tube element, which causes water to diffuse into the sieve tube elements by osmosis. Hydrostatic pressure is increased as a result 6. Assimilates are removed at the sink end, which increases the water potential causing water to move out the sieve tube element by osmosis. This reduces the hydrostatic pressure at the sink. 7. The result is a pressure gradient between source to sink, which produces a flow of water along the phloem. This flow carries assimilates and sucrose along the phloem. This is mass flow. It can occur up or down the plant - depends on where the sugars are required. in either direction

Evidence For and Against the Mechanism of Translocation in the Phloem: We know that the Phloem is used in Translocation because: - An mouthpart of an aphid feeding on a plant stem can be used to show that it is taking food (sugar) from the phloem. - Ringing a tree to remove the bark (phloem) results in sugars collecting above the ring. This is because sugars cannot flow past the area where the phloem has been removed, pointing towards a downward flow of sugars. - If a plant is supplied with radioactively labelled CO2 (which will be used in photosynthesis), the radioactive CO2 will soon appear in the phloem. How we know Translocation needs Energy: - The companion cells have lots of mitochondria. This shows that energy is required to actively load sucrose into the sieve tube element. - The rate of flow of sugars in the phloem is so high that energy must be needed to drive the flow. It has been shown that the sugars move up to 10 000 times faster by this (active) mass flow than if the process was by diffusion alone. - Translocation can be stopped by using a metabolic poison that inhibits the formation of ATP. This shows that there is an active process that actively loads sucrose into the sieve tube element. How we know that the mechanism involves a H+ pump in loading Sucrose and the Source: - The concentration of the sucrose is higher in the source than the sink. - the pH of the companion cells is higher than that of the surrounding cells - phloem sap has a relatively high pH. This shows that H+ ions are being actively transported out, and diffusing back in with sucrose. Evidence Against the mechanism: - The role of the sieve plates is unclear - Not all the solutes in the sap move at the same rate. - Sucrose is moved to all parts of the plant at the same rate rather than going more quickly to areas with a low concentration.