FM 7-93 APPENDIX G

INTELLIGENCE
This appendix provides information on intelligence preparation of the battlefield; mission folders; and conducting threat vehicle identification, order of battle, and intelligence training. G-1. INTELLIGENCE PREPARATION OF THE BATTLEFIELD IPB is the cornerstone of intelligence operations and the commander’s scheme of fire and maneuver. IPB predicts the allocation and employment of collection assets. It is the basis for situation and target development. It is also the basis for target value analysis, which identifies high-value targets for fire support targeting. The IPB process provides a graphic intelligence estimate for the commander. (For more information, see FM 34-130.) a. The all-source production section of G2 considers the needs of the division combat and support elements to provide them with IPB products. IPB is a four-step process: define the battlefield environment, describe the battlefield’s effects, evaluate the threat, and determine threat courses of action. (1) Define the battlefield environment. The battlefield area is the geographical area on which the commander has responsibility and authority to conduct military operations. Based on METT-T and the commander’s concept of operations, the G2 recommends to the commander the boundaries of the division area of interest. (2) Describe the battlefield’s effects. This step determines how the battlefield environment affects threat and friendly operations. This evaluation focuses on the general capabilities of each force until courses of action are developed in later steps of the IPB process. This step always includes an examination of terrain and weather, and their affects on friendly and threat operations. (3) Evaluate the threat. During this step, a determination is made of threat force capabilities and the doctrinal principles and the tactics, techniques, and procedures that threat forces prefer to employ. This evaluation is portrayed in a threat model, which includes doctrinal templates that depict how the threat operates when unconstrained by the effects of the battlefield environment. (4) Determine threat courses of action. This step integrates the results of the previous steps into a meaningful conclusion. Models are developed that depict the threat’s available courses of action. These models are developed given the effects of the specific battlefield environment. As a minimum, the most likely and the most dangerous threat courses of action should be depicted.

G-1

LRS teams confirm or deny the IPB by answering SIR to the commander’s PIR. and why to fill the needs of the commander. G-2. and recent enemy activity. (2) From the decision support template of the IPB cycle. made by the division staff and LRS headquarters to aid the mission. Once near their objective. He identifies and plans the attack well before the situation places the enemy force at the interdiction point. G-2 . a. The commander plans deep operations based on the factors of METT-T and IPB analyses. G3. MISSION FOLDER PREPARATION The mission folder is based on mission responsibility of the individual unit. These are unit METL dependent. what. It is a stand-alone document consisting of who. He selects the time and place for attacks based on intelligence gathering. LRS elements) should look for the enemy. The folder should never tell the surveillance team leader how to execute his mission. climatology. the LRS team confirms or denies the IPB. It contains detailed information of the mission to include maps. but should contain all the information he needs to plan it. The LRSU’s mission helps confirm or deny the commander’s IPB in the unit area of interest. He projects how enemy second-echelon forces will react to friendly activities. The mission folder for training should be prepared to reflect the unit’s mission. when.FM 7-93 b. such as insertion and extraction means and corridors. and LRS headquarters are responsible for completion of the mission folder. the S2 and S3 prepare a detailed reconnaissance and surveillance plan. How well the LRS unit performs its mission may decide the successor failure of the main force. the LRS commander and team leader must know where they fit into the intelligence collection process. He begins planning the interdiction of enemy forces (primary area of operations for LRSU). area geography. The reconnaissance and surveillance plan must direct specific tasks and priorities to LRS teams. G2. while they are deep in the area of interest. (1) The LRS company and the LRS detachment perform several critical tasks in support of their parent unit commander’s concept of the operation. Critical information the LRS elements find during either reconnaissance or surveillance operations is relayed rapidly and accurately. photographs sketches. where. The reconnaissance and surveillance plan graphically depicts where and when reconnaissance and surveillance elements (for example. Therefore. It also contains coordination.

(3) Part 3–Required maps and imagery. — Boundaries: To forward friendly unit and other assets. air liaison officer. • Radio direction finding capabilities of enemy. The contents of the mission folder areas follows. — 1:50. —Combat search and rescue procedures and evasion and escape corridors. — Joint operations graphics minimum for planning. — Line-of-sight graphics or matrix.000 minimum for planning. air defense artillery. Partisan. Contact point. — Resupply: Cache and air resupply. (2) Part 2—Coordinating instructions. Friendly. — Fire support. —Link-up procedures. —Attachments: Topographical engineer team. • Special weapons and equipment. and so forth. DD Form 1833. — Departure and reentry of forward friendly unit. • Communication data. fire support officer. joint air party. • Target oriented maps. • Composition and disposition of enemy forces. • Target analysis. Isolated Personnel Report. G-3 . (1) Part 1–Mission identification data. — Other than air.000 minimum for planning and operations.FM 7-93 b. • Area orientation maps. • Rear area security ability and reaction time of enemy forces. — Detailed planning maps. • Insertion and extraction. — 1:250.

— Religion: Tolerance and dominance. G-4 . — Drainage.FM 7-93 . • Geographical data: Average slope. — Flooding. (4) Part 4—Target area information. . — Assets available. — Effects of weather on friendly forces and enemy forces. and trafficability. • Hydrographic data.Within 500 meters of each proposed false insertion site.From proposed target to surveillance sites. and geographical features. — Effects of light and illumination on friendly forces. • Infiltration and exfiltration planning factors. — US support by indigenous personnel. and enemy forces and their use of night observation devices. — Values. — Routes. soil table.From proposed surveillance sites to target. — Unit qualifications. . — Tidal and current. • Meteorological data. — Security. • Gazetteer oriented to terrain. — Weather: Current and historical.) • Gridded imagery of target specific. • Cultural features. grid coordinate. • Gridded imagery of target area. — Mores. (Gazetteer is a map dictionary alphabetically listing every named feature in the country. — Medical. — Language.

Water—potable. It also contains any notable conclusions about the total effects of the area of operations on friendly and probable enemy courses of action. evasion. . An intelligence annex is a formal but brief eight-paragraph tasking document containing necessary intelligence orders or guidance for the operation. and associated SIR. . — Currency. — Isolated Personnel Report. Prior area intelligence. It may accompany the operation plan or OPORD. and intelligence is critical to successful mission accomplishment for both the LRS headquarters G-5 . inedible). PIR and IR. It gives subordinate commanders instructions on specific collection and reporting requirements. • Train-up or refit. • Unconventional warfare forces. — Food sources. • Movement to combat. Recent activity. INTELLIGENCE TRAINING Specific training on vehicle identification. (1) Intelligence estimate. DD Form 1833. — Endemic diseases. • Rehearsals. An intelligence estimate is a five-paragraph document containing the latest intelligence of the battlefield and enemy capabilities and limitations. resistance. • Pre-employed LRS teams. . (6) Part 6—References. • Line crossers. An intelligence estimate and an intelligence annex are also useful to the team in planning their mission. • Refugees. — Blood chits. c. (5) Part 5–Target area activity. — Culture: Religion and morals.Plants (poisonous. and escape planning factors.FM 7-93 • Survival. and the effects of enemy exploitable vulnerabilities. nonpoisonous). (2) Intelligence annex. — Area studies.Animals (poisonous. order of battle. G-3.

Training priorities are established in accordance with the unit METL. military (especially influences. medical. (c) Identify gaps between teams availability and capability and G2 taskings. • Defensive operations—major influences. sociological. geological. b. (b) Aid in credibility of team reporting ability. (6) Train teams on the order of battle-enemy warfighting doctrine and the integration of outside military influences on enemy doctrine. economic. Chinese. and ideology. • IPB—doctrine. (d) Make available G2 assets to LRS units. (a) Develop briefing and debriefing skills. IPB in operations other than war is slow to develop and has the potential to change rapidly. The team leader prioritizes the most urgent training needs. (1) For active duty soldiers. (4) Train teams on use and recognition of PIR. a. languages. (7) Train teams on the team’s real-world mission when developing IPB. (5) Train teams on making area studies—historical. The team leader plans the intelligence training schedule. (8) Train teams on the doctrine of enemy— • Offensive operations—major influences. the recommended intelligence training is— • One hour per day per week training on vehicle identification. US. Planning for operations other than war is often overlooked and poorly trained. key vehicles and equipment placement in organizations and formations. Preparation and use of mission folders for potential targets are essential. Additionally.FM 7-93 personnel and team members. (3) Train teams on preparing for debriefing. • Rear area security. (2) Train teams on vehicle identification and table of organization and equipment key signature vehicles and equipment. and any other country that provides equipment and training). G-6 . political. (1) Train teams for compatibility with G2. philosophies. cultural. IR. for example. teams should evaluate and restructure to prepare for this contingency. history. religious. United Kingdom. SIR and how they are produced and used by G2.

defensive. nonaligned. (2) Staff weather officer: Light and weather data and historical weather data. Priority: Unit organization. G2. • Fifteen hours of intelligence training: Briefing and debriefing and imagery interpretation by imagery interpreters (96D). (6) Liaison officer training for (at a minimum): • Commander and executive officer. a. offensive. history. former Soviet alliance. former Soviet. (b) Annual training. G-7 .FM 7-93 • Thirty hours per month training on forces and equipment specific to units in real-world contingency areas. as a minimum. INTELLIGENCE RESOURCES The LRS element is a direct asset of the corps and division commander through the G2 with a vast amount of resources available to them. • Three hours of order of battle. G-4. • Field training exercises or deployments should incorporate intelligence training by vehicle photo packets. • Twelve hours of vehicle identification. priority as above. Mideast and South America. • Five hours of intelligence training. The assets are as follows. and Third World. (2) For Reserve Components and National Guard units. and IPB—doctrine. (4) Intelligence updates on the unit’s contingency area. (3) Security: OPSEC and counterintelligence. and rear area operations. Three hours of vehicle identification. (1) Air liaison for Air Force. the recommended intelligence training schedule is as follows: (a) Weekend drill. • Two hours of order of battle. (5) G2 and LRS interface. for example. priority as above. Priority: Area of operation.

Arizona. point of contact is US Army Foreign Science and Technology Center. (8) Quizzes: • Flashcards. (4) Vehicle and order of battle slides and photographs (G2). (10) Planning procedures: Intelligence updates and current changes. point of contact is Company D. • Defense mapping agency. (1) Computers (integrated video disc. (7) Topographical data: • Line-of-sight graphics. Additional Resource Assets. (10) Models—1: 100 scale models available with use of spotter scopes from 50 to 75 meters is hands-on training that is expeditious and excellent for detection G-8 . • Foreign Science and Technology Center. 4th Ranger Training Brigade. (2) Manuals. (9) Integrated training with other intelligence-gathering assets to develop a greater understanding of the intelligence battlefield operating systems. Fort Meade. • List of features for vehicle identification. (9) Posttesting to determine the effectiveness of overall training. • Intelligence School. • Intelligence sergeant and analyst. Fort Meade. LRS Leader’s Course.FM 7-93 • Operations sergeant. • Team leader. b. Georgia 31905). (8) Imagery support: Interpretation and training by imagery interpreters (96D). Fort Huachuca. • Obstacle overlays. • Terrain analysis. Maryland. • Slides or photographs. (7) Visualization: • Overhead projector. Maryland). Fort Benning. (6) Video or movie footage. (5) PCQT (computer floppy disc. (3) Janes publications and similar products.

357 UXbridge Road. England Student handout for vehicle identification. • Foreign Materials Handling and Exploitation 201st MI Battalion. ATTN: ATSC-TD-RCO Aberdeen Proving Ground. • NATO Identification Course RAF Alcanbury. Georgia 31905-5000 (706] 545-1561 DSN: 835-1561 • Long-Range Surveillance Leaders Course Fort Benning. • Directorate of Threat and Security US Army Infantry Center Fort Benning. 177th Armored Bde Fort Irwin. • US Army Intelligence Center and School Non-Warsaw Pact and Third World Countries correspondence courses: Commander. Maryland Course available through Red Train. Fort Meade. APO New York 09035 Bundespost 0751-44033 Ext 168 Bundespost 0751-51817 G-9 . see Red Train catalog. International LRRP School. New York 09633 Student handout is a catalog of key vehicles and equipment with table of organization and equipment breakdown. (Military Training Equipment. UK.FM 7-93 and identification training. WD3 2DT. c/o S2. United Kingdom. US Army. Hertfordshire. Rickmansworth. c. Georgia 31905 DSN: 784-6831/6212 • Advanced Imagery Interpretation Course Scherstien Compound Germany 497 RTG/INIOET APO New York. US Army Ordnance Center and School. Maryland 21005 • Red Thrust Star. California 92310-5031 DSN: 470-5239/5207 • Department of the Army. Element. Military Resources.

200 Meacham Avenue Elmont. Virginia 22314 (703) 543-3397 • Local library. • Janes Defense Weekly Circulation Manager 1340 Braddock Place. Suite 300 PO Box 1436 Alexandria. Inc. Civilian Resources. Suite 201 Alexandria.FM 7-93 d. G-10 . New York 11003 (516) 352-7300 • Military Training Equipment (lead and rubber model 1:100 scale) USA Representative: Fairey Engineering 526 King Street. New York 10003 (212) 254-9097 TLX 272562 • International Defense Review c/o Publications Expediting. Virginia 22313-2036 (703) 683-3700 FAX (703) 836-0029 • Janes Yearbook (Vehicle Identification) 4th Floor 115 5th Avenue New York.