First Age of Global Empire

25/07/2007 07:33:00

Globalization • westernization • super-natural organizations • agents o war o trade o multi-national companies o travel and communication • the process by which the world has become increasingly interconnected • globalization is not a new thing • Archaic (13th – 18th century) o when globalizing networks were created by kings, warriors searching for wealth. Merchants. Taking place in the level of individuals. o Consumers are after exotic products. The era before mass production.  If you got something from china then it was good, because it was unique o universal rule, and universalizing religions • Proto (1600 – 1800) o stage leading up to something o state are reconfigured through the growth of military-fiscal o great period for Islam • Modern (1800 – 1950s)

the rise of the nation state the rise of industrialization nationalism, capitalism, democracy, consumerism labor force is being shifted into towns. Wage labor becomes the norm • Post-Colonial (1950s – present) o super-territorial organizations o challenged to the nation state o world economy realigned  a new level of integration based on trade. Inter-industry trade o Transnational Corporations • Empires are key in this o Appropriating new lands o increased movement of people, ideas, and within colonies as well o missionary organizations, the migrants themselves, east India company, people moving to and from the empires o the freemasons can be seen as a multi-national organization Knowledge • Enlightenment Europe o Through systematic observation, through reason we can see how individuals and societies work  With that knowledge you can now change it for the better o The Encyclopedie  First vol. In 1751 o o o o

By 1772, 22 volumes. the Netherlands was crucial in publishing and distributing the encyclopedia  Editors Denis Diderot, and Jean le Rond d’Alembert  a wealth of information about everything, not just the western world  over 2,000 articles on Islam o warfare, trade, a whole new set of geographical discoveries o evidence comes from the fact that people start to write more often about their travels. An explosion in travel writing and audience that is reading travel narratives. o they wanted to learn about the state of life before the one they are experiencing o they looked and found nobles savages  ex: Tahiti The British Empire o 1760s – globalizing decade  a fresh way of imperial acquisitions  much more diverse, wide-spread  renewed commercial expansion  knowledge revolution in the British empire as they explore and map the new environment o The Swing to the East  the period from the 7 years war to the 18th century  the seven years war  lost 1/5 of all the empire’s population  a shift in attention from the old Atlantic empire to the growing empire in the Indian ocean region  

now that they can’t send their convicts to Georgia they start to send them to New South Wales (Australia)  a swing to the east, however, there are still plenty of colonies in the Americas  The Pacific and India became more important culturally and politically  the Atlantic was set back to just being economically important o British East India Company  increased its holdings  became de facto rulers in certain places  1849 was the end of the second anglo-sikh war  the British are now in charge of the northern part of Indian, started in 1750s and dragged until 1849  wanted to solidify its commerce and specially in china  The British naval power was opening up the pacific for trade or to settlement, missionary activities  new south Wales o Cook Voyages  Fundamental turning point in pacific exploration  Establish much of the general geography of Australia and Asia  history of medicine  comes up with a way to treat scurvy  Cook himself  Instrumental in America  chartered the saint Lawrence river  led three major expeditions 

o o o o

o Labor •

contributed for empire building  gathering knowledge is essential in empires  surveyors, geographers  what land is good for settling, for mining  instruments of rule  exploit the resources efficiently  knowledge of where to place war machines  Great Trigonometrical Survey • Britons have a vision of their empire First public libraries knowledge is disseminated to at least the middle class histories of Europe and the orient (the pacific) more people are using maps and globes as decorations  started to collect globes  pocket maps knowledge was gathered, circulated to help the citizens but also to imperial ends 

Intellectual and cultural history; social history o Curiosity and knowledge is a good thing o globalization was pushed because of economic reasons o one of the keys to globalization was the organization of work throughout the world

o flow of goods, capital, and labor  more extensive then than any other people of globalization The Modernity of the Sugar Plantation o Sugar production process  First phases sugar is like grapes and production of wine  plant the cane, harvest the cane and then press the cane into juice.  It has to be done before the cane rots  Boil the cane juice, then refine it and turn it into sugar  its a combination of agricultural and industry  need a lot of capital, some intervention from the state  land grants to planters  remove taxes on imported things Modern Capitalism o Size of labor force  large labor force o task specialization  specialized in a certain task o subordination to a tie discipline  slave to the time of the cane process o alienation from tools o wholly expatriate character

o the capital and machine-intensive nature of sugar production o extensive economies of scale o dependence on long-distance trade for inputs and for exporting its products o ultimate commoditization of labor  the person becomes the commodity • Abolition of Slave Trade (1807) o As a result of a popular base abolition movement at home • Abolition of Slavery (1833) • Now that there are now slaves, where is the labor force?! Indentured Labor • A shift to indentured labor to supplement the slaves • 1.4 indentured servants • and 5.1 free/willing indentured servants the British was facilitating and overseeing the movement of indentured servants

25/07/2007 07:33:00

25/07/2007 07:33:00