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Enlightenment and Empire 23/07/2007 07:30:00

The First World War (Seven Years War / French-Indian War)


• imperial war in no other way there had been
• colonial war over British access to Spanish-American trade
• the British reinforced the colonial militias
• the conflict eventually spilled back to the European front
• The diplomatic revolution
o a shift in the alliances
o British start an alliance with Prussia vs. France, Russia, and
Austria
• the British initially started with a blue water strategy
o they realized this was a new kind of war
o it required them to fight simultaneously in multiple fronts
o combination of blue water and continental strategy
• 50k British soldier under the command of the Prussians.
o this was the continental side
• launched naval campaigns to take new France from the French
(successful)
• theaters in north America, the Caribbean, and the European
continent
• ultimately Britain and Prussian are successful
Outcomes of the Seven Years War
• land changing hands
o Treaty of Paris: they get several new lands including Florida
o spectacular gains. Britain comes out as the dominant naval,
commercial and colonial power
o the first time that they hold a world wide empire
• Challenges for the British
o Incorporation
 How do you incorporate the subject populations of your
imperial rivals? How do they govern French and Spanish
subjects?
o Rethinking the Enlightenment
 Usually they look at it with a capital E. As a Unitarian
phenomenon. By a established cannon of great thinkers.
 usually white European thinkers, specially in France
 anti-monarchy, scientific revolution, reason in order to
get to truth, emphasis on freedom and liberty, anti-
clerical, that we are making progress over time (core
ideas of the enlightenment)
 now we no longer treat the Enlightenment to the
enlightenments
 no longer so focus on France and western Europe
 the impact on Asia and America during the
enlightenment
 its chronology has been debated too. The age of
the enlightenment, the age of revolution
 rather than looking at just the great thinkers, they
are also looking into what the common people
thought about enlightenment
 how does the media at the time take
enlightenment and spread it and how it is
received
 1763 End of the Seven Years War
 Voltaire writes Treatise on Toleration
o Royal Proclamation
 they do this for political expedience
o North America
o Disgruntled Englishmen
 how to fund the new lands
 the British tax the new colonies
 the empire became more centralized, more uniform, to
organize defense in a more efficient way
 Revenue Act of 1764
 intended to end smuggling by American
merchants
 they viewed themselves as Englishmen who’s right have
been trampled on
 Edmund Burke (1729 – 1797)
 Founder of reactionary movement
 associated with conservatism
 he was Anglo-Irish, catholic mother, father was
from the church of Ireland (protestant)
 father was a lawyer, he wanted him to be a lawyer
 burke started out as a writer
 period of unrest in the Irish country side
 he’s views on the Irish were close to radical
 he was elected to parliament, member of the wig
party
 elected by a pocket bureau (a rigged form of
election)
 how should the British deal with the problem?
• The government should give incentives to
keep people in the empire, not take away
their rights
23/07/2007 07:30:00
23/07/2007 07:30:00