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Joan A. Cotter, Ph.D.

**A Hands-on Approach to Arithmetic
**

second edition

Activities for Learning, Inc.

321 Hill Street Hazelton. Inc. November 2000.com www.O. She has taught mathematics to students from age three through grade eight. 2000 by Joan A. mechanical. Minnesota and has administered and taught in several Montessori schools. St.Cotter. Copies may be ordered from: Activities for Learning. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced. in any form or by any means. ND 58554-0468 888-272-3291 order@ALabacus. Cotter received her BSEE in electrical engineering from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and worked in computer design. Box 468. Paul. Paul. Copyright ©1988. photocopying. P. Printed in the United States of America. or transmitted. . electronic. without written permission from the publisher except as permitted by the United States Copyright Act of 1976. recording. The publisher hereby grants permission to reproduce these worksheets for a single homeschooling family or a single teacher’s class use only. She received her Montessori diploma from the Montessori Training Center of Minnesota in St. Thomas.ALabacus.com ISBN 0-9609636-4-2 . She also received a Masters in Curriculum and Instruction (MACI) from the College of St. or otherwise. stored in a retrieval system.ABOUT THE AUTHOR Joan A.

Contents PREFACE ADDING 1 17 Unit 1: Basic Concepts 1 NAMING QUANTITIES 1-10 1 Using fingers for 1 to 5 1 Using fingers for 6 to 10 1 Quantities on the abacus 2 Matching hands and abacuses 2 Sorting 3 Worksheets 3 MEMORIZING 1-10 4 Memorizing the words 4 Reading quantities on the abacus The stairs 4 COUNTING 5 Counting a known quantity Counting to a number 5 5 THE COMMUTATIVE LAW 17 Reversing the addends 17 Application 18 THE WAYS TO MAKE 10 18 Splitting 10 18 Games 19 Missing addends 19 SPLITTING NUMBERS 9-2 More splitting 20 Missing addends 20 4 20 Unit 3: Numbers from 11 to 100 THE TENS 21 Entering tens 21 Reading the tens 22 Adding tens 22 Splitting 100 22 TENS AND ONES 23 Tens and ones on the abacus 23 Practice 23 Adding tens and ones 24 MORE TENS AND ONES 24 Customary names 24 Counting by tens 24 Tens and ones + ones 25 THE TEENS 25 The names 25 Practice 26 Adding with sums in the teens Adding double digits 27 21 LEARNING NUMERALS 6 Using sandpaper numerals 6 Writing the numerals 6 Practice with the numerals 7 4 simple card games 7 Introducing zero 8 MATCHING AND CONCENTRATION 8 Matching with numerals 8 Matching Concentration 9 In-order Concentration 9 EVENS AND ODDS 9 Counting by twos 10 Counting the dots 10 Even or odd 10 Evens-odds on abacus 11 Counting beads by twos 12 Counting with odds 12 The middle 12 THE ORDINAL NUMBERS 13 Ordinal numbers in general 13 Ordinal numbers on the abacus 13 Writing ordinal numerals 14 Applications (future review) 14 26 VERTICAL ADDITION 28 Adding with sums ten or less 28 Adding with sums over ten 29 ADDING MORE THAN TWO 30 Make Tens game 30 Adding three numbers 31 COUNTING TO 100 32 Counting by 1s 32 Counting by 2s 33 Counting by 10s 33 Counting by 5s 33 Unit 2: Introducing addition SIMPLE ADDITION 15 Beginning adding 15 Practice 16 15 .

. or less than 53 Remainders and differences 54 Subtraction twins 55 Equations 56 Checking 57 SPECIAL EFFECTS 58 Minuend decreased by 1 58 Subtrahend decreased by 1 58 Counting up 59 Unit 7: Adding and subtracting in thousands 69 TABLES 69 Addition table 69 Subtraction table 70 Cotter Sum Line 71 HUNDREDS AND THOUSANDS 72 The hundreds 72 Adding with sums in the hundreds 73 The thousands 75 Adding in the thousands 76 Subtracting in the thousands 77 BEAD TRADING 78 Basic bead trading 78 Variations 79 ADDITION ALGORITHM 79 Adding tens without carrying 79 Adding tens with carrying 80 Adding hundreds with carrying 81 Adding thousands with carrying 81 Adding three numbers 82 SIMPLIFIED SUBTRACTION 83 Subtracting tens without borrowing 83 Subtracting tens with borrowing 83 Subtracting hundreds with borrowing 84 .. equal to.Unit 4: Mastering the addition facts EVENS + EVENS. Even + even 36 Odd + odd 36 Even + odd 37 36 35 Unit 6: Mastering the subtraction facts 61 SUBTRACTING 1 OR 2 61 Subtracting evens from evens. 61 Subtracting 1 from a number 62 Subtracting 2 from an even number 62 Subtracting 2 from an odd number 63 SUBTRACTING CONSECUTIVES 63 Subtracting consecutive ones 63 Subtracting consecutive evens and odds 64 SUBTRACTING FROM 11 OR 9 64 Subtracting from 11 64 Subtracting from 9 65 SUBTRACTING 9 OR 8 65 Subtracting 9 from a number 65 Subtracting 8 from a number 66 THE DOUBLES GROUPS Doubles 67 Near doubles 67 67 ADDING 1 OR 2 38 Adding 1 to a number 38 Adding 2 to a number 38 Adding 2 to an even number 39 Adding 2 to an odd number 40 SUMS EQUAL TO 11 OR 9 40 Facts equal to 11 40 Facts equal to 9 41 THE DOUBLES GROUPS 42 Doubles 42 Near doubles 42 Middle doubles 43 ADDING NINE OR EIGHT 44 Adding 10 to a number 44 Adding 9 to a number 44 Adding 8 to a number 46 Unit 5: Introducing subtraction 47 SIMPLE SUBTRACTION 47 Oral subtraction 47 Written subtraction 48 Subtracting from 10 48 Subtracting 1 49 SUBTRACTIONS > 10 50 Subtracting tens 50 Subtracting single-digit numbers 51 Subtracting double-digit numbers 52 SUBTRACTION RESULTS 53 Greater than...

Unit 8: Multiplication 87 SKIP COUNTING 87 On the abacus 87 Patterns on the hundred chart 88 Strategies for memorizing 88 Review of adding and subtracting 89 INTRODUCING MULTIPLICATION Basic multiplying 89 Multiplying with 0s and 1s 90 Multiplying with take and give 91 Writing multiplication tables 91 Using the table 92 Guess the sign 92 89 LONG DIVISION 112 Division with a table 112 Guess the multiple 113 "Octopus" multiplying 113 Single-digit quotients 114 Multi-digit quotients 114 Unit 10: Other topics ROUNDING 115 COMMON MULTIPLES PARENTHESES 117 115 116 MULTIPLICATION RESULTS 93 Write the equation 93 Changing the order (commutative law) 94 Changing the grouping (associative law) 94 Mastering the facts 95 MULTIPLICATION ALGORITHM 96 Multiplying tens 96 Multiplying 2-digit numbers 96 Multiplying 3-digit numbers 98 Multiplying by multiples of 10 99 Multiplying by 2-digit numbers 100 NUMBER BASE OF 4 118 Numeration 118 Addition and subtraction 119 Multiplication and division 120 Converting between base 4 and base 10 Other bases 121 FACTORS 121 121 123 MEASUREMENT 120 ON TO THE MILLIONS Unit 9: Division 101 INTRODUCING DIVISION 101 Division by counting 101 Division by skip counting 102 Division with take and give 102 The dividing line 103 Repeated subtraction 103 DIVISION RESULTS 104 Writing equations 104 Missing factors 105 Remainders 105 Increasing dividends 106 Increasing divisors 107 Comparing quotients 106 Mastering the facts 107 Dividing larger numbers 107 SHORT DIVISION 108 Division without trading 108 Division with trading 109 Multivides 112 SQUARES 123 Introduction 124 Finding the next square 125 Squaring a sum 126 Dividing a square by a square 126 PERCENTAGE 126 A fraction of a number 127 A fraction of 100 127 AVERAGE 128 Unit 11: Japanese (Chinese) abacus 129 NUMERATION 129 ADDITION 130 Adding without carrying 130 Carrying with the 5-bead 131 Carrying with tens 131 Adding 6. and 8 133 Adding 9 134 Appendix . 7.

Then ask the same question while pointing to the second arrangement. Or the facts can be cut apart and the twins pasted together on another sheet of paper. It takes time for children to prove to themselves that it is always true. Several games will be presented to help the children master these facts in a non-stressful atmosphere. a worksheet with 1 plus a number will be a challenge. 18 Introducing addition + + + + + + + + + = = = = = = = = = 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 + + + + + + + + + 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 = = = = = = = = = 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 . THE WAYS TO MAKE 10 Ten is an important number in our number system and the facts that make 10 are also very helpful to know. 3. [8 + 2 = 10] Continue to 1 + 9. [The levels will be the same. 5 + 5. Adding water to containers provides an excellent example of the commutative law. Prepare four identical glasses.Repeat with the Cs adding 4 + 6 and the Bs adding 6 + 4.] Set up the experiment at a learning center where the children can perform it for themselves. how high will the water be? Have the children venture a guess before pouring the water. and a pitcher of water. Enter 10 on the top wire. After they are written. Let each child decide whether or not to use the abacus. Do you think this is always true? Ask the children for two numbers to try. When I add the water from this container. 2. two filled to the same lower level and two filled to the same higher level as shown. a larger marked beaker. Separate the right bead by one-half inch (1 cm) and ask a child to state the fact. for example. Prepare worksheets (2-7 to 2-9) with problems such as 4 + 5 and 5 + 4 in pairs and let the children work independently. ask the children. 4 + 5 = 5 + 4 = 8 + 2 = 2 + 8 = 5 + 1 = 1 + 5 = 3 + 6 = 6 + 3 = 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + + + + + + + 4 6 1 3 2 7 9 5 8 = = = = = = = = = Application 1. Each set of twins can be circled with a different color. 2. 2. For children who have mastered adding 1 to a number and the commutative law. [9 + 1 = 10] Move over another bead and ask another child to state that fact. One fact. is called a "double" and does not have a twin. Addition problems can be worked with water using a small marked beaker. 1 + 9 and 9 + 1. Give the children a blank worksheet and ask them to use their abacuses and record the combinations that make 10. have the children find the “twins”. Observe whether or not they are using the abacus for the second sum. Splitting 10 1. While pointing to the first arrangement.

for example 2. 1 + 9. Distribute among ten children one of each number 1 to 9. 5 3 7 1 4 2 8 5 6 9 Missing addends 1. Spread the cards out face up. She already knew 5 names. What even number comes after 6? [8] E. Repeat for another example: 4 + __ = 10. Write the 3 in the blank. 3. Tracy learned the names of 2 more of her classmates. the player states what card is needed to make 10 before turning over the second card. HANDSHAKING GAME. Write 7 + __ = 10 and say. ORAL PROBLEMS. 2. how many more must she walk by before she reaches the end of the block? [4 houses] C. What odd number comes before 7? [5] Introducing addition 7 4 9 2 5 8 1 6 3 + + + + + + + + + = = = = = = = = = 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 19 . When the first card is turned over. Without regard to turn. each player picks up a card. played similar to Go Fish. The children having those numbers shake hands gently. but two 5s. Carlos is trying to get 10 gold stars. as shown. If he already has 6. Build the stairs on the abacus.Games 1. So seven plus three equals ten. If she has walked by 6 houses. Seven plus what equals ten. Then ask. 4. Kay has 10 houses on her block. What odd number comes after 7? [9] F. Give the children a prepared worksheet (2-10 and 2-11). move the remaining beads near the stairs to narrow the gap. are the combinations that make 10. What even number comes before 6? [4] E. GO TO THE DUMP. how many more must he receive? [4 stars] B. How many beads do you have to add to make these equal? [3] The children can either count the missing spaces or count the beads as they move them over. Use the same cards to play Memory. A. Ask. Continue to 9 + 1. Next he slides over the remaining beads in the row leaving a finger's width. Touch the top wire and read the fact. and enters that number on the abacus. H o w many beads are needed to make 10? [8] Tell the child to find the 8-card and to set the pair aside. MATCHING MEMORY. Now how many names does she know? [7 names] D. The pairs for this game. Put 7 on the top wire and 10 on the second wire. Who shook hands twice? [All but those with the 5s] Who shook hands only once? Why? 2. This game for two or three players uses the same cards as the Handshaking Game. FINDING THE PAIRS.

shown simplified at the left. How many beads are on an abacus? [one hundred] Hold up two abacuses and ask. or other multiples of 100 and ask the children to guess the quantities. each pair also needs a “greater than or less than” card. Place 100 identical items in a container. and so forth separately before combining with tens and ones to form numbers like 582. 3. 200. hold up ten cards and one cards for them to read. found in the appendix. Thousand Hundred Ten One The hundreds 1. Then show them containers with 200. use copies of the “abacus” cards. Write on the board 321 123 Have the children work with a partner. combine them by overlapping to make 245. to the middle 0 while saying hun-.HUNDREDS AND THOUSANDS Children need to experience the quantities of 100. and a third abacus showing 45. How many beads do you think are on two abacuses? [two hundred] Say. to represent one hundred. 300. they can take turns copying it on to the worksheet. each showing 100. Along with the hundred cards. 72 Adding and subtracting in the thousands 200 two hun dred 5 40 5 40 200 200 245 321 975 526 669 463 28 943 753 101 123 683 543 907 364 288 953 750 110 . After correctly placing the < or > sign. and the last 0 while saying -dred. Also ask them to show the quantities. You know how we write one hundred. If extra abacuses are unavailable. Pick up the 200. Comparison of two quantities can help the children appreciate the relative magnitudes. Give each child an abacus and 9 abacus cards. Repeat for quantities 300 and 400. how do you think we write two hundred? Show the place value card of 200 found in the appendix. Give them other combinations to construct with abacuses and place value cards. the 40. Ask the children. and the 5 cards. Show a quantity such as 245 by setting up two abacuses. Provide each child or group of children a set of place value cards. Hold up the various hundred cards one at a time and ask the children to read them. such as 381 and 179. The child on the left enters the left quantity while the child on the right enters the quantity on the right. The AL abacus with 100 beads can be used for this as well as Base 10 Picture Cards. 2. show it to the children and tell them that it is 100. Point to the 2 while saying two. 4. Give them two examples 452 402 512 517 before giving them a worksheet (7-1) to be done with a partner. Then they decide which quantity is greater and place the sign accordingly.

so the answer would be 1 dollar and 38 cents. Jonathan had saved $13 for a special gift that cost $20. 97 + 68. Ser had 300 pennies. and 45 + 86. Amanda bought two gifts. Discuss following the rules. How many dollars is this? [3] C. Ask. She also bought some buttons for 75ç. one costing 86ç and the other 55ç.24] D. Mee bought a scarf at a sale for 49ç. The purpose of this activity is to introduce carrying with sums beyond one hundred. Write on the board 87 + 45 and ask the children to try it on an abacus. I f both the hundreds and the tens are the same. what do you do? [look at the ones] Write a few sets on the board for them to do without abacuses. It is not necessary at this point that the children start with the ones. Adding with sums in the hundreds 1. How much more did he have to save? [$7] G. what would they cost? [$1. Tou wanted two balls. Finally enter the 5 ones and construct the sum 132 with the place value cards. How many minutes did he walk that week? [100 minutes] 87 + 45 37 + 69 52 + 76 63 + 89 58 + 94 73 + 28 26 + 74 47 + 63 68 + 39 Adding and subtracting in the thousands 73 . 35 minutes on Wednesday. After the children have worked with the < and > signs for the hundreds. B. ORAL PROBLEMS. Next enter the 4 tens by filling the first abacus and continuing into the second.FUTURE REVIEW. If the hundreds are the same.38] Now is a good time to explain that a DOLLAR is 100 cents. David walked for 28 minutes on Monday. Vang had 23 days of vacation from school. How many days does he have before school starts again? [5 days] F. Then give them worksheets (72). Let the children work in pairs to find the sums for 75 + 52. What was the total cost? [$1. What is the problem? [The sum will not fit on one abacus? Use two abacuses with the second placed directly below the first. and 37 minutes on Friday. 41] E. A ball costs 69ç. Then ask. Eighteen days have gone by. what do you look at next? [the tens] Lastly ask. ask them if they figured out the rules to do the work without the abacuses. Which number do you look at first? [the hundreds] Then ask. A. Start the addition by entering 8 tens on the first abacus and 7 ones near the bottom of the second abacus. What did the two items cost? [$1.

Write on the board 7×1= 90 9 x 3 = __ 7 x 5 = __ 5 x 3 = __ 8 x 8 = __ 6 x 9 = __ 6 x 3 = __ 9 x 10 = __ 9 x 4 = __ 5 x 9 = __ 8 x 5 = __ 9 x 9 = __ 5 x 6 = __ 9 x 5 = __ 8 x 6 = __ 0 x 3 = __ 9 x 0 = __ 5 x 0 = __ 0 x 7 = __ 4 x 0 = __ 0 x 10 = __ 6 x 0 = __ 0 x 2= __ 0 x 8 = __ 7 x 0 = __ 0 x 6 = __ 0 x 0 = __ 1 x 0 = __ 0 x 9 = __ 7 x 1 = __ 1 x 5 = __ 8 x 1 = __ 1 x 3 = __ 1 x 7 = __ 9 x 1 = __ 1 x 9 = __ 5 x 1 = __ 4 x 1 = __ 0 x 1 = __ 1 x 2 = __ 10 x 1 = __ 1 x 1 = __ 1 x 4 = __ 9x5 Multiplication . Ask them to look for patterns. To help the children see these facts visually. letting them find the answers in any manner they choose. FUTURE REVIEW.) 6x4 7x8 Multiplying with 0s and 1s 1.(The term “times” will be introduced later. Then ask to enter 7 × 8. then to enter it on their abacuses. FUTURE REVIEW. and to find the answer. There is no confusion with problems like 1 × 7. H o w much is it? [15] Ask a child to write the answer. Work with them only long enough to be sure they understand how to do it. So what is the answer? [0] Next write on the board 8 × 0 = __ Give the children time to think how they would do it before showing them. Write on the board 0 × 3 = __ and ask. [The answer is 0. How much do we enter each time? [0] How many times do we enter it? [3] Go through the motions of entering nothing on 3 wires. Then ask them to state the multiplication fact and the product. Write on the board 6 × 4 =__. Ask the children to read it [6 taken 4 times]. ask what happens when there is a 0 in a multiplication problem. subtracting 5 from 50 will give the product of 45. The object of this lesson is that the children discover and learn the rules associated with multiplying with zeroes and ones. Then give them a worksheet (8-8) with 0s. Give them a page (8-6. Tell the children that now they will work with multiplying 1s. 9 × 0. and say. Next. Since they know 10 × 5. enter an array and show it to the children for 2-3 seconds. ask them to find 9 × 5. 0 × 4.This also works for multiplying by 8s. (For the classroom. So how much i s 8 × 0? [0] If necessary give them more examples. an overhead abacus is available from the publisher. Encourage them to see the tens groupings as shown. We cannot enter it even once. 8-7) of problems. but 7 × 1 can cause difficulties. After the “0” worksheet is completed. How much do we enter each time? [8] How many times do we enter it? [0] Move 8 beads on the top wire a slight distance.] 2.) Ask. stop.

Therefore. Tell the children that you are going to show them a shortcut for solving problems with higher numbers. Say to the group that they will be writing the multiplication tables. Although there are no new facts. What happens when you multiply by 1? [The answer is the number being multiplied by 1. Then the product can be read as 27. Do the same thing for the second row. 8-10). After the tables (8-12 to 16) are completed. Write on the board a sample table. They already know some of them. Write on the board 9 × 3 = __ and ask them to enter the problem.] Multiplying with take and give Review the names given to answers.” 9 x 3 = __ 7 x 5 = __ 5 x 3 = __ 8 x 8 = __ 6 x 9 = __ 6 x 3 = __ 9 x 10 = __ 9 x 4 = __ 5 x 9 = __ 8 x 5 = __ 9 x 9 = __ 5 x 6 = __ 9 x 6 = __ 8 x 6 = __ 2 x 1 = __ 2 x 2 = __ 2 x 3 = __ 2 x 4 = __ 2 x 5 = __ 2 x 6 = __ 2 x 7 = __ 2 x 8 = __ 2 x 9 = __ 2 x 10 = __ 6 x5 8 x4 5 x9 4 x1 9 x3 6 x3 2 x1 7 x3 3 10 6 x6 7 x7 8 x2 Writing multiplication tables 1. the tables organize all the multiplication facts. Multiplication 91 . Explain that the product can be read easily if the rows are tens. Provide worksheets (8-9. Ask. 9 × 3 can be read as “9 times 3.” Younger children often enjoy working with the take and give that they ask for more of the “harder” problems. Assign the worksheet (8-8). What do we call the answer in addition? [sum] What do we call the answer in subtraction? [remainder or difference] The answer in multiplication is called the PRODUCT. what is the 6 called? [product] Another way to find the product is called “take and give. After the work with the “1” worksheet is completed. tell the children that they are worked the same way. How many times do we enter the 7? [1] Ask them to find the answer. To start. Also give them worksheets (8-11) with the problems written in the vertical form. to make the first row a ten. the 2s as shown on the mini worksheet shown on the right. Any number of beads may be removed at a time as long as the same number is restored on another wire. for example. Also tell them that there is another way to read a multiplication problem. which they need to learn. enter the first 2 and record the product.Ask. Do not clear until the entire table is completed. Ask them to work problems. they can be fastened together. FUTURE REVIEW. ask. In the problem of 3 taken 2 times equals 6. TAKE a bead away from the last row and GIVE it to the first row. Subsequently add another 2 and write the result. 7 × 8 and 8 × 9.

If three friends have 12 pens that they want to share evenly. Division by counting Tell the children that now they will start division. on highway signs. INTRODUCING DIVISION Division will be studied from several different perspectives. how can they share them? Guide them to the solution of passing them out. In this unit. See the figures.Unit 9 Division Division answers two questions. and in work on computers. usually referred to as fractions. Show 12 ÷ 3 on the abacus. The third symbol. is widely used in most branches of mathematics. Use golf tees or markers from a game to represent the persons (3 for this example). the slanted line. In this unit. This is one way we write it. Division by 0 is a topic that does not need to be introduced to primary students. and strategies can be given for those they still need to learn. 14 ÷ 2 and 20 ÷ 4 before giving them worksheets (9-1). is seldom done by hand today because of the widespread use of calculators. During this work. Later in the unit. primarily is used to show numeric calculations in arithmetic. Short division is a skill that is frequently needed and should be mastered first. it is often found on calculators. Help a child to understand by asking how many 0s are in the number: it makes no sense. How many did this one receive? [4] Repeat for the second and third wires. and /. Twelve divided by 3 equals 4. so we say it is impossible. The first of these. skip counting. they will memorize many of the facts. is used in print. 12 ÷ 3 = __ 10 ÷ 2 = __ 12 ÷ 4 = __ 15 ÷ 5 = __ 16 ÷ 4 = __ 21 ÷ 7 = __ 14 ÷ 2 = __ 30 ÷ 10 = __ 35 ÷ 5 = __ 8 ÷ 4 = __ Division 101 . ÷ . such as 18 books shared evenly among 6 children. the “doghouse. for example. ) . Pose this problem. the children will be tested to determine how many facts they know. it is also extensively used in divisions resulting in quotients less than 1. Point to the first wire. until they are gone. 3 at a time. Guide them through two other examples. Show them how to write it saying. Enter beads evenly until the total quantity (12) is reached. it is approached as an extension of short division. Division has a profusion of signs to represent it. or marker and ask. The fourth symbol. Repeat with other objects. namely. such as. however. including counting. —. The older child can appreciate the impossibility. including recipes. the children will be shown different ways of dividing numbers. Long division. the dividing line. The second symbol. the division sign. and the inverse of multiplication. Write on the board 12 ÷ 3 = 4 while saying.” is reserved for calculating with paper and pencil. 24 divided by 3 tells either how many 3s are in 24 or how much is in each of 3 groups.

Ask the children to remove the extra beads by take and give. Then assign them similar worksheets (9-3). start at the 7th wire with the transferring. We want to find out how much is on each of 7 rows. We want to find out how many 7s are in 28. So how many 7s are in 28? [4] Repeat for 5 ) 20 and 9 )18. above the ones place of the 24. After they have completed the worksheets. Again write on the board 7 ) 28 and ask the children to enter 28. 7 28 4 16 3 21 6 30 5 25 8 32 4 28 8 56 3 18 9 72 2 16 3 24 7 42 2 14 102 Division . One way to find the answer is to enter and count by 4s until 24 is reached. write and ask them how they would do 0 ÷ 3. 1. 2. The number of wires tells how many 4s are in 24. See the figures. Write on the board 4 ) 24 and explain that it is read as 24 divided by 4 and means how many 4s in 24. Repeat for 3 )18 and 5 ) 20. See the figures. The second method involves arranging the beads evenly on 7 wires. Use take and give. The worksheet (9-4) is similar to the last one. It consists of rearranging a quantity into the desired array in one of two methods. Then give them worksheets (9-2) for practice.FUTURE REVIEW. Write on the board 7 ) 28 and ask the children to enter 28. Tell them that we want to distribute the 28 over 7 wires. so we want only 7 on each wire. 3 12 4 28 6 4 24 5 20 8 40 5 15 Division by take and give Division by counting and by skip counting are somewhat tedious. but many children enjoy division by take and give. How much would each person receive? [0] 4 24 5 50 4 32 2 16 7 28 10 90 6 18 7 35 4 8 Division by skip counting Tell the children that there is another way to write division. Show them where to write the answer. Say. Although 4 beads were transferred at a time in the figures below. Tell them. any quantity can be transferred at a time.

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