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Dmitri Mendeleev arranged the known elements by

characteristics. He summarized his findings in the periodic law which states:


mass, certain sets of properties recur periodically.

When the elements are arranged in order of increasing

The elements are arranged in increasing order

according to atomic mass. They are arranged in rows and columns based on characteristics of elements.

http://www.corrosionsource.com/handbook/periodic/periodic_table.gif

Broadly elements can be divided into 3 groups


Metals: good conductors of heat and electricity, they are

malleable (can be pounded into flat sheets), they are ductile (can be drawn out into thin wires), shiny, lose electrons, chemically reactive.

Examples include chromium, copper, strontium, and lead

http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Materials/Graphics/MixedMetals(mayFranInt.).jpe

Nonmetals: can be solids, liquids, or gases, poor

conductors of heat and electricity, gain electrons, undergo chemical changes.


Examples include oxygen, carbon, sulfur, and bromine

http://z.about.com/d/chemistry/1/0/X/6/graphite.jpg

http://www.amazingrust.com/Experiments/how_to/Images/Chlorine_gas.jpg

Metalloids: show mixed properties between metals

and nonmetals. They are called semiconductors with intermediate conductivity.


Examples include silicon, arsenic, and antimony

http://www.mine-engineer.com/mining/mineral/Silicon.jpg

http://www.summagallicana.it/lessico/a/arsenic%20Jachymov.jpg

The Metal, Metalloids, and Nonmetals are arranged in

particular portions of the Periodic Table.

Each column of the Main group elements is called a

family or group. Each group has specific characteristics


Noble gases- Group 8A Not reactive in most chemical

reactions, they are considered stable with no charge.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/6_the_noble_gases.gif

Alkali Metals- Group 1A are all reactive metals, Some are

explosive. Have a positive 1 charge.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/periodictable_group1.jpg

Alkaline earth metals- Group 2A- Also fairly reactive,

but not as reactive as the alkali metals. Have a 2+ charge.

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.vectorsite.net/tpchem_eBe.png&imgrefurl=http://www.vectorsite.net/tpchem_05.html&usg=__bmu82B0xWcgEl4ies1I6V DkAye4=&h=600&w=724&sz=34&hl=en&start=5&itbs=1&tbnid=CQBSvcszpC81oM:&tbnh=116&tbnw=140&prev=/images%3Fq%3DAlkaline%2Bearth%2Bmetals%26hl%3Den%26 gbv%3D2%26tbs%3Disch:1

Halogens- Group 7A Very reactive nonmetals. Have a

negative 1 charge as ions.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/periodictable_group7.gif