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Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment
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Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Why is biodiversity important?.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 The state of biodiversity in the EU.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 The 2010 Assessment of the EU Biodiversity Action Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Objective 1: To safeguard the EU’s most important habitats and species .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Objective 2: To conserve and restore biodiversity and ecosystem services in the wider EU countryside. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Objective 3: To conserve and restore biodiversity and ecosystem services in the wider EU marine environment.. . . . 22 Objective 4: To reinforce the compatibility of regional and territorial development with biodiversity in the EU.. . . . . . 24 Objective 5: To substantially reduce the impact on EU biodiversity of invasive alien species.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Objectives 6-7-8: To strengthen the EU’s role in combatting global biodiversity loss.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Objective 9: To support biodiversity adaptation to climate change.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Objective 10: To substantially strengthen the knowledge base. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Supporting measures.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Further reading.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment
an endangered species protected under the Habitats Directive. 4 Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment . Maculinea arion.The large blue butterfly.
Introduction In 2006. but the benefits they bring to society are often overlooked. This brochure summarises the main ﬁndings of those two documents. Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment 5 . the Commission carried out a detailed assessment of the Action Plan reviewing the progress made on each of the 150 actions that make up the plan. The main conclusion of the 2010 Assessment is that while significant progress has been made in some areas. Our economic and social well-being is heavily dependent upon the continued flow of vital ‘ecosystem services’. The potential consequences are extremely serious. and in the reduction of pollution from point sources in freshwater bodies. Its aim was to set out a comprehensive programme of actions and targets which would enable the EU to meet its commitment to halt biodiversity loss by 2010. the overall target of halting biodiversity loss by 2010 has not been reached. providing the latest facts and figures on the state and trends of different biodiversity and ecosystems components in the EU. Four years on. industrial development and new infrastructure continue to spread rapidly across Europe. for instance in the completion of the EU Natura 2000 Network of protected areas. often at the expense of the remaining natural areas. Urban sprawl. The experiences gathered from the implementation of the 2006 EU Biodiversity Action Plan will be invaluable in this respect and should serve as a useful springboard for a more effective post-2010 EU Biodiversity Strategy. but entire ecosystems are also being pushed to the point of collapse. the time has come to take stock of the Biodiversity Action Plan and assess the impact it has had on Europe’s biodiversity. and highlights the key achievements made under the ten key objectives of the 2006 EU Biodiversity Action Plan. an EU Biodiversity Action Plan was drawn up by the European Commission and subsequently endorsed by the EU’s 27 Environment Ministers. An EU 2010 Biodiversity Baseline report was also produced by the European Environment Agency. degradation and fragmentation of natural habitats. Up to 25% of European animal species are still at risk of extinction and even common species continue to suffer from a lack of suitable habitats outside protected areas. Not only is Europe seeing the constant loss. With this in mind. This all points to the need to redouble our policy efforts for biodiversity in the years to come and to ensure that biodiversity and the many ecosystem services it provides are better integrated into all other EU policy areas so that it becomes the foundation upon which we base our economic development and social well-being.
Nature provides many valuable services to humanity. 6 Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment . such as clean water.
As a result. health and quality of life. the diversity of species and the diversity of entire ecosystems. because they are essential to our economic prosperity. medicines. much of this development has become associated with a decline in the variety and extent of natural systems – of biodiversity. water purification. It also entails a reduction in the productivity and resilience of entire ecosystems. including humans. jeopardising our welfare and that of countless species and habitats. In the last century. and services such as climate regulation. security. this diversity creates complex ecosystems that provide a vital life-support system for all living organisms. Biodiversity and ecosystems are important in their own right. Collapsing fish stocks. humanity benefited enormously from economic development which enriched lives. a widespread reduction in soil fertility. there can be no turning back. Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment 7 . The cost of man made solutions can far exceed those of looking after biodiversity in the first place. fuel. We need food.Why is biodiversity important? Biodiversity is the variety of life on earth. but they also provide a vital stream of goods and services upon which we depend. By interacting with the physical environment. these are generally considered to be predominantly public goods with no real economic value. Once it has passed. Part of the problem lies in the fact that although humanity’s economic and social well-being is dependent on biodiversity and the continuous flow of the many ecosystem services it provides. our natural capital continues to be eroded. fibre. flood prevention. It is made up of the diversity of genes. There is a limit to the extent human ingenuity and technology can substitute for this loss. pollination and soil formation. However. crashes in pollinator populations and a reduced floodwater retention capacity of our rivers are all consequences of this loss. The loss of biodiversity is therefore much more than just the loss of species. The benefits nature brings to society are often overlooked and rarely taken into account in day-today decisions when trade-offs are involved.
8 Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment .Many of Europe’s remaining natural ecosystems are being squeezed out by other land uses.
Many of these pressures are driven by the failure of conventional economics to recognise the economic values of natural capital and the ecosystem services it provides. In the last 50 years Europe has experienced significant land conversion. European pond turtle Emys orbicularis. These natural forces. The effects of climate change are also being seen on biodiversity. migration and reproductive patterns. infrastructure developments and the abandonment of traditional (often biodiversity– friendly) practices. Other key pressures include the over–exploitation of natural resources. Europe’s high consumption patterns and an increasing demand for natural resources are contributing to the demise of biodiversity elsewhere in the world. A major independent study – ‘The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity ’ (TEEB) – puts the value of the global loss of ecosystem services at €50 billion a year from land-based ecosystems alone. Much of this results from the divergent climatic and topographic conditions to be found here. degradation and fragmentation of habitats resulting from land use changes. intensification of production systems. On a global scale. combined with centuries of human interaction. The principal cause is the destruction.The state of biodiversity in the EU Europe – a continent of contrasts Despite its small size. While the number of species may not reach the levels found in other continents. The main pressures and drivers are known. Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment 9 . Europe’s biodiversity under threat But Europe’s biodiversity is in serious decline. Europe has astonishing biodiversity. the spread of invasive alien species and pollution. urban sprawl. have created a complex and intricate patchwork of natural and semi-natural habitats. with changes in species distribution. many of Europe’s plants and animals are endemic and therefore unique to this continent. each containing a distinctive mix of plants and animals.
birds and butterflies face the risk of extinction. Up to 25% of European animal species. The baseline concludes that the EU’s biodiversity remains under serious threat: Although the loss of species in the EU is not occurring as rapidly as in other continents. industrial development and new infrastructures continue to spread rapidly across Europe. so nearly 30% of the EU-27 territory is now highly to moderately fragmented. As a consequence. especially wetlands and grasslands which have already suffered heavy losses in the past. This expansion often comes at the expense of valuable natural areas. amphibians. The remaining habitats are increasingly isolated from one another. representing an increase in artificial areas of almost 8%. This puts immense pressure on biodiversity elsewhere in the world as well as in Europe. In 2009.500 km² of land has been concreted over. the European Environment Agency (EEA) in collaboration with the European Commission produced an EU 2010 Biodiversity Baseline which summarises the latest facts and figures on the status and trends of biodiversity and ecosystem components in Europe. The Dalmatian pelican Pelecanus crispus at Lake Kerkini. Europeans currently consume twice as much as the EU’s land and sea can deliver in terms of natural resources. many of which can no longer deliver the optimal quality and quantity of services such as the provision of clean air and water. vast areas have been transformed into urban zones or have been cut up by a growing transport network. This can seriously affect the health of ecosystems. reptiles. An even greater number show declining populations. In the last 15 years. agricultural and coastal areas. including mammals. over 12. 10 Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment . The latest inventory of land cover in the EU shows that artificial areas resulting from urban sprawl.The state of Europe’s biodiversity in 2010 In 2010. Greece. a comprehensive check of the rare and threatened species and habitat types protected under the European Union’s nature legislation revealed that 65% of the protected habitats and 52% of protected species are in an unfavourable conservation status. Most of Europe’s ecosystems are now judged to be degraded. The situation is even worse for species found in grasslands. the percentage of species threatened with extinction remains of great concern. or the control of floods and erosion.
miresMammals & fens (56) – terrestrial Coastal habitats Birds (84) Dunes habitats (62) Amphibians Forest (181) Reptiles Freshwater habitats (84) Dragonflies Grasslands (102) Heath & scrub (36) Rocky habitats (64) Sclerophyllous scrub (32) Species threatened with extinction within the EU-27 25 % 15 % 12 % 22 % 21 % 16 % 7% = = = ➔ = Trend between periods Positive change between the periods 1950–1990 and 1990 to present Negative change between the periods 1950–1990 and 1990 to present = No change between the two periods.. industrial. Status for period 1990 – present ■ Degraded ■ Mixed ■ Enhanced ■ Unknown ■ Not applicable (source: EU project RUBICODE) Butterflies Conservation status of habitat types protected under the EU Habitats Directive per main habitat category (number assessed in brackets) Bogs.. Orange = unfavourable – inadequate. Water bodies (artificial reservoirs) = = = = = = = = Natural grasslands Extensive agricultural land Wetland areas -10% -5% -0% 5% 10% 15% = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Group/IUCN category Mammals – marine Bogs. Red = unfavourable – bad. mires & fens (56) Coastal habitats (84) Dunes habitats (62) Forest (181) Freshwater habitats (84) Grasslands (102) Heath & scrub (36) Rocky habitats (64) Sclerophyllous scrub (32) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Conservation status species Habitats 0% 10% of20% 30% protected 40% 50%under 60% the 70% EU 80% 90% 100% Directive per group (number assessed in brackets) Amphibians (152) Arthropods (336) Fish (242) Mammals (381) Molluscs (81) Non-vascular plants (92) Reptiles (149) Vascular plants (799) Others (8) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Amphibians (152) Arthropods (336) Fish (242) Mammals (381) Molluscs (81) KeY: Green = favourable. Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment 11 ..Status and trends in ecosystem services in the EU Ecosystems Agro ecosystems Services Provisioning Crops/timber Livestock Wild Foods Wood fuel Capture fisheries Aquaculture = Genetic Fresh water Regulating Pollination Climate regulation Pest regulation Erosion regulation Water regulation Water purification Hazard regulation Cultural Recreation Aesthetic Forests Grasslands Heath and scrubs Wetlands Lakes and rivers Land cover change between 1990 and 2006: area change for major habitat classes Transitional land (woodland. Artificial areas (urban. Grey = unknown..
It requires coordinated action across numerous countries to ensure its conservation and sustainable use. 12 Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment .The Danube River is a hotspot for biodiversity in Europe.
The plan recognises the need for a concerted effort from all sectors of society and Member States to deliver the overall objective. to undertake to halt biodiversity loss in their territory by 2010. For the first time. all relevant economic sectors and policy areas are included in a single strategy document and given responsibility for its implementation. The first detailed assessment was carried out in 2008 and was repeated again in 2010. the EU is actively engaged in moving the EU and global biodiversity policy agendas forward taking account of the experiences under the present EU Biodiversity Action Plan and the new 2050 EU biodiversity vision and 2020 target agreed by the EU Heads of State and Government in March 2010 as well as the global targets adopted at the 10th Conference of Parties of the Conference on Biological Diversity in October 2010. in 2001. To meet this ambitious target. The latest assessment confirmed that the overall target of halting biodiversity loss by 2010 had not been reached. the EU adopted a comprehensive Biodiversity Action Plan in 2006. EU nature legislation dates back to 1979 and its biodiversity strategies have been in place since 1998. although significant progress had been made in some areas. Assessing the impact of the EU Biodiversity Action Plan The Commission has carried out several reviews of the EU Biodiversity Action Plan since 2006.The 2010 Assessment of the EU Biodiversity Action Plan The EU’s commitment to halting biodiversity loss The European Union has long been committed to biodiversity conservation in the EU and in the world. In light of the expiry of the 2010 biodiversity targets. The EU Biodiversity Action Plan identifies four main areas of activity and sets out ten key objectives and four supporting measures to deliver the 2010 biodiversity target and put biodiversity on the course to recovery. Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment 13 . highlighting in particular the main achievements and progress made under each of the ten key objectives. These are translated into over 150 individual priority actions and supporting measures which are to be implemented both at national and EU level. The Action Plan underlines the importance of biodiversity and ecosystems protection as a prerequisite for sustainable development. The EU Member States were amongst the first. The rest of this brochure summarises the key findings of the 2010 Biodiversity Assessment of the EU Biodiversity Action Plan.
It also promotes the use of healthy ecosystems as an effective means of mitigating against the effects of climate change using nature’s own resources where appropriate which are often much more cost effective than man-made solutions. and of tackling the problem of invasive alien species. The four policy areas are backed up by a range of supporting measures. building partnerships with key stakeholder groups. The Action Plan sets out a programme of measures to strengthen the coherence and synergies between trade. They include: ensuring adequate funding for biodiversity conservation. development co-operation and biodiversity conservation. Policy Area 4: The knowledge base Finally. Europe has a particular responsibility for ensuring that its practices do not lead to unsustainable development and over-exploitation. strengthening EU decision-making. EU Member States working together to conserve the EU’s biodiversity. Policy Area 2: The EU and global biodiversity As one of the world’s largest traders and donors of development aid. 14 Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment . the Action Plan highlights the critical need to improve our understanding of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Strengthening our knowledge of this complex environment will help to refine and improve our policies response in years to come. Policy Area 3: Biodiversity and climate change In support of the Kyoto commitments to cut greenhouse gas emissions. But it also recognises that efforts are required to conserve biodiversity in the broader environment and therefore stresses the importance of integrating biodiversity requirements into other sectoral policies.The four key policy areas of the EU Biodiversity Action Plan Policy Area 1: Biodiversity in the EU The Action Plan accords top priority to the full and timely implementation of the Habitats and Birds Directives which are the cornerstones of biodiversity conservation in the EU. the Action Plan outlines a series of strategic measures to help biodiversity adapt to climate change. and encouraging greater public awareness and participation in biodiversity conservation. The souslik Spermophilous citellus is declining as a result of increasingly intensive agricultural practices.
Building public education. To substantially strengthen the knowledge base for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in the EU and globally. To substantially reduce the impact on EU biodiversity of invasive alien species and alien genotypes. To substantially strengthen effectiveness of international governance for biodiversity and ecosystem services. To safeguard the EU’s most important habitats and species. f f Supporting measures 1. To substantially reduce the impact of international trade on global biodiversity and ecosystem services. To conserve and restore biodiversity and ecosystem services in the wider EU countryside. To support biodiversity adaptation to climate change. Policy Area 3: Biodiversity and climate change Objective: 9. Policy Area 2: The EU and global biodiversity Objectives: 6. 3. To conserve and restore biodiversity and ecosystem services in the wider EU marine environment. Building partnerships 4. To substantially strengthen support for biodiversity and ecosystem services in EU external assistance. evaluation and review Biodiversity BiodiversityAction ActionPlan: Plan:2010 2010Assessment Assessment 15 . Ensuring adequate financing 2. 4. Strengthening EU decision-making 3. 7. To reinforce compatibility of regional and territorial development with biodiversity in the EU. 8. awareness and participation Monitoring. 5. 2.The EU Biodiversity Action Plan summarised Policy Area 1: Biodiversity in the EU Objectives: 1. Policy Area 4: The knowledge base Objective: 10.
Semi-natural grassland in full bloom. 16 tHe 2010 assessment of tHe EU biodiversity action plan Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment . one of the species-rich habitat types protected by the Habitats Directive.
and to conserve the core areas for certain rare and endangered species through habitat protection provisions leading to the establishment of the Natura 2000 Network. hay meadows. The Directives have two main objectives: to protect species in their own right across the EU through species protection provisions. irrespective of political or administrative boundaries. The Birds Directive aims to protect all wild birds in the EU and the Habitats Directive adds a further 1. making it the largest coordinated network of protected areas anywhere in the world. Within these Natura 2000 sites. but the marine component of the Natura 2000 Network should be completed by 2012. Identifying sites at sea is complicated by the inaccessibility of the terrain and the lack of scientific knowledge. They enable all 27 Member States to work together. heathland and salt marshes) are targeted for conservation in their own right. and to take appropriate conservation measures to maintain and restore them to a favourable conservation status. within a common legislative framework. Member States are required to avoid damaging activities that could significantly affect species or habitats for which the site has been protected. Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment 17 . To safeguard the EU’s most important habitats and species ❦❦ ❦ ❧ ❧ The Natura 2000 Network is nearing completion One of the first priorities of the EU Biodiversity Action Plan is to ensure the full and timely implementation of the provisions of these two Directives.Objective 1 The Habitats and Birds Directives The Birds and Habitats Directives lie at the heart of the EU’s policy response to halting biodiversity loss in the European Union.000 km² of land and sea have been added to the network since 2006.g. Some 230 valuable habitat types (e. Over 200.000 sites spread across all 27 Member States. but the process here is not yet complete.500 rare and threatened plants and animals in need of concerted conservation action. Significant progress has been made in establishing the Natura 2000 Network. These two Directives represent the most ambitious and large scale initiative ever undertaken to conserve Europe’s rich natural heritage and ecosystems. to conserve Europe’s most vulnerable species and habitats across their entire natural range within the EU. Significant progress was also made in designating Natura 2000 sites in the marine environment. By 2010 the network contained over 26.
80 70 Cumulated ha.Cumulative surface areas of sites designated per Member State under the EU Habitats Directive over time. KEY: Biogeographic regions within the EU ATLANTIC REGION BOREAL REGION ALPINE REGION CONTINENTAL REGION PANNONIAN REGION STEPPIC REGION BLACK SEA REGION MEDITERRANEAN REGION MACARONESIAN REGION Biogeographic regions outside the EU ARCTIC REGION ANATOLIAN REGION 18 Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment . millions 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 19 95 19 96 19 97 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 20 03 20 04 20 05 20 06 20 07 j u n 20 0 8 e-2 00 9 Romania Bulgaria Slovenia Slovakia Poland Malta Lithuania Latvia Hungary Estonia Czech Republic Cyprus United Kingdom Sweden Portugal Netherlands Luxembourg Italy Ireland Greece France Finland Spain Denmark Germany Belgium Austria The EU Natura 2000 Network of protected sites according to biogeographical region.
They also help engage other stakeholders and land users in the process of managing these sites. Natura 2000 is more than a network of protected nature reserves. It recognises that humans are an integral part of nature and that the two work best in partnership with one another. By actively associating different land-users in the management of Natura 2000 sites it is possible to ensure that vulnerable semi-natural habitats and species. attention is increasingly focused on ensuring that the sites and the species they aim to protect are conserved and positively managed so that they are capable of reaching a favourable conservation status within the EU. • Significant progress has been made in designating marine Natura 2000 sites. • A new voluntary scheme has been set up for protecting threatened species and habitats in EU Outermost Regions and Overseas Countries. are maintained. management plans have proven to be useful tools for determining the conservation actions required at individual site level. • The Environmental Liability Directive has now been transposed in all EU Member States. • On average. • Positive management measures have been introduced for a number of sites. Although not obligatory. Such an approach has many advantages for nature conservation and the people living and working in rural areas. at least 119. Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment 19 . inspired by the Natura 2000 Network. Its aim is not to systematically exclude economic activities but rather to set the parameters within which these can be undertaken while safeguarding the valuable species and habitats present. ACHIEVEMENTS To DaTE • The Natura 2000 Network has been largely completed on land. • Guidance documents have been developed for various industry sectors to assist in the application of the two nature Directives. which are dependent upon positive management. The scale of Natura 2000 makes it a powerful ally in helping to maintain the economic viability and social fabric of many rural areas across Europe. At present only 17% of all protected species and habitat types are in a favourable condition. Red-footed falcon Falco vespertinus – a threatened species of European importance for which an EU Species Action Plan was developed in 2009. • A first comprehensive health check on the conservation status of species and habitats of Community importance across the EU was published in 2009.5 million€/year was allocated in 2007–2009 from the EU LIFE+ Funds to support practical conservation within Natura 2000 or other actions to conserve biodiversity. • Species Action Plans have been adopted for a range of species of EU importance.Managing Natura 2000 sites As the Natura 2000 network nears completion. • EU guidelines for financing Natura 2000 management through EU financial instruments have been published. taking local land uses and regional characteristics into account.
. They are also surrounded by a hostile and increasingly impermeable environment. If healthy ecosystems lose their habitat heterogeneity and species diversity. including those within the Natura 2000 Network.Objective 2 An increasingly fragmented landscape The two Nature Directives alone will not conserve Europe’s biodiversity. Today. fragmented and isolated. The repercussions extend beyond the loss of species. so action is also needed to conserve natural ecosystems across the wider countryside. their ability to provide valuable services is severely reduced or lost altogether. or if they become too degraded. C ommon bird indic ators 105 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 9 19 0 91 92 93 94 995 996 997 998 1999 000 2001 002 003 004 005 006 007 1 2 2 2 1 1 19 19 19 19 1 2 2 2 2 To conserve and restore biodiversity and ecosystem services in the wider EU countryside All common species (136 species) Common forest species (29 species) Common farmland species (36 species) ❦❦ ❦ ❧ 20 Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment ❧ Farm and forest birds have declined by ca 25% in the last 20 years but this downturn is finally starting to level off. are still at risk from threats like pollution and intensifying land use. most of the remaining areas of high nature value in Europe. Biodiversity is the engine that powers our ecosystems and ensures they are capable of delivering important services to society such as water purification and soil fertilisation. The dual pressures of agricultural intensification and land abandonment represent a major threat to Europe’s biodiversity.
Recent studies have shown that pollution in most of Europe’s rivers has started to decrease thanks to stricter EU environmental standards. Particular emphasis is placed on the timely and effective implementation of the Water Framework Directive. • Over €22 billion has been allocated to agri-environment and forest environment measures across the EU-27.or forest environment schemes which can be tailor made to support farmers and foresters who voluntarily apply certain farming practices that are deemed to be beneficial to the environment and to biodiversity (above the level of the minimum standards). it is clear that the overall impact on biodiversity should be largely beneficial and should render the wider farming and forested landscape less hostile to wildlife. Overall. They also include compulsory agri. • A further €590 million is available for payments in agriculture or forest Natura 2000 areas. the Biodiversity Action Plan places special emphasis on integrating biodiversity needs into the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). animal welfare and food safety standards. • A Commission Forest Green Paper was adopted in 2010. • Water quality in Europe’s freshwater ecosystems is improving. • Work is underway to develop a concept of an ecologically coherent green infrastructure for Europe that could help tackle the increasing problem of habitat fragmentation and loss of valuable agricultural and forest areas in the wider countryside. covering almost 50% of the EU territory. New rural development measures under Pillar II have also been introduced to support farming and forestry activities that are beneficial for wildlife. The Directive is intended to ensure that all waters reach a good status (including ecological status) by 2015. around 23% of the Rural Development budget has been allocated to agrienvironment measures across the EU-27 and a further €590 million has been allocated to Natura 2000 payments. This will be achieved through the implementation of a series of management plans and targeted action programmes adopted at the level of each of the 110 river basins in the EU. • A new Framework Directive on the sustainable use of pesticides was adopted in 2009. launching a debate on options for an EU approach to forest protection and information. They include additional payments in Natura 2000 sites to compensate for the loss of income or the cost of extra management obligations necessary to deliver the objectives of the Natura 2000 Network. • Biodiversity was given a greater priority in the 2008 CAP Health check. Direct payments to farmers under Pillar I of the CAP have been decoupled from production and instead linked to compliance with a number of environmental. • All Member States are preparing their River Basin Management Plans under the Water Framework Directive. Recent reforms of the CAP and the Rural Development Regulation (2007–2013) have seen new policy tools and measures being made available to improve the integration of biodiversity considerations into farming and forestry practices across the EU. Reducing pollution Another important feature of the EU Biodiversity Action Plan is its emphasis on reducing pollution in Europe’s freshwater systems. with a majority submitted for Commission approval by the end of 2009. • A new European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity was published in 2010. While it is not yet possible to determine precisely how much of the money allocated to agri-envrionment measures will be used specifically for nature conservation actions. protecting surface and groundwater from pollution and degradation. ACHIEVEMENTS To DaTE • Significant funds were made available through the EU Rural Development Regulation (2007– 2013) for supporting biodiversity in forest and farming areas.Greening the EU Common Agricultural Policy As farming is still the dominant land use in Europe. The process of drafting these management plans is now well underway. Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment 21 .
In light of this. Climate change. Over-fishing is widespread and many fish stocks are beyond safe biological limits. ❦❦ ❦ ❧ 22 Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment ❧ Underwater Posidonia beds are extremely rich in biodiversity and play an important role in protecting the coastline. Eutrophication resulting from nutrient enrichment can trigger a chain of undesirable effects.Objective 3 European Seas under pressure The extensive marine waters surrounding the EU play a major role in biodiversity conservation. The consequent increase in oxygen consumption can cause oxygen depletion and create ‘dead zones’ in which other forms of life cannot survive. invasive alien species and heavy maritime traffic. starting with excessive growth of planktonic algae which increases the amount of organic matter settling on the seabed. Yet here too the environment is under tremendous pressure. have added to these problems. EU Member States have been urgently drawing up multi-annual management and recovery plans for a range of commercial fish in different marine areas to bring fishing levels down to more sustainable levels and help rebuild collapsed stocks. Pollution and eutrophication from land sources continue at unacceptable levels.and unselective fishing the management of the remaining stocks has reached a crisis point. leading to an increased risk of oil spills. . After decades of over. To conserve and restore biodiversity and ecosystem services in the wider EU marine environment The Common Fisheries Policy The Biodiversity Action Plan calls for a more sustainable use of marine resources under the EU Common Fisheries Policy.
the Black Sea. Like the Water Framework Directive. and to protect vulnerable deep sea habitats including Posidonia beds in the Mediterranean and coral reefs in the North East Atlantic. • A range of recovery plans have been adopted for commercial fish stocks in different marine waters to help rebuild collapsed stocks. it establishes a series of common objectives and principles which are to be applied at the level of each of the four EU marine areas (the North East Atlantic. • A Community Action Plan for Sharks was adopted in 2009. such as seals and dolphins. both inside and outside marine protected areas.Measures have also been taken to introduce more selective fishing practices in order to reduce the unacceptably high levels of unwanted by-catches of non-target marine species. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive is also an important policy tool for ensuring that environmental concerns are fully taken up in the EU’s new Integrated Maritime Policy adopted in 2009. The chart shows the proportion of assessed stocks that are overfished (red) and stocks within safe biological limits (blue). introduced and implemented at the level of each marine area the benefits for marine ecosystems should be significant. The size of the circles is proportional to the magnitude of the regional catch. the EU adopted an ambitious Marine Strategy Framework Directive which sets out a coordinated ecosystems-based approach for improving the marine environment. Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment 23 . • Legislation has been introduced to protect vulnerable deep sea habitats from unsustainable fisheries practices. ACHIEVEMENTS To DaTE • The Marine Strategy Framework Directive adopted in 2008 aims to achieve good environmental status for all EU marine waters by 2020. • The European Maritime Safety Agency has provided technical and scientific assistance to the Commission and Member States on responses to oil spills. • Most Member States have put forward projects to promote sustainable fishing and support marine biodiversity conservation under the European Fisheries Fund. the majority of Member States are using funds made available under the reformed European Fisheries Fund (2007–2013) to promote a more sustainable balance between resources and the EU’s fishing capacity and to foster a greater protection of the marine environment and its endangered habitats and species. To assist in this process. the Baltic Sea and the Mediterranean Sea). it is clear that if a concerted programme of action can be Proportion of stocks within and outside safe biological limits. • Nineteen of the 22 coastal Member States have adopted or are in the process of adopting integrated coastal zone management plans (ICZM). Building on existing legislation and conventions. As work has only just started on the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive In 2008. Nevertheless. it is too early to gauge its impact on the marine environment. its ultimate objective is to achieve a good environmental status in the marine environment by 2020.
This is to ensure that negative impacts on the natural environment are minimised or avoided through the identification of alternative locations or the introduction of appropriate mitigation measures. This strategic approach to territorial planning leads to a more integrated and sustainable development framework and reduces the risk of difficulties and delays. Recognising the need to safeguard such valuable ecosystems from inappropriate developments. or an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). these assessments allow biodiversity concerns to be taken into account from the outset. the Biodiversity Action Plan places particular emphasis on ensuring that all new development plans and projects undergo an appropriate biodiversity assessment. the EU is a relatively densely populated continent. To reinforce compatibility of regional and territorial development with biodiversity in the EU ❦❦ ❦ ❧ 24 Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment ❧ Artificial areas continue to expand at the expense of natural habitats. If carried out at the initial planning stage. . This means that its remaining natural areas are under intense pressure from a range of development activities. and much of the land is in active use.Objective 4 A more integrated spatial planning process Compared to other regions of the world.
1 billion has been allocated to the ‘promotion of natural assets’ and €1. both including projects for nature and biodiversity.4 billion for the ‘protection and development of natural heritage’. In the framework of tourism a further €1. Eco bridge over motorway in Hoge Veluwe National Park.All new plans and programmes involving the EU’s Structural Funds (the European Regional Development Fund. has taken full account of the possible effects on the natural environment. with a view to adopting an EU strategy on this issue in 2011. Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment 25 . and introduced the necessary measures to remove or minimise these impacts. EIA and Appropriate Assessments is promoted through Commission guidance and infringement procedures. • New opportunities have been made available under the EU Structural Funds for directly supporting biodiversity conservation within regional development programmes and cross border programmes. In addition. Some Member States use the funds primarily to promote habitat restoration projects or to help reconnect areas that have been fragmented by infrastructure developments (e. • Work is underway to develop a concept of an ecologically coherent green infrastructure for Europe. Others place more emphasis on the implementation of the Natura 2000 Network or the promotion of nature conservation through tourism and other recreational developments. major development projects (those costing more than €50 million) which are to be co-financed through the EU Structural Funds must first be approved by the European Commission. including biodiversity. Investing in nature The EU Structural Funds for 2007–2013 also provide an opportunity to directly or indirectly support biodiversity conservation within the framework of EU regional or local development plans and programmes. and the appropriate assessment in the case of projects affecting Natura 2000 sites.g. The latter will ensure that the EIA. • The application form for major projects to be co-financed by EU funds includes explicit reference to the need for a complete EIA and Appropriate Assessments for Natura 2000 sites. the European Social Fund and the Cohesion Fund) are required to undergo a Strategic Environmental Assessment before they can be approved for funding.7 billion to the ‘Promotion of biodiversity and nature protection (including Natura 2000)’. that could help tackle the increasing problem of habitat fragmentation and be a useful tool for climate change adaptation through the development and maintenance of ecosystems. • The correct application of SEA. Member States have allocated a total of about €2. Netherlands. ACHIEVEMENTS To DaTE • All plans and programmes operating under the new EU Structural Funds (2007–2013) have been subject to a Strategic Environmental Assessment. through creation of ecological corridors).
after habitat loss and destruction.000 alien species have now been identified. game. They provide a range of employment opportunities and are highly appreciated in society as ornamental plants. the cost of controlling invasive alien species and repairing the damage reached an estimated €9. exotic birds. Modern trading patterns increase the opportunities for species to move beyond their natural biogeographical barriers. In 2008. plants. along with the further spread of already established alien species populations. As trade. of which some 10–15% are potentially dangerous to Europe’s biodiversity. Not only do they pose a threat to native species and habitats by out-competing them but they also cause serious economic damage. They can be animals. and are considered to be the second most important reason for biodiversity loss worldwide. Many introduced species are of critical importance for production systems that underpin European economies. To substantially reduce the impact on EU biodiversity of invasive alien species ❦❦ ❦ ❧ 26 Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment ❧ Giant hogweed Heracleum mantegazzianum has become invasive in many parts of Europe. fungi or micro-organisms. Over 10.6–12.7 billion in the EU.Objective 5 The proliferation of invasive alien species in Europe Invasive alien species (IAS) are non-native species whose introduction outside their natural range poses a threat to biodiversity. . pet animals. travel and transport have expanded within the EU and the rest of the world. or fish for angling and aquaculture. The consequences of their proliferation are being felt across the EU. the rate of intentional and unintentional introductions of new species has risen exponentially. But a subset of introduced species has become invasive in Europe and are threatening native biodiversity. This trend is predicted to continue.
resulting in piecemeal efforts. including DAISIE. All Dragonflies Butterflies Marine mammals Terrestrial mammals Reptiles Amphibians 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Non-Threatened Threatened (source: IUCN. These are based on the internationallyrecognised three-stage hierarchy that prevention of unwanted introductions is the most cost-effective. However. • A study was commissioned to examine the feasibility of establishing an EU-wide early warning system on invasive alien species. There are also no formal requirements to undertake a risk analysis as regards the intentional introduction of non-native species that may affect biodiversity. The Communication stresses the importance of establishing an early warning system for the prompt exchange of information between neighbouring countries on the emergence of invasive alien species and cooperation on control measures across national boundaries. 2010) Percentage of species impacted Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment 27 . or long-term containment/control. the Commission issued a Communication ‘Towards an EU Strategy on Invasive Species’ in December 2008 which outlines four possible Policy Options to address IAS-related threats. Existing EU legislation and policy already provides part of the solution to the problems concerning invasive species. efficient and least environmentally damaging approach. 2009. The need to develop a common approach at EU level is evidenced by the fact that actions taken so far in some countries are often being negated by the lack of action in others. • Regulation 708/2007 on alien species in aquaculture came into force in 2007. Responding to this concern. • An evaluation of the impacts of invasive species on aquatic ecosystems (and how these species should be considered in the definition of the good ecological quality of waters) is being coordinated by the Joint Research Centre. where feasible. The next step is the elaboration of an EU strategy for invasive alien species. ALARM and NOBANIS. at present there are no mechanisms to support the harmonisation or consistency of approaches between neighbouring countries or countries in the same sub-region. followed by eradication. ACHIEVEMENTS To DaTE • The EU Communication ‘Towards an EU Strategy on Invasive Alien Species’ issued in 2008 identifies various policy options for developing an EU strategy on invasive alien species. • Several projects funded under EU Research and Technological Development programmes have been launched to help inform EU policy development on invasive alien species. • €38 million of EU LIFE money has been spent on eradicating and controlling invasive alien species inside and outside the Natura 2000 Network. The percentage of threatened and non-threatened species negatively affected by invasive alien species per group of species.Towards an EU Strategy for invasive alien species The EU Biodiversity Action Plan highlights the importance of tackling the problem of invasive alien species as a matter of priority.
In its 2007–2013 Development Policy. ❦❦ ❦ ❧ 28 Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment ❧ The EU is providing significant funds for tropical forest conservation. The impact of the EU’s high consumption patterns on the rest of the planet must also be addressed. One reason for the low uptake is the fact that biodiversity is often not a priority for the partner countries themselves. But further efforts are still needed. the EU recognises that it is not enough to focus solely on biodiversity in Europe. Ethiopia. Bolivia and Brazil. these objectives also address issues such as international trade and the greening of EU development policies and programmes. . Honduras. That is why three of the EU Biodiversity Action Plan objectives concern the EU’s role in combatting global biodiversity loss. principally in the Central African region. In addition to pressing for the effective worldwide implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity and other biodiversity conventions. Malawi. Environmental Profiles have therefore been established for most countries and regions covered by EC external cooperation.Objectives 6-7-8 To strengthen the EU’s role in combatting global biodiversity loss Supporting biodiversity through EU external assistance To be a credible partner in the international arena. the EU pledged to help mainstream biodiversity into its development cooperation programmes. So far some €133 million has been allocated for biodiversity within these geographical programmes.
• The EU is actively engaged in the implementation of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).000 billion on purchasing goods and services such as computers. • Significant progress has been made in promoting Forest Law Enforcement. As part of its Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) Programme.The EU also has a dedicated Thematic Programme for Environment and Natural Resources (ENRTP) which has made over €114 million available for biodiversity conservation in the last four years (2007–2010). the EU has also made a proposal for a Regulation laying down the obligations of operators who place timber and timber products on the market. these authorities can. the European Commission is encouraging Member States to set themselves the target of ensuring that 50% of their tendering procedures are green. Africa and Latin America.2 billion has been earmarked for biodiversity projects and programmes for 2010–2014. Reducing the impact of international trade Since the adoption of the EU Biodiversity Action Plan. At EU level. collectively. • The EU continues to press for the effective worldwide implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity and other international biodiversity conventions. the EU has redoubled its efforts to promote the integration of the environmental dimension into international trade. paper. food and cleaning services every year. The red-eyed tree frog Agalychnis callidryas has become a symbol for many campaigns to save tropical forests. • A total of €114 million has also been allocated to biodiversity for the four-year period 2007–2010 under the EC Thematic Programme for Environment and Natural Resources (ENRTP). Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment 29 . exert a major influence on consumption patterns within the EU and create a stronger demand for green products and technology. In addition. By insisting on environmentally friendly options in their tendering procedures. To support the efforts of the latter. ACHIEVEMENTS To DaTE • Under the EU Development Policy (2007–2013) €133 million has been allocated to biodiversity within the external assistance programmes for various developing countries. As regards global trade in biodiversity. Public authorities in the EU spend over €2. the EU contributes significantly to the replenishment of the 5th Global Environment Facility which provides grants to developing countries for projects related to biodiversity. • As part of its trade-related Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) Programme. • A further €20 million has been approved in a Financing Agreement for Biodiversity and Protected Areas Management in ACP countries. $1. the Commission is conducting SIAs for all its planned regional and bilateral free trade and partnership agreements. buildings. Governance and Trade (FLEGT). climate change and other global environmental issues. • The Commission and Member States are actively engaged in efforts to raise awareness and promote implementation of the Bonn Guidelines on Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) for genetic resources. progress has been made in implementing the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) and the EU Action Plan for Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade (FLEGT) adopted in 2003. The proposal is based on the due diligence principle requiring the operators covered by it to apply a system to minimise the risk of placing illegally harvested timber and timber products on the Community market. the Commission conducts SIAs for all its planned regional and bilateral free trade and partnership agreements in Asia.
including lengthier droughts. But when maintained and sustainably used. The economic. Peatlands. and might also be effectively and efficiently used in actions taken to adapt to climate change. while dunes and freshwater ecosystems provide a natural defence against floods and rising seas. To support biodiversity adaptation to climate change ❦❦ ❦ ❧ 30 Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment ❧ The willow ptarmigan Lagopus lagopus is likely to be strongly affected by climate change. Climate change is also taking its toll on wildlife. benefitting only 30. This shows that huge changes in biodiversity and ecosystems can be expected in Europe. This is manifesting itself through more extreme weather patterns in various parts of the world. Entire ecosystems could also be disrupted and many are already reaching a point of no return. social and environmental costs are potentially enormous.Objective 9 Climate change and biodiversity There is now a broad scientific and political consensus that the climate is changing as a result of human activities. . In a recent assessment of 122 widespread European bird species. ecosystems can play a major role in mitigating the effects of climate change. more frequent flooding and melting glaciers. climate warming had a negative impact on 92 species. forests and wetlands are capable of storing significant amounts of carbon.
Various initiatives have been taken in this respect. • In 2009. have substantially reduced their emissions. Firstly. Several countries. the EU 27 as a whole has achieved more than half of its unilateral reduction target of 20% by 2020 through domestic emission reductions alone and is well on the way to meeting its overall Kyoto targets. the Commission issued a White Paper on adaptation to climate change. and cost-effective. • EU-funded research projects have been launched to examine the impact of climate change on biodiversity. including the introduction of environmental sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids within the new EU Directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. the Commission issued a White Paper on adapting to climate change. There is however also a need to ensure that adaptation and mitigation measures are not detrimental to biodiversity. emphasising the importance of maintaining and restoring ecosystem integrity. The paper recognises that ecosystem-based approaches are ready to use. Maintaining healthy ecosystems makes economic sense: finding man-made solutions to replace the services that nature offers for free is technically challenging and extremely expensive. In the case of the former. adaptation and mitigation measures must be put in place to deal with the unavoidable impacts. especially the newer Member States.3% compared to 1990. ACHIEVEMENTS To DaTE • Several Member States have already substantially reduced their greenhouse gas emissions.Reducing greenhouse gas emissions Addressing climate change requires two types of response. • The EU as a whole has achieved more than half of its unilateral reduction target of 20% by 2020 and is well on the way to meeting its overall Kyoto targets. • The EU has called for halting the loss of global forest cover by 2030 at the latest and reducing gross tropical deforestation by at least 50% by 2020 from current levels. interconnected ecosystems and natural landscape elements. The paper emphasises the importance of maintaining and restoring ecosystem integrity and developing a ‘green infrastructure’ for the EU with healthy. the latest EEA inventory of greenhouse gas emissions by Member States indicates that emissions have decreased by 11. accessible to all. The impact of climate change on widespread bird populations has increased markedly in the past 20 years. Secondly. there must be a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. • The new EU Directive 2009/28/ EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources includes environmental sustainability criteria to protect biodiversity. Using nature to mitigate against climate change In 2009. 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment 31 . It stresses the need for a comprehensive and integrated approach to maintain and enhance ecosystems and the goods and services they provide. As a result.
up-to-date and peerreviewed information. using modern technology and ensuring access to interoperable databases. through its Biodiversity Action Plan. places particular emphasis on funding basic research on biodiversity and ecosystems through its research Framework Programmes. is essential to support our knowledge about the impact of biodiversity on the functioning of ecosystems. Already over €200 million has been allocated to biodiversity related projects under the 6th (2002–2006) and 7th (2007–2013) Framework Programmes. To substantially strengthen the knowledge base ❦❦ ❦ ❧ 32 Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment ❧ BIODIVERSITY INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR EUROPE Long-term ecological monitoring is essential to support our knowledge on the state of biodiversity. This will create a more robust and comprehensive knowledge base for supporting future policies and actions. biodiversity and ecosystem services. and dependency on.Objective 10 Biodiversity research in support of policy Understanding the complexity of biodiversity is an enormous scientific challenge. bringing together the results of a number of European Research projects in a comprehensive manner. an Atlas of Biodiversity Risk was launched in June 2010. The EU. together with Member States’ own research investments. The European Commission and European Environmental Agency have also set up a new Biodiversity Information System for Europe (BISE) whose overall objective is to build a single point of access to consistent. data and knowledge on biodiversity in Europe. The results of these projects. are continuously fed into the development of EU biodiversity policy. . investment in long-term ecological monitoring programmes. There is a critical need to fill the numerous gaps in our knowledge if we are to improve our understanding of our interrelationship with. In addition. To assist this process further.
The latter offers tailored insights and advice for national and international policy makers. • A further €199. In May 2008. • The European Commission is engaged in the global strategy for follow up to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and is committed to developing a regional assessment for Europe using the EURECA project launched by the European Environment Agency. 生 態 系 と 生 物 多 様 性 の 経 済 学 中 間 報 告 態 生 s ic 学 m m sy 済 経 の 性 no e t 様 o ystrsi 多 物 生 e co s v e と 系 i he c d T f e io o b & RESUME TEEB PAR A LOS RE SP ELABORA ONSABLES DE LA CIÓN NACIONA LES E INT DE POLÍTICAS N: RESPON ERNACIO DER AL NALES VALOR DE LA NATURA LEZA de y ía s d a om m ida o n iste r s E c cos i v e La s E iod lo B la 中 間 s ic s omem ty on st rsi Ec sy e e co div Thf E io o B & R BUSIN EXECUT IVE SUM 報 告 TEEB FO ESS MARY Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment 33 . which draws on expertise from around the world in the fields of natural sciences. • A new Biodiversity Information System for Europe (BISE) has been set up to provide a single point of contact for data relevant to EU biodiversity. the EU has been the main funder of a decisive global study on ‘The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB)’. The EU is also providing €1 million to UNEP to facilitate the establishment of the IPBES. It provided strong evidence of significant global and local economic losses and human welfare impacts attributable to the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. The study. and compares them with the costs of effective conservation and sustainable use. businesses as well as consumers and citizens on how to foster sustainable development by better conserving ecosystems and biodiversity and taking their economic value into account at the outset.6 million spent under the EU’s 6th Research Framework Programme (2002–2006) on biodiversity-related research projects. The second phase of TEEB work included a Report on Ecological and Economic Foundations and four targeted end-user reports that build on this baseline. • The Commission was instrumental in gaining agreement in 2010 for an Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) and is contributing €1 million to facilitate its establishment. evaluates the costs of the loss of biodiversity and the associated decline in ecosystem services worldwide. Studying the economics of biodiversity Responding to a proposal of the G8+5 Environment Ministers in 2007. ACHIEVEMENTS To DaTE • €78. economics and policy. estimated to be around €50 billion a year. • The EU is the main funder of the global study on The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB).The EU is also actively promoting biodiversity research and data collection at the international level. • An EU Atlas of Biodiversity Risk was launched in June 2010. bringing together the results of a number of European Research Projects. an interim TEEB report was presented at the CoP-9 meeting of the Convention of Biological Diversity.5 million allocated so far under the EU’s 7th Research Framework Programme (2007–2013). in June 2010. It has been instrumental in getting the international community to agree. the results of which will be instrumental in informing future policy responses. local and regional administrators. to set up an Intergovernmental Science Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystems services (IPBES) to strengthen independent scientific advice to global policy making.
Strengthening EU decision-making Strengthening the European decision-making process involves improving the coordination between EU and Member State policies on biodiversity. notably through an efficient governance structure. In 2010 it launched the Business and Biodiversity (B@B) Platform. which was built around the slogan ‘Biodiversity – we are all in this together’. awareness and participation Successful EU policy action on biodiversity depends on support from citizens. ensuring a coordinated policy response within the EU and in relations with the rest of the world. was to familiarise Europeans with the problems caused by biodiversity loss and the impacts this can have on their daily lives. they are supported by additional measures dealing with funding. ❦❦ ❦ ❧ 34 Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment ❧ . The main aim of the campaign. Building partnerships The European Commission attaches particular importance to building partnerships with different stakeholder groups and has undertaken many initiatives in this area. decision-making. is set to spend €836 million on Natura 2000 and biodiversity during this period. The LIFE+ fund. the European Commission launched a major EU-wide communications and outreach campaign on biodiversity. building partnerships and raising awareness. It also illustrates what individuals can do to help stop this decline. To mark the International Year of Biodiversity in 2010. Ensuring adequate financing The EU Financial Perspectives for 2007–2013 have opened up new opportunities for co-financing Natura 2000 and other biodiversity-related activities across the EU. a web-based tool that helps businesses integrate biodiversity considerations into their core activities and enables them to find solutions to biodiversity challenges related to their sector of activity.Supporting measures To ensure the EU Biodiversity Action Plan’s objectives and actions are implemented as effectively as possible. Promoting public education. which supports nature and biodiversity actions. Regular meetings are held between the Commission and National Authorities to review progress on the Biodiversity Action Plan and the two Nature Directives.
eu/environment/nature/biodiversity/comm2006/ index_en.eu/environment/nature/natura2000/index_en.2779/42306 Copies of this publication are available free of charge while stocks last from: European Commission Directorate-General Environment Information Centre (BU-9 0/11) B-1049 Brussels http://bookshop.europa.htm 2010 EU Biodiversity Baseline http://www.htm European Commission EU Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment Luxembourg : Publications Oﬃce of the European Union 2010 — 36 pp.eea.europa. Peltomaki.europa. Nationalpark Donauauen Page 10: J.europa. — 21 x 21 cm ISBN 978-92-79-16248-0 doi 10.Further reading European Commission Nature and Biodiversity website http://ec.eu/ Photo credits: Cover: All three photos.europa.eu/publications/eu-2010-biodiversity-baseline/ Biodiversity Information System for Europe (BISE) www.eu/environment/nature/biodiversity/economics/ index_en.eu The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) reports: http://ec.biodiversity. Wild Wonders Page 12: Kocacs. Istockphoto Page 4: David Kjaer Page 6: Peter Creed Page 8: Istockphoto Page 9: Kern.eu/environment/nature/index_en.europa. Wild Wonders Page 14: European Commission Page 16: Peter Creed Page 19: Csaba Loki Page 20: Page 22: Page 24: Page 25: Page 26: Page 28: Page 29: Page 30: Page 32: Page 33: Page 34: David Kjaer Stella Del Curto Istockphoto Staatsbossbeheer Flickr Istockphoto Istockphoto Istockphoto Ruth Haynes Istockphoto 1st photo David Kjaer.htm The Natura 2000 Network http://ec.htm The 2006 EU Biodiversity Action Plan and 2010 Assessment http://ec. 2nd photo European Commission Biodiversity Action Plan: 2010 Assessment 35 . Wothe. Nationalpark Donauauen Page 14: K.
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