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Overview : May 2002 Colin McCulloch

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

1

**But first… a digression…
**

• Structural dynamics

• MBS + FEA => Strong coupling!

• Vibro-acoustics

• Weak coupling • “Standard stuff”

• Classic applications

• Engine acoustic radiation prediction • …

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

2

Engine Dynamics

Air-borne and Structureborne noise come from this...

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

3

**Engine Internal Dynamics and Structural Modes
**

Modes in time domain model => MPFs

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

4

Engine Acoustic Radiation

**We measure… and model the measurement set-up (ISO3744)
**

BEM : Modal Acoustic Transfer Vectors

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

5

**Engine Acoustic Radiation
**

Predict what we will Measure Weak coupling

**Multi-rpm acoustic radiation
**

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

6

**An Environment for Integration
**

One place to define, drive and assess all functional performance analyses…

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

7

**Back to the Aero -Acoustics…! Aero-Acoustics…! Contents
**

• • • • • • Motivation and History Current Activities and Resources LMS Approach to CAA : Analogy SYSNOISE Revision 5.6 Validation Work Conclusion

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

8

Motivation

Automotive Industry

• Sunroofs, Mirrors • Antennas, A-Pillars, wipers • Exhaust Systems • HVAC Blowers, Cooling Fans

Aerospace Industry

• Jet Noise • Rotating Wing Noise

Other Industries

• Turbomachines • Chemical Separators • Computer fans, hard-disk drive • Vacuum cleaner, Hair dryer

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

9

History

• SYSNOISE

• Leading BEM and FEM acoustics code (Wave Equation => linear, inviscid, irrotational, …) • Convected waves (FEM) – effect of flow on noise • Non-linear sources (FEM) – thermally/chemically-induced noise

**• CAA = CFD + CA … R&D, European projects…
**

• ALESSIA: Application of Large Eddy Simulation to the Solution of Industrial Problems

– concluding

**• WISSLE: FloW Induced Sound SimuLation and Evaluation
**

– 5 man-years; on-going

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

10

**Current Activities and Resources
**

• R&D

• Supervisor and 3 full-time post-grad/post-doc researchers • Other (shared) software development and support resources

**• Code Implementation and Deployment
**

• SYSNOISE β and Revision 5.6 release • Interfaces

• Validation

• Test cases with industrial partners (comparison with literature, experiments, …)

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

11

**Aero -Acoustics Aero-Acoustics The LMS Approach
**

• Objective:

• Build in SYSNOISE a high-quality and pragmatic industrial approach to model Flow Induced Noise accurately - in real life cases

• How:

CFD

SSN

• One-way coupling of major CFD codes with SYSNOISE (StarCD, …) • Exploit Aero-Acoustic Analogies (AAA) • Lighthill, Curle, Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

12

**Aero -Acoustics Aero-Acoustics Challenges
**

• Flow induced Noise prediction is a Challenge!

• Accurate flow (CFD) prediction for real-life problems is already difficult - Turbulence modeling is still a research area • Acoustic physics happens multiple orders of magnitude lower than aero-dynamic physics (typically 5 orders of magnitude)That’s why the CFD code won’t by itself capture the propagation from these acoustic sources.

• And, the CFD code cannot account for the acoustic behaviour like scattering and diffraction, which occur away from the region of the ‘compact sources’. • Regions of interest (to be modeled) are different: acoustic waves propagate at long distances • But

• CRITICAL INDUSTRIAL INTEREST FOR SOLUTIONS

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

13

**Aero -Acoustics Aero-Acoustics An important distinction…
**

• Two very-different phenomena: • The effect of flow ON the sound field

• • •

Convection of sound waves Possible with SYSNOISE already (in FEM module) Requires steady-state flow field

– which can be transferred from CFD

**• The effect of flow PRODUCING a sound field
**

• • •

Creation of acoustic sources Uses Aero-Acoustic Analogies (AAA) Requires Unsteady flow results from CFD

– RANS, LES, DNS, Lagrangian – today’s subject…

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

14

**Aero -Acoustic Analogy Aero-Acoustic Jet Noise
**

• Lighthill work performed to tackle the problem of jet noise is the starting point of the theory referred to as the AeroAcoustic Analogy (AAA) • Lighthill reformulated NS equations to derive a wave equation with a source term including all flow effects.

Quadrupole sources

Noise Due to Disturbed Flows = Quadrupoles radiation

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

15

**Aero -Acoustic Analogy Aero-Acoustic Some Equations
**

1. Lighthill Equation :

2 2 ~ ∂ Tij (x, t ) ( ) " ∂ ! x, t ~ # !(x, t ) − 2 =− 2 c0 ∂t ∂ yi ∂ y j

With

~ 2 ~ Tij (x, t ) = !(x, t ) v i v j (x, t ) + Pij (x, t ) − c 0 !(x, t ) $ij

~ Pij (x, t ) = (P − P0 )$ij − τij & ∂v i ∂v j # ∂v k $ ! τij = µ + +$ λ $ ∂x ∂x ! ij ∂x i " k % j

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

16

**Aero -Acoustic Analogy Aero-Acoustic Flow Interacting with stationary Surface
**

• Lighthill’s work has been extended by Curle to handle the Influence of Solid Boundaries upon Aerodynamic Sound.

d un so t le res p o at Di m ed i u a t ed di m Ra in a

d un so est e l r po t Di m a d u i ate d di me Ra in a

Quadrupole sources

Flow

Diffracting body

Quadrupoles region Dipoles region

Fictive surface Distributed Dipoles

Radiated Quadrupole Sound in a medium at rest

Quadrupole sources

**Noise Due to (Disturbed Flows + Stationary Surfaces) = Dipoles on the surface + Quadrupoles outside the surface
**

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

17

**Aero -Acoustic Analogy Aero-Acoustic Some Equations
**

2. Curle Equation :

Solve Lighthill Equation when rigid boundaries are present in the domain

Quadrupoles

2 " ∂ ~ (x, t ) = ! 2 4c 0 % ∂x i ∂x j

'

& ij (y, τ ) r

V

dy −

Dipoles

" ∂ 2 4c 0 % ∂x i

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

Pi (y, τ ) 'S r dS(y )

18

**Aero -Acoustic Analogy Aero-Acoustic Flow Interacting with Rotating Surface
**

• Curle’s work has been extended by Ffowcs-Willams & Hawkings to deal with rotating surfaces interacting with a flow

Q1+Q2 Q4 Q4 Q1+Q2

Q4

ROTATING ROTATING SURFACES SURFACES

EQUIVALENT EQUIVALENT PROBLEM PROBLEM

Noise Due to (Disturbed Flows + Rotating Surfaces) = Rotating Dipoles on the blades + Quadrupoles outside the Blades

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

19

Q1+Q2

Flow

Q1+Q2 Q4

**Aero -Acoustic Analogy Aero-Acoustic Some Equations
**

3. Ffowcs-Williams Equation :

Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings reformulated NS equation introducing mathematical surfaces (that coincide with the surface of the moving solid) and imposing boundary conditions on it:

2 2 ~ Tij (x, t ) ∂ ( ) " ! x, t ∂ ~ # !(x, t ) − 2 =− + 2 c0 ∂t ∂ yi ∂ y j

# f ∂ & ∂ !+ $ Pij $(f ) ! x ∂ xi $ ∂ j % " # f ∂ & ∂ $ !0 VS $(f ) ! i ! x ∂t$ ∂ j % "

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

20

**Aero -Acoustic Analogy Aero-Acoustic From CFD to SYSNOISE
**

• To summarise:

Flow

Diffracting body Q4 region Q2 region

Flow

Q2

Q2

Q4

Q4

Q4 Q2

Q2

Quadrupole sources

Q4 Q4

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

21

Q2

Fictive surface

Q2 Q4

**Aero -Acoustic Analogy Aero-Acoustic From CFD to SYSNOISE
**

• To summarise:

•

We have THREE kinds of Aero-Acoustic Sources:

1. 2. 3. Quadrupoles (Q4) Dipoles (Q2) Rotating Dipoles (Q2)

•

These sources are given by :

1. Quadrupoles === Flow Velocity,turbulence 2. Dipoles === Pressure on the walls 3. Rotating Dipoles === Forces on the Blades

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

22

**FROM CFD TO SYSNOISE
**

CFD Run

Aero-acoustic Calculation

ng i s y s ce enc o r u -p e q t s Fr o P ( a t e Da T im

Generate Aeroacoustic Sources

SSN 5.6

23

SSN 5.6

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

**Aero -Acoustics Aero-Acoustics with SYSNOISE Revision 5.6
**

• Quadrupoles

Velocity on the volumetric mesh CFD Mesh Acoustic Mesh

Quadrupoles continuous distribution

•

Dipoles

Pressure on the nodes Dipoles continuous distribution

•

Rotating dipoles

Forces on the blade’s elements

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

Rotating Dipoles on the elements

24

**Implementation and Deployment SYSNOISE Rev 5.6 Aero -acoustic Modules Aero-acoustic
**

• Automatic creation of distributed sources - “GENERATE”

• • • • Unequal CFD and acoustic meshes Quadrupoles within a special volume mesh Stationary dipoles Rotating dipoles New Fast FFT to transform cfd data in the frequency domain

• • •

**Interfaces to major CFD codes (StarCD, …)
**

•

**Solutions in Acoustic FEM and Acoustic BEM
**

• Scattering, diffraction… (all ‘acoustic-scale’ phenomena)

Post-processing

• • • Compute the incident field Curle Integral …

25

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

**Validation Work : On -going On-going
**

• • • • • • • • Cylinder (two velocities) Cylinder in duct Cylinder between plates Pipe junction Fan noise Jet nozzle with strut Sun-roof … others …

26

• Verify methods and procedures • Compare with analytical results, literature, experiments

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

**Aero -Acoustic Modules Aero-Acoustic Validation Work
**

Cylinder Test-case (TUM/ALESSIA) incompressible flow (Re=3900) Rigid cylinder

L

U∞ = 17.9m/s P∞ = 101325Pa " ∞ = 1.225kg/m3 M∞ = 0.05 !t = 3.55x10 −6 C∞ = 340.29m/s L = 3.5D nt = 1000

27

D

D = 0.00318m

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

**Aero -Acoustic Modules Aero-Acoustic Validation Work: Cylinder test case
**

FFT

CFD time history p(t)

frequency spectrum p(f), amplitude

Peak at 1130 HZ

frequency spectrum p(f) Real part Imaginary part

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

28

**Aero -Acoustic Modules Aero-Acoustic Validation Work: Cylinder test case
**

We define at the peak frequency Dipole Sources on the surface

w F lo

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

We define Quadrupole Sources in the Wake

**Dipole + Quadrupole combination in SYSNOISE
**

29

w F lo

w F lo

**Aero -Acoustic Modules Aero-Acoustic Validation Work: Cylinder test case
**

Flow passing a cylinder (CFD)

**First, we solve the flow
**

DipoleDipole-Noise (SYSNOISE) Frequency of computation: 1130Hz Cylinder Length=3.5xDiameter 250 Dipoles on the surface 250 Quadrupoles in the wake Field Point mesh: Symmetrical Plane QuadrupoleQuadrupole-Noise (SYSNOISE)

Next, we generate Aero-Acoustic Sources, Dipoles and Quadrupoles, from the CFD output, with use of SYSNOISE, and perform the calculation…

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

30

**Aero -Acoustic Modules Aero-Acoustic Validation Work: Cylinder test case
**

The results show a good agreement with Philips Equation and the measurements (Alfa Laval)

The Quadrupole radiation shows a good qualitative behaviour

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

31

**Aero -Acoustic Modules Aero-Acoustic Validation Work
**

Strut/Nozzle The study of the noise due to the presence of a strut in a turbulent subsonic flow. CFD simulation using LES. Comparison with measurements data available in the literature is very good

D

Nozzle

4D

Strut Mixing Region

**Chord = 0.05m Nozzle Diameter = 0."m Re = 335930 M = 0.37
**

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

32

**Aero -Acoustics Modules Aero-Acoustics Validation Work: Strut/nozzle
**

The Aero-Acoustic Coupling

Pressure fluctuation as input to generate dipoles on surfaces

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

33

**Aero -Acoustics Modules Aero-Acoustics Validation Work: Strut/nozzle
**

Acoustic Mesh Data

Number of Nodes = 402 Number of Faces = 400 Number of Elements = 400 Kind of Elements : Quad4

Dipoles on the acoustic mesh

Acoustic field of sound pressure level generated by dipoles and using a DBEM approach in SYSNOISE

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

34

**Aero -Acoustics Modules Aero-Acoustics Validation Work: Strut/nozzle
**

Field Points Results

Field points Number = 11 Field points - strut Distance = 0.4 m

5.5E+0"

point_6

5.0E+0"

point_5 point_4 point_3 point_2

Sound Pressure Level [dB]

4.5E+0"

4.0E+0"

Field points Spectra (Sound Pressure Levels) Broadband Noise

3.5E+0"

3.0E+0"

2.5E+0" 280

780

"280

"780

2280 Frequency [Hz]

2780

3280

3780

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

35

**Aero -Acoustics Modules Aero-Acoustics Validation Work: Strut/nozzle
**

Field Points Results

Field points Number = 11 Field points - strut Distance = 0.4 m

".2E-02

Sound Pressure Level - Field Points

".0E-02

point_6 point_5 point_4 point_3

Pressure fluctuation [dB]

8.0E-03

point_2

6.0E-03

Field points Spectra (Pressure Fluctuation) Broadband Noise

4.0E-03

2.0E-03

0.0E+00 280

780

"280

"780

2280 Frequency [Hz]

2780

3280

3780

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

36

Strut/nozzle: Comparison with experimental results

• Experimental Results by W.A. Olsen of the Lewis Research Center • The Experimental Results have been also compared with an analytical formulation present in Literature (AeroacousticsAeroacoustics-Goldstein) showing a good agreement • Very good agreement between Experimental and Numerical Results

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

37

**Aero -Acoustic Modules Aero-Acoustic Validation Work
**

Generic vehicle cabin with a sunroof

Star-CD and LMS SYSNOISE

Sunroof without a Deflector

Sunroof with a wind Deflector

U = 30.556m/s Re = 9.8million M = 0.09

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

38

**Aero -Acoustic Modules Aero-Acoustic Validation Work : Sunroof test case
**

Shear Noise Source symmetry plane, Clean car

Shear Noise Source, symmetry plane, deflector fitted

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

39

**Aero -Acoustic Modules Aero-Acoustic Validation Work : Sunroof test case
**

Radiated and Reverberant Sound Frequency = 30Hz Right : original; Left : with deflector (14 dB reduction in interior)

(different contour scales!)

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

40

Conclusion

• • •

Technology

• Acoustic analogies : ‘linkage’ of CFD and acoustics

Implementation

• Special interfacing of SYSNOISE and CFD (Star CD…)

Validation

• • On-going Further validations, measurements, applications : tbd …

•

Deployment

• Beta version now, public release with SYSNOISE 5.6

LMS Aero-Acoustics Overview, April 2002

41

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