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# Module – 7 Unit – 7 Differential and Operational Amplifiers

Review Question:1. How is basic structure of a differential amplifier different from, for example, a conventional RC coupled common – emitter amplifier? 2. In what different configurations can a differential amplifier be used? 3. How are the two inputs of an differential amplifier different? Explain inverting and non-inverting nature of inputs. 4. Symmetry in construction of two halves of differential amplifier is emphasized. Give reasons. 5. What is tail current? Efforts are made and several circuits suggested for the constancy of tail current. Discuss. 6. The input impedance of differential amplifier is much higher (~ M Ω) than a conventional common – emitter amplifiers. Explain. 7. Define an ideal operational amplifier. 8. Draw the approximate block diagram of an op amp giving various stages of the amplifier. 9. An op amp is rarely used in open loop (i.e. without feedback) for linear amplifying applications. Why? 10. Inverting input is a ‘virtual ground’ in op amp. What does it mean and what is its significance? 11. What reasons would you assign for very wide use of op amps in analog and digital circuits? 12. Define common mode rejection ratio(CMRR). Give its significance in device performance. 13. Define ‘slew rate’. When does it start showing its effect on amplifier performance. 14. How does input off-set voltage in an op amp arise? And how can it be corrected?

How much is dc voltage from each collector to ground? How much is Vout? +12V RC vi1 16k + RC Vout + - 16k VCE1 - VCE2 vi2 IT RE 24k -12V .1 Estimate dc emitter current in each transistor of differential amplifier shown in fig.Problems: 7.

IE. Vout = VCE1 – VCE2 = 8 . in each transistor is.0 V = VCE2 (due to symmetry) Then. IT VEE RE VBE 12V 24 k  VEE RE 0.25X10-3 X 16X103 Or.8 = 0V .25 mA 0. IE IE 1 0. VCE1 = 8.5 mA IT 2 2 0.Solution:The tail current through 24k resistor is. VCC = ICRC + VCE1 VCE1 = VCC – ICRC = 12 – 0.25 mA Since IC = IE. voltage summation in the output circuit gives.5 mA The emitter current. IT or .

R1 = 5kΩ Further. AV RF R1 And. RF = AV. AV desired is 120. the gain AV of inverting amplifier is. Solution:- vi R1 RF +VCC + vo -VEE Figure shows the circuit for an inverting amplifier.7.R1 = 120 X 5k or. R1 = 5kΩ Therefore. the input impedance Zi is.2 Design an inverter amplifier with gain of 120 and input impedance of 5kΩ. Since for an inverting amplifier. RF = 600 kΩ . Zi = R1 = 5kΩ (desired) Therefore. Give the circuit.

AV 1 1 RF R1 99 k 1k 100 or AV .3 Find out the voltage gain of the non-inverting amplifier shown in fig.7. +VC C + vo VEE 99 k R 2 vi a - ~ 1 k R 1 Solution:The voltage gain of a non-inverting amplifier is.

the band width with feedback. +VCC vo -VEE 99k R2 + vi a - ~ 1k R1 Solution:- If open loop band width is f2. Calculate the bandwidth of feedback amplifier (in fig. f2(FB) = 10 X 105 X 10-2 HZ or. A = 105 (given) And the gain of feedback network.4 In the amplifier circuit shown in fig.AB because AB>>1 Now. f2(FB) = 10kHZ .). B in the circuit shown in fig. is B R1 R1 RF 1k 1k 99k 1 100 10 2 Then.7.. f2(FB) is given by f2(FB) = f2(1 + AB) ≈ f2. if open loop gain and open loop band width of the op amp respectively are 105 and 10 HZ.

.(3V1 + V2 + 0.5 For the summing amplifier shown in fig. V0 = .2V3) What is the approximate value of the compensating resistor R? v1 a R1 RF(=30k) v2 a R2 v3 a R3 + +VCC vo -VEE R .R2 and R3 so that the output V0 is.7. estimate the values of resistors R1.

V0. for the summing amplifier is.0kΩ . RF R2 or .2 or . R1 3 . V0 RF V1 R1 RF V2 R2 RF V3 R3 Thus for the desired output. or 10 k 30k R1 3 Similarly.2 30 k 0. 1 . R2 And. or R2 30 k RF 30 k RF R3 or R3 And. R = 7.2 R = R1 R2 R3 = 10k 30k 150k or. 0. R3 150 k RF 0. RF R1 or .Solution:The output voltage.

Vb= -2V and Vc = 3b 1k R1 RF 2k +VCC va a 1k R1 1k R2 1k R3 + vo -VEE vb a vc a . If V a= 5V.6 Determine the output voltage in the circuit shown in fig.7.

Solution:In the amplifier circuit shown in fig. R2. V0 V0 V1 1 6V 1 RF R RF V1 R 1 2k 1k 2V . and Vc. V1 Va Vb 3 Vc 5V 2V 3 3V 2V And the gain for non-inverting amplifier. V0 or . Since the resistors R1. V a. and R3 are all equal to 1kΩ. AV. the voltage V1. is AV or . Vb. Thus. at non-inverting input terminal will be average of the three voltages.

7 Differential gain Ad. output voltage measured is 0.0V 10 2 Therefore.01V. How much is common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR)? Solution:By definition. CMRR = 20 X 4 = 80 dB CMRR = 80 dB . ACM V0 Vi ( c m ) 0.0V is applied common to both the inputs. In the measurement of commonmode gain experiment when 1. ACM is. common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) is CMRR (in dB) 20log10 Ad Acm Where Ad is gain in differential mode which is given as 100. And. CMRR 20log10 100 10 2 20log10 (104 ) or.7. of an op amp measures 100. the gain in common mode.01V 1.

8 Figure shows a low-pass filter.7. Also calculate the value of resistor R to get cut-off frequency of 2kHZ. 1k RF +VCC R + vo -VEE vi a ~ 0. Calculate the value of feedback resistor RF so that band-pass gain is 100.2 µF .

f. then RF 1k 99k 100. for low-pass fitter is given by 1 2 RC 1 or . AV AV 100 or .Solution:The gain in band-pass region is that of non-inverting amplifier and it is. R 398 (Pr actically R f 1 2 3.14 2 103 0.2 10 400 ) 6 . R 2 fC or . R1 1 The cut-off frequency. RF 1 RF R1 1k .