You are on page 1of 4

# Que:- A parabola drawn touching the axis of x at the origin and having its vertex at a given distance k from

the x - axis . Prove that the axis of parabola is a tangent to the parabola x2 + 8k(y - 2k) = 0.

## Ans : Let the equation of the parabola be Y2 = 4ax

2 Any tangent to it at the point (at , 2at) is 2 2 Yt = X +at .........(1) The normal at the point( at , 2at) is 3 Y + tX = 2at + at ........(2) Take the equations of transformation -

in xy coordinates p=(0,0) and PT is the axis which is tangent to the parabola at the origin. Now,

## the distance of the vertex v(0,0) in the x,y coordinates from pt

Full Question: A regular polygon with 2n + 1 sides is inscribed in a circle. Three of the polygon's vertices are selected at random and the triangle formed by connecting these vertices is drawn. Prove that the probability that the center of the circle lies inside the triangle is (n+1)/(2(2n-1)). Surely the total number of ways to pick 3 vertices on the (2n+1)-gon without replacement is (2n+1)*(2n)*(2n-1). Now we need to find the number of triples of vertices that have the desired property. Let's start by choosing 1 vertex -- this can surely be done in 2n+1 ways. Now consider the distance between the first point and the second point, where by distance I mean the number of sides in between. As the number of sides is odd, each case has a (unique!) counterpart by reflexive symmetry. Therefore, we now have the number of desired triples as (2n+1)*2*([number of good last points when first two are 1 away] + [number of good last points when first two are 2 away] + ... + [number of good last points when first two are n away]) n is the maximum distance, as a distance of n+1 is simply a distance of n going around the polygon in the opposite direction. Note also that each side between the first two points (in the path of least length) corresponds to a diametrically opposite vertex, and the triangle created by each such point contains the longer portion of the diameter and hence the center! Thus, the number of good last points when the first two are d away is exactly d itself! Hence, the number of triples with the desired property is (2n+1)*2*(1 + 2 + ... + n). (Can that last sum be simplified?) The desired probability, then, is the fraction with the number of desired triples as the numerator, and the number of ALL triples as the denominator. EDIT: How silly of me, I neglected the fact that order does not matter, so the number of good triples and the number of total triples should each be divided by the number of permutations on 3 letters, which is 3! = 6. Fortunately, when forming the probability, this divisor cancels, and so the probability is the same as with the quantities above.

**From the 2n+1 vertices, randomly select a vertex, say A. Then select
vertices B and C clockwise. Denote angle AOB by p*a, angle BOC by q*a, where a=2*pi/(2n+1); p, q are both integers. For the center to lie inside triangle ABC, the triangle must be acute. Therefore, 0 < p*a/2 < pi/2 0 < q*a/2 < pi/2 0 <(2*pi-p*a-q*a) < pi/2 which can be further simplified as 1 <= p <= n 1 <= q <= n n+1 <= p+q <= 2*n The number of (p,q) pairs that satisfy the conditions above can be easily

calculated as n(n+1)/2. Without these requirements, the number of (p,q) pairs can also be conveniently obtained to be n(2n-1). So the probability is [n(n+1)/2]/[n(2n-1)] = (n+1)/[2*(2n-1)]

**The median does not alter because it is only dependent on the middle observation's value. The mean does change,
however, because it is dependent on the average value of all observations. So, in the above example, as the last value of the last observation increases, so too does the mean. In the third data set, the value of 14 is very different from any other values. When an observation is very different from all other observations in a data set, it is called anoutlier. (For more information on outliers, see the Stem and leaf plots section.) The mean is the measure of central tendency most affected by outliers. Outliers can sometimes occur as a result of error or deliberate misinformation. In these cases, the outliers should be excluded from the measure of central tendency. Other times, outliers just show how different one value is, and this can be a very useful piece of data.

## Example 7 Comparing the mean and median

When house prices are referred to in newspapers, generally the median price is quoted. Why is this measure used instead of the mean? There are many moderately priced houses, but there are also some expensive ones and a few very expensive ones. The mean figure could be quite high as it includes the prices of the more expensive houses. But the median gives a more accurate and realistic value of the prices faced by most people. In summary, the median is the central number and is good to use in skewed (or unbalanced) distributions because it is not affected by outliers.

## Example 8 Comparing the mean and median

Suppose you want to know how much money a family could afford to spend on housing. This would depend on the total family income. For a family of five (two parents who work and three children with no income) the mean income of each family member is the total income divided by five (e.g., 60,000 5 = 12,000). However, the median income would be zero, because more than half of the members of the family make nothing. In some situations, the mean can be much more informative than the median.

## Example 9 Comparing the mean and median

If you want to find out whether a country is wealthy or not, you might consider using the median as your measure of central tendency instead of the mean. The mean family income could be quite high if income is highly concentrated in a few very wealthy families (despite the fact that most families might earn essentially nothing). Thus, the median family income would be a more meaningful measureat least half the families would earn the median income or less, and at least half would earn at least as much as the median income or more.

## Example 10 Comparing the mean and median

Suppose you are applying for a job as an accountant at several large firms, and you want to get an idea of how much money you could expect to be making in five years if you join a particular firm. You may want to consider the salaries of accountants in each firm five years after they are hired. One very high salary could make the mean salary higher; that might not reflect a typical salary within these firms. However, half the accountants make the median salary or less, and half make the median salary or more. So, the measure of central tendency that would give you a better idea of a typical salary would be the median.

## Example 11 Comparing the mean and median

By choosing a measure of central tendency favourable to your point of view, you can mislead people with statistics. In fact, this is commonly done. Imagine you are the owner of a bakery that makes and sells individual birthday cakes and huge wedding cakes. It might be in your interest to claim to your customers that the prices have been lowered, and to claim to your shareholders that you have raised the prices. Suppose that last year you sold 100,000 birthday cakes at \$10 each, and 1,000 wedding cakes at \$1,000 each. This year, you sold 100,000 birthday cakes at \$8 each and 1,000 wedding cakes at \$1,200 each.

The median price of the 101,000 cakes sold last year is \$10, because more than half of the items sold were birthday cakes. The median price of the 101,000 cakes sold this year is \$8. The mean price of the 101,000 cakes sold last year is \$19.80. (100,000 x \$10 + 1,000 x \$1,000) 101,000 = \$19.80 The mean price of the 101,000 cakes sold this year is also \$19.80. (100,000 x \$8 + 1,000 x \$1,200) 101,000 = \$19.80

The average price per cake sold is the same in both years. Also, the total revenue and the number of the cakes sold was the same. The idea is that you can make data appear to tell conflicting stories by choosing the appropriate measure of central tendency. It is important to note that you do not have to use only one measure of central tendency. The mean and median can both be used, thus providing more information about the data.