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LABOR STANDARDS

LAW 200M
Atty. Domingo T. Aonuevo
DLSU College of Law
dtanonuevo@pldtdsl.net
domingoanonuevo@gmail.com

+639175457018
COURSE DESCRIPTION:
This course is about the fundamental principles of labor law, and the law on
recruitment and placement, labor standards, termination of employment, and social
legislation.
LEARNING OUTCOMES (LO):
On completion of the course, the student is expected to be able to do the
following:
1. State the legal bases of labor law and tell where it may be found; recognize the
basic rights of workers and employers;
2. Tell when an employer-employee relationship exists; differentiate job contracting
from labor-only contracting;
3. Tell when there is illegal recruitment; discuss the rights of apprentices, learners
and the disabled;
4. Restate and apply the minimum standards on hours of work, rest days, holidays,
various leaves, minimum wages, payment and protection of wages, 13th month
pay, and the working conditions for women, minors, house helps and other
special groups of workers;
5. Discuss the right to security of tenure; explain when an employee may quit
his/her employment; identify the just and business-related causes for termination
of employment; describe the procedural requirements of termination of
employment; and identify the reliefs and remedies in cases of illegal dismissals;
6. Discuss the coverage of and the benefits under the various social legislations.

REQUIREMENTS AND ASSESSMENTS:


The student will be assessed during the term by the following:
1

Class participation
Attendance/recitation
Group reports
Quizzes
Mid-term examination
Final examination

20.00%
10.00%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
30.00%

Students should submit to DTA class cards not later than the 2 nd class day. Affix
1x1 photos and write the following details: name, pre-law course, school
graduated from, previous employment, email address, cell phone number).

Laptops and tablets may be used to take down notes but should be turned
off/closed when owner is called to recite. All notes and books should be closed
also during recitation.

No excuse will be accepted for failing to take a quiz or submitting a report or


paper. For midterms and finals, the only excuses allowed are death or
emergency hospitalization of an immediate family member, or emergency
hospitalization of a student.

Consultation is by appointment or through email.

Every student must belong to a gang of 3 for the purpose of group reports.
Group membership should be reported to DTA not later than the 2 nd class day.

LEARNING PLAN:
LEARNING
OUTCOME:
Student should be able
to
State the legal bases of
labor law and tell where
it may be found;
recognize the basic
rights of workers and
employers;

TOPIC

Part I:
Introduction to
Labor Law
Sections 1 - 4.

DATES

(Day 1,
Day 2,
Day 3)

LEARNING
ACTIVITIES

* Lecture
* Recitation
* Group report on international
core standards: what these are
and an assessment on how PH is
already complying these standards
*Group report on how the SOLE
enforces the Labor Code

Tell when an employeremployee relationship


exists; differentiate job
contracting from laboronly contracting;

Part I:
Introduction to
Labor Law

(Day 4,
Day 5)

* Lecture
* Recitation
* Group report on the Tonko cases

Sections 5 & 6
Quiz on Part I

Tell when there is illegal


recruitment;
Discuss when an alien
may be employed;
discuss the rights of
apprentices, learners
and the disabled;

Part II:
Recruitment &
Placement of
Workers/ Alien
Employment

(Day 6,
Day 7,
Day 8)

* Lecture
* Recitation
* Group report on training and
employment of disabled persons
(handicapped workers)

Part III: Human


Resources
Development
Quiz on Parts II & III

Restate and apply the


minimum standards on
hours of work, rest
days, holidays, various
leaves, minimum
wages, payment and
protection of wages,
13th month pay, and the
working conditions for
women, minors, house
helps and other special
groups of workers;

Part IV: Labor


Standards

(Day 9,
Day 10,
Day 11
Day 12,
Day 13,
Day 14)

* Lecture
* Recitation
* Group report on the Kasambahay
bills

Quiz on Part IV

Discuss the right to


security of tenure;
explain when an
employee may
terminate his/her
employment; identify
the just and businessrelated causes for
termination of
employment; describe
the procedural
requirements of
termination of
employment; and
identify the reliefs and
remedies in cases of
illegal dismissals;

Part V:
Termination of
Employment

(Day 11,
Day 12,
Day 13,
Day 14,
Day 15,
Day 16,
Day 17)

* Lecture
* Recitation
* Group report on:
-- a recent labor arbiters decision
declaring illegal a dismissal for just
cause,
a recent labor arbiters decision
upholding a dismissal for just
cause;
-- FASAP v. PAL, G.R. No. 178083

Quiz on Part V
Discuss the coverage of
and the benefits under
the various social
legislations.

Part VI:
Social
Legislation

(Day 18,
Day 19,
Day 20
Day 21

* Lecture
* Recitation
Quiz on Part VI

REFERENCES:

SALVADOR A. POQUIZ, LABOR STANDARDS LAW WITH NOTES AND


COMMENTS, 2012 EDITION;
C.A. AZUCENA, JR., THE LABOR CODE WITH COMMENTS AND CASES,
VOL. I, 2010 EDITION;

Nota bene:
The case titles below are hyperlinked to websites containing the cases' full
text.

Part I:
INTRODUCTION TO LABOR LAW
1 Labor law, defined
2 Labor law, classified
3 Legal bases of labor law
3.1 Police power of the State

Philippine Association of Service Exporters,


Inc. v. Drilon, 163 SCRA 386 (1988); St. Lukes
Medical Center Employees AssociationAFW v. NLRC, 517 SCRA 677 (2007); Magana
v. Medicard Phil., Inc., 638 SCRA 606 (2010)

3.2 Specific provisions of the 1987


Constitution
3.2.1 Social Justice

3.2.1.1 Defined

3.2.1.1 Applied

1987 Constitution, Art. II, Secs. 5 & 10; Art. XIII,


Secs. 1 & 2;

Calalang v. Williams, 70 Phil. 726 (1940); Fr.


Joaquin Bernas, The 1987 Philippine
Constitution: A Reviewer-Primer, 1987 ed., p. 23.

HFS Phil., Inc. v. Pilar, G.R. No. 168716, April


16, 2009; PLDT v. NLRC, 164 SCRA (1988);
Toyota Motor Phil. Corp. Workers
Association v. NLRC, G.R. No. 158786,
October 19, 2007.

3.2.1.3 Protection of
labor

3.2.1.3 Right to due


process and right to
labor as roperty

3.2.3 Gender equality and


protection of women

CONST., Art. II, Sec. 18; Art XIII, Sec. 3.;

Cebu Royal Plant v. Hon Deputy Minister of


Labor, 153 SCRA 38 (1987); Gregorio Araneta
University Foundation v. NLRC, 155 SCRA
301(1987); Quitoriano v. Jebsens Maritime,
Inc., G.R. No. 179868, January 21, 2010.
CONST., Art. IIL, Sec. 1;

Callanta v. Carnation Philippines, Inc., 145


SCRA 268 (1986); Phil. Movie Pictures
Workers' Asso. v. Premiere Productions,
Inc., 92 Phil. 843 (1953).
CONST., Art. II, Sec. 14; Art. XIII, Sec. 14
Suggested reading: Emily Salcedo, Romantic

Paternalism in Philippine Labor Law Revisiting


the Tradition, Realizing its Folly, and Proposing
Reconstruction in the Light of American
Experience, DLSU Business & Economics
Review, 21.1 (2011), pp. 77-96.
3.2.4 Right of government
employees to organize
3.2.5 Protection to rights of
employer

CONST., Art. IX-B, Sec. 2(5); Art. III, Sec. 8

CONST., Art. II, Sec. 20 and Art. XIII, Sec. 3,


par. 4;

Chu v. NLRC, 232 SCRA 764 (1994); San


3.2.6.1 Definition &
Scope of Management Miguel Brewery Sales Force Union
(PTGWO) v. Ople, 170 SCRA 25 (1989);
Prerogatives (MP)
Philippine Airlines, Inc. v. NLRC, 225 SCRA
301 (1993)
3.2.6.2 Limits of MP

SHS Perforated Materials, Inc. v. Diaz, 633


SCRA 258 (2010); Supreme Steel Corp. v.
Nagkakaisang Manggagawa Ng Supreme
Independent Union (Nms-Ind-Apl), G.R. No.
185556, March 28, 2011; PLDT v. Paguio,
G.R. No. 152689, October 12, 2005;
Businessday Information Systems and
Services, Inc. v. NLRC, 221 SCRA 9 (1993).

3.3 Civil Code

CIVIL CODE, Arts. 1700 & 1701;

Brew Master International v. National


Federation of Labor Unions, 271 SCRA 275
(1997); PNCC Skyway Traffic Management
and Security Division Workers Organization
(PSTMSDWO) v. PNCC Skyway Corp., 613
SCRA 28 (2010)
3.4 International Conventions

CONST., Art. II, Sec. 2;

International School Alliance of Educators v.


Quisumbing, G.R. No. 128845, June 1, 2000;
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Arts. 3,
7, 17, 22, 23, 24, & 25; International Covenant
on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Part III,
Arts. 6, 7, 8, 9, & 10; International Covenant on
Civil and Political Rights, Part II, Art. 3;

ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles


and Rights at Work - 86th Session, Geneva,
June 1998;
ILO Conventions:

C87 Freedom of Association and Protection


of the Right to Organise Convention, 1948;
C98 Right to Organise and Collective
Bargaining Convention, 1949;
C29 Forced Labour Convention, 1930;
C105 Abolition of Forced Labour
Convention, 1957;
C138 Minimum Age Convention, 1973;
C182 Worst Forms of Child Labour
Convention, 1999;
C100 Equal Remuneration Convention,
1951;
C111 Discrimination (Employment and
Occupation) Convention, 1958)
4 Sources of labor law
4.1 The Labor Code and its
implementing rules
4.1.1 Brief history
4.1.2 Name of Decree
4.1.3 Date of Effectivity
4.1.4 Declaration of Basic
Policy

Poquiz, pp. 3-4, 37-38; Azucena, pp. 15-17


LABOR CODE, Art. 1
Id., Art. 2
Id., Art. 3; CONST. (1973), Art. II, Sec. 9;
CONST., Art. XIII, Sec. 3

LABOR CODE, Art. 4; CIVIL CODE, Art. 1702


4.1.5 Construction in favor of
Labor
Reyes v. CA, 409 SCRA 267 (2003); J.K.

Mercado & Sons Agricultural Enterprises,


Inc. v. Hon. Patricia Sto. Tomas, G.R. No.
158084, August 29, 2008; PNCC Skyway
Traffic Management and Security Division
Workers Organization (PSTMSDWO) v.
PNCC Skyway Corp., 613 SCRA 28 (2010)

4.1.6 Rule making power,


limitations

LABOR CODE, Art. 5;

Insular Bank of Asia and America


Employees' Union v. inciong, G.R. No. L52415, October 23, 1984

4.1.7 Applicability
4.1.7.1 Overseas
Workers
4.1.7.2
Government
employees

LABOR CODE, Art. 6

Sim v. NLRC, G.R. No. 157376, October 2,


2007; Santiago v. CF Sharp Crew
Management, G.R. No. 162419, July 10, 2007
CONST., Art. IX-B, Sec. 2(1); LABOR CODE,
Art. 276;

NASECO v. NLRC, G.R. No. L-70295,


November 29, 1988; PNOC-Energy
Development Corp. v. NLRC, 201 SCRA 487
(1991)

4.1.7.3 Employees of
International
Organizations and
Specialized Agencies
4.1.8 Enforcement and
Sanctions
4.2 Decisions of the courts and
quasi-judicial bodies
4.3 Labor Contracts

International Catholic Migration Commission


v. Calleja, 190 SCRA 130 (1990)

LABOR CODE, Arts. 217 (a) (2), (3), (4), & (6);
128,129; 288, 289, 290, 291, & 292; CONST.,
Art. III, Secs. 11 & 16

Callanta v. Carnation Phil., Inc., 145 SCRA


268 (1986)
CIVIL CODE, Arts. 1305 & 1306;

Supreme Steel Corp. v. Nagkakaisang


Manggagawa Ng Supreme Independent
Union (Nms-Ind-Apl), G.R. No. 185556, March
28, 2011; Mariveles Shipyard Corp. v. CA,
G.R. No. 144134, November 11, 2003

4.4 Company Practice

Central Azucarera De Tarlac v. Central


Azucarera De Tarlac Labor Union-NLU, G.R.
No. 188949, July 26, 2010; Metropolitan Bank
and Trust Co. v. NLRC, G.R. No. 152928, June
18,2009; Pag-asa Steel Works, Inc. v. CA,
486 SCRA 475 (2006)

4.5 Company Policy

Kimberly-Clark Phil., Inc. v. Dimayuga , G.R.


No. 177705, September 18, 2009; China

Banking Corp. v. Borromeo, G.R. No. 148415,


July 14, 2008; GTE Directories Corp. v.
Sanchez, 197 SCRA 452, 466 (1991)
5 Work Relationship
5.1 Definition: Employer &
Employee

LABOR CODE, Arts. 97 (a), (b), (c); 167 (f), (g) &
(h); 212 (e) & (f)

A.C. Ransom Labor Union v. NLRC, 142


SCRA 269 (1988); Orlando Farms Growers
Association v. NLRC, 299 SCRA 364,
November 25, 1998; Far Eastern University
v. CIR, 5 SCRA 1080 (1962)
5.2 Employer-Employee
Relationship: Factors/Tests

Sonza v. ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corp., 431


SCRA 381(1904); Semblante v. CA, G.R. No.
196426, August 15, 2011; Sy v. CA, G.R. No.
142293, Feb. 27, 2003; Perpetual Help Credit
v. Faburada, G.R. No. 121948, October 8,
2001; Jardin v. NLRC, 326 SCRA 299 (2000);
Corporal Sr. v. NLRC, 341 SCRA 658
(2000);; Ruga v. NLRC, 181 SCRA 266 (1990);
Mendiola v. CA, G.R. No. 159333, July 31,
2006; Tongko v. The Manufacturers Life
Insurance Co. (Phils.) Inc., G.R. No. 167622,
November 7, 2008, June 29, 2010, & January
25, 2011; Locsin v. PLDT, G.R. 185251,
October 2, 2009; Francisco v. NLRC, G.R. No.
170087, August 31, 2006; Teng v. Pahagac,
635 SCRA 172(2010)

6.3 Independent Contractor and


Labor-only Contractor

LABOR CODE, Arts. 106, 107, 108 &109; D.O.


No. 18-A (2011)

Phil. Bank Communications v. NLRC, 146


SCRA 347 (1986); San Miguel Corp. v. Maerc
Integrated Services, Inc.; G.R. No. 144672,
July 10, 2003; Wack Wack Golf and Country
Club v. NLRC, 456 SCRA 280 (2005); Aliviado
v. Prootor and Gamble Phils., Inc., G.R. No.
160506, March 9, 2010; Spic n Span Services
Corp. v. Gloria Paje, et al., G.R. No. 174084,
August 25, 2010;

6.4 Liability of Indirect Employer

GSIS v. NLRC, 635 SCRA 251 (2010);


Mariveles Shipyard Corp. v. CA, 415 SCRA
573 (2003)

Part II:
RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT OF WORKERS/ALIEN EMPLOYMENT
7 Recruitment and Placement of Workers

Suggested reading:
Julyn S. Ambito and Melissa Suzette L.
Banzon, Review of Philippine Migration

Laws and Regulations: Gains, Gaps,


Prospects.
7.1 Definition

LABOR CODE, Art. 13(b);

People v. Panis, 142 SCRA 667 [1986)


7.2 Employment Policies
7.3 Employment Agencies/Entities
7.3.1 Allowed entities

7.3.2 Private employment


agency
7.3.3 Private recruitment
entity
7.3.4 Public employment
offices
7.3.5 Prohibited entity

LABOR CODE, Arts. 16, 18, 25 & 12(f);


Omnibus Rules, Book I, Rules III, IV, VII Sec
1.
LABOR CODE, Art. 13(c) & (d)

LABOR CODE, Art. 13(e) & (f)

LABOR CODE, Art. 12(f) & 14(a); E.O. No.


247 (1987), Sec. 3 (f),
LABOR CODE, Arts. 18, 16, 25 & 26; 2002
POEA Rules and Regulations Governing the
Recruitment and Employment of Land-based
Overseas Workers (2002 POEA Rules), Part II,
Rule 1, Sec. 2; 2003 POEA Rules,and
Regulations Governing the Recruitment and
Employment of Seafarers (2003 POEA Rules),
Part II, Rule I, Sec. 2

7.4 Government techniques of


regulation - private recruitment
7.4.1 Licensing

10

LABOR CODE, Arts. 27, 28, 29, 30 & 31;


2002 POEA Rules, Part II, Rule II, Secs. 1, 4,
6 & 7; 2003 POEA Rules,and Regulations
Governing the Recruitment and Employment of
Seafarers (2003 POEA Rules), Part II, Rule I
(a) & (b); Rule II, Secs. 1, 4, 6 & 7

7.4.2 Workers Fee


7.4.3 Reports/employment
information
7.5 Prohibited practices
7.6 Illegal recruitment

LABOR CODE, Art. 32


LABOR CODE, Art. 33

LABOR CODE, Art. 34


LABOR CODE, Art. 38(a) & (b); R.A. No.
8042, as amended, Sec. 6;

Boneng v. People; G.R. No. 133563, March


4, 1999; People v. Gallo, G.R. No. 185277,
March 18, 2010; People v. Hu, G.R. No.
182232, October 6, 2008; People v. Chua,
G.R. No. 184058; March 10, 2010; People v.
Laogo, G.R. No. 176264, January 10, 2011;
Salazar v. Achacoso, 183 SCRA 145 (1990)
7.7 Enforcement & sanctions

LABOR CODE, Arts. 35, 36, 37, 38 & 39; R.A.


No. 8042, Secs. 6, 7, & 10;

Claudio S. Yap v. Thenamaris Ships


Management and Intermare Maritime
Agencies, Inc., G.R. No. 179532, May 30,
2011; Eastern Assurance and Surety Corp.
v. Sec. of Labor, 181 SCRA 110 (1990)
R.A. No. 8042, as amended, Sec. 10, pars. 2
7.7.1 Joint and several liability
& 3; 2002 POEA Rules, Part II, Rule II, Sec.
of private employment
1(f)(3); 2003 POEA Rules, Part II, Rule II,
agency/ manning agent and
Sec. 1(e)(8);
employer

Datuman v. First Cosmopolitan Manpower


and Promotion Services, Inc., G.R. No.
156029, November 14, 2008
7.8 Jurisdiction
7.8.1 Regional Trial Court, for
criminal action for illegal
recruitment

R.A. No. 8042, Sec. 9

R.A. No. 8042, Sec. 10;


7.8.2 NLRC, for money claims
arising from employerSerrano v. Gallant Maritime Services, Inc.,
employee relations
G.R. No. 16714, March 24, 2009.
Omnibus Rules Implementing R.A. No. 8042,
7.8.3 POEA, for administrative
Sec. 28
and disciplinary actions

11

8 Alien employment regulation

CONST., Art. XII, Sec. 12; Anti-Dummy Law


(Com. Act No. 108), Sec. 2-A, as amended, in
rel. to CONST., Art. XVI, Sec. 11(1), Art. XVI,
Sec. 11(2), Art. XII, Sec. 11; INVESTMENT
CODE, Art. 76, par. 2; LABOR CODE, Arts.
40, 41 & 42; Omnibus Rules, Book I, Rule
XIV; D.O. No. 97-09 (Revised Rules for
Issuance of Employment Permits to Foreign
Nationals)
D.O. 97-09 , Secs. 1 & 2;

8.1 Coverage

Almodiel v. NLRC, 223 SCRA 341 (1993)

8.2 Conditions for grant of permit

LABOR CODE, Art. 40; D.O. 97-09 , Sec. 10;

WPP Marketing Communications, Inc. v.


Galera, 616 SCRA 422 (2010); General
Milling Corp. v. Torres, 196 SCRA 215
(1991)
Part III

HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT


9 Development of human resources

9.1 Policy, goals & objectives

LABOR CODE, Arts. 57-81; Technical Education


and Skills Development Act (TESDA) of 1994
(R.A. No. 7796); Dual Training Systems Act of
1994 (R.A. No. 7686); Magna Carta for Disabled
Persons of 1992 (R.A. No. 7277)
R.A. No. 7796, Secs. 2 & 3

10 Training and employment of


apprentices
10.1 Apprentices, defined

10.2 When apprentices may be


employed

10.3 Conditions of employment


10.4 Enforcement

12

LABOR CODE, Art. 58 ; R.A. No. 7796, Sec. 4


(j), (k), (l), & (m). See also: Child Abuse Law of
1992 (R.A. No. 7610), as amended by R.A. No.
7658, re: employment of children below 15
years

Century Canning Corp. v. CA, 530 SCRA


501(2007); Nitto Enterprises v. NLRC, 248
SCRA 654 (1995); Atlanta Industries v.
Sebolino, G.R. Mo. 187320, January 26, 2011
LABOR CODE, Arts. 61, 72 &124, last par.
LABOR CODE, Arts. 65, 66, & 67

11 Training and employment of learners


LABOR CODE, Art. 73; R.A. No. 7796, Sec. 4(n)

11.1 Learners, defined

LABOR CODE, Art. 74; R.A. No. 7796, Sec. 4(n)

11.2 When learners may be


employed

LABOR CODE, Arts. 75, 76 & 124, last par.

11.3 Conditions of employment


12 Training and employment of disabled
persons (handicapped workers)

LABOR CODE, Arts. 78, 79, 80, & 81; Magna


Carta for Disabled Persons of 1992 (R.A. No.
7277)
R.A. No. 7277, Sec. 4(a), (b), (c), & (d)

12.1 Definition

R.A. No. 7277, Sec. 2

12.2 Policy declaration

R.A. No. 7277, Sec. 3

12.3 Coverage

R.A. No. 7277, Secs. 5, & 6

12.4 Rights and privileges

Bernardo v. NLRC, 310 SCRA 186 (1999)


Part IV
LABOR STANDARDS

13 HOURS OF WORK

13.1 Regulation; rationale


13.2 Coverage: all employees, in
general

LABOR CODE, Arts. 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87,


88, 89 & 90; Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rules I,
IA, & II

Manila Terminal Co. Inc., v. CIR, 91 Phil.


625, 636 (1952)
LABOR CODE, Arts. 82 & 276; Omnibus
Rules, Book III, Rule I, Secs. 1 & 2

13.3 Exemptions
13.3.1 Government
employees
13.3.2 Managerial employees

CONST., Art. IX-B, Sec. 2(1)

Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 2(b) &


(c);

San Miguel Corp. v. Layoc, Jr., 537 SCRA


77 (2007)

13

13.3.2.1 Rationale
13.3.2.2 Supervisors
are managerial
employees
13.3.3 Field personnel

NAWASA v. NAWASA Consolidated


Unions, 11 SCRA 766, 776 to 779 (1964)
National Sugar Refineries Corp. v. NLRC,
G.R. No. 101761, March 24, 1993.

Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 2 (f);

Far East Agricultural Supply, Inc. v.


Lebatique, 515 SCRA 491(2007); Mercidar
Fishing Corp. v. NLRC, 297 SCRA 440
(1998); Union of Filipro Employees v. Vivar,
205 SCRA 200 (1992)

13.3.4 Dependent family


members
13.3.5 Domestic helpers
13.3.6 Persons in the
personal service of another
13.3.7 Piece workers

LABOR CODE, Arts. 141 &145; Omnibus


Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 2 (d)
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 2 (d)

Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule VII, Sec. 8 (e);

Labor Congress of the Philippines v. NLRC,


290 SCRA 509 (1998)

13.4 Normal hours of work

LABOR CODE, Art. 83

13.4.1 Change in work hours


13.4.1.1 A
management
prerogative
13.4.1.2 Compressed
work week

Union Carbide Labor Union v. Union


Carbide Phils., Inc., 215 SCRA 554 (1992)
Department Order (D.O.) No. 21, Series of
1990, Guidelines on the Implementation of
Compressed Workweek; Department Advisory
No. 02-04; Department Advisory No. 02-09:

Bisig Manggagawa sa Tryco v. NLRC, G.R.


No 1513098, October 15, 2008
13.5 Compensable hours of work in general
13.5.1 On duty

14

LABOR CODE, Art. 84(a); Omnibus Rules,

Book III, Rule I, Sec. 3 (a) & Sec. 4 (a)


13.5.2 At work

LABOR CODE, Art. 84 (b); Omnibus Rules,


Book III, Rule I, Sec. 3 (b)

13.6 Specific rules


13.6.1 Rest period
13.6.1.1 Short
duration or coffee
break
13.6.1.2 More than 20
minutes

LABOR CODE, Art. 84, 2nd par.; Omnibus


Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 7, 2nd par.
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 4 (b)

13.6.2 Meal period


13.6.2.1 Regular meal
period (one hour)

LABOR CODE, Art. 85; Omnibus Rules, Book


III, Rule I, Sec. 7, 1st par.;

Philippine Airlines v. NLRC, 302 SCRA 582


(1999)
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 7, 1st
13.6.2.2 Shorter meal
period (less than one par.
hour but not less than
20 min.)
13.6.3 Waiting time
13.6.4 On call
13.6.5 Inactive due to work
interruptions

Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 5 (a);

Arica v. NLRC, 170 SCRA 776 (89)


Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 5 (b)
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 4 (d);

University of Pangasinan Faculty Union v.


University of Pangasinan, G.R. No. L-63122,
February 20, 1984

13.6.6 Work after normal


hours
13.6.7 Lectures, meeting,
trainings
13.6.8 Travel time

15

Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 4 (c)

Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 6

Rada v. NLRC, 205 SCRA 69 (1992)

13.6.9 "No Work, No Pay"


principle
13.7 Overtime work/pay

University of Pangasinan Faculty Union v.


NLRC, 127 SCRA 691 (1984); Prieto v.
NLRC, 226 SCRA 232 (1993)
LABOR CODE, Arts. 87, 88, 89 & 90;
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule I, Secs. 8, 9, &

10
13.7.1 In general
13.7.1.1 Rationale for
overtime pay
13.7.1.2 Overtime
work: voluntary/
consensual

LABOR CODE, Art. 87

PNB v. Phil. National Bank Employees


Association, 115 SCRA 507 (1982)
LABOR CODE, Art. 87

Interphil Laboratories Employees' UnionFFW v. Interphil Laboratories, Inc., G.R. No.


142824, December 19, 2001.

13.7.1.3 Overtime
instruction, not
required
13.7.1.4 But evidence
of performance of
overtime work
required
13.7.1.5 No offsetting
of overtime with
under time
13.7.2 Emergency or
compulsory overtime work
13.7.3 Computation
13.8Night work
14 WEEKLY REST PERIODS

14.1 Coverage
14.2 Determination, compulsory
work; compensation

16

William Lines, Inc. v. Lopez, 96 SCRA 593


(1980)

Cagampan v. NLRC, G.R. No. 85122-24,


March 22, 1991

LABOR CODE, Art. 88

LABOR CODE, Art. 89;

LABOR CODE, Art. 90


LABOR CODE, Art. 86; Omnibus Rules, Book
III, Rule II, Secs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, & 6
LABOR CODE, Arts. 91, 92 & 93; Omnibus
Rules, Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule III, Secs.
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, & 9
LABOR CODE, Arts. 82 & 91
LABOR CODE, Arts. 91, 92 & 93;

15 HOLIDAYS
15.1 Coverage

LABOR CODE, Art. 94; R.A. No. 9849;


Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule IV
LABOR CODE, Art. 94 (a);

Mantrade/ FMMC Division Employees and


Workers Union v. Bacungan, 144 SCRA 510
(1986)

15.1.1 Exception: retail


establishment

LABOR CODE, Art. 94 (a); Rules Implementing


R.A. No. 6727, par. f

15.1.2 Exception: service


establishment

LABOR CODE, Art. 94 (a); Rules Implementing


R.A. No. 6727, par. g

15.2 Holiday pay

LABOR CODE, Art. 94(c);

Asian Transmission Corp. v. CA, G.R. No.


144664, May 15, 2004

15.2.1 Faculty in private


school

Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule IV, Sec. 8 (a);

Jose Rizal College v. NLRC, 156 SCRA 27


(1987)

15.2.2 Divisor as factor


15.2.3 Sunday
15.2.4 Muslim holiday
16 SERVICE INCENTIVE LEAVE,
PATERNITY LEAVE AND PARENTAL
LEAVE
16.1 Service incentive leave
coverage

Trans-Asia Phil. Employees Association v.


NLRC, 320 SCRA 347 (1999);
Wellington Investment Inc. v. Trajano, 245
SCRA 561 (1995)

SMC v. CA, 375 SCRA 311 (2002)


Art. 95; Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule V;
Paternity Leave Act of 1996 (RA 8187); Solo
Parents Welfare Act of 2000 (RA 8972)
LABOR CODE, Art. 95 (a) (b); Omnibus Rules,
Book III, Rule V;

Makati Haberdashery Inc. v. NLRC, 179


SCRA 449 (1989); Labor Congress v. NLRC,
290 SCRA 509 (1998); Serrano v. Severino
Santos Transit, 627 SCRA 483(2010)
16.2 Paternity leave

Paternity Leave Act of 1996 (R.A. No. 8187),


Secs. 1-6; Impl. Guidelines

16.3 Parental leave

Solo Parents Welfare Act of 2000 (R.A. No.


8972)

17 SERVICE CHARGES

17

LABOR CODE, Art. 96; Omnibus Rules, Book


III, Rule VI

17.1 Covered employees/sharing

LABOR CODE, Art. 96

18 MINIMUM WAGES AND WAGE FIXING


MACHINERY
18.1 Minimum wages

LABOR CODE, Art. 99; CONST., Art. XIII, Sec.

18.1.1 Rule

Aklan Electric Corp., Inc. v. NLRC, 323


18.1.1.1 No work, no
SCRA 258 (2000); Social Security System v.
pay/ a fair days wage
SSS Supervisors' Union, 117 SCRA
for a fair days labor
746(1982)
LABOR CODE, Art. 135;
18.1.1.2 Equal pay for
work of equal value
International School Alliance of Educators
v. Quisumbing, G.R. No. 128845, June 1,
2000
18.1.1.3 Form:
agreement for
compensation of
services
18.1.2 Coverage

18.1.3 Minimum wage

Arms Taxi v. NLRC, 219 SCRA 306 (1993)

LABOR CODE, Arts. 97 (b), (c ) & (e) & 98;

Phil. Fisheries Development Authority v.


NLRC,213 SCRA 621 (1992)
LABOR CODE, Arts. 99, 97(f), 61, 75(c), &
80(b);
R.A. No. 9547, Sec. 2

18.1.4 Determination of
compliance with minimum
wage
18.1.5 Facilities and
supplements/allowances

18.1.6 Cash
wage/commission

Iran v. NLRC, 289 SCRA 433 (1998)

Millares v. NLRC, 305 SCRA 500 (1999);


SLL International Cables Specialist v.
NLRC, 644 SCRA 411 (2011)

Songco v. NLRC, 183 SCRA 610 (1990);


Boie Takeda v. De la Serna, 228 SCRA 329
(1993); Phil. Duplicators v. NLRC, 241 SCRA
380 (1995)

18

18.1.7 Gratuity and


salary/wages, difference
18.1.8 Effect on benefits -

Plastic Town Center Corp. v. NLRC, 172


SCRA 580 (1989)
LABOR CODE, Art. 100;

Davao Fruits Corp. v. ALU, 225 SCRA 562


(1993)

18.2 Wage-fixing machinery

18.2.1 Rationale for wage


rationalization

Wage Rationalization Act (R.A. No. 6727)


which amended Art. 120-127 & Omnibus Rules,
Book III, Rule IX
RA 6727, Sec. 2

18.2.2 Agencies in wage


fixing machinery
18.2.2.1 National
Wages and
Productivity
Commission
18.2.2.2 Regional
Tripartite Wages and
Productivity Board

RA 6727, Sec. 3; LABOR CODE, Arts. 120,


121 & 126

RA 6727, Sec. 3; LABOR CODE, Arts. 122,

126
Nasipit Lumber Co. v. NWPC, 289 SCRA 667
(98)

18.2.3 Standards/criteria for


minimum wage fixing
18.2.4 Wage order

RA 6727, Sec. 3; LABOR CODE, Art. 124

LABOR CODE, Arts. 123 & 124

18.2.4.1 Methods of
fixing
18.2.4.1.1 Floor
wage method
18.2.4.1.2
Employers Confederation of the Philippines
Salary - ceiling v. NWPC, 201 SCRA 759 (1991)
method
18.2.4.2 Validity

Cagayan Sugar Milling Co. v. Secretary,


284 SCRA 150 (1998); Metropolitan Bank
and Trust Company, Inc. v. NWPC, 514
SCRA 346(2007)

19

18.2.4.3 Wage
distortion

LABOR CODE, Art. 124;

Prubankers Association v. Prudential Bank


& Trust Co., 302 SCRA 74 (1999); P.I.
Manufacturing, Inc., v. P.I. Manufacturing
Supervisors and Foremen Association, 543
SCRA 613 (2008)

18.3 WAGE PAYMENT AND


PROTECTION
18.3.1 Form of payment

LABOR CODE, Arts. 102, 103, 104, &105;


Civil Code, Art. 1705
LABOR CODE, Art. 102; Civil Code, Art. 1705;
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule VIII, Secs. 1 &
2;

Congson v. NLRC, 243 SCRA 260 (1995)


18.3.2 Time of payment
18.3.3 Place of payment
18.3.4 Direct payment of
wages

LABOR CODE, Art. 103; Sec. 3


LABOR CODE, Art. 104; Sec. 4
LABOR CODE, Art. 105; Omnibus Rules, Book
III, Rule VIII, Secs. 5 & 6;

Bermiso v. Escano Inc., 105 Phil. 231 (1959)


18.4 WAGE PROHIBITIONS
18.4.1 Prohibition against
interference in disposal of
wages
18.4.2 Prohibition against
wage deduction

LABOR CODE, Art. 112; Omnibus Rules, Book


III, Rule VIII, Sec. 12
LABOR CODE, Art. 113; Omnibus Rules, Book
III, Rule VIII, Sec. 13;

Apodaca v. NLRC, 172 SCRA 442 (1989)


18.4.3 Prohibition against
requirement to make
deposits for loss or damage

LABOR CODE, Art. 114 & 115; Omnibus


Rules, Book III, Rule VIII, Sec. 14;

Dentech Manufacturing Corp. v. NLRC, 172


SCRA 588 (1989); Five J Taxi v. NLRC, 235
SCRA 556 (1994)

18.4.4 Prohibition against


withholding of wages
18.4.5 Prohibition against
deduction to ensure
employment

20

LABOR CODE, Art.116; Civil Code, Art. 1706

LABOR CODE, Art. 117

18.4.6 Prohibition against


retaliatory measures
18.4.7 Prohibition against
false reporting

LABOR CODE, Art. 118

LABOR CODE, Art. 119; Omnibus Rules, Book


III, Rule X, Sec. 13

Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule X, Sec. 11;


18.4.8 Prohibition
against keeping of
South Motorists Enterprises v. Tosoc, 181
employees records in SCRA 386 (1990)
a place other than the
workplace
18.4.9 Prohibition
against garnishment/
execution
18.5 WORKERS PREFERENCE IN
THE EVENT OF BANKRUPTCY

Civil Code, Art. 1708;

Gaa v. CA, 140 SCRA 304 (1985)


LABOR CODE, Art. 110; Civil Code, 1707,
2241, 2242, 2244;

DBP v. Secretary of Labor, G.R. 79351,


November 28, 1989; Barayoga v. Asset
Privatization Trust, 473 SCRA 690 (2005)
18.6 WAGE RECOVERY/
JURISDICTION

LABOR CODE, Arts. 128, 129, 217, & 111;

Balladares v. Paek Ventures Corp., G.R.


No. 161794, June 16, 2009; Meteoro v.
Creative Creatures, Inc., G.R. No. 171275,
July 13, 2009.

19 Thirteenth month pay


19.1 History of the law
19.2 Coverage

Pres. Decree No. 851

Dentech Manufacturing Corp. v. NLRC, 172


SCRA 588 (1989)
Revised Guidelines on the Implementation of
13th Month Pay Law (Revised Guidelines);

Archilles Manufacturing Corp. v. NLRC, 244


SCRA 750 (1995)
19.3 Rationale
19.4 Amount and date of payment
19.4.1 Basic
wage/commissions

P.D. No. 851 -(Whereas Clauses)


Revised Guidelines, Sec. 4
Revised Guidelines, Sec. 4;

Songco v. NLRC, 183 SCRA 610 (1990);


Boie Takeda v. dela Serna, 228 SCRA 329
(1993); Phil. Duplicators Inc. v. NLRC, 241

21

SCRA 380 (1995); Iran v. NLRC, 289 SCRA


433 (1998)
19.4.2 Substitute payment

Framanlis Farms, Inc. v. MOLE, 171 SCRA


87 (1989)

20 Bonus

Phil. Duplicators Inc. v. NLRC, 241 SCRA

20.1 Nature:

380 (1995)

20.2 Definition; when demandable

Producers Bank of the Philippines v. NLRC,


355 SCRA 489 (2001; Eastern
Telecomunications Phil. Inc. v. Eastern
Telecoms Union, G.R. No. 185665, February
8, 2012

21 Working conditions for special group


of workers
LABOR CODE, Art. 130, 131, 132, 133, 134,
135, 136, 137, &138; Omnibus Rules, Book
III, Rule XII. See also Women in Development
and Nation Building Act, R.A. No. 7192 (1992);
and Anti-Sexual Harassment Act of 1995, R.A.
No. 7877

21.1 WOMEN

Phil. Telegraph and Telephone Co., v.

21.1.1 Women under the


, 272 SCRA 596 (1997)
Constitution - Art. II, Sec. 14; NLRC
Art. XIII, Sec. 14
21.1.2 Coverage

Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule XII, Sec. 1

21.1.3 Prohibited acts


21.1.3.1 Night
work/exception
21.1.3.2
Discrimination
21.1.3.3 Stipulation
against marriage

21.1.3.4 Discharge on
account of pregnancy

22

LABOR CODE, Arts. 130, & 131; R.A. No.

10151
LABOR CODE, Art. 135

LABOR CODE, Art. 136; Philippine

Telegraph and Telephone Co. v. NLRC,


272 SCRA 596 (1997); Star Paper Corp. v.
Simbol, 487 SCRA 228(2006)
LABOR CODE, Art. 137

21.1.4 Facilities
21.1.5 Special women
workers
21.1.6 Maternity leave
21.1.7 Sexual harassment

LABOR CODE, Arts. 132 & 134


LABOR CODE, Art. 138

Social Security Act of 1997, RA No. 8282, Sec.

14-A
RA No. 7877 ;

Domingo v. Rayala, G.R. No. 155831,


February 18, 2008

21.2 MINORS

21.2.1 Minors under the


Constitution
21.2.2 Coverage
21.2.3 Working children

21.2.4 Discrimination
21.3 HOUSEHELPERS /
CAREGIVERS

LABOR CODE, Arts.139 &140; Omnibus


Rules, Book III, Rule XII, Secs. 2 & 3; Special
Protection of Children Against Abuse,
Exploitation and Discrimination Act (R.A. No.
7610), as amended by the Special Protection
of Children Act (R.A. No. 7658)
CONST, Art. II, Sec. 13

Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule XII, Sec. 1


LABOR CODE, Art. 139 ; RA 7610, as
amended, Secs. 12-16; DOLE Memo Circular
No. 2, s. 1998 Re: Hazardous and nonhazardous establishments
LABOR CODE, Art. 140
LABOR CODE, Art. 141, 142, 143, 144, 145,
146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, &152;
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule XIII

ILO Domestic
Workers
Convention, 2011
(No. 189)
21.3.1 Definition
21.3.2 Coverage

23

Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule XIII, Sec. 1 (b)


LABOR CODE, Art. 141

LABOR CODE, Art. 145,

21.3.3 Non-household work

LABOR CODE, Art. 280 1st par.;

21.4 PROJECT EMPLOYMENT

PNOC Energy Development Corp. v.


NLRC, G.R. No. 169353, April 13, 2007; Aro
v. NLRC, G.R. No. 174792, March 7, 2012;
William Construction Corp. v. Trinidad, G.R.
No. 183250, March 12, 2010;
LABOR CODE, Art. 280 2nd par.; Omnibus
Rules, Book VI, Rule 1, Sec. 5 (b)

21.5 CASUAL EMPLOYEES

Dealco Farms, Inc. v. NLRC, G.R. No.

21.5.1 Nature of work

153192, January 30, 2009

Kimberly-Clark (Phils.), Inc. v. Secretary of


Labor,G.R. No. 156668, November 23, 2007

21.5.2 One year service

Brent School v. Zamora, G.R. Mo. L-48494,


February 5, 1990; Price v. Innodata Phil.,
Inc., G.R. No. 178505, September 30, 2008

21.6 FIXED-TERM EMPLOYEES

Cebu Metal Corp. v. Saliling, G.R. No.


154463, September 5, 2006; Hacienda Bino
v. Cuenca, 456 SCRA 300 (2005)

21.7 SEASONAL EMPLOYEES

21.8 PROBATIONARY EMPLOYEES

21.8.1 Definition/purpose

LABOR CODE, Art. 281; 61, 2nd sentence;


Omnibus Rules, Book VI, Rule I, Sec. 6;
LABOR CODE, Art. 75 (d)

Woodridge School v. Pe Benito, G.R. No.


160240, October 29, 2008; Cebu Marine
Beach Resort v. NLRC, G.R. No. 143252,
Oct. 23, 2003

21.8.2 Duration:
rule/exception
21.8.3 Extension of contract
21.8.4 Standards - not
determined
21.8.5 Private school
teachers -- rule

A Prime Security Services, Inc. v. NLRC,


322 SCRA 283 (2000)

Phil. Federation etc. v. NLRC, G.R. No.


121071, December 11, 1998

Davao Contractors Development


Cooperative v. Pasawa, G.R. No. 172174,
July 9, 2009

Lacuesta v. Ateneo de Manila University,


477 SCRA 217 (2005); Aklan College, Inc. v.
Guarino, G.R. No. 152949, August 14, 2007
Part V

24

Termination of Employment
22 General Concepts
22.1 Coverage
22.2 Security of tenure
22.2.1 Nature of
right/rationale

LABOR CODE, Art. 278


LABOR CODE, Art. 279;

Llosa Tan v. Silahis International Hotel , 181


SCRA 738 (1990); City Services Corp.
Workers v. City Services Corp., 135 SCRA
564 (1985)

22.2.2 Coverage

Inter Orient Maritime Enterprises, Inc. v.


NLRC, 235 SCRA 268 (1994); Woodridge
School v. Pe Benito, G.R. No. 160240,
October 29, 2008

22.2.3 Requisites of valid


termination
22.2.4 Measure of penalty

Ting v. CA, G.R. No, 146174, July 12, 2006


Bago v. NLRC, G.R. No. 170001, April 4,
2007; Sagales v. Rustans Commercial
Corp., G.R. No. 166554, November 27,
2008.; Negros Slashers, Inc. v. Teng, G.R.
No. 187122, February 22, 2012

23 Termination of employment By
employee
23.1 Resignation

Virgen Shipping Corp. v. Barraquio, G.R.


No. 178127, April 16, 2009; Casa Cebuana
Incorporada v. Leuterio, G.R. No. 176040,
September 4, 2009; Mora v. Avesco
Marketing Corp., G.R. No. 177414, November
14, 2008

23.1.1 Just causes


23.1.2 Without just cause
23.2 Performance of military or
civic duty

LABOR CODE, Art. 285 (b)


LABOR CODE, Art. 285 (a)
LABOR CODE, Art. 286; Omnibus Rules, Book
VI, Rule I, Sec. 12

24 Termination of employment by
employer
24.1 Substantive requirements -

25

LABOR CODE, Art. 282; 279; 277 (b)

just causes
24.1.1 Basis - management
prerogative
24.1.2 Serious
misconduct/willful
disobedience
(insubordination)

24.1.3 Gross and habitual


neglect of duties

24.1.4 Loss of trust and


confidence

Ocean East Agency Corp. v. NLRC, 287


SCRA 546 (1998)

LABOR CODE, Art. 282 (a);


Yabut v. MERALCO, G.R. No. 190436,
January 16, 2012;
First Dominion Resources Corp. v.
Penaranda, 480 SCRA 504 (2006); Bascon
v. CA, 422 SCRA 122 (2004); Lores Realty
Enterprises, Inc., v. Virginia E. Pacia, G.R.
No. 171189, March 9, 2011.
LABOR CODE, Art. 282 (b);

Talidano v. Falcon Maritime and Allied


Services, Inc., G.R. No. 172031, July 14,
2008; School fo the Holy Spirit of Quezon
City v. Taguiam, G.R. No. 165565, July 14,
2008; Eastern Overseas Employment
Center, Inc. v. Bea, 476 SCRA 384 (2005)
LABOR CODE, Art. 282 (c);

James Ben L. Jerusalem v. Keppel Monte


Bank, et al.,G.R. No. 169564. April 6, 2011;
Salas v. Aboitiz One, Inc., G.R. No. 178236,
June 27, 2008; Eats-cetera Food Services
Outlet v. Letran, G.R. 179507, October 2,
2009

24.1.5 Commission of crime


24.1.6 Analogous causes

LABOR CODE, Art. 282 (d)


LABOR CODE, Art. 282 (e);

Heavylift Manila, Inc. v. CA, 473 SCRA 541


(2005); John Hancock Life Insurance Corp.
v. Davis, G.R. 169549, September 3, 2008;
Yrasuegui v. PAL, G.R. No. 168081, October
17, 2008

24.1.7 Others
24.1.7.1 Abandonment
24.1.7.2 Courtesy

26

Harpoon Marine Services, Inc. v.


Francisco, GR No. 167751, March 2, 2011.
Batongbacal v. Associated Bank, 168 SCRA
600 (1988)

resignation
24.1.7.3 Change of
ownership
24.1.7.4 Habitual
absenteeism
24.1.7.5 Fixed-term
employment
24.1.7.6 Past offenses

Manlimos v. NLRC, 242 SCRA 145 (1995)


Quiambao v. Manila Electric Co., G.R. No.
171023, December 18, 2009

Medenilla v. PVB, G.R. No. 127673; March


13, 2000; Pamantasan v. Civil Service
Commission, 241 SCRA 506 (1995)
McDonald's (Katipunan Branch) v. Alba,
G.R. 156382, December 18, 2008

24.1.7.7 Immorality

Sampaguita Garments Corp. v. NLRC, 233

24.1.7.8 Conviction of
SCRA 260 (1994)
crime
24.1.8 Constructive
dismissal

Gilles v. CA, G.R. No. 149273, June 5, 2009.


Chiang Kai Shek College v. CA, 437 SCRA
171 (2004). La Rosa v. Ambassador Hotel,
G.R. No. 177059, March 13, 2009

24.1.9 Transfer

Aguanza v. Asian Terminal Inc., G.R. No.


163505, August 14, 2009; Herida v. F&C
Pawnshop and Jewelry Store, G.R. No.
172601, April 16, 2009; PLDT v. Paguio, 472
SCRA 453 (2005)

24.1.10 Promotion
24.1.11 Preventive
suspension

Phil. Telegraph v. CA, G.R. No. 152057,


Sept. 29, 2003
Old Omnibus Rules, Book V, Rule XXIV, Secs.
3 & 4;

Philippine Airlines Inc. v. NLRC, 292 SCRA


40 (1998)

24.1.12 Residency training


24.2 Substantive requirements business related causes
24.3 Basis - employer right

Felix v. Buenaseda, 240 SCRA 139 (1995)


LABOR CODE, Art. 283

Edge Apparel Inc. v. NLRC, 286 SCRA 302


(1998); Elleccion v. NLRC, G.R. No. 184735,
September 17, 2009

27

24.4 Business-related or authorized


causes:
24.4.1 Installation of laborsaving devices
24.4.2 Retrenchment to
prevent losses

LABOR CODE, Art. 283

LABOR CODE, Art. 283

Flight Attendants & Stewards Association


of the Philippines v. PAL, G.R. No. 178083,
July 22, 2008; Emcor, Inc. v. Sienes, G.R.
No. 152101, September 8, 2009; Metro
Construction Inc. v. Aman, G.R. No. 168324,
October 12, 2009

24.4.3 Redundancy

LABOR CODE, Art. 283;

Lowe Inc. v. CA, G.R. No. 164813, August 14,


2009; AMA v. Garcia, G.R. No. 166703, April
14, 2008

24.4.4 Closure of business

LABOR CODE, Art. 283;

Eastridge Golf Club Inc. v. Eastridge Golf


Club Inc. Labor Union, G.R. No. 166760,
August 22, 2008; Elcee Farms, Inc. v. NLRC,
G.R. No. 126428, January 25, 2007

24.4.5 Temporary closure

LABOR CODE, Art. 286;

Valdez v. NLRC, 286 SCRA 87 (1998); Eagle


Star Security Services, Inc. v. Mirando, G.R.
No. 179512, July 30, 2009

24.5 Disease

25 Procedural requirements

LABOR CODE, Art. 284;

Duterte v. Kingswood Trading Co., G.R. No.


160325, October 4, 2007; Crayon Processing
v. Pula, G.R. No. 167727, July 30, 2007
LABOR CODE, Art. 277 (b);
Omnibus Rules, Book VI, Rule I, Secs. 1, 2 & 3

25.1 In general

Phil. Movie Pictures Workers' Assciation v.


Premiere Productions, Inc., 92 Phil. 843
(1953);

Agabon v. NLRC, 442 SCRA 573 (2004);


King of Kings Transport, Inc. v. Mamac,
G.R. No. 166208, June 29, 2007
25.2 Right to counsel

28

Salaw v. NLRC, 202 SCRA 7 (1991)

Casa Cebuana Incorporada v. Leuterio,

25.3 Notice

G.R. No. 176040, September 4, 2009

Perez v. Philippine Telegraph and


Telephone Co., G.R. No. 152048, April 7,
2009; Suico. v. NLRC, G.R. No. 146762,

25.4 Hearing

January 30, 2007


25.5 Decision - award
25.6 Burden of proof

Dela Cruz v. Maerks Filipinas Crewing, Inc.,


G.R. No. 172038, April 14, 2008

Macasero v. Southern Industrial Gases


Phil., G.R. No. 178524, January 30, 2009;
Gallego v. Bayer Phil., Inc., G.R. No.
179807, July 31, 2009

25.7 Degree of proof

Mitsubishi Motors Phils. Corp. v. Simon,


G.R. No. 164081, April 16, 2008; Rentokil
(Initial) Phil., Inc. v. Sanchez, G.R. No.
176219, December 23, 2008.

25.8 Prescription
26 Reliefs/remedies in illegal dismissal

Callanta v. Carnation Phil., Inc., 145 Scra


268 (1986)
LABOR CODE, Arts. 279 & 223

26.1 Reinstatement
26.1.1 Definition

26.1.2 Reinstatement
pending appeal

Pheschem Industrial Corp. v. Moldez, 458


SCRA 339 (2005); Citytrust Banking Corp. v.
NLRC, G.R. No. 104860; July 11, 1996
Pfizer, Inc., et al. v. Velasco, G.R. No.
177467, March 9, 2011.

26.1.3 Exceptions
26.1.3.1 Closure of
business

Philippine Engineering Corp. v. CIR, 41


SCRA 102 (1971)

26.1.3.2 Prayer is for Citytrucking, Inc. v. Balajadia, G.R. No.


separation pay in lieu 160769, August 9, 2006; Pheschem Industrial
of reinstatement
Corp. v. Moldez, 458 SCRA 339 (2005)

29

26.1.3.3 Economic
business conditions

Electruck Asia, Inc. v. Meris, 435 SCRA 310


(2004; Union Supervisors etc. v. Sec. Of
Labor 128 SCRA 442 (1984)

26.1.3.4 Employees'
unsuitability

Divine Word High School v. NLRC, 143


SCRA 346 (1986)

26.1.3.5 Employees
retirement/overage

Citytrust Banking Corp. v. NLRC, G.R. No.

26.1.3.6 Strained
relations

Acesite Corp. v. NLRC, 449 SCRA 360


(2005); Pentagon Steel Corp. v. CA, G.R.
No. 174141, June 26, 2009.; Cabigting v.
San Miguel Foods Inc.,G.R. No. 167706,

104860; July 11, 1996

November 5, 2009
26.1.3.7 Not Feasible

Goma v. Pamplona Plantation, Inc., G.R.


No. 160905, July 4, 2008

26.1.3. 8 Offer to
reinstate

Ranara v. NLRC, 212 SCRA 631 (1992)

26.2 Backwages
26.2.1Effect of failure to
order
26.2.2 Computation

Asian Terminals, Inc. v. NLRC, G.R. No.


158458, December 19, 2007.

Triad Security and Allied Services, Inc. v.


Ortega, Jr., 481 SCRA 591 (2006); Philippine
Journalists, Inc. v. Mosqueda, 429 SCRA
369 (2004); PLDT v. Paguio 472 SCRA 453
(2005).

26.3 Damages and attorneys fees


26.4 Separation pay

M + W Zander Phil., Inc. v. Enriquez, G.R.


No. 169173, June 5, 2009.

Siemens Phil., Inc. v. Domingo, G.R. No.


150488, July 28, 2008; Nissan North EDSA
Balintawak v. Serrano, G.R. No. 162538,
June 4, 2009.

26.4.1 Computation/ rationale

26.4.2 Effect of receipt

Businessday Information Systems and


Services, Inc. v. NLRC, 221 SCRA 9 (1993;
PLDT v. NLRC, 164 SCRA (1988); Songco v.
NLRC, 183 SCRA 610 (1990);
Amkor Technology Phil., Inc. v. Juangco,
G.R. No. 166507, September 27, 2006

26.5 Financial assistance


26.5.1 When allowed/not
allowed

30

Luna v. Allado Construction Company, Inc.,


G.R. No. 175251,May 30, 2011; Apacible v.
Multimed Industries, et al.,G.R. No.
178903,May 30, 2011 ; Bristol Myers Squibb
v. Baban, G.R. 167449, December 17, 2008;

Phil. Long Distance Tel. Co. v. NLRC, 164


SCRA 671 (1988).

Arms Taxi v. NLRC, 219 SCRA 306 (1993)

26.6 Indemnity
26.7 Solidary liabilty of corporate
officers
27 Retirement

Harpoon Marine Services, Inc. v. Francisco,


GR No. 167751, March 2, 2011.
LABOR CODE, Art. 287; Retirement Pay Law
(RA No. 7641); Implementing Rules; Labor
Advisory on Retirement Pay (Oct. 1999);

Oxales v. Unilab, G.R. No. 152991, July 21,


2008; Quevedo v. Benguet Electric
Cooperative, Inc., G.R. No. 168927,
September 11, 2009
Part VI
SOCIAL LEGISLATION
SOCIAL SECURITY ACT; GOVERNMENT SERVICE INSURANCE ACT;
AND EMPLOYEES COMPENSATION AND STATE INSURANCE FUND;
AND NATIONAL HEALTH INSURANCE ACT.
28 Objectives

Social Security Act of 1997 (R.A. No. 8282),


Sec. 2; Government Service Insurance Act of
1997 (R.A. No. 8291), Whereas clauses;
LABOR CODE, Art. 166; National Health
Insurance Act of 1995 (R.A. No. 7875), Secs.
2, 3, & 5

29 Concept

Sulit v. ECC,98 SCRA 483 (1981); De Jesus


v. ECC, G.R. No. L-56191 May 27, 1986;
GSIS v. De Guzman, G.R. No. 173049, May
21, 2009.

30 Definitions
30.1 Employer

30.2 Employee
30.3 Dependent

31

R.A. No. 8282, Sec. 8(c); SSS v. Alba, G.R.


No. 165482, July 23, 2008; R.A. No. 8291, Sec.
2(c); LABOR CODE, Art. 167(f); R.A. No.
7875, Sec. 4(j)
R.A. No. 8282, Sec. 8(d), also 8(j); R.A. No.
8291, Sec. 2(d); LABOR CODE, Art. 167(g)
R.A. No. 8282, Sec. 8(e); R.A. No. 8291, Sec.
2(f); LABOR CODE, Art. 167(i); R.A. No. 7875,
Sec. 4(f)

30.4 Beneficiaries

R.A. No. 8282, Sec. 8(k); R.A. No. 8291, Secs.


2(g) & 2(h); LABOR CODE, Art. 167(j);
R.A. No. 7875, Sec. 4(a)

31 Coverage

R.A. No. 8282, Secs. 9; 8(j)(4); R.A. No. 8291,


Sec. 3; LABOR CODE, Art. 169 & 170; R.A.
No. 7875, Sec. 7;

Philippine Blooming Mills Co. Inc. v. SSS,


17 SCRA 107 (1968); Sta. Rita v. CA, 247
SCRA 487 (1995); Corporal Sr. v. NLRC, 341
SCRA 658 (2000); Chua v. CA, 440 SCRA
121 (2004)
32 Effect of separation from employment

R.A. No. 8282, Secs. 11, 11(a),

33 Reporting requirements

R.A. No. 8282, Sec. 24; R.A. No. 8291, Sec. 6;

Poblete Construction Co. v. Asian, 20 SCRA


1143 (1967)
34 Funding

R.A. No. 8282, Secs. 18, 19 & 8(f); R.A. No.


8291, Secs. 5 & 8; LABOR CODE, Art. 183(c);
R.A. No. 7875, Secs. 24, 25, 28 & 29

35 Effect of non-remittance

R.A. No. 8282, Sec. 22(b); LABOR CODE, Art.


196(b);

Santiago v. CA, 133 SCRA 34 (1984);


Benedictor v. Abad, 183 SCRA 434 (1990);
Chua v. CA, 440 SCRA 121 (2004)
R.A. No. 8282, Secs. 12, 12-A, 12-B, 13, 13A, 13-B, 14, & 14-A; R.A. No. 8291, Secs. 24,
25, 26 & 27, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21. 22, 11, 12, 23, & 3;

36 Benefits

Conte v. Commission on Audit, 264 SCRA


19 (1996)
LABOR CODE, Arts. 185,191, 192, 193,
194(a-d), 175, & 197; R.A. No. 7875, Secs.
30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37 & 38
36.1 Definition - disability

ECC v. Sanico, 34 SCRA 268 (1999); Seagull


Maritime Corp. v. Dee, G.R. No. 165156,
April 2, 2007;

36.1.1 Manifestation
36.1.2 Permanent total

32

GSIS v. CA, 285 SCRA 430 (1998)


GSIS v. CA, 304 SCRA 243 (1999)

disability v. permanent
partial disability
36.1.3 Unknown cause
36.1.4 Occupational disease
36.2 Basis of claim
36.2.1 Basis - increased risks
36.2.2 Coming and going rule
37 Prescriptive period

33

GSIS v. CA, G.R. No. 124208, January 28,


2008.

Leviste v. SSS, G.R. No. 159060, November


28, 2007
R.A. No. 8282, Secs. 2; R.A. No. 8291, Secs.
15, 16 &17; LABOR CODE, Arts. 172 & 174

Aquino v. SSS, 496 SCRA 200 (2006).


Lentejas v. ECC, 197 SCRA 441 (1991)
Mesa v. SSS, G.R. No. 160467, April 7, 2009.