Subject Pronouns

I You He/She We You (pl) They

Eu Tu, dumneavoastră (polite) El/Ea Noi Voi Ei(m) /Ele(f)

NOTES: 1. The subject pronoun is not normally used before the verb in spoken Romanian. However, it can be used to show emphasis. El merge la cinema. He is going to the cinema. (As opposed to someone else going) 2. If there is a group of masculine and feminine nouns, it is referred to by the subject pronoun ei. Nelu şi Lidia sunt aici. Nelu and Lidia are here. Ei sunt aici. They are here. 3. If a person wishes to address someone in a formal tone, the speaker would use the subject pronoun dumneavoastră. This pronoun is conjugated the same as voi.

To speak= A vorbi I speak You speak eu vorbesc tu vorbeşti

He/she speaks el/ea vorbeşte We speak You speak They speak noi vorbim voi vorbiţi ei/ele vorbesc

1

BASIC VERBS Two of the most basic verbs in Romanian are a fi (to be) and a avea (to have). Below is the present tense conjugation of these verbs. a fi sunt eşti este I am you are he, she, it is suntem sunteţi sunt we are you are (pl.) they are

a avea am ai are I have you have he, she, it has avem aveţi au we have you have (pl.) they have

Example sentences: Unde sunt? Where am I? Nu aveţi o carte? You all don't have a book? Raul şi eu suntem acasă. Raul and I are at home. Unde este o carte? OR Unde e o carte? Where is a book? NOTES: 1. As you may have noticed, the conjugation este can be shortened to e, and is done so in spoken Romanian. 2. The negation of a verb is done by preceding it with nu. This can be abbreviated as n- before a word starting with a vowel. i.e. N-aveţi o carte? You all don't have a book? Other useful verbs: a vorbi vorbesc I speak, I am
2

vorbim

we speak

she. Sorry if that paragraph was confusing. The conjugation vorbesc can mean "I speak". it goes mergem mergeţi merg we go you go they go NOTES: 1. Basically. she. the present tenses translate to English in the same way that French or Spanish does. I do speak vorbeşti vorbeşte you speak he. she. it is understood that the 'am' and 'do' forms are also present. It is this way for all Romanian verbs. or "I do speak". the present tense is slightly different in Romanian.speaking. it speaks vorbiţi vorbesc you speak they speak a merge merg mergi merge a şti ştiu ştii ştie I know you know he. I do go you go he. As you can see. it knows ştim ştiţi ştiu we know you know they know I go. "I am speaking". though only the first type will be listed. 3 . so as other verbs are listed later on. I am going.

but like feminine in the plural. copil copii acrobat acrobaţi child children acrobat acrobats And words that end in a vowel have that vowel replaced by -i. (Example pattern that you probably wouldn't know yet: Neuter nouns are like the masculine in the singular. român români locuitor locuitori Romanian Romanians inhabitant inhabitants In some cases this will cause the final consonant to change. They are as follows: Masculine singular Masculine plural Feminine singular Feminine plural Neuter singular Neuter plural You will see nouns and adjectives grouped into these categories. you will pick up on certain patterns. let me first introduce the basic categories of Romanian words. litru litri fiu 4 liter liters son .) That said. Masculine The plural for a masculine noun is made mostly by adding -i to the end of the word. let's move into plurals. As you see more and more words.PLURALS Before we start into the plurals.

replace it with -ele : cafea cafele coffee cups of coffee bus/underground stop bus/underground stops pastry pastries book books hour hours station stations 5 . Those ending in -ă form the plural by substituting an -e or an -i.fii Feminine sons Feminine nouns are a little more diverse in their forms. replace it with an -i: carte cărţi Those ending in -ură. oră ore gară gări Those ending in -e. replace it with -uri : prăjitură prăjituri Those ending in -ie. replace it with -ii : staţie staţii Those ending in -ea.

replace with -ii : fotoliu fotolii armchair armchairs desk desks 6 .Neuter Neuter nouns have two forms in the plural. Those ending in -ou . form the plural by adding -uri : birou birouri Those ending in -iu .

the indefinite articles (a. but we all know how rare those are. Indefinite Articles un o nişte "a. add -ua: 7 man the man men the men girl the girl girls the girls . an. Ai un prieten în România? Do you have a friend in Romania? Cumpăr o carte bună. unless the planets are aligned or all road construction is finished. an" for masculine and neuter singular nouns "a. add -ul: om omul oameni oamenii If ending in -ă. the indefinite articles come BEFORE the noun and definite articles come AFTER the noun. as a suffix. Cunosc o fată în Franţa. Nişte copii sunt în faţa şcolii. substitute -a: fată fata fete fetele If ending in -ea. There is a man over there. in Romanian. I am buying a good book.ARTICLES In English. I know a girl in France. an" for feminine singular nouns some Este un om acolo. Some kids are in front of the school. some) AND the definite article (the) precede the noun to which they refer. That is. Definite Articles If the word ends in a consonant. However.

substitute -ia călătorie călătoria călătorii călătoriile If ending in -u. add -le: cîine cîinele cîini cîinii If a FEMININE word ends in -e. add -l: metrou metroul metrouri metrourile If a MASCULINE word ends in -e.cafea cafeaua cafele cafelele If ending in -ie. add -a: minge mingea mingi coffee the coffee cups of coffee the cups of coffee voyage the voyage voyages the voyages metro the metro metros the metros dog the dog dogs the dogs ball the ball balls 8 .

The cheese is very old. Dă-i mingea! Give him the ball! Steaua albastră e frumoasă. When speaking about something in a general sense: Mâncarea românească este foarte delicioasă. 9 . 1. Dani are ceasul tău. Danny has your watch. When showing possession: Prietenul meu vine mîine dimineaţă. (Speaking about Romanian food in general) Nu-mi place berea. My friend is coming tomorrow morning. I don't like beer. The blue star is beautiful. (Speaking of beer in general) 2.mingile Examples: the balls Brânza e foarte veche. Romanian food is very delicious. NOTES: There are some instances where the definite article would not be used in English but MUST be used in Romanian.

and "to speak". We have to go to Bucharest. To say these phrases in Romanian the speaker must use a form called the subjunctive. meaning "to go". I cannot speak Hungarian. the subjunctive is "să + present tense". Change e -> ea e -> ă ă -> e ea -> e eşte -> ească Condition middle of word end of word end of word middle of word end of word Example merge -> meargă merge -> meargă întreabă -> întrebe întreabă -> întrebe vorbeşte -> vorbească Constructions using the subjunctive are usually started with "putea". Just as with the normal present tense. the subjunctive is conjugated so personal pronouns are unnecessary. "to go" or "to buy").SUBJUNCTIVE In other languages if one wanted to say "I want to go" or "He needs to buy". and "trebui". but everything else stays the same. the infinitive form of the second verb would be used (i. You may notice that the 3rd person form (meargă) is a bit different than the normal 3rd person present tense (merge). "to ask". Nu pot să vorbesc ungureşte. Speakers caught not using the subjunctive are usually dragged into the street and beaten with clubs (ciomege). "vrea". The rules for this change in the 3rd person are fairly simple. 10 .e. Here are the rules and some examples using "merge". Here are some example sentences containing the subjunctive. meaning "it is necessary"). As you can see. respectively. "întreba". Trebuie să merg Trebuie să mergi Trebuie să meargă Trebuie să mergem Trebuie să mergeţi Trebuie să meargă I have to go You have to go He/She has to go We have to go You (pl) have to go They have to go ("Trebuie" is like the French "il faut". This change in the 3rd person form will be common when forming the subjunctive. Examples of the subjunctive: Trebuie să mergem la Bucureşti. and "vorbi".

* * The personal pronoun is used here to avoid ambiguity. We need to speak with him. as " să plece" can imply "he". Nu poţi să citeşti prea bine. Vreau să mergi la Oradea. I can write very well. Trebuie să vorbim cu el. He/She must speak with us. Nu trebuie să plecăm mîine.* Ea trebuie să plece mîine seară.Pot să scriu foarte bine. We don't need to leave tomorrow. I want to go to Oradea. Vreau să merg la Oradea. You cannot read too well. 11 . Vrem să mergeţi la Oradea. El trebuie să plece în seara asta. She needs to leave tomorrow night. We want you all to go to Oradea. I want you to go to Oradea. He needs to leave tonight. Trebuie să vorbească cu noi. "she" or "they".

. We're going to Salonta tomorrow morning.. 12 . 1.FUTURE The future tense in Romanian can be constructed in three different ways. Mergem la Salonta mîine dimineaţă. Prietenul meu vine din munţi poimîine. We will drink mineral water at Victor's house. 'O' + Subjunctive Another way to form the future is by combining 'o' and the subjunctive.. conjugation of "voi" + verb infinitive Confused? Don't worry. If you would still like to use it. You will see for yourself when he comes. this evening 2. You can see that the verbs (in bold face) are conjugated in the present tense. present tense + time expression 2. For example: O să bem apă minerală la casa lui Victor. O să vezi tu însuţi cînd vine. My friend is coming from the mountains the day after tomorrow. Present Tense + Time Expression Here is an example of what we're talking about. we don't expect you to understand yet! Just keep reading. or avoided like the plague/potholes/Al Gore for those of us with lesser linguistic abilities. the constructions are: 1. Here are some more time expressions that can be used: mîine poimîine răspoimîine mîine dimineaţă acuma seara săptămâna viitoare luna viitoare anul viitor mîine seară seara asta tomorrow day after tomorrow 3 days after today tomorrow morning tonight next week next month next year tomorrow evening tonight. Nu ştim dacă o să vină şi ea. but the time expressions that follow imply the future tense. 'o' + subjunctive 3. We don't know if she's coming too.

See the examples below. Voi vedea filmul poimîine. 13 . all we need is voi + vedea. I will see the movie the day after tomorrow.3. Conjugation of "Voi" plus verb infinitive The third way to form the future is by using "voi". Nelu şi Lidia vor fi la biserică astăzi. Marta will come too. ea noi voi ei voi vei va vom veţi vor The verb infinitive for "to see" is "a vedea". Nelu and Lidia will be at church today. Below you will find the conjugation of "voi" needed for the future tense: eu tu el. Va veni şi Marta. Nelu will see the full moon. The 'a' may be ignored for now. Nelu va vedea luna plină. a form of the verb meaning "to want"(much like english "I will do this"). The 'a' before the word is like the 'to' in english verb infinitves ("to see").

Here are some examples of basic verbs and their past participles: 14 . We will also review some time expression often used in conjunction with the past. You would use this in conjunction with the shortened form of a avea to form the past. It might be easier at first to simply memorize the past participles of the more commonly used verbs (note: past participles can also be used as adjectives! -more on that later). The compound past is usually used to describe an action that happened only once: I ate dinner at Raul's house last night. The shortened form of "to have" as used for past tenses follows: eu am tu ai el / ea a noi am voi aţi I've you've he's / she's we've you've ei / ele au they've The past participle is formed from the infinitive of the verb following a few fairly simple rules. For starters. I did. Eu am făcut. Noi am făcut. Confused? Just look at the examples! am făcut = I made ai făcut = you made a făcut = he/she made am făcut = we made aţi făcut = you made au făcut = they made You may notice the past tense for eu and noi is exactly the same: am făcut. You can use the personal pronouns to stress who is the doer of the action.PAST TENSE There are about four different ways of forming the past tense in Romanian. let's look at the past tense of a face meaning "to do" or "to make": The past participle of face is făcut. We did. We went to a movie. In this lesson we will cover two kinds of past tenses called the "compound past" and the "simple past". The compound past is formed by a conjugated form of "to have" plus the past participle of the verb.

Infinitive Past Participle Definition face vorbi merge da mînca primi bea veni spune avea fi făcut vorbit mers dat mîncat primit băut venit spus avut fost make / do speak go give eat receive drink come say have be Here are some simple rules to follow to divine the past participle. then add an 's' Examples: "a alege" = "to choose" alege -> ales -> ales "a zice" = "to say" zice -> zis -> zis "a alerga" = "to run" alergat -> alergat 15 . There are a number of exceptions to the rules however. Rules for Past Participles   add a 't' to verbs ending in 'i' or 'a' subtract last two letters of verbs ending in 'e'. so a list of common irregular verbs will follow.

The car wasn't anywhere. so below you will find exactly that. Am vorbit toata ziua. She never heard anything. The cats ate the mice. Words you will need to form double negatives are: nimeni nobody nicăieri nowhere niciodată never nimic nothing I do not expect this to make a whole lot of sense without a small sea of example sentences. Maşina n-a fost nicăieri. Noi n-am văzut nimic! We didn't see anything! Ea niciodată n-a auzit nimic. They didn't say anything about the gypsies. We talked the whole day. It is constructed by adding a suffix* to the end of the verb infinitive.. They went up to the border. AND now for the simple past! The simple past is used to denote an action that happened more than once or over a period of time."a şopti" = "to whisper" şoptit -> şoptit To negate a past tense you add a 'nu' in front of the 'avea' helping verb. Examples in English would be "We were writing each other everyday" or "I went to the library on Sundays". Aţi venit ieri? Did you all come yesterday? Pisicile au mîncat şoarecii. N-au spus nimic despre ţiganii. The suffixes used are as follows: Person Suffix eu -am 16 . This often gets shortened to 'n-'.. Ieri am primit o scrisoare de la el. Nu am băut -> N-am băut I did not drink Nu ai venit -> N-ai venit You did not come One more thing you should know about Romanian negation is that they love double-negatives! We only say that in dialect in English so I have fun doing it in Romanian. I got a letter from him yesterday Au mers pînă la vamă.

This is true for all verbs ending in a.tu el / ea noi voi ei / ele -ai -a -am -aţi -au *If the infinitive ends in an i. These suffixes look familiar? They should! They are the same as the forms of 'to have' used in the compound past. 17 . She was speaking with us. Example using a vorbi (to speak): Ea vorbea cu noi. Below you will see examples of some verbs with this suffix added: merge "go" singular plural eu mergeam noi mergeam tu mergeai el mergea voi mergeaţi ei mergeau avea "have" singular plural eu aveam noi aveam tu aveai el avea voi aveaţi ei aveau fi (irregular) "be" singular plural eu eram noi eram tu erai el era voi eraţi ei erau You may have noticed that with avea the letter 'a' is not doubled: avea + am = aveam. change the i to an e when adding the suffixes.

Nu mergeau la bisercă.if the verb begins with an 'a'. Nobody would talk with me. I used to eat pepper salad in the morning. Below are some examples. Primeai scrisori de la ea? Were you getting letters from her? Nimeni nu vorbea cu mine. Dimineaţă mîncam salata de ardei.They did not go to church. N-aveam cărţi. We didn't have books. 18 .To negate just put a nu before the verb and shorten to n.

Pronoun eu tu el ea noi voi ei ele Reflexive mă te se se ne vă se se The following are 5 of the most commonly used reflexive verbs: a se uita (la) mă uit te uiţi se uită to look (at) ne uităm vă uitaţi se uit a se spăla mă spăl to wash oneself ne spălăm 19 . you will learn how reflexive verbs are constructed in Romanian and we'll start you off with some of the most important ones you'll need to know.REFLEXIVE VERBS As in probably all european languages. In this lesson. Following is a list of the forms for the personal pronouns as used in reflexive verbs. Romanian has reflexive verbs.

He's going to the pool. Te speli? Do you wash? 20 .te speli se spală vă spălaţi se spală a se trezi mă trezesc te trezeşti se trezeşte to get up / wake up ne trezim vă treziţi se trezesc a se întoarce mă întorc te întorci se întoarce to go back / return ne întoarcem vă întoarceţi se întorc a se duce mă duc te duci se duce to go ne ducem vă duceţi se duc Mă spăl pe dinţi. Ne trezim la opt dimineaţă. I'm going to church. She's returning to Hungary. Ea se întoarce în Ungaria. We're getting up at eight in the morning. I'm brushing my teeth. La ce vă uitaţi? What are you looking at? Mă duc la bisercă. El se duce la piscină.

21 . He will get up after me. They're going to the school to see the new building.Se duc la şcoală să se uită la noua clădire. Trebuie să se ducă şi Daniel. Daniel has to go too. Vă întoarceţi răspoimîine? Are you coming back three days from now? O să te uiţi la televizor? Are you going to watch television? Te vei duce la criş acuma seară? Are you going to the river tonight? O să se trezească după mine.

POSSESSIVE And now for something that should have appeared several lessons ago. 'his'. English my your his/her his her our y'all's your (formal) Masculine Singular meu tău său lui ei nostru vostru dumneavoastră Masculine Plural mei tăi săi lui ei noştri voştri dumneavoastră Feminine Singular mea ta sa lui ei noastră voastră dumneavoastră Feminine Plural mele tale sale lui ei noastre voastre dumneavoastră Remember that words of neutral gender behave like masculine nouns in the singular and like feminine nouns in the plural. Possessive Adjective 2. Possessive Adjectives The easiest and perhaps the most familiar form of possession corresponds to 'my'. The "AL" Construction 3.. 'your'. we present THE POSSESSIVE! If you are using your Romanian. let's not talk about that till we have to.. You will like two of them. Overview:* 1. etc. The third. Dative Genitive *These terms were mostly created by us just to make us sound like real linguists. There are three ways to denote possession.well. I'm sure you have needed to say "my car" or "my house" by now. Don't be confused! 1. Note also that the thing that is owned MUST be in the definite form: The nominative of "dog" is "cîine". The definite for masculine nouns ending in e is "-le" thus 22 .

Where is your car? Unde e maşina ta? These are not my pants. for example. For the definite form of "maşină" (car) you would change the ă into an a: "the car" = "maşina". but they behave like feminine words when in the plural."the dog" would be "cîinele". The word is masculine so you use the masculine singular from the chart above: "meu". keys and wallet! Casa noastră e mai mare decît casa voastră. Then just add the corresponding possessive adjective from the chart above: "maşina mea"(my car)." "Neither mine nor yours is here. cheile tale. 2. Ceasul meu e stricat. as has been avoided in the following example sentences: "My friend isn't here yet" "Mine isn't either. "her". Dă-mi banii tăi. Our house is bigger than your house. This is of course much simpler for "his". you would use al instead of the object. The "AL" Construction If you want to say 'mine'. Now let me try and make sense of that graph for you! If the object owned is masculine and singular. "ei" and "lor" do not change for plural or gender. or 'his' you must use the AL construction: Male Female Neutral singular al plural ai a ale al ale GRAMMAR NOTE: Notice that words of neutral gender in the singular behave like masculine words. The possessive adjective follows the noun: "my dog" = "cîinele meu". or "their" because "lui". The neuter word Hotel would take the masculine possessive adjective in the singular: "Hotelul meu"(my hotel) and the feminine plural in the plural: "Hotelurile mele"." "Thank you captain obvious!" 23 . You will see this pattern often. you will sound like a robot. followed by the corresponding meu form. Example Sentences: My watch is broken. For example: prietenul meu (my friend) becomes al meu (mine) This is why you need it: If you don't use it. 'yours'. şi portofelul tău! Give me your money. Aceştia nu sînt pantalonii mei.

is true for prieten meaning 'boyfriend'. of course. a mea An alternate usage is to leave out the "de": Niste prieteni ai mei Some friends(masculine or mixed) of mine. Nişte scrisori de ale lor Some letters of theirs. To say this in Romanian." ('nici' means 'nor' and is repeated before each noun) HINT: try to think of al meu as just being the English word 'mine' although it is two words and feels kind of strange.In Romanian that would be: "Prietenul meu încă nu este aici. You can add the de without change of meaning: Nişte prieteni de ai mei Some friends(masculine or mixed) of mine. you might want to say something like: "A friend of mine". just for the heck of it. But saying 'a friend of mine' always means "just a friend"." "Nici al meu. This especially comes in handy since the word prietenă (friend) could mean 'girlfriend' in the right (or wrong!) context." "Nici al meu nici al tău nu este aici. Nişte prietene de ale mele Some friends(feminine) of mine. you can say de for 'of' : A O friend prietenă of de mine. is a suffix. like the definite article. 3. Niste prietene ale mele Some friends(feminine) of mine. "A Friend of Mine" Sometimes. The same. Niste scrisori ale lor Some letters of theirs. Dative/Genetive Case The third method of expressing ownership is to use the Dative/Genetive case. Gender Singular Plural 24 . This case.

For any word in the plural regardless of gender you add "-lor" to the plural indefinite form. The masculine dative/genetive suffix is added to the singular definite form of any masculine or neuter word in the singular. Singular băiat om familie Plural băieţi oameni familii Dative/Genetive băieţilor oamenilor familiilor 25 .ei* -lor -lor *Often this ending is "-ii". and the feminine suffix is added to the plural indefinite of feminine words.ui . We'll cover the important words that take this special ending.masculine feminine . The following chart shows three typical feminine words in the singular Dative/Genetive: Nominative/Accusative fată decleraţie casă Plural fete decleraţii case Dative/Genetive fetei decleraţiei casei The following chart shows three masculine words and one neuter word in the singular Dative/Genetive: Nominative/Accusative bărtbat cîine om hotel* Definite bărbatul cîinele omul hotelul Dative/Genetive bărbatului cîinelui omului hotelului *"Hotel" is neuter but remember that neuter words act masculine in the singular.

Examples: stare -> stării (state of being) facultate -> facultăţii (university) omenire -> omenirii (humanity) Other important words that take the -ii suffix: maşină -> maşinii (car) biserică -> bisericii (church) limbă -> limbii (tongue. All the words of the Romanian language. Păstorul bisericii noastre*. Prinţul păcii. *REMEMBER that to get the Dative/genetive form of feminine words you must build off of the plural form. you'll just have to learn which words take it. Casa tatălui meu. My father's house. even when the word is in the singular. Keeping that in mind. A fost rucsacul soţului meu. and words ending in "-are" change to "-ării". The blue car's tire. One great help is that ALL words ending in "-tate" change to "-tăţii". language) ţară -> ţării IMPORTANT GRAMMAR NOTE: Adjectives can also take the dative/genitive endings! Don't forget that objects owned must be definite! And now for some example sentences! (yey!) Maşina bunului meu prieten. adjectives following singular feminine nouns take plural endings: Fata frumoasă = The beautiful girl Fete frumoase = Beautiful girls Fetei frumoase = of/to the beautiful girl Fetelor frumoase = of/to the beautiful girls One last note: When using the Dative/Genetive form of people's names you use the word "lui" (i.fată hotel fete hoteluri fetelor hotelurilor And now to cover those pesky "-ii" words. not the suffix) for men's names and the regular suffix for feminine names: 26 . The pastor of our church. That was my husband's backpack. Cauciucul maşinii albastre*. The car of my good friend. Toate cuvintele ale limbi Române*. The prince of peace. Unfortunately there is no solid rule.e.

For simplicity's sake. Fiul Mariei. Fiul lui Emil. in the spoken language it is very common to hear people use "lui" with female names as well as men's names. This is especially true for foriegn women's names that don't end in an "a" anyways: Casa lui Ingrid. Fiul lui Maria. Casa Magdalenei. Emil's son. Florin's house. Maria's son. 27 . Magdalena's house.Casa lui Florin.

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