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http://frog.edschool.virginia.edu/organs/home.html You are now ready to begin a careful exploration of the frog's anatomy.

The 4 layers of a frog's body are listed below. Click on the one you wish to see.

Layer One o Liver o Heart Layer Two o Gall Bladder o Stomach o Small Intestine Layer Three o Lungs o Pancreas o Mesentary (Note:This is only seen in the movie, not in the pictures.) Layer Four o Male frog Spleen Kidneys Testes o Female frog Ovaries Oviducts Spleen Kidneys Conclusion

This section shows the organs in Layer One of the the frog's body.

You are now at the first layer of the dissection. At this point you will be able to see the entire liver and heart.

The Liver in preserved (l) and pithed* (r) frogs.


The liver is a large, brownish colored organ covering most of the body cavity. In the pictures above it is circled by a yellow border.

*As we noted previously, a pithed frog has had its central nervous system destroyed (its spinal cord has been severed). It is technically dead, but some of its organs continue to function for a brief period. Examination of recently pithed frogs used to be more common in biology classrooms than it is today. At present, preserved frogs are more widely used.

The Heart in preserved (l) and pithed (r) frogs.


The heart is a small triangular shaped organ between the front legs and anterior to the liver. In the pictures above it is circled by a yellow border.

This section shows the organs in Layer Two of the the frog's body.

Use the forceps and the probe to pick up the the liver and reveal Layer Two. You are now at the second layer of organs within the the frog's body cavity. At this point you will be able to see the gall bladder, the stomach, and the small intestine.

The Gall Bladder in preserved (l) and pithed (r) frogs.


When you raise the liver up you will see a small, greenish sac underneath it. This is the gall bladder. In the pictures above it is circled by a yellow border. (In the image of the pithed frog, the liver has been removed instead of folded back.)

The Stomach in preserved (l) and pithed (r) frogs.


The stomach is a large, firm, sac-like organ on the left side of the frog. In the pictures above it is circled by a yellow border. (In the image of the pithed frog, the liver has not yet been folded back.)

The Small Intestine in preserved (l) and pithed (r) frogs.


The small intestine is a long, folded, tube-like organ that is posterior to (below) the stomach. It is similar in color to the stomach, but smaller in diameter. In the pictures above it is circled by a yellow border. (In the image of the pithed frog, the liver has not yet been folded back.)

Removing Liver
You have now finished examining Layer Two. To see Layer Three, you need to remove the liver, heart and gall bladder as pictured above.

This section shows the organs in Layer Three of the the frog's body. (Note:The mesentery is not shown in any of the pictures below. It does appear in the movie that reviews this section.)

The Lungs in preserved (l) and pithed (r) frogs.


The lungs are at the anterior end of the body cavity on either side of the heart. In a preserved frog, they are small, reddish-pink organs. The frog's left lung is circled in each of the pictures above.

(1.2MB) Pithed frog's Lungs Expanding (There is no sound in this movie.)

Lifting the Stomach and Intestines in preserved (l) and pithed (r) frogs.
Lift the stomach and intestines with the forceps to get a clearer view of Layer Three.

The Pancreas in preserved (l) and pithed (r) frogs.


The pancreas is a thin, yellowish ribbon. As you lift the small intestine you will see it between the small intestine and the stomach. In the pictures above it is circled by a yellow border.

Removing Stomach
Now, to see Layer Four, you need to remove the stomach, small intestine, and pancreas.

This section shows the organs in Layer Four of the frog's anatomy and details any procedures required to see them. At this point sex differences are explored. Click on the icons below to see either a male or female frog.

Male frog

Female frog

Male Anatomy

Spleen
Locate the spleen in the male frog. It is a small, round reddish organ. In the picture of the preserved frog above, the spleen is circled by a yellow border. (To see the spleen in a pithed frog, check out Layer 4 for the female frog.)

Kidneys
Locate the kidneys in the male frog. They are elongated, brownish-colored organs found in the lower part of the frog's abdomen. They are situated on either side of the middle of the frog.In the picture of the preserved frog above, the kidneys are circled by a yellow border. (To see the kidneys in a pithed frog, check out Layer 4 for the female frog.)

Testes
Locate the testes in the male frog. They are tan-colored, bean-shaped organs near the anterior end of each kidney. In the picture of the preserved frog above, the testes are circled by a yellow border.

Female Anatomy

Ovaries
Locate the ovaries. They are dark organs which may fill most of the frog's body cavity, depending on the time of year that the frog was collected. In the picture of the pithed frog above the ovaries are circled by a yellow border.

Oviducts
Locate the oviducts. They are yellowish, coiled tubes near the back surface of the ovaries. They are found on either side of the body cavity. In the picture of the pithed frog above, the oviducts on the frog's right are visible and are circled by a yellow border.

Removing Ovaries
Now remove the ovaries and oviducts. This will give you an unobstructed view of the spleen and kidneys.

Let's Practice: Ovaries & Oviducts

Spleen
Locate the spleen in the female frog. It is a small, round reddish organ. In the picture above it is circled by a yellow border. (To see the spleen in a preserved frog, check out Layer 4 for the male frog.)

Kidneys
Locate the kidneys in the female frog. They are elongated, brownishcolored organs found in the lower part of the frog's abdomen. They are

situated on either side of the middle of the frog.In the picture above they are circled by a yellow border. (To see the kidneys in a preserved frog, check out Layer 4 for the male frog.)