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Predictive Control

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J. Rodr guez, J. Pontt, C. Silva, M. Salgado, S. Rees, U. Ammann, P. Lezana, R. Huerta and P. Corte s

A new method for current control based on a predictive strategy is presented. This uses a discrete-time model of the load to predict the future value of the current for each of the possible voltage vectors generated by the inverter. The vector which minimises the current error at the next sampling time is selected. Experimental results that conrm the feasibility of the method are given.

Predictive current control: Fig. 2 shows a block diagram of the predictive control. Actual values of load current are measured and used with the predictive model to generate seven predictions of future current, one for each voltage vector. These predictions are evaluated with a quality function g and the vector that minimises this function is applied during the next sampling interval. The quality function g is expressed in orthogonal co-ordinates in the following form

p p g ji a ia j jib ib j

Introduction: Current control in three-phase inverters has been extensively studied in the last decade. Nonlinear methods, such as hysteresis control, and linear methods, such as proportional-integral (PI) controllers with subharmonic voltage modulation (PWM) are well established in the literature [1, 2]. In this Letter we present a conceptually new approach to the nonlinear current control in three-phase inverters. A model of the inverter and load is used to predict the behaviour of the current for each different voltage vector generated by the inverter. The vector that minimises a quality function is selected. Predictive control is a topic of control theory that has found some application in power converters [2]. There are applications of predictive control in drives [3], active lters [4] and power factor correction [5]. All these works consider a linear model and use modulation techniques for the generation of the voltage. In [6] it is demonstrated that the use of nonlinear predictive control in a matrix converter avoids the use of complex modulation strategies. This present work uses predictive current control avoiding the application of any modulation method in the inverter.

p where ip a and ib are the real and imaginary part of the predicted load * are the real and imaginary part of future * and ib current i(k 1), ia reference current determined by (3).

Results: Simulation results are shown in Fig. 3 for PWM and predictive current control. At instant t 0.015 s the amplitude of the reference current ia * is reduced from 13 to 5.2 A. The amplitude of * has not been changed to assess the decoupling on the current ib current control. Note that for the proposed method, no interaction between ia and ib is observable, and that a better dynamic response than PWM control is achieved.

Control method: Fig. 1 shows a model of the system and the possible voltage vectors generated by the inverter. This method uses a discretetime model of the system to predict the future value of load current i(k 1) for each possible voltage vector v(k), for a sampling time Ts RT T T 1 ik 1 1 s ik s vk s ek L L L where R is the load resistance and L is the load inductance, v is the voltage generated by the inverter and e is the load EMF. The load EMF can be estimated as L L ^ k vk R ik i k 1 2 e Ts Ts where i*(k 1) is the future reference current calculated via a secondorder extrapolation given by i k 1 3i k 3i k 1 i k 2 3

Fig. 3 Simulation results: step change in ia *

a PWM b Predictive

Experimental results: The control algorithm was implemented on a DSPT MX320F2812 by Texas Instruments for a sampling time Ts 100 ms and tested with an RL load (R 20 O, L 30 mH) and a DC link voltage of Vdc 220 V. Dynamic response of the system is shown in Fig. 4 for a step change * (from 5 to 2.5 A at time t 0), reference is in the amplitude of ia followed with fast dynamic without affecting ib. This conrms simulation results.

a Load currents b Load voltage

Vol. 40 No. 9

Fig. 4b shows the load voltage for the predictive current control. It is observed that the waveform of load voltage van is very similar to a voltage generated with classical modulation techniques. With this control strategy no modulator needs to be implemented and the control signals for the switches are generated directly by the predictive controller. For the implemented sampling frequency of 10 KHz (Ts 100 ms) the load voltage spectrum concentrates near 2 KHz. Conclusions: The predictive current control presented in this Letter does not require any current controller or modulator. It presents a very effective control of the load currents. In addition, this control strategy compares well with established control methods such as subharmonic modulation (PWM). The dynamic response of this method is better than the classical PWM solution. These results show that predictive control is a very powerful tool with a conceptually different approach that opens new possibilities in the control of power converters. Acknowledgments: The authors acknowledge the support of the Chilean Research Fund CONICYT (Grant 1030368) and of the Universidad Te cnica Federico Santa Mar a. # IEE 2004 Electronics Letters online no: 20040367 doi: 10.1049/el:20040367 22 January 2004

S. Rees and U. Ammann (Universita t Stuttgart, Institut fu r Leistungselektronik und Regelungstechnik, Pfaffenwaldring 47, 70550 Stuttgart, Germany) References

1 2 3 4 5 6 Holtz, J.: Pulsewidth modulation electronic power conversion, Proc. IEEE, 1994, 82, (8) Kazmierkowski, M.P., Krishnan, R., and Blaabjerg, F.: Control in power electronics (Academic Press, 2002) Kennel, R., and Linder, A.: Predictive control of inverter supplied electrical drives. Conf. Rec. of PESC00 (Power Electronics Specialists Conf.), Galway, Ireland, June 2000 (CD-ROM) Malesani, P., Mattavelli, P., and Buso, S.: Robust dead-beat current control for PWM rectier and active lters, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 1999, 35, (3), pp. 613620 Mattavelli, P., Spiazzi, G., and Tenti, P.: Predictive digital control of power factor preregulators. Conf. Rec. of PESC03 (Power Electronics Specialists Conf.), Mexico, 2003 (CD-ROM) Muller, S., Ammann, U., and Rees, S.: New modulation strategy for a matrix converter with a very small mains lter. Conf. Rec. of PESC03 (Power Electronics Specialists Conf.), Mexico, 2003 (CD-ROM)

J. Rodr guez, J. Pontt, C. Silva, M. Salgado, P. Lezana, R. Huerta and P. Corte s (Electronics Engineering Department, Universidad Te cnica Federico Santa Mar a, Avenida Espan a 1680, Casilla 110-V, Valpara so, Chile) E-mail: patricio.cortes@elo.utfsm.cl

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