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WELCOME! LET REVIEW 2009 FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION PROF. EDGARDO S.

VILLASEOR LECTURER HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS PERIODS AND INFLUENCES Education During the Ancient Period Education in Ancient Asia Education in Ancient Greece Education in Ancient Rome Medieval Education Renaissance Education Education in the 20th Century

PRIMITIVE EDUCATION ( Education in the Preliterate Period )

Aims: 1. 2. Security or survival Conformity

Methods or Means of Learning ( Practical / Informal Education ) 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. Simple telling and instruction ( show me or tell me ) Imitation / trial and error Observation4. Indoctrination Content: Simple forms of domestic, vocational, physical, moral, and military training; Religious, musical or literary activities.

THE EFFECTS The culture was passed on and preserved for generation Tribes were able to meet their economic needs and were able to survive

People were able to adjust and adapt to political and social life EDUCATION IN ANCIENT ASIA Education was basically a system of social stratification and division of classes. Aims: 1. To acquire group traditions2. To learn ordinary skills and trades of life Methods of teaching and learning: 1. Imitation

1. Memorizing the contents of the Confucian classics, the Vedas, the Tripitaka, the Mosaic Law of the Jews etc.

1. 2. 3.

From the Chinese - The civil service examination. From the Assyrians Cuneiform writing From the Egyptians Pictographic & Hieroglyphic writing

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT GREECE The Greeks were the first people in Europe to develop civilization; but it was from the Minoans, Egyptians and the Phoenician traders that the Greeks learned how to write, to use metals, to trade, and to build and sail ships. There are two contrasting types of education in Greece: 1. 2. Spartan Education Athenian Education

SPARTAN EDUCATION It is controlled by the state and exercised the right to expose sickly babies on the mountainside to die A seven boys and girls were gathered in the barracks for physical training Memorizing the laws of Lycurgus the Spartan lawgiver and the epics of Homer, Iliad and the Odyssey At 18, definite training in the use of arms and warfare began At 20-30, service in the army and guarding the borders of the state were required Physical training for the girls were also rigorous to bear healthy children at 20 Agoge state training

Arete a virtue or excellence, moral goodness, one which makes a thing a hero, the best, the most effective of its kind. Paidonomus a barracks commander The Spartan education system ensured that the citizens were reared in such a way that they neither would , nor could live by themselves one with the public good. This involved a long process of conditioning, beginning at birth where deemed much less the children of their parents than the wards of the state. ATHENIAN EDUCATION The first state in the worlds history where human capacities were allowed to develop freely They believed that the greatest work of art was the human form Man should be molded in the ideals of the arte or chivalrous honor School attendance was voluntary At seven, boys can be sent to the palaestra for physical training Introduced Holistic education the development of perfect citizens, knowing both how to rule and to be ruled on the basis of justice (Plato & Aristotle) They approached their problem in a scientific way, by examining principles governing human life , asking what a man was, body, mind and spirit. Education is the making of man, not training men to make things (technicism). Teaching someone the skills of using a computer or a mobile phone is not education, it is not a true culture of the whole person. To Plato and Aristotle, useful, no doubt necessary, but not education. Palaestrae public gymnasiums Didaskaleon music school Paidogogus once a slave but very learned and was in-charge with teaching the boys with the intricacies of manner and morals Heterae cultured women who participated in social life and intellectual discussions of the upper class males Kitharist music teacher Grammalist grammar teacher Paedotribe gymnastics teacher Great Athenian philosophers: A. Socrates developed the question-and- answer method of inquiry known as the Socratic Method.

B. Plato wrote the Republic, a treatise founded on the aristocratic ideals that education must be controlled by the state. C. Aristotle developed the first scientific argument based on human nature. Sophists Gr. wise men , scholars who teach for fees Protagoras one of the leading Sophists who wrote extensive description of Greek education. Ephebus a young man at 18, enters military training and join the Ephebi. Two categories of curriculum: 1. 2. Mousike- includes music, language and literature gymnastike- physical training and athletics needed in war and competitions.

ROMAN EDUCATION The aim of Roman education was utilitarian, not theory but application, not learning but practice. It emphasized a practical training for the military life and citizenship acquired through memorization of the Laws of the Twelve Tables and the historical traditions of Rome. It is concerned with the development of a vir bonus, a man endowed with the highest virtues, a good citizen. Ludus primary school Ludi magister- schoolmaster Grammaticus teacher of language and literature Rhetor teacher of rhetoric Schola secondary school Two most influential Roman teachers and thinkers: 1. Cicero- wrote De Oratore, providing the ideals of education in the Middle Ages

2. Quintillian- wrote Instituto de Oratore, emphasized that an orator must be a man of integrity and character. MEDIEVAL EDUCATION

Aim: Moral regeneration of man Types of education: a. b. Moral and, Religious trainingSchools:

a. b.

Catechumenal schools for those who desire to become members of the church Catechetical schools- for the training of church leaders

c. Cathedral or Episcopal schools- theological training schools under the direct instruction of the bishops. Contribution: The spread of Christianity all over the world.

Aims: 1. Salvation of individual souls 2. Worldly renunciation for the sake of moral improvement ( thru vows of chastity, poverty and obedience) Type/Content: a. Literacy activities and manual training based on The

Rule of Benedict b. The Seven Liberal Arts ( Trivium and Quadrivium) Schools:

Monastic schools were established by Charlemagne and supervised by a missi dominici Alcuin- the greatest schoolmaster of this time Contribution: The principle of self-abnegation or organized asceticism as those in seminaries and monasteries.

Aims: a. b. 1. 2. Support the church doctrines by rational arguments Intellectual disciplineTypes: Scholastic Realists (Anselm) Conceptualists (Abelard)

Summa Theologicae- official doctrine of the church by papal decree written by St. Thomas Aquinas Agencies: Monastic schools - Abbot Cathedral schools - Bishop Medieval universities Pope, emperor, king Palace schools - King Organization: Chancellor-given authority to issue a teaching license. Universitas Magistrorum et Scholarium or universitas- a corporation of teachers and students Studium Generale- student body

Nation group of students according to place of origin Councilor head of the nations Facultas group of teachers teaching the same subject Dean head of the facultas Rector chief executive officer of the university Methods: Lecture Repetition Disputation Examination Contribution: Knowledge on how to organize our own schools

Aim: Teach the best ideals for entrance into aristocracy Type/Content: Taught young nobles to manage their estate and acquire the class consciousness of superiority over the lower class. Consisted of physical, social, military and religious activities. Agency Home, then court schools, and the fields of battle Contribution: Training for effective warfare THE GUILD SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Aim: Vocational training Types/Content: Reading and writing in the vernacular for commerce and industry. Agencies: 1.burgher schools 2.chantry schools 3.guild schools Organization: Stages of development as craftsman: 1. 2. 3. apprentice journeymen master craftsmen Contribution:

Mercantilism and industrial knowledge.

SARACENIC APPROACH TO EDUCATION Aim: Search for knowledge and the application of scientific facts to the affairs of daily life. Type/Content: Memorizing the Koran Elementary education was open to all. Financial aid was given to needy students Muslim curriculum was the most complete. Agencies: Early caliphs founded elementary schools including universities. Contribution: 1. Improved strategies in teaching subjects like science because of the inventions they made 2. Scholarship RENAISSANCE EDUCATION

Aim: To develop personality through music and the arts. Types/Content Literary Aesthetic Classical Art Physical Education Social training Literature Agencies:

Home and court schools Contribution: ( From Vittorino da Feltre) Developing the power to think Adapting the work of an individual to his needs and capacities Inclusion of play in the curricula

Aim: Eliminate the ignorance of the common people and the hypocrisy of the social leaders. Types/Content 1. 2. 3. Moral education Social education 4. Classical literature 5. Biblical literature

Literary education Agencies:

Court schools

French lycees

German gymnasium Universitas Methods: Erasmus: Individualized instruction Vives: Use of the vernacular; education of women Strum: Memorization and imitation Ascham: Double translation in teaching language. Contribution Leading figure was Guarino Veronese who designed a curriculum consisting of physical and intellectual education.

-REFORMATION MOVEMENT Aim: Religious moralism to develop an unquestioning obedience to the authority of the church. Type/Content: Religious and moral education Agencies/Methods: a. Jesuits-Doing small amount of work at a time,

doing it well and making sure it is retained b. c. Christian Brothers-Grade pupils according to abilities Jansenists-Nothing is to be memorized unless

understood Contribution: Discipline among Catholic schools was firm but free from brutality.

Three Groups 1. 2. 3. Humanistic or literary realists Social realists Sense realistsAims:

1.Knowledge and understanding human society through the study of literature ( Vives, Rabelais and Milton) 2.To prepare aristocratic youth for the life of a gentleman in the world affairs( Michael de Montaigne) 3. To develop a harmonious society working in accordance with natural and universal law (Bacon,

Comenius, Mulcaster and Ratke)

Aim: Formation of character or habits through exercises of the mind, body and self-control Types/Content Physical, moral and intellectual development through mastery of linguistics and mathematics Agencies Grammar schools- England Gymnasium- Germany Lycees- France Tutorial System Methods Lockes three steps of learning: Sensation, memory and reasoning The use of corporal punishment in case of obstinacy (stubbornness) Contribution: The value of drill subjects such as spelling, mathematics and grammar to enhance memorizing, reasoning, analyzing and problem solving skills.

Aim: To develop an individual capable of controlling all aspects of his life by reason, suppressing passions and feelings, to live in a highly artificial world. Content Results to the creation of a group of intellectual aristocrats called illuminati Old moral values were replaced by sexual laxity, immodesty, infidelity, and extravagance. Implication Upheld the right of an individual to his own opinion, liberty of conscience, and freedom of thought Rationalist Thinkers 1. Rene Descartes Cogito ergo sum I think, therefore I exist

2. Benedict Spinoza- Psycho-physical parallelismseries of phenomena pertaining to extension are parallel to those pertaining to thought. EDUCATION IN THE 20TH CENTURY

Aim: Preservation of natural goodness and virtue of the individual Type/Content

Democratic and universal type of education Informal exercises of the senses Textbook was dwelt on Robinson Crusoe (Dafoe) and Emile (Rousseau). Methods 1. 2. 3. Principle of growth Principle of pupil activity Principle of individualization

Contribution Education should consider the nature of the child

Aims: Preservation of the state, economic protection, unity, and identity Types/Content 1. 2. 3. Religious and moral Physical education Vocational training

Methods 1. 2. Pestalozzian Herbartian

Agencies Public and private schools (Elementary, secondary and Colleges) Contributions: Ladder system of education Free and absolute education for all DEVELOPMENTALISM A psychological movement advocating a child-centered point of view which aimed to unfold the natural capacities of the child which can be enhanced or retarded by the methods used in the school. Noted Developmentalists: 1. JOHANN HEINRICH PESTALOZZI He believed that pedagogical reform would lead to social reform. Learning come through the senses.

2.

FREIDRICH WILHELM AUGUST FROEBEL- known for his

kindergarten. Children should not be thought why they dont understand. Introduce the role of play in the school program. 3. JOHANN FRIEDRICH HERBART- known for his highly structured methodology of teaching (Herbartian Method) 4. MARIA MONTESSORI- known internationally because of her Casa de Bambini which offered early childhood education. Three major activities: practical, sensory and muscular, and formal. 5. JOHN DEWEY- known for his philosophy of pragmatism. He viewed education as a process of social activity and the school was related to the society which it served. 6. JEAN PIAGET- known for his contribution to early childhood education in the field of cognitive development. 7. EDWARD L. THORNDIKE- a scientific educator known for his laws of learning such as: the law of readiness, law of exercise and the law of effect. SOCIOLOGICAL MOVEMENT This leading movement in education is attributed to John Dewey. The focus is on the contribution of education to the preservation and progress of the society; what he called as the social function of education. Two points of View: 1.Social Traditionalism Aim: To give pupils insight into their traditions to arouse sympathy toward social service 2. Social Experimentalism Aim: To foster social change specially in the field of science and technology to meet the needs of the changing society. INTERNATIONALISM Ethical belief or scientific approach where in which people of different nations are held to be equal as opposed to national chauvinism and racism. It encourages an active partnership between teachers and students moving from awareness and analysis of issues to action. Styles of internationalism 1. 2. 3. Unilateral internationalism Bilateral internationalism Multilateral internationalism

PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION

a. NATURALISM Considered to be the oldest philosophy in the Western world. The early Greek thinkers were naturalists. Some of them were Thales, Democritus, Epicurus and Lucritus. The contemporary naturalists are: 1. THOMAS HOBBES

According to him, the native condition of man is a war of everyone against everyone. He is continually in competition with others, grasping for honor and dignity. Man should be kept busy from which he must struggle for something better, because he is troublesome if he is not at ease. His hunger for power is unquenchable and only ceases at death. 2. JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU

He views that everything is good as it comes from the hands of nature but everything degenerates in the hands of man. He established three (3) great principles of learning: 1) The principle of growth the order of nature is need, activity, experience and knowledge. The teachers role is not to impel learning but merely to guide it in such a way that it follows the natural order. 2) The principle of student activity- Nothing must be done for the student that he can do for himself. 3) The principle of individualization The needs and interests of the student must be placed above those of the society. 3. HERBERT SPENCER He believed in an Absolute Being, the foundation of all phenomena which man can observe. It is conceivable yet unknowable. It is the continuing force or power in the world of nature. Defined education as complete living. b. REALISM

The philosophical doctrine that universals have a real objective existence. It is based on what is real as they are; something that exists independently of all other things and from which all others are derived. Some realist thinkers: a. ST. THOMAS AQUINAS- According to him, matter

which is the material substance out of which the world was made, did not co-exist with God before the creation of the universe. b. JOHN AMOS COMENIUS The mind of man is like a spherical, mirror suspended in a room which reflects images of all things that are around it. Father of Modern Education. c. RENE DESCARTES- Believes that the physical world is real and his senses are not deceived.

d. God.

BARUCH SPINOZA- Believes that there is only one substance and this is his being identical with

e. JOHN LOCKE- Believes that there are no innate ideas in the mind. At birth, it is just similar to a blank sheet of paper (tabula rasa) upon which the world writes its impressions. f. IMMANUEL KANT- Our sensory experience and perceptions are representations of the external world and not direct representations of it. Our experience of the world is private. c. IDEALISM

Reality is composed of thought related to mind and idea, and that matter is just an appearance. Reality is spirit. Act of knowing takes place in the mind. Contemporary Idealist: GEORGE BERKELEY Considered as the founder of modern idealism. Believes that the fundamental element of the world is not matter but spirit or mind. d. PRAGMATISM OR EXPERIMENTALISM

A philosophical movement stressing practical consequences as constituting the essential criterion in determining meaning, truth or values. This was primarily an American philosophical movement formulated by CHARLES SANDERS PEIRCE. WILLIAM JAMES For him, the test of a theory, doctrine or belief must be its results. The only reason that we have for asserting that anything is true is whether it works. e. INSTRUMENTALISM

According to JOHN DEWEY, what constitutes our brute or animalistic experience is the interaction between a biological organism and its environment. Experience is not an object known, but rather, an action performed. He proposed that the educational system should try to develop methods for problem solving. If the student learned how to solve problems, presumably he would be better fit for living in our ever-changing world with its manifold perplexities. For him knowledge is not an end but an instrument an individual can utilize to attain his desired goal. It emphasizes the importance of experience, experimentation, and learning by doing which brought tremendous influence on the learner. f. EXISTENTIALISM

A modern movement encompassing the doctrine that individual existence determines essence, that man has no absolute freedom of choice but there are no rational criteria serving as a basis for choice. Two prominent exponents of existentialism:

1. SOREN KIERKEGAARD-For him, man is a subjective thinker and comprehends himself not as an abstraction but as an ethically engaged existing subject. An authentic choice is fundamentally a product of passion and zealous intention. 2. FRIEDRICH NIETZSHE- He sees that the nature of man makes him vulnerable to deficiencies which have to be corrected to produce a superior race. He said that traditional morality is the reason of an inferior race of man. Nature is beyond good and evil; all men are unequal; morality is an invention of the weak to limit and deter the strong; that power is the supreme virtue and the supreme desire of man; and that of all forms of government, the wisest and most natural is aristocracy.

1. JEAN PAUL SARTRE- According to him, in anxiety, man becomes aware of his freedom, knows himself and is responsible for his own actions and commitment. He believes that there is no creator of man. Man determines his essence. Man first is, then he defines himself. 2. KARL JASPERS- For him existence is always in a situation. It is mans reactions to inescapable situations (death, suffering, guilt, struggles) that our potential existence becomes actual. 3. MARTIN HEIDEGGER- Man is a being-in-a- world by participation and involvement. His world is a world which he shares with others. Human existence itself is essentially togetherness. There are three (3) fundamental features of man. They are factuality (He is already involved in the world); Existentiality (He is a project and a possibility); and fallenness or forfeiture ( He has the tendency to become a mere presence in the world; failing to make the most of his possibilities because of gossip, curiosity and ambiguity) g. PERENNIALISM Implies or views truth as constant or perennial. Reality is a world of reason. Schools exist primarily to reveal reason by teaching eternal truths. Goodness is to be found in rationality itself. The teacher interprets and tells, the students receive the information. The role of education is to ensure that students acquire knowledge of these unchanging principles or great ideas. Perennialist Educational Philosophers ROBERT MAYNARD HUTCHINS Assumptions: 1. 2. 3. 4. Education must promote humankinds continuing search for truth. Education of human rationality is the essential function of education Education should train students to think thoughtfully about significant ideas. The best education for the best is the best education for all.

MORTIMER ADLER To develop students to become independent and critical thinkers, the focus of education must be on enduring disciplines of knowledge rather than on current events or students interest. (Padeia Proposal, 1982) g. ESSENTIALISM There are certain essentials that all men need to know such as essential skills : the 3 Rs and essential subjects: English, History, Math, Science and Foreign Language. Individuals should be able to distinguish between the essentials and non-essentials in ones existence. William C. Bagley-There are common knowledge and aspects of culture that the school is obligated to transmit to students in a systematic and disciplined way. Upholds the back-to-basics movement FIELDS OF PHILOSOPHY AND ITS AREA OF INQUIRY METAPHYSICS- Studies the nature of reality and being EPISTEMOLOGY-Inquires about the nature, presuppositions, and scope of knowledge LOGIC- Studies correct thinking or rules of inference to arguments ETHICS- Inquires into morally right conduct and morally good life AESTHETICS- Analyzes standards and values in art and aesthetic experience AXIOLOGY- Studies the nature, status and types of values EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY AND THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER Why study Educational Philosophy? It provides a means of systematic inquiry by which teachers can examine their values, knowledge, and actions and subsequently make decisions that lead to the accomplishment of classroom, school and societal goals. New Standards for Teacher Education (NCBTS,1987) What is good teaching? What are the seven domains? 1. Social regard for learning.

2. Learning environment. 3. Diversity of teachers. 4. Curriculum. 5. Planning, assessing, and reporting. 6. Community linkages 7. Personal growth and development. Important dimensions of good teaching: 1. 2. 3. Nature/Quality. Frequency, consistency and appropriateness. Self- awareness.

Essential Tools of a Teacher Knowledge. About people and social organizations, cultures, epistemology, specific disciplines, human growth and development, communication and language, scientific inquiry, and research on effective learning and teaching. Skills. Assessment, planning, instruction, evaluation, social behavior management, and role modeling. Dispositions. Toward self, toward the learner, toward teaching, and toward the profession. CONNECTING PHILOSOPHY TO THEORY AND PRACTICE The Early Period (5th Century - 4th Century B.C.) Philosophers and their philosophy: a. Plato Ideas are perfect paradigms and

universal. b. Aristotle- Explained organisms in terms of their

contributions to society or to the ideal state. This is known as teleological explanation. c. Socrates- Knowledge is virtue and all virtuous actions are based on knowledge.

Present-Day Proponents of Perennialism and Essentialism 1. Mortimer Adler-(1902-2001) Known for his proposal for an educational system that would fulfill the democratic promise of equal educational opportunities for all. (The Paideia Proposal) 2. Arthur Bestor-(1908-1994) For him, genuine education is intellectual education, and this is the only education that has worth. He stressed that the function of education is to provide sound training in the fundamental ways of thinking.

3. E.D. Hirsch, Jr.-(1928- ) He is best known for his bookCultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know and another one entitled, The Schools We Need. He advocated that being culturally literate means understanding the necessary information (shared symbols) to communicate in the national community. 4. Robert M. Hutchins- He averred that education should be based on the classical disciplines of grammar, rhetoric, logic, mathematics, natural science, philosophy and ideas from the Modern World. He said that we should not allow students to think that the purpose of education is simply to get better jobs. 5. Theodore Sizer-He stressed the concept of less is more when applied to the curricular scope of schools. It means more is to be gained by committing the school and its resources to the task of cultivating the intellect through academic disciplines. Implication of the Perennialist/Essentialist Philosophy to Schools 1. 2. Belief in the need for a common course of study. A minimum of 12 years of study in the fundamental discipline

3. Development of the habit of self-discipline, thoughtfulness leading to ethical behavior, and the recognition of the need for lifelong learning. 4. Highly structured schools with universal standards for all, performance objectives and evaluation methods that are clear to all. 5. A recognition that a common course of studies for all students is necessary to fulfill the promise of citizenship in a democracy. 6. Toughening of standards for entrance to and completion of the teacher education program in order to prepare highly qualified teachers who possess the knowledge and skills to teach-and inspire students. Philosophical Paradigm

Major Educational Educational Educational Practice Philosophies Theories Goals Idealism Essentialism Perennialism Development potential reasoning Socratic method and of intellectual and logical of the basic Teacher-

Realism Perennialism Transmission centered Essentialism elements of

Universal standards, and

classrooms, highly qualified teachers in

culture content-areas, age, appropriate materials, progressive curriculum,

strict order and discipline The Dawning of the Child-centered Curriculum Developmentalism-refers to the belief that teaching based on the developmental stages of the child is the most effective teaching practice. It is also called developmentally appropriate practice and constructivism. The Advocates of this philosophy were: 1. Jean Jacques Rousseau 2.Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi 3.Friedrich Froebel WHAT THIS MEANS FOR SCHOOLS? Children are diverse in their abilities, and new information should be introduced only when the child is ready for it. A prepared environment is conducive to learning. Play is an integral factor in learning and uninterrupted time should be allotted to it. Curriculum and instruction should match the childs needs and interests. Schools provide society with an opportunity to better the world and the human condition. The Advent of Rationalism and Empiricism Empiricism- stresses the search for knowledge through use of the five senses and through observation and experimentation. (Bacon and Locke) Rationalism emphasizes the importance of reason as secondary to sensory experience, feelings, or authority. (Descartes) Contemporary Developmentalists Lawrence Kohlberg- Theory of Moral Development Jean Piaget- Cognitive Development Theory Lev Vygotzky- Social Development Theory ZPD Albert Bandura-Social Development Theory-Internal Locus of Control RATIONALISM AND EMPIRICISM Major Educational Educational Educational Philosophies Theories Goals Practice

Rationalism Developmental Education that will Attention to needs, and Empiricism Theory allow children to develop naturally in interests and readiness of (Developmenta accordance with lism) learner.

their own abilities and interests.Use of manipulatives,

hands-on and Acquisition of concrete materials knowledge through Emphasis on observation, discovery through experimentation and observation, reflection of and on experimentation, the natural world. and reflection. Emphasis on sensory experience The Contemporary Period Existentialism-Philosophical and literary movement stemming from Kierkegaard and represented by Sartre, Camus, and others; based on the the doctrine that existence takes precedence over essence and that human beings are totally free and responsible for their actions, and that this responsibility is the source of the dread and anguish that are part of being human. Instrumentalism-The pragmatic doctrine that ideas are plans for actions serving as instruments for adjustment to the environment, and that their validity is tested by their effectiveness. Pragmatism-Philosophical doctrine that denies the possibility of obtaining absolute truth; truth or validity is determined by consequences. Utilitarianism-Philosophy brought into full bloom by the 18th and 19th century English philosopher Jeremy Bentham, affirms that the rightness of actions is determined by whether or not they bring the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Progressivism and Constructivism Major Educational Educational Educational Philosophies Theories Goals Practice Pragmatism And Progressivism Allow Engage students in individuals to create or activities that facilitate the construction of

Constructivism construct their meaning. own Curriculum organized in understanding a spiral meaning so of knowledge build upon prior knowledge. through the Use of techniques like: interaction of cooperative learning, what they project method, problem already know solving etc. and believe. Give challenging student can

activities geared to students ZPD Thoughts Concerning Education: Directions for the 21st Century ( Nicholas Burbules)

Prepare individuals with capacity to learn and adapt to the changing world. Look at problems concerns from a cosmopolitan perspective. Developing capacities for curiosity, for flexibility in thinking in different ways Fostering of a moral character that is not fundamentalist Making education valuable through recognition of human potentialities: wide-awakeneness (Maxine Greene) THE SOCIOLOGICAL-ANTHROPOLOGICAL CONCEPTS IN EDUCATION 1. Anthropology-the science that studies the origin and development of , his works and his achievements. It includes the study of physical, intellectual, moral, social, and cultural development of man, including his customs, mores, folkways, and beliefs. Culture The shared products of human learning. The sum total of skills, beliefs, knowledge, and products that are commonly shared by a number of people and transmitted to their children (Dressler) A complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, morals, customs and other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. (Taylor) A standards for doing what is. (Goodenough). Characteristics of Culture It is learned. It is transmitted / transferable. It is social.

It is universal. Sociology Science of man and society. Study of patterns of human behavior. Study of groups and societies and how they affect people. The nature of man

Basically a social being who cannot afford to live alone Constantly interacts with others to satisfy most of his needs Develops further as a person as he shares or interacts with others Society An organized group of population who interrelates and interacts with one another, with common shared attitudes, sentiments, aspirations and goals. A group of organized individuals who think of themselves as a distinct group, who have some things in common, a set of loyalties and sentiments, and a esprit de corps which make the individuals under certain circumstances to sacrifice himself for the good of the group. Status -Refers to the position assigned by a person in a group or organization. Social Stratification -Refers to the classification of group members according to certain criteria which may differ according to the nature of the group. Social process Refers to the patterned and recurrent form of social interaction. May come in the form of competition, conflict, cooperation, accommodation, assimilation or acculturation. Socialization A process of adapting or conforming to the common needs and interests of a social group. A process where a member of a group learns and internalizes the norms and standards of the other member among whom he lives. Agents of Socialization a. Family

The smallest social institution whose members are united by blood, marriage, or adoption, constituting a household and carrying a common culture whose functions include: -Providing needed socialization of children in terms of roles and status. -Transmission of culture - Providing opportunities for growth and development of personality, self-concept in b. School

An agency originated by the society for the basic function of teaching and learning and for the enculturation of its members. A place where attitudes , behaviors, customs and values are processed and refined. An agent of :

al change

c. Church Prepares the people spiritually. Change Denotes a making or becoming distinctly different and implies either a radical transmutation of character or replacement with something else. For change to be successfully initiated and managed , 3 important components have to be present: a. b. c. relevance readiness resources

Reactions to Change a. Passive resistance

No verbal resistance but no cooperation shown either. b. Active resistance

Verbal concrete actions present (rallies, petition papers etc). c. Passive readiness

Follow with questions. d. Active readiness

Questions but cooperates Stages of Change 1. 2. Unfreezing (readiness) Change Implementation (actual practice)

3.

Refreezing (becoming a habit)

Forms of Change a. Cultural change-refers to alterations affecting new trait or trait complexes in the cultures content and structures. b. Technological change- revisions that occurs in mans application of his technical knowledge and skills as he adapts to his environment. c. Social change-variations and modifications in the patterns of social organization, of groups in a society, or of the entire society. How change may be Managed 1. 2. Orient the stake holders as to the nature , benefits, effects, manners of implement of change. Involve specialists to initiate change.

3. Manage change implement by focusing only on useful and necessary change, following gradual manner of implement, giving adequate attention to human needs, keeping lines of communication open, sharing the benefits of change, and diagnosing and treating remaining problems after the change has occurred. Sociology in Education processes and the explanation for such relationships which contributes to the analysis and eventual solutions to problems confronting the educational system. Socio-Anthropological Implications to Education 1.Schools need to provide students with a curriculum that gives them insight into social traditions, customs, institution for the perpetuation of the long established social order. 2. Schools and the community must teach the young the concepts of social order and social control for the survival of the society. 3. Schools must have activities that reinforce role and status, expectations and values to promote harmonious relationship. 4. Schools are a necessity and government should see to it that they function and work towards improving the educational system and the people involved in the system 5. The government and TEIs should enforce policies on admission, selection, and retention of teacher candidates. 6. The government should regularly review the curriculum of basic education and higher learning institutions to make certain that the educational and societal goals are achieved. Seven Lessons on Leading the Voyage to the Future

3. Leaders have their head in the clouds and their feet on the Ground. 4. Shared values make a difference. 5. You cant do it Alone. 5. The Legacy you Leave is the Life you Lead. 6. Leadership is Everyones Business. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD PROBLEM SOLVER Positive attitude Concern for Accuracy Habit of Breaking the Problem Into Parts Avoidance of Guessing Active Problem Solving