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CTS0204

ISSUES IN CREATIVE TEACHING IN SCIENCE

NAME : LEONG CHEANG YENG


IC NUMBER : 820725-07-5266
COURSE : KDP14M31
CREATIVE TEACHING IN
SCIENCE ( SR )
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LECTURER : PN. MAGESWARY A/P
KARPUDEWAN

Natural pigment
  
The definition of natural pigment
A pigment is the material that changes the color of light it reflects as the result of
selective color absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence,
phosphorescence, and other forms of luminescence, in which the material itself emits
light.

Natural edible pigment is derived from natural resources such as natural plant roots,
stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and animals, microorganisms such as edible
pigment, food coloring, is a mixture of many different components. As the wide variety
of sources, composition complex variety of natural pigments.

In biology, a pigment is any colored material of plant or animal cells. Many biological
structures, such as skin, eyes, fur and hair contain pigments (such as melanin) in
specialized cells called chromatophores. Many conditions affect the levels or nature of
pigments in plant, animal, some protista, or fungus cells. For instance, Albinism is a
disorder affecting the level of melanin production in animals.

Pigment color differs from structural color in that it is the same for all viewing angles,
whereas structural color is the result of selective reflection or iridescence, usually
because of multilayer structures.

According to extraction methods, the natural pigment can be divided into four main
categories: namely, plant and animal body formed by the juice or liquid solvent
extraction or solid color; body of animal and plant dry powder obtained by grinding
pigment; by microbial fermentation , metabolites separated into liquid or powder for

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further processing of the pigment; using natural products as raw material, obtained by
the enzyme and the pigment.

  
A source of natural pigment
Generally derived from the natural pigment components such as the Red Beet ,
Grape and Pepper of these foods has been the recognition and acceptance of
consumers, therefore, use of these food sources of natural pigments to be better
consumers, better and safer to use. Most come from plant pigments.

  The characteristics of plant pigments


The vast majority of plant pigment without side effects, high security. Most of the
anthocyanin class of plant pigments, carotenoids, flavonoids compounds, are a
class of bioactive substances, is herbal and health food products in the functional
active ingredients. In view of plant pigments as a coloring additive used in food,
medicine and cosmetics, with capacity of less than the amount of medical and
health care products effect the ratio. In the health food applications, this type of
plant pigment respectively to play in strengthening the body's immune function,
anti-oxidation, reducing blood lipids and other auxiliary role; in ordinary foods, so
can play an enhanced role in support of nutrition and anti-oxidation.

  The application of natural pigments


In the development and application of natural pigments, the China's natural food
coloring product times the output of caramel largest annual output accounting for
about 86% of natural food pigments, mainly for the domestic brewing industry and
beverage industry. Followed by the red yeast red, sorghum red, gardenia yellow,
radish red, sodium copper chlorophyll, carotene, cocoa shell color, turmeric, etc.,
mainly used in the preparation of wine, sweets, cooked meat products, jelly, ice
cream, artificial crab meat and other foods. With the further improvement of living
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standards of our people and return to nature, eating all-natural based products
will become the mainstream of food consumption in the future, the domestic food
industry demand for natural food coloring will continue to grow and will also open
up the natural pigment in the pharmaceutical , Japan and so on in the broader
fields of application.

  Natural pigment in the textile industry


In addition to the natural pigment widely used in the food industry, the textile,
apparel, home textiles industry has been widely used as natural dyes, but not all
pigments can be used as dye. Textiles need washing, friction fastness, fastness,
light fastness there are more requests. However, as a natural plant extract the
pigment dye to follow the trend of the times.
water

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    The types of food coloring
According to their sources of food coloring can be divided into two main categories:
(1) natural pigment;
(2) synthesis of pigment.
China's approval of allowing the use of natural pigments for food, 48 species, including
natural β-carotene, beet red, turmeric, safflower yellow, more orange-red lac red, chili
red, orange pepper, caramel color (without ammonia production ), caramel color
production of caramel color (plus ammonia production), red rice red, yellow
chrysanthemum extract, black beans red, sorghum red, corn yellow, red radish; cocoa
shell color, red yeast rice, red yeast red, Basella alba red, Black Galen Red, Gardenia
yellow, Gardenia blue, sea buckthorn yellow, rose tomato red, acorn-shell brown, NP
Hung, multi-Hui Ke brown, red mulberry, natural mustard red, Rosa laevigata brown;
curcumin, peanuts Agricultural red, grape skin red; Lan spindles fruit red; algae blue,
plant carbon black, Buddleia yellow, Lithospermum red; Tea yellow pigment: Tea green
pigment, citrus yellow, marriage Annatto (Redwood Su / Su-down rosewood) Cochineal
red, iron oxide (black) and so on. These natural pigments from plants, microorganisms
or animals to use physical methods to extract the edible parts of crafted, in that 48
varieties of natural pigments, at present China's major production, use and export of 40
kinds of products, including caramel, chili red, β-carotene, sodium copper chlorophyll,
sorghum red, red yeast rice and so on.

Paprika Oleoresin(Chilli Red Color):


Origin:High-quality chilli
Appearance:Dark-red oil liquid
Processing:A kind of natural pigment prepared by the extration
of chillis
Description:It is a kind of dark-red colourful oil liquid,a fine food
colour with good mobility.It is light-resistant,hot-resistant,acid-
resistant,alkali-resitant and will not be affected by metal ion.It
will be soluble it is qualified for the internation standard of
FAO/WHO and GB10783-1996
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Component:Capsanthin and Capsorubin
Using Mode:It is widely used for the colour of instant
noodles,aquatic products,meat ,cake,salad ,etc

Chilli Extract:
Origin:High-quality chilli
Appearance:Dark-red oil liquid
Processing:It is prepared and extracted from the high-
qualitied chillies with the scientific technology
Description:A kind of dark-red colourful oil liquid,a fine
food colour with good mobility.It is light-resistant,hot-
resistant,acid-resistant,alkali-resistant and will not be
affected by metal ion,is will be soluble in oil and ethanol.
It is qualified for the internation standard of FAO/WHO and
GB10783-1996
Component:Capsanthin and Capsorubin
Using Mode:It can be used as food colour and food
seasonings ,and also the raw material of Paprika
Oleoresin(Red chilli color)

Supercritical Paprika Oleoresin:


Origin:High-quality chilli
Appearance:Dark-red oil liquid
Processing:Use the supercritical CO2 technology to
refine the Paprika Oleoresin(Red Chilli Color)
Description:The product use the the supercritical CO2
technology to refine the Paprika ,the quality has
increased greatly ,has the features of high purity,low
dissoluble leftover,low metal ion,less impurity and not
spicy.The usage value has been increased greatly
it is qualified for the internation standard of FAO/WHO
and GB10783-1996
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Component:Capsanthin and Capsorubin
Using Mode:It is widely used for the colour of instant
noodles,aquatic products,meat ,cake,salad ,etc

Capsicum Oleoresin:
Origin:High-quality chilli
Appearance:Dark-red oil liquid
Processing:A kind of natural pigment prepared by the
extraction of chillies
Description:It is a kind of dark-red viscous liquid with pure
and very hot taste.It is light-resistant,hot-resistant,acid-
resistant,alkali-resistant and will not be affected by metal
ion.It will be soluble in oil and ethanol.
It is qualified for the internation standard of FAO/WHO
and GB10783-1996
Component:Its efficient components are
capsaicin,protein,amino acid and suger.It also contains
some Paprika Oleoresin (Red chilli color)
Using Mode:It is widely use as the seasoning for all kinds
of hot food or raw materials at food plants,or used directly
for cooking in restaurant ,dinning-room or familiy.

Marigold Oleoresin:
Origin:Marigold Oleoresin
Appearance:Dark-brown oil cream
Processing:Prepared by the extraction of marigold
pellets by scientific method
Description:Soluble in oil and ethanol but in water,Light-
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resistant,hot-resistant,alkali-resistant
Component:Xanthophylls
Usage:Widely used in various kinds of fodder

Perilla Color:
Origin:Perilla leaves
Appearance:Dark-red liquid
Processing:It is prepared by extraction of natural plant-
perilla leaves
Description:It is a kind of water soluble natural pigment
which is steady under the acid condition.In solution of
PH=2-3,it is purple-red and very colourful
It is qualified for the internation standard of FAO/WHO
and GB10783-1996
Using Mode:It is widely use as colour in
fodddr,pastries ,candy,tin,drink and dairy products

Red Cabbage Color:


Red Cabbage Color is also called red cabbage
pigment, for short red cabbage, colorful cabbage, it is a
solid and liquid water-soluble pigment adopting purple-ball
cabbage (a kind of vegetable), extracting the purple
pigment on the surface of the cabbage with scientific
knowledge, with separation and refining. Because the
product presents different colors in different PH solution,
heat and light resistant, so it is widely used in the tinting of
drinks, candy, can and dairy products.
  
- Yangtze University, Department of Animal Science Xu resist the United States
We can imagine that the plant flowers if there is no pigment, the bees will be
difficult to find, but cannot be pollination, plants cannot reproduce. Animals, too, a
few million years, Nature of these animals are ultimately derived from edible
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plants, natural pigment, and constantly evolving, these natural pigments gave
them a bright color, abundant strength, and lasting vitality to enable them to
produce offspring until now, while the All of these carotenoid pigments in the feed
processing would be oxidized away. This is the artificial breeding animals and
wild animals, one of the most fundamental difference between "a serious lack of
natural pigment."

Affect food factor in the use of natural pigments

When people use natural pigments, you must consider the following factors, as a
chosen reference:
• The color of needs: it may require a mix of two or more kinds of pigments, in
order to meet the color requirements.

• when the kinds of foods in selling, whether it can meet the country's regulatory
laws.

• The physical form needs: In general, the cost of liquid natural pigment powder
were lower than that.

• food ingredients: The main consideration fat or protein content and the presence
of tannin, the former concerned with the solubility of natural pigments; the latter
exist, would limit the use of anthocyanins; but also determines the product is
clear and transparent, or was cloudy.

• processing conditions: the principal consideration for the heating temperature


and time.

• pH: The pH of food can affect the stability of pigment, so you can determine the
choice of pigment type and color rendering.

• Packaging: Packaging oxygen permeability and light transmittance can affect the
stability of natural pigments, which could also affect people's choice of natural
pigments.
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• product sales life and storage conditions.

The uses of natural pigment in Malaysia

Nail Dyes

Henna nails flush. Henna is a plant whose leaves are used as nail rouge.

Henna

Little flowers most fragrant at night. Henna leaves are dried and processed into coloring
nails in hands and feet of the wedding dinner-indigenous people who practice the nail
dyes including Indians and the Malays.

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Henna Chicken

The flowers may be replaced on the henna for coloring nails.

Red henna

Traditional Blacken Hair With Papaya Seed


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You have problems with the hair? like the hair a little flushed from the sun and faded
because of time to eat you can try the following recipe:

Material:
Handful of papaya seeds. This papaya seeds contain a glycosides cacirindan karpain
known to blacken the hair.

How to make:
Papaya seeds dry roasted, then mashed until smooth,
After that squeeze and strain.
We will give a little water is used, then apply to the hair while massage.
Leave to dry, then wash your hair.

Using Natural Herbs to Color Products

Adding color to the natural products can enhance their appearance, and the user's
overall perception of the experience. While there are several ingredients available to
color or dye skin care products, none are as natural as unquestionably Tinting Herbs.
Many natural pigments plants release when they are infused into oil or water. These
infusions can be added to the oil or water portions of your formulas, yielding a range of
lovely earth toned colors.

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To create an infusion, simply warm your or oil, place herbs
into the liquid, and Steep for 20 to 40 minutes. After the infusion has taken place, the
patch must be strained from the liquid. You can use a Cheese Cloth or a Fine Mesh
Strainer to strain the plant material from the liquid. Alternatively, you can avoid the mess
by placing the herbs into a Large Tea Bag or a Large Mesh Tea Ball. The colored oil or
water can be added drop by drop to your formulas or it can be substituted for a portion
of the water or oil called for in a recipe.

Experimentation is the best way to find your favorite shades of color. While these herbs
are likely to repeat a shade in different formulas, they may about them differently in
unique oils or liquids. To give you some ideas, I've listed a few of the most popular
Tinting Herbs with the colors they are most likely to produce:

Alkanet Root Powder - Dark Red to Purple


Annatto Seed - Orange
Henna Leaf Powder - Orange
Paprika Powder - Orange
Parsley Powder - Green
Red Sandalwood Powder - Maroon to Purple
Turmeric powder – Yellow

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How to Make Natural Food Coloring
Leaf Suji (Pleomale angustifolia) is widely used as a
green dye in the food, traditional cakes and drinks
such as green dye on ice cendol. Suji leaves are
shrubs that can reach 8 feet tall. This plant is often
used as a dye plant gives green decoration. Suji
leaves also provide a unique scent. In the usage,
Suji leaves are often mixed with the aroma of
pandan leaves for food, cake and beverages
produced more fragrant. How to squeeze the liquid
usage Suji leaves added to the cake or food
ingredients desired.

Here's a recipe for making leaf coloring Suji.

Leaf Green dyes Suji

Material:

Suji Leaf wash 40 pieces

Wash pandan leaves 3 pieces

150 ml of water

¼ tsp water whiting.

How to Make:

Cut into pieces or thinly sliced Suji leaves and pandan leaves. Mash or blend by adding
water and lime water mixture leaves sirih. Pour Suji mashed into a fine sieve or
perforated gauze. Squeeze the water and set aside the dregs. Suji leaf coloring is ready
for use as needed.

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Bibliography
www.wanfangdata.com.cn/NSTLQK_NSTL_QK4229452.aspx

http://www.klipingku.com/2008/09/cara-tradisional-menghitamkan-rambut-dengan-biji-
pepaya/

www.alibaba.com/showroom/Natural_Pigment.html

encyclopedia.farlex.com/Natural+pigment

baike.baidu.com/view/363333.htm

www.qd-np.com/

http://www.naturalbeautyworkshop.com/my_weblog/2008/03/using-natural-h.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pigment

http://www.bahasa-malaysia-simple-fun.com/henna-flower-bm.html

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