You are on page 1of 287

Thesis

submitted Doctor of

for

the

degree

of

Philosophy

in

Chemical at

Engineering the of Surrey

University

CHAINS IN WET PROCESS ROTARY CEMENT KILNS.

by Michael B. Sc. Colin of Patterson Surrey (1972)

University

Chemical

Engineering of

Department Surrey

University

Guildford Surrey

November

1980
Iso

s 5-7.

"You

push

the

damper pull the the

in damper goes the out up the same chimney !"

And you

But

smoke just

Extract

from

Cockney (Anon. )

song.

To Diana

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The author following

wishes people:

to

express

his

sincere

gratitude

to

the

Mr. F. D. Moles, for his helpful advice visor over the past six years. My wife and for Lilia, Diana, for her her help with for her continued encouragement, the diagrams. interest in

and support her typing

as my superof the thesis,

my thesis. Engineering Chemical especially: and cantless


in computing

The research students Department for their

and staff of the and support, advice for his


his

Dr. B. G. Jenkins, ions.

co-work
expertise

discuss-

Mr. A. H. J. Tate, for logical argument.

and

Mr. B. Carter, his for willing periments, and on the gas-fired

help

on computing, furnace.

ex-

Mr. J. S. Alabaf The technicians experimental of rigs

for

his

slurry

visedsity

measurements. of the

the Department, and the helpful

for the construction advice, in particular:

Mr. J. Webb and Mr. P. Pennington, ications they have suggested Mr. D. Arnall, electronic The Associated part of this for the design instrumentation Cement

for the many modifand made. and development for the rig. Ltd., for of the funding

Portland project.

Manufacturers

Rugby Portland Cement, this contract so that

T-td. forfinancing Comnany be continued. could work

a research

SUNMARY

The of Surrey

Fuels

and Energy

Research the

Group

at

the of

University

(F. E. R. G. U. S. ) in have rotary been

Department chain since 1974,

Chemical in long

Engineering wet process

investigating kilns

systems when

cement Portland have developed

supported Ltd.

by the Similarity a theory mass

Associated criteria has been

Cement been to

Manufacturers to chain both

applied describe loss

systems the heat

and and

transfer, banks

and the of chains.

pressure

relationship,

through

multiple

The chains chained from to the gas, first for

heat

transfer

areas bed

presented depth, density,

by the of

walls rotation,

and

any material

degree have

length

and chaining and areas net for radiative

been

predicted been written for the

principles these of banks

a computer any given heat

program system. transfer has

has

evaluate prediction chain

A model between evolved.

and the

surroundings, I

been

A modified developed al speed to and has slurry take

form into

of

the

slurry the

Reynolds effects rate and reported. of

Number of kiln shear. of

has

been

account rate

rotationSlurry pred-

solids also

feed been

on the

rheology icting

investigated has been

a method

viscosity

Water

modelling

techniques

have

been

used

to

give

an

instant through shown that through rotation

visual the that the

representation chains using act perspex as

of

the

aerodynamic This

flow analysis for gas has flow,

models.

the gas

chains velocity

flow the hanging effect

straighteners chains chains on kiln is less and gas

through below the

than that flow.

that kiln

the has

tunnel no

perceptible

Air
water across

model

tests

in
and

a wind
also to

tunnel
show that

have
the than

confirmed
axial that gas through

the
velocity the

model the

results slurry is

up

20% higher

chains.

In scale,

order

to

generate rotary

basic

heat

transferdata, has been

a 1/20th

indirect-fired

model

constructed.

Flue

gas

from

an auxiliary a raw cement

furnace slurry With have to the for

has

been

used of

to gas

dry, and

countercurrently, slurry ment, with flowrates many teething consequent system from been been

a range a very

at

4 kiln difficulties

speeds.

novel

experi-

had

to

be overcome, design. A reliable, temperattemperatslipmeasure-

alterations for the

original and at design with

noise-free ure ures, ring ments data has has

gathering kiln model

storage elevated of gas

of gas

a rotating developed, proven,

a novel

electrical velocity

and problems

have

been

overcome.

The use loading

of

dam rings of the

to

maintain feed

a constant rate has

slurry not

bed

independent

solids

proved

to that

be a feasible further

proposition. are

The

investigation to confirm

has the time

shown hypo-

experiments solids

required

thesis used for

concerning in heat the

holdup of the

and residence true internal

predictions areas

calculation

surface

transfer.

It equal in all

has voidage but

been

found to

that those

scaling in

of a real

the kiln

model is

chains effective of to the

by

factor

solids

transport of water

properties. has proved

Thinning necessary

slurry kinematic

by addition similarity;.

ensure

The direct slurry have been

heat

transfer

coefficients as well Overall as the

between individual

gas

and

determined the

coefficients heat and mass

within transfer

model. have

coefficients and Chiltontransfer been

of

been

measured heat data have have been

Colburn calculated. and where ure has that and

"j"-factors Correlations possible, to commonly to chains by merit be the

for

slurry-side of the

have presented to

been

the used rate

results equations.

compared heat

literat-

Gas side function, single area

transfer indicating

proved the

controlling most dominant surface

are-the of their

factor for heat

in

the trans-

system, fer.

large

A theoretical of the resultant

model differential

has

been

proposed, has

and been

the

solution by

equations

achieved

stepwise This system

numerical enables

approximation the for performance a wide

solVed of range

by computer a given of type

program. of chain

program to

be simulated

process

conditions.

The discussed

limitations and future

of

the

modelling

techniques have

have

been

recommendations

beenmade.

1.
2.

Introduction.
Brief 2.1. description The 2.1.1. Portland The (i) (ii) 2.1.2. 2.1.3. 2.1.4. 2.1.5. The The The of the cement making making process. process.

Cement wet

process. slurries. manufacture. with process. process. dry process with suspension calcinator.

Cement Cement wet

process

semi-,. %, et semi-dry

The modern preheater. Other fuel

2.1.6. 2.2. 3. (a) Process Historical aevelopment The role kilns. Types 3.2.1. of

methods consumption

of

manufacture. figures.

review of the of kiln chain of kiln chain

problems systems. systems

encountered

in

the

3.1.

in

wet

process

3.2.

kiln Curtain (i) (ii)

chain chain

system. systems. suspension.

Cross-sectional Helical chain suspension. systems.

3.2.2.

Garland (i) (ii)

Cross-sectional Helical related drying zones. practice. suspension. to zone. the

suspension.

3. (b)

Previous within

studies kiln the of

process

occurring

3.3.

Design 3.3.1.

chain

Chaining

(i) (ii) 3.3.2. Wear (i) 3.4. 3.5. 3.6. Convective Heat Slurry 3.6.1. transfer rheology.

Uneven Constant in chain

density density systems. of

chain chain

systems. systems.

27 30 31

Mechanism eat in transfer rotary

chain in rotary

wear. kilns.

32 33 35 37

dryers.

Shearing slurries. (i) (ii)

characteristics

of

cement

38

Bingham

plastics. materials. slurry in viscosity. rotary kilns and

38 39 39 42

Pseudoplastic of and

3.6.2. 3.7. Residence dryers.

Prediction time

holdup

4.

Physical 4.1.

modelling Similarity 4.1.1. 4.1.2. 4.1.3.

applied criteria

to in

chain models.

systems.

47 47 47 48 48

Geometric Kinematic Dynamic

similarity. similarity. similarity. of the pressure drop through

4.2.

Theoretical a chain Scale 4.3.1. 4.3.2. 4.3.3.

analysis system. of kiln density. area.

48

4.3.

down

chain

zone.

51 51 52

Chain Chain Chain analysis svstem.

configuration of the heat

and and

stock mass

size. transfer

52 55

5.

Theoretical in a chain 5.1.

Simultaneous 5.1.1. 5.1.2. 5.1.3.

heat

and heat mass mass

mass

transfer. to factors. applied to drying a surface.

55 56 57 57

Convection Heat and

transfer transfer transfer

Heat and theory. (i)

Effects

of

radiation

on

mass

transfer

60

(ii) (iii) 5.3. Theoret chain 5.3.1. 5.3.2. 5.4. The rical 5.4.1. 5.4.2. 5.4.3. 5.4.4. 6. Description 6.1. of

The

drying

zone

in

wet zone.

process

kilns.

60 61

Slurry,

preheating of heat

ical analysis s ystem. Heat and mass

transfer

through

62

balances to

in heat

a kiln and transfer

section. mass in balances. cylind-

66 68 72

Numerical pre diction e nclosures Gas of

solution radiative by zonal

heat analysis.

data. zoning. of of and direct total exchange exchange areas. areas. techniques.

72 73 74 74 79 79 1. 2. procedure: velocities. tests using determination cold model of Mk. II. 79 79 82 83 84 measurement tip and temperature. slurry temperature. and control. S7 87 89 92 93 unit. technique. 93 94 96 96 96 kiln. 96 97 97

System Evaluation Evaluation

apparatus modelling. Cold Cold model model

experimental

Isothermal 6.1.1. 6.1.2. 6.1.3. 6.1.4.

Experimental mean bead Wind gas tunnel

6.2..

Hot 6.2.1.

modelling. Temperature (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Chain Chain Gas Shell

temperature. temperature. monitor calibration control. control. and through from control. the, control. the

Temperature Thermocouple Gas temperature

(viii)Slurry 6.2.2. Flowrate M (ii) (iii)

temperature measurement Gas Gas Gas flowrate flowrate flowrate

furnace.

Slurry

flowrate

control.

(v)
(vi) 6.2.3. Kiln M (ii)

Gas flowrate
Slurry chain The Chain flowrate model kiln

calibration.
calibration.

hardware. tube.

installation. heating portholes. encountered in the experimental and mixing loop.

(iii)Slurry (iv) 6.2.4. View

Difficulties ri'g. (i) (ii) Slurry

handling. life. monitoring unit.

Thermocouple

(iii)Temperature (iv) (v) 6.2.5. Resultant (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Gas Chain supply. model alterations Slurry

slurry in

seal. design philosphy.

handling. life. slip-ring assembly.

Thermocouple Thermocouple Gas Chain and of of supply. model discussion. net radiative heat (slurry

slurry

seal.

7.

Treatment 7.1. 7.2. The

of

results

prediction

heat transfer side).

transfer. coefficients.

Evaluation 7.2.1. 7.2.2. 7.2.3. 7.2.4. 7.2.5. Gas Gas

convective slurry chain. to chain.

to to

Slurry Gas Slurry of of to

wall. to kiln slurry wall. shell drying heat losses. rate.

7.3. 7.4.

Prediction Evaluation

7.5.

Prediction 7.5.1. 7.5.2. 7.5.3.

of Shear Shear Prediction prediction of

slurry rate rate

shear due due of of to to

rate. kiln chains. layer thickness. areas. (Isothermal shell walls.

boundary heat

7.6. 7.7.

Revised Results model) 7.7.1. 7.7.2.

transfer

experimental

investigation

Water Air of Gas Gas Slurry (i) (ii) (iii)"j"-f

modelling. modelling.

7.8.

Results 7.8.1. 7.8.2. 7.8.3.

experimental to to chain wall to Prandtl Stanton heat heat chain

investigation transfer. transfer. heat transfer.

(Hot

model).

Number. Number. actor for heat Number. Number. for heat transfer. heat transfer.

7.8.4.

Slurry (i) (ii)

to Prandtl Stanton

wall

transfer.

(iii)"j"-factor 7.8.5. 7.8.6. 7.8.7. Overall Gas Drying (i) (ii) (iii) 8. Conclu 8.1. 8.2. 9. sions 'and to heat slurry rate Effect Effect

transfer. heat coefficient. of of gas slurry with flowrate. flowrate. kiln drying zone data. transfer.

Comparison

recommendationsmodelling. modelling.

Isothermal Hot gas

References.

Appendix

A. '

Derived

physical

properties.

A. 1.

Gas properties. A. 1.1. A. 1.2. A. 1.3. Dynamic Specific Thermal properties. Dynamic Specific Thermal Bulk Slurry of viscosity. heat. conductivity. viscosity. heat. conductivity.

A. 2.

Slurry A. 2.1. A. 2.2. A. 2.3. A. 2.4. A. 2.5.

density. composition. numbers.

Appe ndix

B.

Significance B. 1. B. 2. B. 3. B. 4. Reyn6lds Nusselt Prandtl Stanton

dimen'sionl'ess Number.

Number. Number. Number. of slurry of rheological slurry properties.

Appendix

C.

Measurement C. 1.

Measurement C. 1.1. t C. 1.2. C. 1.3.

viscosity. apparatus. investigation. of relationships. boundary layer thick-

Experimental of

--Results Correlation of

'C. 2. ,

Measurement ness. C. 2.1. C. 2.2.

slurry

Experimental Eperimental of radiative of of of Wall the direct total

procedure. results. exchange absorption exchange exchange areas. coefficient. areas. areas.

Appendix

D.

Evaluation D. 1. D. 2. D. 3.

Calculation Evaluation Evaluation D. 3.1.

properties.

D. 3.2.

Chain

properties.

D. 4. Appendix E.

Adjustment prescence

of total of slurry of links.

exchange charge. chain areas

areas

for

the

Theoretical treatment factors. scaling E. 1. E. 2. E. 3. E. 4. E. 5. E. 6. Circular Rectangular Suspended Equivalent Projected Application E. 6.1. E. 6.2. Chain Chain flow chain

and weight

chain chains. pipe surface to

links.

diameter. area. scale-down weight. area. and corrections. theory.

Appendix

F.

Instrument F. 1. F. 2. Slurry

equations pump.

"Mono" pitot

"Annubar"

rakes.

Appendix

G.

Ancillary G. 1.

equipment. Gas-fired furnace. flicromanometer. pitot rakes.

G. 2. , P. P. F. A. G. 3. G. 4. Appendix H. "Annubar" Electronic

equipment. used of in the wall investigation. areas with kiln

Computer H. l. H. 2. H. 3. H. 4. H. 5.

programs

Evaluation rotation. Flow

chain:

equations. thermocouple reader corrections.

Unshielded Paper Data tape handling

programs. "Resu". heat and mass balance.

program to

YI. 6. - Numerical Appendix I. Tabl es of results.

solution

LIST

OF FIGURES. 6

2.1

Sketch of rotary wet process. Heat consumption inlet of their Curtain hung

kiln

for

the

manufacture kilns

of

cement

by

the

2.2

of slurry chain

long wet moisture system:

process content.

as

a function

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

radial of

section. chains.

20 20 21

Cross-sectional Helical Garland Thermal kilns. suspension hung

suspension of chains.

chain

system: of chain

radial systems

section. in long wet and dry

21 26

efficiency

3.6

Effect of length an A. P. C. M. Ltd.

of chain (Northfleet

zone on Works)

the cl-inker kiln,. output

output

of

29

3.7

density Effect of chain (Northfleet A. P. C. M. Ltd. Classification Vena contracta. representation of

clinker on the kiln. Works) fluids.

of

an

29

3.8 4.1 4.2 5.1

Non-Newtonian

39 49

Schematic Typical constant Gas

of for

three

spiral

start drying

hangers. with

53 58

drying rate curve external conditions. and drying

convection

5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4

temperature the drying and mass

rate. of the kiln.

59 61 -64 section transfer. of length "dx". 66 73 86

Zoning

section mass flow in

Temperature Heat System Chain and

charts. a kiln heat

transfer for

zoning attachment

radiative to spiral. to

Thermocouple Position of

attachment thermocouple

chain. measuring probe.

86 90 91

temperature

Comparison thermocouple tip of thermal response of chain thermocouple with probe at 1.5 RPM. corresponding Drawing Chain rig of "Annubar" flowsheet. pilot rakes showing installation.

6.5 6.6

95 101

6.7 6.9 6.9 6.10

Exploded Drawing Block Sketch donkey Heat

diagram of hot

of gas

model model

end seals with section read

and

flue.

10,1110C 11111lie 117

on spirals. system. and nodding

diagram of slurry gas seal transfer

of

thermocouple outlet screw arrangement.

conveyor

7.1 7. '2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13

in

a one bay of to

section. the boundary length. layer of slurry

Schematic representation at the kiln shell wall. Boundary Sketch of layer kiln applied

122 124 127

a chain

cross-section. velocity ratio Number Number and Reynolds (gas: chain). Number

between Relationship for cold model 2. Nusselt Nusselt Typical Variation , kiln with Slurry: speed. Modified i)slurry: wall Number Number measured

12E131 1K

vs. Reynolds vs. Reynolds temperature

(gas: wall). content coefficient vs. kiln for for Modified rotational profiles.

and moisture transfer

134 135 13 5 137 138 14f 141 144

of slurry: rotational heat

heat chain speed.

transfer

coefficient

Reynolds chains

Number Number vs. Prandtl ii)slurry: wall. and Number Reynolds slurry: wall. (slurry: (slurry: chains)

Stanton Number vs. Modified ii) i). slurry: chains and "j"-factor Reynolds ITI-factor Reynolds for heat Number. for heat Number. transfer

vs.

7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 7.18

transfer

wall) vs. kiln

vs.

Modified

Overall heat transfer speed for a range of heat transfer Average mass flowrate. slurry Overall rotational Overall rotational heat heat

coefficient gas flowrates. coefficient

rotational the kiln kiln

as a function

of of of

144 146 146

transfer as a function coefficient from (Q/A-, AT ). speed, derived transfer as a function coefficient from drying speed, derived coefft. rate

7.19

Summing electrical

individual resistance

heat

transfer analogy.

coefficients

by

7.20

Experimental results (Shorehain Ltd. Works) Slurry Slurry speed Variation Variation stream. Dryingrate kilns. drying rate as

of drying slurry. a function

oven

test

on

A. P. C. M.

7.21 7.22

of

kiln kiln

speed. rotational

drying rate for a range of of in drying drying

of as a function of gas mass fluxes. rate rate with with solids mass

7.23 7.24

mass velocity

flowrate. of air

7.25

the

drying

zone

of

long

wet

process

FIGURES USED IN APPENDICES.

B. 1. C. 1. C. 2. C. 3. C. 4. D-1. D. 2. E. I. E. 2. E. 3. EA.

Velocity Sketch of

component concentric of vs. vs. slurry shear shear

for

shear cylinder boundary

rate. viscometer. layer 1. 2. thickness.

Measurement Viscosity Viscosity Zoning Model Diagram Diagram

rate rate

curve curve

(temperature) (moisture content)

a one bay of equivalent of of circular

section. grey link plane chains. link chain ratio links chain. links showing stock effective size for full for chain bank.

rectangular suspended Ideffto weight

Diagram of length link

- Surface area chains. size Representation Simple Line Flow circular diagram chart for

vs. by

E. 5. E. 6. G. 1. H. 1.

of

chain

equivalent

pipe.

links. of furnace data installation. program 'Resu'.

handling

LIST

OF PLATES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Aerial

view of of

of cold

Blue

Circle 11 II,

Group

Northfleet

Works.

4 80

End view Side view

model model

cold

showing test rig

spirals. showing drive control chain and

81 85 99 101, system. 101.1 11,11 114,

General view of laboratory panel and instrumentation. Side view of hot bearings. support Kiln flue kiln model

showing

and damper

arrangement. amplifier/multiplex speed gearbox.

7. ' Mk. I sliprings 8. 9. Slurry Mk. II feed sliprings

and rotated pump and variable and brush

assembly.

LIST

OF TABLES

1. 2. 3. 4.

Nomenclature Nomenclature Nomenclature Nomenclature

for for for for

section section section section

3. 4. 5. 7.

46 54 77 15,'

TABLES GIVEN

IN APPENDICES..

A. I. Critical A. 2 Slurry

temperature composition. at

of

gas

species.

16F 16

D. 1 Gas properties D. 2 Direct D. 3 Summary D. 4 Summary D. 5 Areas for exchange of of direct total heat for

each

end of

chain

zone.

17f 181

areas. exchange exchange transfer Appendix areas. areas. within E. the chain model.

18, 1 8C 18 f, 197

E. 1 Nomenclature

Derived heat loading. kiln 1.2. 1.3. Summary Results chain) Variation transfer of o,f and

exchange heat

areas

based

on

the

predicted

251

and

mass

transfer

factors. (gas: Number kiln. heat results) for

252 253

determination (gas: wall) slurry kiln

of Nusselt for a slurry-free

1.4.

of with

physical rotational' Modified

and properties (average speed Reynolds Number

254

1.5.

Number Prandtl vs. feed kiln slurry. "j"-factors transfer. Results of for

255

1.6.

slurry:

chain

and'slurry: kiln rate

wall feed drying

heat

256

1.7. 1.8.

drying

oven of

tests

on

slurry. tests on

257 258

Experimental results Works Shoreham slurry.

constant

1.9.

The effect of kiln rotational for drying rate coefficient mass flowrates.

speed a range

on of

the slurry inlet slurry

259

-1-

1.

Introduction.

The consumption installations, conservation 1973. away

long

wet-process compared is which to

cement the

kiln,

with semi-dry

its

high

fuel

semi-wet, target for since of

and dry of crisis fuel of

a perfect has the kiln,

the the

wave oil is

prevailed choice but

Undoubtably, from the wet

new plant of

now biased units exist This underdecommon. is

hundreds for the kilns

such to

and many will especially veloped true

be in in

operation America,

years U. S. S. R. are

come. in very

and

countries

where

wet

still

The adaptability and waste to the

future and fuels, or

of in

the its

wet-process ability are to

kiln utilise

lies

in cheap,

its low

grade input fuel for to and or not,

which semi-dry

unacceptable Its by The semi-wet The wet decade its capital or

as an energy shortcomings high availability outlay semi-dry required is obsolete high in

dry can

process. offset

usage day to

be partially plant wet time for

day long

operation. kilns is to long. another

convert the is pay here

back to

process, at least.

stay

Sometime process the kilns. in rotary

during cement of chains and

the kilns ste. el were

late

1930's,

the

output

of

wet by

was substantially chains hung in in the the feed

increased end of zone by trial of these the

introduction These

drying

kiln

a festoon

curtain

system,

installed

and error.

-2-

By the kilns hung and in chain improved the

mid

1950's

the

introduction about these The

of a change required Blue

very to less

much larger "spirally maintenance. Group, alter their the

Industry

brought because Typically,

systems", output.

Circle to

world's kilns to

largest spirally

cement hung

manufacturer, systems in

began 1962

and the

conversion

was complete

by 1968.

During use the of in dust such the

the

forty

years neither nor the

that the

chain drying,

systems the transport still by trial less

have heat

been transfer,

in

Industry, collection,

material

functions investigated. and error the known.

systems some for

have

been have by for

understood, been even these solved density successes views

Whilst methods, theoretical There some rule

problems example reasons

chaining have on basis,

systems, notchaining but been

are of of

many, these thumb,

often have based

conflicting a valid on years scientific of

kilns; others are

observation.

In Mr. the F. D.

1974 Moles

this of of

research the Fuels

programme and Energy

was proposed Research aim of

by Group at

University generate systems, could was to chain

Surrey

(FERGUS). fluid

The flow

the

programme data

was to on chain principles research efficient

some basic from

and heat

transfer

which,

hopefully,

some fundamental object effective of and the

be enunciated. enable systems the from design first

The ultimate of more

principles.

-3-

Unfortunately, Group withdrew to

however, their enlarge Our initial

in

January

1977, financial

Blue

Circle from FERGUS

substantial its

backing

and decided facilities progressed zone to

own research project

and development by studies had been this of time the had chain

instead. from the

"chains"

isothermal gas model

aerodynamics the

and heat

a hot

constructed in wet

investigate kilns.

and mass

transfer

mechanisms

process

The both of This for

injection commissioning programs

of

further of the

money model, to

at

this for

time the the

was vital, development raw data.

and

computer was not

necessary until Ltd.

interpret 1978, to

forthcoming Company which

October decided

when Rugby the kiln the

Portland chain interim

Cement programme, period.

support

had proceeded

sporadically

during

Using two years,

the the

mathematical empirical are

model relationships to

developed derived to the

over

the from

past this and

research performance attempt

programme of

be applied chain life of

design in an

new and existing the useful

systems, the wet

to

prolong

process

kiln.

-4--j

4_)

Plate

1.

Aerial-view

of

Blue

Circle

Groun's

Northfleet

Works-kilns.

ARIP, 1,4
f

LO

Lfl

Cp

C-)

'--1

C)

Ifl

Ln

co
LLS

s
LL ci

-7-

moist,

a discovery

early

in

the

19th wet easiest

century washing

by

the

cement of

manufacturing the raw materials of

industry

was that the

and grinding economical

was then the

and most

method the

producing

desired This

fineness further

and homogeneity allows quarried descrete the along layers blending

of

chalk/clay of since bed.

mixture. flints they It

method are

separation the the the chalk, chalk slurries

which occur

unavoidably in that

with within of

naturally found

was also

subsequent

presented

no problems.

The have the

technological been

or related

operating to the

problems

of

the

wet

process of

inevitably slurry

non-Newtonian of its physical of the

nature

and the

wide

variability vary period for with of the

properties. of the mix. the the

These

properties

also and the

degree of

grinding chalk/clay in

raw materials These heat wet are the

storage the

main

reasons

difficulty

analysing of

transfer part of

and material the drying zone

transport in such

characteristics kilns.

The water dent being basis); permit, reduce on the in the where chemicals its free

content moisture

of

the of

cement the

slurry

is

highly typical

depenvalues

raw materials, of 32-44 of raw lower the

moisture the

content

range properties

weight raw

% (wet

physical can be

materials slurry to contents

added

to

the

cement

viscosity,

hence

allowing

moisture

-8-

Heat consumpt-

1.2-

Pf er ,

ion factor
erred weight to

refa 38
0.9-

percent

(wet basis)

0.1

moisture

content

0.1
1.0 42 44

28

30

3z

34

36

38

Slurry

inlet

moisture

content

(wt%) a

longwet process*kilns'as of Fig. consumption inlet -2.2_Heat content. moisture function of slurrZ

to Fig. to

be

achieved. 2.2, which of of in the slurry and

The

advantages kiln % slurry inlet

of

this

are

apparent

from (r6ferred as a recapacity is

illustrates 38 weight slurry

heat

consumption content) A one percent the clinker

a basis

moisture

function duction by about

moisture. content requirement

moisture the heat

increases for

kiln

1.57o

burning

reduced

by

approximately

172 ,3 0

In slurry tents have

practice, thinning

however, that

there

are

limits Slurry

to

the

degree conbut back use

of

can be practised. basis) with of to

moisture

as low resulted

as 26 wt. 76 (wet in I chain Barlin zones

can, be achieved, unacceptably Ciment maintain detrimental high

end

temperature silicate content

S4 . The and

Works thinners

Frangais a slurry

carbonate

moisture on

of

29 wt. %, with

no apparent

effects

-9-

kiln

performance

The ained point for

appropriate each

slurry

thinner as is

is the

experimentally peak in concentration voscosity.

ascert-

raw material, the slurry

beyond

which

increases

(ii)

Cement

manufacture

The of a long

cement inclined

slurry rotary

is

pumped kiln, minute. in hot

into which In

the is the

uppermost rotated at section

section between of to act as

0.75-2.5 such heat slurry; to kilns,

revolutions chains

per are

dr'y'ing or

hung the

curtains combustion

festoons gases

exchangers these

between chains also

and the

wet

act

as dust

collectors

and as aids

material

transport6,7,8.

11 in

Various kilns to

designs increase

of the

lifter heat such

devices exchange as the

are

commonly

installed and

surface "Vickers"

between gas dessicator the gas

slurry9,10. utilise charge. bucket effect".

Some devices chains Other heat to establish

contact as the on flights

between I'Smidth" to

and the and the same

designs exchanger

such rely

preheater give the

Although heat transfer


and

these

latter.

units

result they
which

in are

very often
the

effective prone to

and gas
feed

dedusting,

blockages

irregularities

upset

normal

-10-

running

of

the

kiln

12

.
the content and leaves weight into that the the the the percent calcining residual and of the the drying 13 in

In section the zone. moisture chains dust and the kiln are tend so is form

a "nodule" with of

kiln,

raw

material of 6-8

a moisture small kilns completely allowed to leaves for by nodules, are

passes such off from friable with

"Dust" is are

operated driven crush the the kiln

charge, Part gas

solid. the to the exit kiln, point internal

produced collected end

stream, either at the

re-introduction or to 2.5 nodule at

burner shell. almost to be

insufflation, kilns of 14 . (up the

some

along

Small invariably dust

metres type,

diameter) larger units

whereas

kilns

In the feed

the

calcining carried across controlling heated

zone,

carbon the

dioxide kiln

dissociates gases which

from pass this place 0 900 C.

and is

away by the

countercurrently zone, as the the feed rate is

bed material. step of

Throughout takes than

calcination greater

to

temperatures

The the kiln

calcined where it

material attains

then its

enters sintering to flux.

the

burning

zone of phase the free

of

temperature A partial allowing to

approximately change lime form to liquid

1,2600C and starts gradually contained silicate takes in (C the

place,

and silica tricalcium

bed material At temperatures

combine of

to

3S).

approxim-

-11-

ately complete in risk balance clinker this

14500C, the zone

almost clinkering between

all

of

the

free

lime

combines balance

to exists and the is-this and the

process. the of the the completion sintered final

A delicate of

clinkering and strength

of

overburning which

material, product

it

determines

grindability.

The

clinker

is

then

processed

as described

in

section

2.1.

2.1.2.

- The wet

process

with

calcinator

Where heater the wet

the

raw to

material the kiln used

properties can be used

are to

suitable, dry the and

a prepelletise Miag and

external slurry; the dryer

commonly Krupp 2.

units

include the Davis

Buhler preheater

calcinator, the spray

concentrator,

These heat

devices

have they

the

advantage

that from the

unlike kiln

internal and hence speed. can

exchangers,

are

separate of the

be operated

independently

kiln

rotational

The

semi-wet

process.

This from trusion and the

method

is

used

where usually of

some moisture by filter

must pressing

be extracted and ex12 mm, onto a

raw materials, to produce 50-80

cylinders mm. These

diameter are

approximately discharged

length

cylinders

-12-

moving In this

metal

grate the

through

which

the is

hot both

kiln dried

gases

pass.

manner,

raw material dropping process) into kiln

and partially a short

decarbonated (relative to

before the wet

the for

feed final

end of

processing.

Success the will this of ability withstand process the

of of

the the

semi-wet raw materials

process to

depends form

very

much on nodules which of

stable

transport is that more of

by the uniform the

moving clinker

grate. is

An advantage produced

because

standardisation

starting

materials'

2.1.4.

The

semi-dry

process.

The the hard,

semi-dry route,

process but

utilises differs in

the that

same grate it is

kiln

as for

semi-wet dry

suitable

raw materials.

A pre-wetted, shale of is fed into 10-20 basis): and

milled a dish mm. with These kiln

mixture noduliser, moisture nodules

of

limestone which contents

and clay

or

produces of

nodules weight in 2.1.3. a

diameter (wet grate

10-15

percent moving

are

then in

processed section

short

as described

2.1.5.

The modern

dry

process

with

suspension

preheater.

The blending
finely ground to

of

dry

raw material
a homogeneous

requires
mixture.

that
In

they
areas

be

produce

-13-

where had

the to-be

materials used in

were order drying the

hard, to

crushers this grinding in

and grinding end, into and the

mills materials

achieve before

generally mixture. ion of

required Prior the to

an intimate correctprocess the

advances

pneumatic the

blending, grinding

raw meal difficult

composition than with and kiln

after wet solids

was much more development the suspension of

slurry. blending

Following techniques, and

aerodynamics preheater

has

become

a feasibl'e

economic

process.

In

the

modern

dry

processs,

a dry,

milled

mixture

of

limestone of to 3 or the

and

clay

or

shale it

is

fed

to in

the

top

of

a seriesflow decarbonated rotary The kiln

4 cyclones, kiln then exit

where gases into and

passes is

countercurrent This a short Place.

decarbonated. cold end of takes

material where is then the

drops

the

final

clinkering and processed

process

clinker

ground

as described

previously.

2.1.6.

Other

methods

of

manufacture.

In commonly kiln

the

United in

States

of

America, to the of

the

long

dry

kiln

was

chosen the

preference outlay

suspension-preheater former was less, the clogging In North process of the was prea

because its

capital

the

(although simpler, heater

fuel

consumption with build

was higher), up and

and problems had been

frequently

encountered.

America

-14-

special
trap

problem
alkalis,

was the
resulting American

preheater's
in high alkali 13 .

unfortunate
cement the long

ability
unacceptable dry kiln,

to
to

the

general

market

In

internal the kiln

heat exit units

exchangers gases, are and used

are

used

to

recuperate external

heat waste power

from heat generation.

frequently to produce

recovery

steam

for

The United the small low its

vertical is bottle and cost use

shaft still kiln, requires and for

kiln, used the

although in Australia.

obsolete

in

the from to Its led labour to

Kingdom, primitive outputs capital continued

Developed %iln-is limited fuel. have

vertical low of

suitable

volatile

simplicity small works

maintenance having unskilled

forces'.

In such as

contrast fluidised Other being preheater parts.

to

the

vertical combustion, processes, at cooler sites to

kiln, are

emerging being such as

technologies, to kiln an of unearthed, cement

bed

applied the Rima,

manufacture. currently integral moving an

novel

installed and

in

India, the also use

combine number being low

minimise are to

Erstwhile being the

technologies current of a novel proposal cement

example as

temperature process's.

plasma

the

basis

manufacturing

2.2.

Process

fuel

consumption

figures.

TEXT OFF ORIGINAL

CUT IN

-15-

Wet process
long short kiln kiln

kilns

pical" 1650

'(kcal'/kg) 1250

*Bes-t

and

calcinator

1300

Grate

process

kilns
1000 950

semi-wet semi-dry
Dry kilns

850 800

process

long

kiln pre-heater and short kilnj

1300 875

1100 '750

suspension

* Confidential

data

from

more

than

one

source.

-16-

3(a)

Historical development

of the problems review chain systems. of kiln

encountered

in

the

Sometime the drying the These and gases

in

the of

early

1930's, process and

chains kiln to in

were Northern

first

hung France

in to

zone heat

a wet

improve ion. shell, flue

consumption were kiln

increase the

clinker. inside heat of

productthe from kiln the slurry6. imchains with practical in have

chains as the

suspendedfrom rotated, it to this they the

absorbed much

and transferred has gained been by made in the

cooler to-describe

cement the of

An attempt pressions through those

section industry

cement

of

the

role

various people over rractice

publications, within the industry of

and also

by discussions collected The their variations adoption

who have

knowledge chaining also been

many years and the

experience. for

reasons

discussed.

3.1.

The

role

of

kiln

chain

systems

in

wet

process

kilns.

The varied, zone which weight weight should

functions depend very Its

of

a chain

system, state is to

which of the

are

complex in

and the

much on the basic duty content

material raw

considered. may have percent, percent be such

convert

slurry, 28-44 6-8 nodules shock and

a moisture to water. that a uniform

anywhere solid and size the along

between containing of these

nodular

The strength they of

can withstand their passage

thermal the kiln.

mechanical

attrition

-17-

The heat

chain

zone in from

can be likened one of the

to fluid

a massive streams to

countercurrent gradually an intractsolid. slurry, Dependthe water

exchanger state

which

changes able ing gas is

a Non-Newtonian finally

dispersion to a granular from the kiln of the

puggy on the flowrate driven

mass, degree will off.

and then of also water alter

evaporated along

axis steady

as more state

Although

some semblance axially, transient kiln shell

condipre-

tions vails the

may be achieved as the gas and chains solid

heat wall

transfer enter

and the streams.

and leave

Further nature and the of the

complications slurry of is grinding

arise strongly of the

in

that

the

rheological by the the of the will with composition moisture slurry also the wet

influenced raw and moisture is materials, the

degree of The the

content itself. change charge

chalk/clay viscosity as

mixture, and dust

age content

slurry

dramatically 16 .

cement

recombined

It the the kiln of

follows

that needs clinker

a kiln of the

drying

zone

must

be tailored

to and the

particular required exit the

raw material rate. by the

tx) be processed Dust losses filter however, end of over the from

production minimised coated installed likely insufficient to with at

gases

are

wet-film If, back back

properties too dense

chains curtain

when is is hand,

slurry. the

a chain the

system,

raw material other

spill

the at

dam ring17. the back end

On the

chain

density

-18-

of

the

kiln

will gases,

cause

less

heat in

to

be removed gas

from

the and

combustion correspondingly

resulting large heat

elevated

temperatures

losses.

The the cold

low

temperatures the drying o'f heat rates area of

and high section release the slurry with

flowrates cause from chain in the

of

the

gases to

in

end of

convection the gas.

be the

dominant and heat with moving surface the

mechanism exchange surface stream, exposed. or not of the

The drying will with vary the fresh link,

within wet

system contact

gas is

and hence The the size link

rate of to

at which each clog, chain

and shape is liable by into

and whether the surface and

determines of hanging from installed of the the

area also

slurry heat area the

carried carried

a length the slurry of

chain, gasle. chain system.

Therefore will

the

and mass overall

densities

influence

evaporative

effect

During in the slurry in

its is which

passage

through

the

drying slurry to ball

zone, enters

the its

moisture puggy become

evaporated it shows

and the a tendency

region, a heavy, chains must

up and to clings to the

unmanageable and to the kiln

mass which shell". heavy along to

sometimes In this these

the chains and to

region,

be sufficiently the in material

crush the kiln.

mud rings to

transport result quality".

Failure

do so can and

surging

which

adversely

affects

productoutput

-19-

At time heat longer expose their radiation significant nodular gas kiln. material core of

the

hot into

end of

the

chain

zone,

the bed,

charge having two pick

has

by

this

changed transfer can the

a rolling,

nodular from

different 16 No zones . up and had in

characteristics the sticky chains be wetted, to

the

other they

nor the gas

can

material role. the gas as heat chains

stream inserts. shell than area

as they In this

previous from at charge

exchange and the kiln

zone, more

becomes 4000C. exposed

temperatures the

higher surface by

The to of rolling into the the the

now renews mixing the

stream The

by solids heat surface from is

caused the by

the

rotation and the convection

chains,

walls

dissipated bed.

solids

the

solids

If amount is too case zone, cause

this of

section to raised survive zone

of be

the

chain

zone from

is the as the

too slurry,

long

for then

the dust

moisture be to a chain radiation wear

removed the

likely'to brittle of the high

by the being and

chains of

nodules ". the this

become In the

action extended gas chains

the too

chainS7, far into in burn

calcining region

high the

temperatures literally

rates

as

away.

-20-

3.2.

Kiln

chain

systems

used

in

the

wet

process.

3.2.1.

Curtain

chain

systems.
t

In

the

curtain

system,

one

end

of

the

chain

is

allowed

to

hang

free,

the

other

being

attached

to

the

kiln

circumference.

u00vu0 'd 000000 000000 00 00000000 00000000 000000 00 000000 00 0000000 so 000

Fia. 3. lCurtain

hung

chain

system.

Radial

section.

The hangers parallel a helical rows path

to

which

the to axis.

chains the The

are kiln former

attached axis, or

may be in arranged is termed in

perpendicular along the

method

"cross-sectional suspension".

suspension",

and the

latter

"helical

(i)

Cross-sectional

suspension.

Fig.

3.2

Chain

Curtains

No significant by this arrangement; which retard are chains in

forward the the free flow

motion ends of In as dust the

is of

imparted the chains

to

the

slurry tangled since all

form

"dams" the

slurry

down the cross-sectional in the

kiln,

chains

one plane. are used

general, arrestors

suspended

"hot"

end

-21-

of

the

drying

zone.

(ii) ,

HelicAl

suspensioa.

Fig.

3.3

In
the

this

system
of the

the
kiln

chains
rotation

are

uniformly
and in the

spaced
direction

both

in
of

direction

slurry helices

flow. in

The

system

is

built

up by

adding

successive

a multi-start

fashion.

Distinct suspension acting more This means in

advantages that the screw

are chain

gained spiral

over aids as well

cross-sectional material transport, a

as a crude uniform latter reduced

conveyor, of chains

as providing kiln "floor".

distribution point is

on the less

important

because

entanglement

damming.

3.2.2.

Garland

chain

systems.

In to the

many kiln

chain shell,

zones, the

both

ends point of

of

the

chain

are

attached

exact

attachment

depending

Fig.

3.4 Garland

hung

chain

system.

Radial

section.

-22-

on

the

required

"sweep"

of

the

chain.

Many

different

garland

systems defined

exist, in the

but

broadly

they

fall

into

the

same categories

curtain

system.

Cross-sectional

suspension.

The hangers kiln circumference, each more chain

are

mounted at right

in

parallel to kiln and

rows the

around The

the free

angles down the of hanger,

axis.

end of one or

is

taken

axis, is

bypassing then round are attached and then in the

cross-sections one third rotation. from of

approximately direction in a similar of

the

circumference chains hangers.

kiln manner

Additional succeding

fastened

The the

chain is kiln

is

installed sufficient

such

that to at

the

free

height the

beneath

garlands the

just

transport maximum

material

through

when operating

capacity.

Occasionally are is taken termed in both

on continental upstream hanging".

chain

systems,

the

garlands This

and downstream

directions.

"reverse

(ii)

Helical

suspension.

'

In with

this

system vertical the is kiln

the

chain

hangers being

consist welded a screw. to

of in

a flange adjoining of

a wide to

edge, shell

these so in

segments these slurry

forming parallel

A series the

flanges

installed kiln.

transport

down the

-23-

The loop axis is

chains formed 0 the

are across

attached the kiln

to

these axis,

hangers rather

such than

that

a the

along

as in

previous

case.

-24-

3(b)

Previous within

studies the kiln

related drying

to zone.

the

processes

occurring

Most latively hypothesised process has been

previous subjective on the There

work

on this

subject

has various of

been

of

a rehave wet which

nature, multifold is little

although functions or on kiln the over more

workers chains published in

kilns. directly attempts concerning to of related heat

no data chain

measured to review

systems. opinions fifty

This publically

section voiced addition studies being

various the last

chains the

years,

in

surveying the

scientifically have kiln the been chains. rheological transport

comprehensive indicated This as includes properties of material

fundamentals to the function

which of

gas: liquid of

transfer fluids, drums.

studies,

Non-Newtonian rotating

and the

through

-25-

3.3.

Design

of

chain

zones.

Because the kiln., possible installing poor it

of

the

ever

increasing consumption

cost of the to

of

fossil

fuels

and

specific is fuel

heat

wet work

process at

cement

desirable efficiency;

for

the in is

process addition, high.

maximum cost of

the

capital

a chain

system

There one next. the cement

are

a multitude to

of

designs and from

of

these

systems, to

from the of com-

company that

another is

one

country

Any data lack of to

exists basis chain

usually

confusing to to draw any

because valid

a logical enable

on which designs

parisons

zone

be rationalised.

Dersnah8 plants but not of admits sufficiently widely that

has

attempted different

to

correlate and be render

a sample operating useful, the the

of

56

designs findings may to

conditions, data is

while

comprehensive

conclusions

absolute.

Garrettand curves (Fig. 3.5)

Murray9 from

have

derived

kiln

thermal

efficiency substantiated

theoretical

calculations These and wet in

by observation that the thermal

and practical efficiency increased the clinker

experience. of by long dry

graphs kilns

indicate would weight void

be substantially compared to

an increase referred

chained to a kiln

production,

-26-

pi ,I

Kg-.Chain per tonne of clinker.

WET DRY

14 7

26 14

42 21

56 28

es x14 0 35

Fuel Fig-3,5Thermal and dry

savings of

per

Tonne

of

clinker in

Kcals lonr, wet

efficiency kilns.

chain

systems

of

chains.

The

predictions presented

do not by the

take chain

into

account to

the the gas

extra

resistance streams,

system be viewed

and solids interesting

and as such exercise.

should

as an

theoretical

Walker lengths Works) in that

17 has

shown

the output is

effect of

of

altering

chained (Northfleet (Fig. length at 198 3.6) for

on the kiln. it

clinker result that

an APCM Ltd.

The shows kiln,

particularly is an optimum

interesting chained off in a kiln

there

a particular approximately metres long

clinker of

production chained in

tailing length

50 metres and 5.65

metres

diameter.

-27-

Commenes, extending a reduction clinker. the in

in chain heat

studies zone

on a small into the

wet

kiln,

claims zone can

that effect

calcining from 1270 to

consumption

1150

Kcal/kg

3.3.1.

Chkining

practice.

DeBeus prior small giant design "dust" kilns to kilns kilns criteria kilns. behave

and

Narzymsk is been diameter changed

i20

state

that

experience because With the the are

gained only advent kiln of

1955-58 had of

relatively built more before

meaningless then.

than

5 metres, giant that kilns in kilns.

chain

because no doubt from

invariably large

There differently

is

practice,

small

It of the

was early raw material slurry, of

realised can

that be divided

because into

the three

physical distinct

state

stages, chain the

i. e. systems

plastic

and granular, tailored section

many kilns to the (or needs where

have of that

uneven in that

density, particular

raw material ought to

section

bel).

(i)

Uneven

density

chain

systems.

(a)

Slurry

zone

dust

curtain.

Curtain

hung

chains

are

frequently

used

to

give

the

best

-28-

possible have close in

dust

retention that to the

in free

this

zone.

Debeus the chain without the dust

and Narzymsk 12Q should actual laden are of chain height The gas that be as contact, stream the

advocated as possible to wet

end of

theslurry contact Their

surface between

order

maximise chains. in this

and the chain area the does

other should

recommendations be 8-13m 2

density per chains little of m3 of

zone volume,

surface beneath

kiln

and the the kiln

free-board diameter. of the chain

should to the

be 27% of the in this

slurry to the

increase kiln

height section.

heap

"bottom"

(b)

Plastic

region

garland

zone.

When a cement enters its plastic lie of can directly puggy

slurry or

has

lost

considerable In this region, but depth

moisture, the are of along

it chains

puggy

state. of

no longer by layers

on top charge. the frequent The walls, of This

eachother, increased of

separated material the

and chain kiln, giving

obstruct rise to

passage

material of

occurrences chain system

"mud rings", should rate of thus ensure

"sausages", good cleaning

and of and

"balling". the kiln degree

a specific grinding.

material

transport,

a low

A free-board with of a chain kiln 20 . density The

of

35-45% of

of

the

kiln

diameter surface zone is

is area 1.5-3.0

recommended per kiln m3

6.5-10 length

m2 chain of this

typical

diameters.

60

50
Chained Length of Kiln (M)

40

30

20

(
()

Fig.

6 above 3.

Effect output kiln. Effect of an

of of

length of chain an A. P. C. M. Ltd.

zone on the (Northfleet

clinker Works)

Fig.

3.7

below.

of chain A. P. C. M.

density, on the (Northfleet Ltd.

clinker Works)

output kiln.

-1

An

%J

30 Chain Density (tonnes/100ml) 20


0

0 0

0 co

10

After
L-I

Walker

17

50 . Clinker

do output

-/0 (tonnes/h)

96

LVU

-30-

(c)

Material

preheating

zone.

The to the

role

of

this section

zone of

is

to

preheat kiln.

the Various

material

prior

calcining but typically

the

configurations curtains of of of 6.5-10 m2

exist, of of kiln the heat chain

the steel per

preheating chain kiln, give hung for

zone at

comprises

resisting surface

a density a length

m3 of to

1.0-1.5 20-2576 of

diameters kiln diameter

and hung
20 .

a free-board

(ii)

Constant

density

chain

systems.

In

his

investigations
Walker slower drying having less

into

spiral
low

curtain
density resulting proposing minor

chain
chain in systems a more that in the

configurations, as giving

17 recommends to less the dust slurry,

nodular kiln running itself

product

losses,. to

becomes conditions.

sensitive

changes

Walker heavier of chain

also

rejects spiral slurry as the

a dust on the zone

collecting grounds that

curtain a high by

or density its physical

density in the

can

dam the effect of the

slurry caused

presence rate dust of

as well heat

"balling" The aim

by a too-rapid regard to

transfer. to

system than

with

appears

be a prevention

rather

collection.

By their

very

nature,

even

density

systems

lend

them-

-31-

selves output continued zone. is is not given It

to

more

ready of

analysis. an APCM Ltd.

Fig.

3.7

shows

how the kiln its

clinker

capacity to would close in to this

(Northfleet the that density this

Works) of

improve

by decreasing this in of the plot capacity, chain

chained kiln

seem from its limit

particular

although density at

no indication which dust

paper

losses

became

unacceptable.

In always

practice, easy to

however, apply to

these

recommendations Edmiston2l systems density chain does systems, system

are in not a

not

other

kilns. chain

performance firm primary achieved could evidence

review to

on spiral support that

produce the was never

constant the

reason in this

being

correct

particular from his work.

case

and no real

conclusions

be drawn

3.3.2.

Wear

in

chain

systems.

According evaporate equal has

to

Dersnah', moisture chain

Ili than

inch" "i

stock inch"

chains stock

would chain for size but also

20% less

individual not only mass would

lengths. surface length, in fall

As the area per

smaller unit

stock

a lower per unit

length, of

a lower effect kiln has

a reduction this case. It

evaporative that the wear will

be expected will in the the slurry

follows appreciable less

performance taken place from

as soon zone, to

as any since

chain due

moisture heat

evaporate

the

reduced

exchange

-32-

area9.

Regular

checks

of

the

chain

area

are

therefore

required

to

maintain

kiln

efficiency

and maximum

capacity.

Mechanism

of

chain

wear.

The hotter and also with the

highest

rate end of of

of the

wear chain

generally zone

occurs because rates this of

in

the abrasion,

(lower) because elevated

the

the

high

oxidation at

associated

gas

temperature

point'.

-33-

3.4.

Convective

heat

transfer

in

rotary

kilns.

There heat transfer

is

little

published

literature of the chains internal of in

concerning rotary

the kilns, of heat

characteristics none describing

and virtually heat transport. in case

mechanisms state is

Previous rotary of devices

analysis is

unsteady and inserts

transfer in The of the

limited, exchange

non-existent (i. e. chains). nature

flexible of heat

heat transfer to the and

estimation their

coefficients gas flowrate is of

and the of chain

relationship in the

fundamental systems.

importance

design

improvement

The transfer and for

investigations within rotary rotary dryers

of kilns in

previous is

workers

into in this

heat section,

summarised 5.3.

section

In Riffaud, ulation convection coefficient. relationship

a simplified Koehret of heat and

dynamic

model

of

an alumina the problem

kiln of calc-

and Coupa 122 defined transfer radiation the coefficients coefficients convective by Perry" coeff

as complex to icient derive they

and combined an overall used the

For

recommended

hf, = k.

Go .

67 ...

3.1

-34-

and

used

the of

techniques a mixture kiln Lyons

given of

in

McAdam. 9j24 to. The solids assuming "convective" bed

evaluate heat predicted

the transfer

emissivity coefficient using the

gases. and 25,

between data of

wall et al.

was

perfect

mixing

of the bed.
21 have heat

Gardeik' model rotating "Keff" transfer to to

and Jescher the using into gas

derived in heat direct

a simplified internally transfer and indirect

mathematical heated coefficient heat

calculate tubes, take between

transfer

an effective account both

and solid. hGW hGSeff qDG 2s in(, Ds) 2 (kcal/hm 20 C) 4wg)

where

Keff

= hGSeff

11 +

...

3.2

h=

heat

transfer of filling

coefficient

P = degree d=

dimensionless S= suffixes

temperature denoting wall, gas and solids respectively

W, G,

Tscheng

and

Watkinson27

in

recent

experiments

on

convective and the solids for of gas the

heat walls in

transfer a non-fired were They area of

from

hot rotary

air

to kiln,

a solids found greater the

charge, that than gas to

coefficients to wall.

a factor

of this

ten to

those

attributed charge,

underestimation of to the lateral at the gas/

surface of the

and the

effect

velocity solids

particles

on the

resistance

flow

interface.

-35-

3.5.

Heat

transfer

in

rotary

driers.

In

his

review

of

published

data,

McCormick

28 has

correlated to produce

data

from

direct of

heat the

single

shell

rotary

driers

an equation

form

k. LDGn ATM Q= D= G= dryer dryer gas heat length, mass flux flux ( kcal/h) diameter (kg/hm2) driving force

...

3.3

where L,

respectively

(m)

AT = temperature
k= proportionality

0C) (
(-)

constant

0.46

0.67

In of the

the

absence 'In"

of is

further 0.67.

data,

the

recommended

value

exponent

The of

effect

of

gas

velocity,

however, reviewing , many

has

been

the work had

subject on

much controversy; driers, pointed

Saeman 29 out

published

rotary assumed

that

investigators in

an incorrect

temperature

distribution

the

drier

-36-

and had

taken

insufficient He considered reported by errors.

measures that these In the

to

obtain

accurate influence of

air

temperatures. gas effect Friedman found where that V= velocity due to

large

investigators his opinion, reliable,

was a false the work of

these

and Marshal the gas heat velocity

130 was the transfer (m/s).

most

and they as VO-lr',.

coefficient

varied

Nonhebel solids, pressed related but is state per to little

1, MOSS3 and that unit the mass square effected heat of root

in

their transfer hold the

book

on drying

of exis speed

coefficient up in dryer a dryer

solid of

the

rotational of the dryer.

by the

diameter

The

results

of

experiments 132 are also

in

a small cons-istent

dryer with

reported these to

by Seaman and Mitchel latter establish findings, this but beyond

insufficient a doubt..

measurements

-37-

3.6.

Slurry

rheology.

The not only

nature of

of

the

raw materials importance but is in are length to also the in

of

cement choice

making of

is

fundamental process, of the

the

cement the of

making

a critical rotary and drying kiln. are

factor The evident The

in effects

behaviour the slurry the of

slurry

properties entire the slurry

multifold of flow the

throughout resistance of

zone.

under

various of the

conditions shear, kiln, will if

temperature, the the

moisture choice aspect of of

content chaining material

and degree density transport. in

determine only from

Slurry material dust within pick the

viscosity carried up and slurry of at

will wet

also

determine

the

amount the

of of

by the indirect bed the

chain,

and hence

degree convection

heat also solids the the

exchange. upon In can

Solids the

depends

mixing the

characteristics moisture and slurry content

charge. slurry itself,

addition,

which

be made and handled, is related to the

transported viscosity.

through

kiln

The research additives, viscosity is also

importance time and

of

slurry devoted

rheology to the

is

reflected of

in

the

and money their

study

raw material slurry

effect

on the

moisture of

content: slurry

relationship. of importance to charge describe in the in

The prediction the the kiln derivation-of heat

viscosity

dimensionless characteristics

numbers'used of the wet

transfer zone.

drying

-38-

3.6.1.

Shearing

characteristics

of

cement

slurries.

Viscosity fluid,
of the

is

a measure conditions
(Ty) to

of of
the

the

internal

friction flow, the


shear

of ratio
rate

and under
shear stress

streamline
corresponding

is

equal

to

the

viscosity

(p)
dux dy

of

the

fluid.

33

Ty

...

3.4

where

dux dy at

m the

velocity

gradient

in

the

fluid

If, is said solids longer by the constant to

a given and

temperature of

and pressure, the of the shear which flow rate, is

the the water.

viscosity fluid When is no is

independant

be Newtonian, are suspended

an example in water, internal

behaviour pattern is

Newtonian particles

as the

slip

made complex

themselves.

In

these

non-Newtonian

fluids,

the

ratio

of

the

shearing

stress

to

the rate which

of

shear with

is

known the rate

as the of

apparent

viscosity,

a quantity

varies

shear.

Classification form of their

of relationship

non-Newtonian between

fluids stress

can be made by the and shearing rate (Fig. 3.

(i)

Bingham Bingham

Plastics. Plastics known as the can resist stresses stress, before up to flow a critical takes

value

"Te"

yield

-39-

'

place.

Once

this

value

has

been

exceeded,

however,

the

rate

of

shearis

proportional
the critical

to

the

amount

by which

the

shear

stress

exceeds

value.

i. e. Ty - Te

dux dy

...

3.5

7) WI-1;

EjzL8 Classification Non-Newtonian

of fluids.

T
A number of kiln

lo

RaLe v SKQcr

feed

slurries

are

Bingham

plastics.

(ii)

Pseudoplastic

materials.

A pseudoplastic decreases at this with at shearing zero

material rate; shear are

is the rate.

one whose apparent Materials

viscosity viscosity which exibitlimestone being the is

a maximum kind of

behaviour works kiln

APCM Ltd. slurry,

Hope works the latter

and Shoreham subject of

feed

this

investigation.

3.6.2.

Prediction

of

slurry

viscosity.

By

its

very

nature,

cement

slurry

does

not

lend

itself

to with

accurate various

prediction levels of

of

its

viscosity content

at

different

shear

rates

moisture

and temperature.

-40-

In viscosities in

the

past, of

workers

have of

attempted slurry.

to

correlate et al

the
34

various

types

Bonilla

turbulent pipes,

heat

transfer the

studies Hatzchek

on chalk equation

flowing to estimate

through the chalk

used

viscosity

p=11...

3.8
X3) v

Pw

where

11w = viscosity xv = volume

of fraction

water of dry solids

This the

relationship, of the

however, slurry,

does nor the

not

take

into rate.

account

temperature

shear

The Guzman-Andrade

equation

35

p=A.

e%

....

3.7

where

A and B= T=

constants temperature of (OC) viscosity two or in more It more complexly of "p"

is

suitable

for liquids

estimation

structured for evaluation to

and requires the constants

values is

of

A and B.

particularly fused salts,

suited liquid

pure

inorganic etc.

and organic

liquids,

metals

The estimated

viscosities for xv

of < 0.5

liquid-solid by Kunitz's"',

suspensions relation

may be

-41

1PL* (1

+ 0.5xv)(1

xv)-'

3.3.

where

IJL is

the

viscosity

of

the

pure

liquid.

Equation

3.8

is

roughly

correct For solids

only

when

the

solids

are

free the

flowing viscosities

when wet. are nearly

such larger

as clay than

and chalk,

always

calculated.

Ting

and

LuebberS37

relationship

for

suspensions

of

spheres

of

unequal
Xv

diameters

0.460 PL)

0.00158(11L) R

0-467 _

0.79

xv

3.9

where solids

R=

ratio (or

of the

liquid reverse

density for R<

(OL) 1)

divided

by

the

density

does f luid.

not

take

into

account

the

shear

rate

exerted

on the

Owing
measurement

to
of

the

peculiar

properties
at

of
different

kiln

feed
moisture

slurry,

slurry

viscosity

contents has been

and temperatures carried out in

over this

a range dissertation.

of

shear

rates

The application the

choice of

of the cup to

apparatus viscosity viscometers chains being and

is

linked

directly in closest

to this in slurry.

the case

measurements, being pulled the the

concentric action of this in

shearing Details are given

through

apparatus C-

experimental

results

appendix

-42-

3.7.

Residence

time

and hold

up in

rotary

kilns

and dryers.

When material times time take of up to

is

fed

into to

a rotary emerge from

kiln, the will

it other very

can

someThe

24 hours of solids

end. often

passage the

through of

a kiln the final

determine Also, termed transport into the The function parameters degree the have of the

quality of

and cost the kiln

produ Ct38. by solids, of heat to heat,

fraction will those

volume influence of the


39

occupied the solid rate

holdup, from

strongly surfaces core time of of

exposed

innermost

the the

bed

residence of its such fill, . rate

charge this

in rate

a kiln

is

a on

of

passage, of

depending kiln diameter, of re-pose

as angle speed It of

inclination, and

rotation that

angle

of would

material40 varying

follows times It also

different

materials on their

residence

depending follows but

characteristic rate the of passage

physical along which

properties. a kiln the is not

that varies

the with

constant,

transformations

initial

charge

undergoes.

The is

determination more difficult zone

of

the

rate

of

passage

in of

cement gas

kilns

made even the

by the by the

evolution of

and dust, from

and in the

drying

evaporation

the

water

slurry.

Sullivan
the basis of

et
most

al 41published
kiln,

a formula

in

1927 which
since the then.

has forme(
For

'residence'time and collers they

studies uroduced

rotary empirical

kilns,

dryers

following

formula:

-43-

T=

kILO' SDN

3.10

where ,T= 0= L= D= S= N= kj= average the kiln internal the kiln of angle length residence of repose (m) of the kiln W time of in the the kiln (h) (degrees)

material

diameter slope rotation (-)

(degrees) (RPM)

speed constant

Friedman retained within related equation: in the the the kiln

and Marshall dryer and or the kiln I

30

state

that

the the to

amount heat

of

material

influences required to the

transfer it. They the

power (T)

rotate (X)

residence

time

hold-up

by

T=

LX k2F

3.11

where

X= F=
k2

hold-up solids
= constant

(% dryer feed rate

volume) (m'/hM2)

A number Marshall?, expressed

of

previous that

workers in the

reviewed rotary form: driers

by Friedman can be

and

Oagreed by

hold-up of

an equation k3FO' SDN

3.12,

where

k3

= constant

-44-

Saeman29

derived

a relationship

from

the

observations

of

Sullivan
loaded

et

a 141 together
kilns. k4LsinO 2,arNS radius = constant of the

with

his

own observations

on lightly

industrial

...

3.13

where
k4

r=

particle

path

in

the

bed

(m)

For equation

heavily

loaded

kilns

Sullivan

41 derived

the

q=

s+ ks7rN(

TcosG sinO

D2 )(7-

2) ro

3.14

where

q= T=

volumetric the angle

transport between kiln axis radius the

rate

through of

the the

kiln material

(M3 /h)

surface

and the ro = the kiln

(radians) of the particle path in the

minimum (m)

Nonhebel

and

MOSS 3-Al ,

in

their

book

on

rotary

drying,

recommended more

the

formula than
L k6ND(S

of that

Saeman and Mitchel of Friedman

132 as being 1'30.

satisfactory

and Marshal

T=-...

+ k7vm)

3.15

where

k7Vm = the of

equivalent the falling

slope solid of fluid

due by

to the

the air

displacement stream(degrecs)

vM = mean velocity constant (-)

(m/h)

-45-

Weber4 2 in kilns, has

his

study the of

of work these

heat of

transfer other authors

in

rotary on the the formula factor

reviewed analysis

dimensional of
ll It .

kilns

and uses

Heiligenstaedt

1+3 to

predict

a material

loading

kg. sino.

cross

sectional

loading 3.16

pe xNxSxD

where

ke = constant
pe = bulk density (kg/M3)

-46-

Table

1.

Nomenclature

for

section

3.

A ............. B ............. D ............. F ............. G ............. h ............. k ............. k7vm .......... keff .......... L ............. n ............. N ............. q ............. Q ............. r ............. ro ............ R ............. S T ............. ............. T ............. dux/dy ........ Vm............ V ............. xv ............. X .............

Constant. Constant (V/hm2) diameter Kiln or dryer (m So lid s f ee d ra t e 2) (kg/hm Gas mass flux 20 C) (kcal/hm Heat transfer coefficient Constant Equivalent slope 2o C) Effective heat transfer coefficient(kcal/hm Kiln (m) length or dryer (value Exponent 0.46-0.67) (R) Kiln rotational speed . Solids (m /h) transport volumetric rate Dryer (kcal/h) heat flux Radius W of particle path in bed W Minimum value of r density Liquid: ratio solid (0) Kiln slope (h) Mean residence time of solids (OC) Temperature (h-1) Fluid gradient v6locity (m/h) Mean velocity of fluid (m/h) Gas velocity Volume fraction dry solids kiln Solids holdup volume)

Suffixes
c ..... convective G gas ..... L liquid ..... S..... solids w..... water W. -,... wall Greek
..... 0 ..... 6 ..... AT .... ..... p..... ? ? .... -.... .... degree of filling angle of repose of material dimensionless temperature difference temperature between angle material and density s h ear s t ress (critical)stress yield viscosity

(0) 0 C) axis (0 ) 3 (kg/m ( k g/m h 2 ) (kg/mh (kg/mh)

-47-

4.

Physical

modelling

applied

to

chain

systems.

4.1.

Similarity

criteria

in

models.

In data under is

applications available for

where the it is

no relevant geometrical necessary various

practical and to flow

heat

transfer

configurations heat transfer

consideration,

evaluate techniques.

coefficients

by employing

model

The most between similarity, system the are can heat

reliable

of

these

are under

based

on the

analogy of dynamic real in processes in as

and mass, transfer where the heat by

conditions surface transfer and mass analogy of

transfer the The mass heat

the

be replaced and vice by the

surfaces transfer discussed -rewritten


4.1

model related 5.

versa.

Chilton-Colburn 5.3 and 5A


id hdp -` G

section

Equations

can
SC

be
23

ih

= -hGCp

Pri

...

for

conditions

of

geometric,

kinematic

and dynamic'similarity.

44

4.1.1.

Geometric

similarity.

Geometric implies same ratio system. that to Although

similarity, every the linear

the

simplest of

of the

the

model bears full

laws, the scale systems,

dimension

model of the

corresponding this

dimension for

can be achieved when

isothermal of heat

some distortion are involved.

is

necessary

sources

release

-48-

4.1.2.

Kinematic

similarity.

Kinematic geometrically time. which of the This is

similarity similar paths there constant real

implies in is

that

the

fluid

follows of

corresponding a velocity

intervals scale ratio

means maintained

that

between system.

corresponding

points

model

and the

4.1.3.

Dynamic

similarity.

Dynamic causing systems met

similarity of

requires the

that in

the the

force

ratios

acceleration are maintained that

masses

corresponding is equal. usually

constant. the Reynolds

ThIS

condition are

by ensuring

numbers

4.2.

Theoretical a chain

analysis system.

of

the

pressure

drop

through
p

In simulate of

applying the flow

this

to

a kiln

chain

system, the gas

it

is

required similarity

to

resistance hanging in in

and hence a moving water

dynamic

a chain chain system

system

stream; For

by means

of

scaled model
to air

hanging with

a'moving or mass
or

stream. the
baffles

an isothermal 'is
large

no heat
a baffle,

transfer,
6f

system
of

analogous
voidage.

approaching

series

The baffles thus:


Frictional

then

act

as a sudden

contraction

to

flow

energy
U22

lost/unit

mass

of

fluid

F=

(H-cU2

1)

2 ...

4.2

-49-

where

U2 = final Uc = velocity

velocity at vena contracta

Rewriting

in

terms

of

coefficient

of

contraction,

(Cc)

U22

(1_

1)2

Cc

...

4.4

and

-APf

= pF

(Cc

varies

from

0.6

-I

as

do/D

varies

from

0 -l- 1)

Now,

for

a sudden

expansion,

-APf

=2

(U2

UI)2 ...

4.5

OU22

(A2)2)

A,

...

4.5(a)

U0

FU77

Fig-. 4.1.

Vena

contracta.

Thus, a chain is

the given

total by

pressure the sum of

loss the

APfT

for

each

pass

through

equations

4-. 4. and 4.5(a).

-50-

IPff

2 PU 2

[{, (2)2 + 1)2

Al

cc

...

4.5

. recovers to (this normal

If flow is

it

is

assumed

that

the the

fluid

plug

before not proven

encountering as valid but

next

chain

bank

assumption

suffices

as a first

approximation).

Then: Case 1.
Ul

4.6 (for is to If constant chain density). All

thus the

U2 = constant pressure loss motion 2).

transmitted the chains is

as kinetic (case 1) then: or

energy, generating

imparting heat (case

heat

generated

Case

2.
UO (TO) U2 = f(T2) Ul(TI) 4.7 4.8

... ...

However, kinetic energy

any is

temperature likely to

change be very

in small

the

system

due case

to 2

and thus

may be safely

disregarded.

Thus, chains is

pressure given by:


2

loss

through

a bank

of

In'

layers

of

Ap fTn

nPU2 2

[,

(A2)21

(1

A,

cc

1)2

...

4.5(a)

By assuming
A2)

that
A2)

A,

real

"

J,

4.6 model

-51-.

and thus

Ccreal
then equation

cc -4.10

model

...

4.10

gives

JnPreal

(U2 )2

real

7- JnPmodel

(U2 )2

model

...

4.11

or, the
real

in

other in

words, the

for model

dynamic must

similarity, to

the that

voidage of the

of

chains
system.

be identical

4.3.

Scale-down

of

kiln

chain

zone.

4.3.1.

Chain

density.

Previously, system kiln. requires

it equal

was shown voidages

that in

the the

scale-down model and in

of

a chain real

the

e=

fractional Vchains

volume Mchains

of

voids chain

in

kiln density

Vkiln

Pc x Vkiln

PC

...

4.12

where

Vchains/Vkiln

= volume

of

chains/kiln length

of

per kiln

unit (M3)

Mchains

= mass of

installed chains volume Vkiln


of steel (kg/m 3)

in a (kg)

pc

= density

Hence, the real chain kiln.

for density

equal in

voidage the model

systems, should

it equal

is

apparent that of

that the

-52-

4.3.2.

Chain

area.

Another utilised

consequence

of the

equal voidage

voidage fraction

systems in

can be form:

by expressing A* c -Ak

another

...

4.13

where

A.

the

projected

area

of

chain

in

a cross-section (M2) of kiln


kiln zone in the (M2)

Ak

the

cross-sectional

area

of

the chained

Thus

A; Ak model

C* Ak real

...

4.14

4.3.3.

Chain

configuration

and

stock

size.

By referring chain terms and the of the pitch kiln

to

current of the

practice spiral

17 the

length

of

each in

hanger

can be expressed

diameter.

Hence,

chain

length, pitch

Lc

spiral

kiln x -a 3 1x kiln

diameter diameter

... ... hanger

4.15 4.16

The been

number at

of 3,

spiral in line

starts with

of the

the current

chain

has

chosen

practice.

By trial
correct. - chain

and error
stock to size give

it
for

is

now possible
a given required distance

to

evaluate
between area

the
chain and

attachment chain density.

points

the

surface

-53-

T
Spiral pitch :: D.

L-1 4Kiln

IID circumference

Distance between chain attachment points

-I

Fig.

4.2.

Schematic representation hangers. start

of

three

spiral

-54-

Table

2.

Nomenclature

for

section

4.

A ........ Ac ........ Ak ........ cc ........ CP ....... e ......... F ......... G ......... h ......... hd ........ ih ........ id ........ Lc ........ Mchains n ........ Pr ....... Sc ....... T ........ U ........ V ........

Surface area Projected in kiln area of chain csa. (csa) Cross-sectional area of kiln Coefficient of vena contraction (constant Specific heat pressure) Volume voidage factor Frictional lost/unit mass fluid energy Gas mass flux Heat transfer coefficient Mass transfer coefficient j-factor for heat transfer j-factor for mass transfer Length of chain Mass of chains .. Number of layers banks of chain Prandtl Number Sherwood Number Temperature Fluid velocity Volume

2 2 2 m kcal/kg 2/h m kg/hm2 kSal/hm /hm m m kg 0C

2 c!,,

0C Sh M

Rilf

f i-zgnc

o ... 1 ... 2 ... c ... T ...

initial conditions from at recovery jet at expanding contracta total Greek

contracta

P ... density Apf. pressure

drop

due to

friction

kg/m3 kgf/m2

-55-

5.

Theoretical chain system.

analysis

of

the

heat

and mass

transfer

in

As the and are they these the heat lay then

kiln

is

rotated, to the kiln

the moving shell areas

chains gas wall. is

are

lmmers4d in at other of order

slurry times all that

exposed

stream;

tangled

on the heat heat

Knowledge required in

physical radiation transfer

exchange transfer

be estimated calculat.

and the

convective

coefficient

ed accurately.

These a small difficult


- configurations.

exchange

areas

were

first

measured proved of chains

by hand, and various

using

2-dimensional to extrapolate

model, to

which banks

tedious of

A computer

program

has

been

written

(Appendix

H. 1),

which zone The

predicts for amount or any of

the length chain

heat or

transfer configuration to wall

surfaces of gas, for any

within chain

the hanging. in

chain

exposed the kiln

the

immersed kiln

the

kiln can

charge,

against

loading,

be calculated.

5.1.

Simultaneous

heat

and

mass

transfer.

In

the

upper

section

of

the

chain

zone

the

gas,

wall,

chain

and slurry high transfer. overall

temperatures enough for

are sufficiently convection does rate not at to

low

and the

gas form

velocities of to heat the

be the'dominant

Radiation heat transfer

significantly temperatures

contribute less than

673 K approximately.

-56-

5.1.1.

Convection

heat

transfer

to

a surface.

Heat scopic

transfer of

by

convection

is

attributable is confined density in

to to

macrogases

motion

a fluid,

and as such arises

and liquids. differences whereas in a fluid The the which fluid

Natural caused

convection by temperature occurs turbulent

from

gradients due to the

the

system,

forced which

convection is in

eddy

currents

motion. of heat transfer boundary gradient make use layer, between of

calculation concept all of

of of the

rates

analogous almost and Heat the

a velocity temperature

across the

surface

occurs. from a surface energy gradient is assumed according to a fluid this is occurs initially layer.

transfer of

by the

transfer this to the

kinetic

through (dT/dy) to to take

boundary determined,

Once heat flow

temperature the surface layer

place basic

by conduction equation

through

boundary

the 5.1

kA(dT/dy)

... I'dy" is

The known the and

effective therefore

film the

thickness equation

is

not

generally in

usually

re-written

forM34

hA(dT) h is
reciprocal

... heat
the

5.2 (HTC)

where
the

known

as the

transfer
thermal

coefficient
resistance.

and

represents

57-

5.1.2.

Heat

and

mass

transfer

factors.

Difficulties

arise

in

the

evaluation

of

mass

transfer

coefficients with are distance therefore

since from not

the the

composition surface.

of

the

material

varies

The physical

properties must be used .

constant,

and some mean value

Chilton
heat The and j-factor mass

and Colburn's
transfer for heat to

have
a fluid

introduced
flowing can be

j-factors
through by

for
a tube. equation

transfer

expressed

ih

=h

cppu

(SP-11) 0.67 = 0.023 k

Re- 0-2

and,

by

analogy, for equation mass

Chilton transfer,

and Colburn4,1 id, which

have they

also have

deduced expressed

a factor by the

id

hd. CBM Z u T

11 PD

0-6 7

...

5.4

Sherwood

and

Pigford

46 have

correlated

previous

published to assume

data that

and have the heat

concluded and mass

that j-factors

it

is

reasonable approximately

are

equal.

5.1.3.

Heat

and mass

transfer

applied

to

drying

theory.

When heat, is

a stream

of to

hot the

gas

passes by

across convection

a wet

solid,

transferred

solid

simultaneous

to

the

removal

of

the

heated

vapour.

If

the

hot

gas

is

-58-

supplied it

to

the

system that Initially

at

a constant drying the

temperature process rate it occurs is begins material

and humidity in two and

can be observed stages. at a particular until

the

distinct then

drying content

constant to is

moisture it is zero

reduce completely

progressively dry.

when the

The moisture
diminish is termed

content
the

at
critical

which

the

drying
content,

rate

starts
but the

to

moisture

change
contents.

tends

to

occur
)

gradually.

over

a range

of

moisture

(f iFr. 5.1

4 -4 0 10

Drying
L

Q) 4j 14 r. -4 Q) 0
0) A-)

W 41 1
1I , z
0 :31

1
4j

Rate (kg/h)

>0 0 00 0
-4

4-1 -4 r 00 E! -4 ,4

> 00 CO
P 11 0)

1 00
$4

VC, U)

-4 Cd U
1 -4
41 -4 4 UU 4J 0

(U I

I alling Fig. 5.1 T yl2ical constant Rate Constant for rate drying

Moisture of solid

content (kg/kg)

drying ra te curve conditions. external

convection

dry ing

with

The

critical

moisture

content

represents

the

range

of

moisture to
that

content the solids

over

which

the equals

rate the

of rate

migration of

of

liquid
from

surface

evaporation

surface.

As

long

as

the

surface

of

the

material

is

moist,

saturated the surface

vapour

pressure of

will the

exist material

at

the will

surface remain

and constant.

temperature

-59-

Only
through

as much vapour
the boundary

will
layer

emerge
of

from

the

material
given

as can pass

gas

under

conditions.

While

these

conditions

remain

unchanged

and

the

thickness drying rate

of

the will

boundary also

layer

does

not

vary, (Fig.

the 5.2)

remain

unchanged.

Fig 5.2 Gas temp. and drying rate.

drying 74

rate Material temperature degrees C

.01

Drying rate (kg/h)

.0

Temperature

Moisture

content

of solid 'dry', or will extent. it the is the absorption, have to

As the water or held

surface at the the to

of surface inteftor

the

material by of capillary the

becomes action

water

from

material, greater

be evaporated pressure water drying or over over

an increasingly moisture water is

The vapour over bound of

such a free

lower

than hence

surface,

decrease

rate

as drying

proceeds.

Since constant, This rise is with

the the

ratio amount by

between of the heat

heat

and mass

transfer also

is decrease.

transferred undergoing in the

must

achieved

material

a temperature force

a resultant the gas

reduction material.

driving

between

and the

-60-

(i)

Effects

of

radiation

on

mass

transfer

theory.

In

this

case,

it

is'necessary

to

apply

a surface

temperature rise of the that

correction material the the

and calculate surface from

the radiation

degree

of

temperature It is

alone. is

assumed throughout the

surface

temperature cycle and need case.

elevation only

constant for

drying

be calculated

simpler

constant

rate

In

dryers

where

the

proportion

of

heat

received

by radiation temperature drying radiation drying is

is from relatively

small, the

and the constant small, hr it is

variation rate period

of to

surface the that end of the the 31

can be assumed constant

'coefficient' cycle (for constant


{tZ4 _

throughout

ambient

conditions.

tS4

where

hr tg

ts

...

5.5

It

has

been

shown

that

the

drying

coefficients

are

independent for is pure taking

of

the

drying drying

conditions are equally

and values valid

calculated radiation

convection place.

where

(ii)

The

drying

zone

in

wet-process

kilns.

In subdivided

the

wet into

process three

kiln, sections:

the

drying

zone

can be

1.

The

slurry

preheating

zone,

where

the

slurry

is

heated

-61-

to 2. The

the

dew

point of the

temperature damp kiln

of

the

exit where

gas. the material

drying

charge,

surface of 3. 70-1000C. The

is

wet

and at

a constant

temperature

in

the

region

drying until section

of the

the

water

held content

by

absorption of the

and capillary is to zero.

action In this

moisture the material

material rises

temperature

approximately

1301C.

*--. GAS

I Preheat ing
SLURRY

-0.SOLID Constant rate drying Falling rate drying

PLASTIC

GRANULAR

Fig.

5.3

Zoning

the

drying

section

of

the

kiln.

(iii)

Slurry

preheating

zone.

The

drying

itself

does

not

commence

until

a material

surface point gas of

temperature the gas. cold

is Below

reached this

which

is

above when

the the

dew exit the gas

temperature, the water

encounters

slurry, the feed

vapour

from

condenses

and enters

material.

It

is

then

possible

for

the

slurry

to

acquire

a higher

-62-

and higher above the

moisture gas

content

until

its

temperature

has

risen

dew point.

The the material

slurry and

preheating should be

zone as

is short

ineffective as possible

for 7 .

drying

5.3.

Theoretical chain svstem.

analysis

of

the

heat

transfer

through

In the slurry

a real into giving system. which

kiln the rise It

system, exit to is is also an

water gases

is

evaporated pass gas through mass flow to

from the through the

which

chains, the rate chain at

increased

therefore evaporated necessary surroundings decreases

necessary by to

determine the the gas heat

water It is to

considering consider as the its

temperatures. from drops the and gases gas

loss

their

temperature greater density.

velocity

due

to

Thus gas velocity

two

opposing and its

effects density at

determine each chain

the

value

of

the

pass.

The Imal, 'To'. at is of its

system at of

is

assumed

to

be one where 'Tin' is and passed (1000C), of at the leaves

a mass at

of

air,

enters A mass

temperature water, ImWI,

temperature

countercurrently is evaporated at its and point the All

evaporation to

temperature the temperature

superheated evaporation;

gas

the is

water

remains

1000C between

throughout passes.

system, properties water density

and there are

no interference across the kiln

uniform

section, to

and the the gas

vapour

makes

no appreciable (Fig. 5.4).

difference

properties.

-63-

In

this

system

the

combustion

gases

pass

countercurrently

across being by the the

the

surface

of mixed of the

the

raw

cement

charge, to the by

which kiln the

is gases action of

constantly rotation

and re-exposed kiln wall that

and also wall.

chains

suspended

frorp

In within
individual

order the

to-fully zone,
flow

describe it is

the necessary

method to

of

heat

transfer the following

chain
heat

isolate

processes:

Ql:

Net gas

heat to heat the heat


to heat kiln

transfer chain. transfer chains-to transfer


wall. transfer

by

radiation

and convection

from

Q2:

Net from

by the

(solids) slurry.

mixIng

and conduction

Q3:

Net
gas

by radiation

and convection

from

Q4:

Net

by

(solids)

mixing

and

conduction

from Q5: Net from

kiln direct gas

wall heat to

to

slurry. by radiation and convection

transfer

slurry.

Because the problem

the is

only

truly

direct complex wall heat by

heat the

transfer indirect raw

is heat feed kiln

Q5,

made more gas,

transfer material, shell

between in exterior.

chains, to the

and the losses

'

addition

from

the

The

very

nature

of

the

system

does

not

lend

itself

-64-

Ei

z 1. -I
C/D

0-N

Ei

%-.,
E-4 ul
+ >-4 W

rn (n
Ici r.

E-4
4

u Z K4

L-4

r-I Cd E

Cd S

I : Ei

(Do ) allaJVdHdWaL

(s/231) moria ssvw


Z h-i

0 Cl)
Co

-65-

to of

ready steady

analysis: state passes at right

along conditions from feed

the

axis can be

of

the

kiln, as the

a degree raw zone. is

assumed the axis, as the and

material However, one of

end to the

towards kiln

calcining the feed mixed

angles state heat

Droblem material by the

unsteady from the

transfer is lifted

cascades chains.

walls

and

The of of moisture dust, bay

system from and the to bay.

is

further surface

complicated of of gas the and

by charge, charge

the

evaporation recycling

the

the

changing

properties

from

The-approach drying individual heat transfer zone along processes

made by the kiln

the axis

author in within rate of

is order

to to

section study

the the

occurring As the

the change

transient of is length spiral is

region. moisture slow along to of the

temperature, relatively used start

and material the kiln axis,

composition a sectional the three

equivalent pitch

one bay chain

formed

by

hanger.

-66-

5.3.1.

Heat

and mass balances

in

a kiln

section.

QL

[G Gc PGTGI x, t EG G X]

[G G

CPGTGI

x+dx, t

x, t

CGG X]

X+dx, t

[G B [G

wh,

[G

W]

x+dx, t

T Bc PS BI x, t

[GG CPST BI x+dx, t

Fig.

5.5

Heat

and mass

transfer

in

a kiln

section

of

length.

dx.

From length derive per unit of

an enthalpy kiln illustrated to in this

balance in

taken Fig. the

over 5.5, it

an incremental is possible to

equations area

describe section:

heat

and mass transfer

A heat give rise to

balance equations

on the 5.6

slurry and 5.7.

and on the

gas

streams

6(GBCpSTS)/6x

(GBCpSTS)/6t + V, "I
= Q2 + Q3+

= Q2 + Q4 + Q5 + mwX ...
TS) 5.7

5.6

d(GGCPGTG)/dx

Q5 + MwCpw(TG

...

The

mass

balance

on

the

section

I'dx"

is

described

-67-

by equation

5.8.

6(GBW)/dx

+ -16(GBW)/6t VO

mw = dGG/dx

Note in the

that

"W"

is

the the

ratio moisture

between

water

and solids

slurry,

termed

fraction.

Gg Gv

GBG GW...

W) -

... weight content

5.9 5.10

The moisture the corresponding

fraction, moisture
WG5 GB

basis, by

is

related 5.11

to

equation

X=

5.11

Since

X.

Gv GB

5.12

A heat equations

balance 5.13

over and 5.14.

a section

of

wall

yields

dTw/dt dTw/dt

(gas) (slurry)

= (Q3 - QL)/(MC P) w = (Q4 - QL)/(MCp) V


balance on the

... ...
chain

5.13 5.14

Similarly, equations 5.15

a heat and 5.16.

yields

dTc/dt dTc/dt

(gas) (slurry)

= Ql/(McCp) = Q2/(McCp)

... ...

5.15 5.16

-68-

The differential integration

use

of

a numerical

method

of

solving

these process

(partial) of

equations by a step

replaces wise

a continuous

approximation.

5.3.2.

Numerical

solution

to

heat

and mass balances.

By assuming chain between and the at the passes the total (Fig. gas

that 5.5),

heat it

and mass is at possible any

transfer to

occur develop ITx I , gas,

only

at

a relationship

temperature of water

point, to

mass

transferred

the

Imwx',

same point.

The by equation

rate

of 5.2(a)

heat

transfer,

IQ'

in

the

system

is

given

U VAT

...

5.2(a)

Friedman

and Marsha1127 KIGG 0-16 D

have

shown

that

...

5.17

where

GG = mass D=
U= V=

velocity (m)
heat volume

of

gas

(Kg/h

M2)

diameter
overall system

transfer (M3)

coefficient

(Kcal/h

M20C)

Thus,

by

I assuming KIGX D

an

expression

of

the

form

5.17

-69-

, GCY; VAT D KiGy D4 (11D2L) ...

5.18

AT

5.19

K2G

MAT G

5.20

By chain chain

using it

the is e.

above possible exit

relationship to work

between from the which

successive back can of be the

banks, system and

(i.

gas Qi-i+l*

conditions,

measured)

calculate

Hence

Q= 0-311

K2GYDAL(T 01-...

TO)

5.21

where

AL = distance

between

each

chain

bank

(m)

By the gas

assuming stream of

a temperature/distance the form

relationship

for

Ti

= To

+ axb

5.22

where then,

IxI

is

the

distance

(m)

from

the

back

end

of

the

system

0_.,I

y K2GODALa(AL)b

5.23

aK2GYD(AL)b+l 0 This

gives

rise I

to

the

general

relationship I

Qi

i+l _,

= KAAL 1_

{(i

+ l)ALjb

(iAL)b

...

5.24

-70-

For the mass

a given of water

value

of

Qi, i+l,

it Imwil,

is

possible

to

calculate

transferred,

since

Qi. i+j
Thus
Mwi

I = Mwi

-Psteam

fT 0+

a(iAL

)b

I+I... _3X _00

5.25

I {(i KGY AL jD IC-P steam {To

+ 1)AL + a(iAL)b

P-

(iAL)b loo _ }+

5.26

and note
2) ...

Gj+j

Gi

(4mwi/HD

5.27

Ti

= To + a(iALP

...

5.22(a)

where
a, Ki, K2, b, K= y= T= constants exponents temperature (OK)

C Psteam

= mean specific = latent heat of

heat

of

steam

(Kcal/kg'C) of water (Kcal/kg) (kg/h 2) m

vapourisation time. esa

G=

mass of

gas/unit water
length

mw = mass of
L= system

transferred/unit
(m)

time (kg/h)

From

Gi

and

Ti,

the

velocity

Ui

may

be

calculated

Ui

= Gi/P(Ti)

...

5.28

-71-

where

Ui
p(Ti)

= gas
= gas

velocity
density

(m/h)
at temperature Ti (kg/m 3)

From Ui

and A, /A2.

the

reduced

gas into

velocity equation4.5(a)

UJ2 to

may be calculated obtain AP*fi.

and substituted

Hence a value of

by total

summing Pit A*
i E

equationp. is
Gi 2

29over

n chain

passes

obtained.

i.

e.

APft

{1

(A2/Al

)2

(1/

cc

2]

o-*n 2p(Ti)

AP ft

(A2/Al

)21

(1/C

1)

21

Qj2 E

0-o-n 2p (Ti

5.29

As could are be

a first attempted, If it

approximation, (i. assumed e. b= that

a linear 1) the since

temperature both T0 and

decay Tin

known.

expression

i
mwi Mw ... 5.30

is kiln,

a limiting then the

condition length of

on the chained

chain

requirement

of

the

section

can be predicted

rom
L= nAL 5.31

...

The function radiative has been

theoretical of the sums transfer by

relationship of convective, coefficients. FERGUS which

between

T and

x and

is

conductive A computer can test the

heat

programme results

devq-loped

-72-

from mass

the

kiln

chain from

'hot' one

model chain By length, optimise bay

by to

predicting the means, next, it density kiln

heat using will

and

transfer

theoretical possible area of to

relationships. predict zone the to

this

be and surface

chained a real

a chain

system.

5.4.

The

prediction by

of

radiative

heat

transfer

in

cylindrical

enclosures

zonalanalysis.

In
47

this ' is

researgh used to

programme, estimate the

the

zone

method heat

of transfer

Hottel in

and

Sarofim

radiant

the

chained

drying

section

of

the

rotary

cement

kiln.

By

knowing

the

gas

composition

and

temperature

within

the
the and

drying

zone,

it

is

possible
due to

by this
radiation

method
of the

to

estimate
chains

temperature slurry.

change

walls,

5.4.1.

Gas data.

The

emissivity/absorptivity

relationships

for

real

gas

system sum of

may be calculated a series


in

by the

use

of the

the C02

weighted
and H70

of
the

gases,
gas

providing
are known.

concentrations

cg a9

=2

{agn(Tg) 0 {asn(Tg)

1 (1 1 (1

e-knpL) e-knpL

5.32 5.33

where

n=n{agn(Tg) E 00

E {asn(Tg))

...

5.34

-73-

Having L, the values

chosen of can kn be

a suitable and p for

value various and

for

the gas

mean

beam

length, and a gn

compositions of

temperatures and asn

calculated, accordingly.

the

variation

determined

Where vapour
PH20 PC02 +P _ H20

necessary, present
must

in in
be

conditions gas
to

where

both

C02

and factor

H20

are

the
used

stream,
determine

a correction
the spectral

overlap

and corrections

to

eg made.

5.4.2.

System

zoning.

The system with the accuracy to

is

zoned desired.

into In

the this

coarsest case, having

structure the system

consistent is

simplified (comprising kiln shell

a gas-filled chain (Fig. banks) 5.6)

cylinder Sl

two

end walls by the

the wall.

and S2 contained

Because
conditions has been

of
along

the
the

relatively
kiln bay axis, then

slow

rate

of

change
of

of
one bay

a system divides

length conveniently

chosen,

which

into

three

annular

zones

and two

slices.

53

Dp

f
52
[Gas]

S+

55 Ffg. 5,6 System_ for heat transfer.

zoning

radiative

-74-

Since of pitch

the equal chain

chains to

are

hung

on a three the

spiral distance of

start, between the characteristic

one kiln banks is

diameter, D,., or 3 2B in

successive dimension.

terms

5.4.3.

Evaluation

of

direct

exchange

areas.

It area or each surface

is

necessary gas or

at

this zone areas

stage can are

to 'see' derived

evaluate of in each the effort

how

much gas of

surface These

other form of to Einstein each fit.

zone.

integro-differential calculation pre-evaluated 19 the . These values being tables exchange of kn in

equations, considerably such areas the as must gas

the reduced those be

actual by

reference

of

Erkk, 148 or for

calculated

of

absorptivity/emissivity

5.4.4.

Evaluation

of

total

exchange

areaR.

The the direct filled

areas

evaluates areas

in

the

preceding gas walls can equivalent by and

section surfaces and be ends.

are for The

exchange cylinder areas the that

between black

a gas total by

having for each surfaces for the

exchange replacing

surface by

evaluated grey plane and

black

surfaces absorption.

account

exchange

emission

The equal balance to J

leaving the on

flux

density, and reflected i gives:

at

any

surface

zone

is

emitted

fluxes;

a radiation

surface

zone

-75-

Aii

i(ciEsj

Ri)

iciEsi

+ pi(E ii

sjsiWj

+E

gjsiEgj)

or
E i 6ij

Ai
pi

)wj

AiciEsi
P,

iplEgi I

...

5.35

A series surface/surface

of

equations

similar

to zone

varying pair is

values then built

for

each up.

and surface/gas
i

From surface/surface

these

values,

the

total zone

exchange pairs

areas may be

between evaluated

and Lcin

gas/surface

jj gi ij sijci)

Pj

...

5.36

(Si8j)n Pi Si

...

5.37

Hence

sisj

Aici
Pi

(Ajcj
Pj

6ij.

cj)

...

5.38

and by difference
G-Si Aici SiSj

5.39

where, value

f) of

is the

the

I value, determinant andDij

the

cofactor as follows:

of

the

ijth

produced

SIS2 pi 2 S-; s2 S2S2p2

SIS3

wl

S2S3

*2

3 S7S3 S2S3 S3S3p3L i3

TRANSFER

MATRIX

RESPONSE VECTOR

-76-

where

6=

Kronecker's

Delta

6=0

for

all

itj

6=1

for

i=

-77-

Table a)Section

Nomenclature 5.1 to 5.3

for

section

A heat exchange Area for ..... Al,,,, Area at recovery from vena contracta A2.,,, Area of expanding jet b Exponent ..... Cbm Log mean value conqn. of molar ... CC Coefficient contraction of vena .... Cp Specific heat (constant pressure) .... Ct Total molar concentration .... D Kiln dryer diameter or ..... G..... Gas mass flux Heat transfer h coefficient ..... Jh, id-j-factors for heat and mass transfer Xl, k2' Constants Thermal k conductivity ..... System length L ..... Mass flowrate m... '. :. Mass M ... Pressure P ..... Heat flow Q ..... Reynolds Re.... Number Time variable t ..... Temperature T ..... Absolute tgpt temp. of gas and solid s Fluid u..... velocity U Overall heat transfer coefficient ..... Gas velocity U i-I System volume V ..... Velocity kiln V axis of solids along ..... Moisture fraction (dry) W.. ' , .. Moisture (wet) X content .....

a .....

Constant
M2 M2 M2 kg/M3 kcal4kg kg/m m2 kg/hm kcal/hm2oC 0C

kcal/hm2oC/m
m kg/h kg kgf /m2 keal/h

h Oc K m/h kcal/hm mh m m1h kg/kg kg/kg

20C

Suffixes
B.... C ....

Greek

a....

air
slurry chain

bulk

ft... G.... L.... O, out. * ..... * ..... t ..... V ..... W.....

frictional total gas losses shell outlet radiative slurry time water wall
distance exponent from inlet

p.. X.. u.. p.. l.. Gas: chain 2.. Slurry: chain 3.. Gas: wall 4.. Slurry: wall 5.. Gas: slurry

Pi (3.142) kg/m3 Density kcal/kg heat Latent Stefan Boltzman const. kg/mh Viscosity

1.

x ..... y .....

....

Solidr.

-78-

b)Section a ....... A ....... B ....... a) ....... 0 ...... E ....... k ....... L ....... P ....... S ....... ...... ...... T ....... W .......

5.4

to

5.4.4

(Table

3.

continued

factor Weighting Zone area dimension Characteristic Value of determinant Cofactor of determinant Stefan-Boltzman x const. Mean absorption coefficient Length zone of system Partial pressure Surface area Direct area exchange Total area exchange temperature Leaving density flux

abs. temp.

Suffixes C02 ..... C ....... H20


..... S ....... 9, G..... i ....... j ....... n ....... 1 ....... 2 ....... 3 ....... 4 .......

Carbon Chain

dioxide

Water vapour Slurry Gas Surface zone Surface zone Number of intervals Chain bank 1 Chain bank 2 Walls Gas

Greek
cc....... E:....... absorptivity emissivity

6 ....... p .......

Kroneckers density

delta

-79-

6.

Description

of

apparatus

and

experimental

techniques.

6.1.

Isothermal

modelling.

6.1.1.

Cold

model

1.

The investigate system to of

initial gas

approach flow

was to in

use

a water

model the

to

patterns kiln.

and around *as

chain

a typical of 1/60th

A model

constructed kilns, stock one kiln because influence the chain, chains and

a scale

based scaled hung to

on Northfleet with "J"inch of charge little

being one-start

geometrically spirally

a pitch the have

diameter. this was on the

No attempt difficult, flow patterns

was made to and considered in the

model to

model.

Each

model

chain

was

two

thirds

kiln

diameter

in

length, being The

and was soldered sprung into

to

a brass tube of

spiral, scale

the

latter

a perspex

dimensions. within a concentric being driven

tube

was supported tube, the tube

on nylon containing drive conditions kiln system.

bearings the

perspex at

spiral Water

1 r. p. m. by a direct the in chains the real at

motor.

was pumped Number

through to those

scaled

by Reynolds

6.1.2.

Cold

model

2. -in Section 4, time spent

Using

the

approach

some

was

on improving a result,

the a larger

design model

of to

the

isothermal scale

model

and as

1/30th

was constructed

-80-

Plate

2.

End view

of

Cold

Model

Il.

-81-

Plate

3.

Side

view

of

Cold

Model

Il,

showing

spirals.

-82-

Plates

2,3.

This three to

model chain enable of

featured sizes ease chain

a revised hung of in

chain

system

incorporating spiral, access,

a three-start substitution,

designed

chain

and variation

spacing.

Low friction former a splined rotation. give better nylon type,

PTFE bearings and the to prevent direct

were

used

to

replace

the with

drive

was provided smoother

location The model optical

slip

and give in

was installed clarity

an improved of removal

position for

to

and ease

maintainance.

6.1.3.

Experimental velocities.

procedure:

determination

of

mean bead

The these

cold

model

Mk.

2 was run scaled of to

at the

eight data

flow of

conditions,

conditions 4.11 first

being

Webe 2 using analysis were

equation, used; Petax range varying velocities Hyeam cine marks trial fixed the

Two methods . wasstill camera with

photographic using angle

photography' 28mm. wide The 'tail' still to

a 35mm. Asahi lens, at a obtain bead use a

SP 1000 of shutter lengths to

speeds. of bead

photography enable

was to

comparative method passing outer per system. was to between surface. second

be evaluated. (16mm) foot a film most film apart. to

The second film on the of beads model

camera one

two By (fps)

and error

speed

100 for

frames the

was chosen of the

as that

suitable

Analysis Mk III and sixteen

developed film

negative at replay

was on a Specto speeds of eight

motion fps.

analyser,

-83-

6.1.4.

Wind

tunnel

tests

using

cold

model

Mk.

2.

In the gravel solids probes velocity determining cold

order model charge, bed. and

to

quantify

the

water

modelling to

results, contain a

Mk. which

2 was later was angled were

modified to taken

represent using pitot to

a rotated tube map the to to each which rig.

Measurements a hot wire of and

anemometer the perspex

was used model, (These was used in

profile wall

addition were found

end effects.

be negligible. sample were of

) A minicomputer 200 readings identified taken by at

to

average

suitable

points, positioning

accurately

a vernier

Because the 7.3 required m/s

of

the

user of this

demand points,

on the a single

wind air

tunnel velocity

and of

density in

was used

determination.

Mean values determined both which through is by

for

the the

relative beads

bead across

velocities the fixed the

were marks tunnel

timing the

chains, below the

and also hanging

through chains.

formed

-84-

6.2.

Hot

gas modelling.

The kiln 1/20th Northfleet and is

chain based kiln

model

is

built

to section

a scale of

of

approximately

on a chained (Plate 4).

an A. P. C. M. Ltd.

Works

The model stepping from factor lowest PUMP. the the

is

not

full

length, along the

but real

can kiln

operate axis, Hence, system by the

by starting the is the

conditions gas the moisture

back-end

and slurry of the can

conditions. modelled be handled

limiting slurry

length which

slurry

The model through across is the which

comprises furnace raw spiral flue

a mild gas

steel flows slurry. inside

seamless

cylinder

countercurrently The and chained rotated section with

(preheated)

cement located

a three-start driven shell.

Gas and slurry points inside the

temperatures model, as are Slurry outlet and to

are the

monitored corresponding ports

at

relevant chain-tip are

and mid-wall provided a check to at

temperatures. model inlet,

sampling

and mid-points, enable the moisture

to

give content

on temperature

be evaluated.

-85"l) %-

Plate

4.

General

view

of

laboratory

test

rig,

showing

control

panel

and instrumentation.

10 x-

-86-

3.2

mm.

CHAIN HANGER SILVERSOLDERED TO SPIRAL

203.2 ie. 2/3

mm.

KILN DIAMETER

FIGURE 6.1 FIGURE 6.2

(ABOVE). CHATN ATTACHMENT TO SPIRAL. (BELOW). THERMOCOUPLE ATTACHMENT TO CHAIN.

THERMOCOUPLE TYPE: Exposed Fibreglass junction NiCr/NiAl

insulated 0.193 mm.

Wir6. diameter Comark Ltd.

_____----TllERMOCOUPLE

JUNCTION

SILVER-SOLDERED TO CHAIN END LINK

-87-

Gas velocity the model loop the in 6.6). flue,

is

controlled and the gas

by dampers temperature of

situated is

inside by

varied fired 'IF",

altering furnace (Fig.

operating

conditions with an air

an auxiliary fan

conjunction

dilution

The positive conventional.

slurry

flowrate

is pump,

regulated and is

by

a variable using

speed

displacement weighing

measured

apparatus.

The numerous

apparatus changes of the

was developed have the been rig in

over

five this

years, period. is its

and

made during its current findings

A description along with

state in

given, development.

more

significant

6.2.1.

Temperature

measurements

and control.

(i )

Chain

tip

temperature.

The using its tip. to the hot

temperature

at

the

chain

tip

was initially thermocouple

measured wire, having chain

flexible, junction

fibreglass-sheathed silver soldered of to

the

free the

hanging

(Fig.

6.2)Other were

methods investigated

attaching but found

thermocouple

chain

unsuitable.

By looping of the chain,

the the

thermocouple behaves is shell attached. via

wire as near The

loosely

through to is with

the one then

rest

chain

as possible thermocouple

where routed fireclay

no thermocouple to the outer

a brass

gland

sealed

cement.

-98-

Because

of

the

short

life a series

of of

these tests

flexible were could

fibreglass made be used Although to

sheathedthermocouples, establish to in the from represent physical chain Fig. (in whether

a probe

thermocouple transient does it

a: chain terms that the it their

undergoing thermocouple is inflexible),

heating. not can curves represent be seen are is

6-.4 that By the stream this

thermal

response

almost able a flowing to

identical. represent hot gas

method, of

a probe a chain a bed

thermocouple moving of slurry. through

response and

through

The or in the if

position slurry positive, to

of

the

probe,

whether from

in the

the

gas

stream, -

can be determined then be in is the being the the

temperature is, being heated then be the medium. in

change: and the the is

thermocouple stream. and step the is is If

assumed

gas

negative, to

thermocouple slurry. If is

cooled

assumed zero, then

temperature to

thermocouple

assumed

be in

last

identified

-89-

(ii)

Chain

and

slurry

temperature.

Ten top of dead the

thermocouples, centre

one per line radial sample

bay, along

are

mounted length

at

(T. D. C. ) in Their slurry sealed

the

kiln

section. to the is

position port of

approximately bay six,

corresponds and each the steel kiln

probe shell.

by glands

screwed are

through

The

thermocouples the 6.4)

stainless inertia as

sheathed chain.

and have (Fig.

same thermal

a hanging

Each the wall, kiln

probe and is

tip

extends at enter
of

approximately right the


rotation

40mm inside to the inside streams

mounted it, can

angles gas

such

that
on the

and slurry
from TDC.

depending

degree

To date, to monitor the

no successful slurry

method

has

been, devised

temperature

on a continous

basis.

Measurements tube chains These the to house and the

were

originally in the the

made using tunnel axis

a support the

thermocouples charge along were

between length. with

kiln to

thermocouples causing

prone

entanglemeht damage to the model.

chains, spiral

considerable support tube

chain

hanger

and the

of

the

-90-

w
J 4. ., 41 U

0 0., 4 4

a)
4.J

Ai

(U 0

W :1

44 rA c tu
:j 41 4 H

91 EI
G) H

cn Q)
1-4 ei

0 -4 w
tu

"4 (V 10 0
-v

0) w rd -4 ;j : 3: tu

4Z
cu 0Z
w 40

a) 0
-0

l* 41
0 tu

(L)

: 3: 0)
:i

tn Q)
. t2

"m -4 ro
4 C) (V 0

41
CU (2)

41
r, -H

(1) w
:j 41

:1 2
Q)

j2 4
:i

Ei 0

0 u 0

:i

Ei Q) (L) H 4-1

CD.r4 =

0 P-4
Z
4

to k
(1)
92.

i < E 4 Z U) .4 41 0 > P 4-) F-, Co P 44 CU tu 4-J 0W tu 4j P In

91. lu 04

92 0) P-f
Q. p4 Ei

:jW

:j

-4 FZ

d
C)

.Z E-4
-0
(L)

> , Co - , -f D 0 w C. r ; -4
Z 41 Co

11)

"0
4-1

--4

U)

Q)

cn (4 - 4 :1 tu Co w0 zu u :i cn cj to -f Uu cn 1-4 41 41 4.1 Ai cn
4-j 4i Gj4 j 4) Q) e)- i Qj- 4
-4 -f Ji r-4 4.1 Ai -4 --

, m

0) 4 : 3: F,

to : 3:
M

Co u
00

Ce 4-)
0

dW 4i " 4 c)

2 .

r. r. :ir. b--4 0H

:i

:i rj :j
r00 al

m-

4-) Cd

a)

4j,
0 cu

$4

0 0 0 E

w. -

U) a) 40 0 $w4

tz.

0 0

"0

E--4 10 Q) 41 cu 4-1

0 04 Cl cc

Cd a)

t P4
. rj

-91-

-f-I m CY)
r. 0

Iola 00 cq r-A cq 11 11 (1) Q)


$L4 z
Cd 4 a)

0 0 0
a) rl 4-J

co

4-)
4 C) 0 4 $.

4-) d

.a P4 -rl si +-)

e C) Q) E4-) Cd

P; E

4-)

r.

0)

0 Q) t- U CN3
"o

rA 10 Cd 0

LO

C14 cq

0 00 r-i

0 0 , rq 4J
Cd 4-J 0

LO

co CH r-4 0

Q) ;-4 NO (D

LO

IF44

"rl

0 000000
to
LO Itl co

C14

r-4

(0'2@P)

aldnooowaaq;

So asuodsaj

ain;

naadwal

-92-

Also, the model

it

was felt to the for

originally slurry anythi

that I

the

chains this

used is not

in

cooled assumption

temperature; ng but the

a valid speeds.

slowest

rotational

Hence dead reach a bulk centre thermal

it

was decided (BDC) to allow

to

stop

the

kiln

rotating

at

bottom to

the with for

probe the the

thermocouples slurry. slurry This along then the

(chain) gives kiln

equilibrium profile

temperature

axis.

As a check slurry samples

on these

readings,

the

temperature

of

the

was measured

by mercury-in-glass

thermometers.

(iii)

Gas

temperature.

The described the to axis give

gas in of the

temperature section the gas kiln. (ii), Five

thermocouples but bays profile mounted at are are more

are

similar

to

those to

robust

and extend (Fig., kiln 6.3) section,

monitored along BDC. the

temperature are

and the

thermocouples

These slurry

thermocouples the of

invariably chains the at

become some stage. of of the the

splashed This is and

with

and contact because is

unavoidable only any will solution

nature

system raw The axis data gas of

the

careful analysis

vetting

before temperature the kiln

computation' be reasonably

ca-n be. conducted. along the

consistent

-93-

and should

the

rotated correspond to pick

measured with out the

inlet static

and

outlet values. before

conditions It is therefore takes

possible place.

"rogue"

data

computation

(iv)

Shell

temperatures.

At chains into in

points described

corresponding overleaf, half

to

the

position is kiln the

of

the

monitored

a thermocouple. way through clip attached the to

cemented shell, outer and held shell

a hole position

drilled by

a spring

surface.

(v)

Thermocouple

monitor

unit.

Two thermocouple monitoring logging section of of of the the gas peripheral

amplifiers

and panel

meters

allow to the kiln to be of

temperatures changes facility to prevent

simultaneous within permits undue the rotated

temperature model. This

checks drifting

made on the experimental

temperature

conditions.

Only are taken

one

thermocouple

is

logged

at

a time;

readings at dead to all taking

automatically, one, until

one per the kiln then

second, next

commencing top

thermocouple centre the next (TDC),

reaches the continue logged,

a microswitch

updating

counter until this

thermocouple. thermocouple of

The measurements outputs revolutions have to been achieve.

eighteen the

same number

It

is

apparent

that

the

number

of

readings

per

-'94-

revolution response than rate entative low thermal the is

will rate of

vary the of

with

the

kiln uple

RPM. is

However, times

the faster and the sampling represhaving a

thermoco, the rapid data at is

many

response sufficiently sampling response

logging even peak

system, RPM to

achieve

of

what time.

essentially,

a system

(vi)

Thermocouple

calibration

technique.

Since

each

thermocouple

millivolt

output

is

switched,

and only

two

amplifiers the
individual

are

used

to

process possible

multiple is for a set

thermocouples,
rather than

only

calibration
thermocouples.

The separately
in the

"static" from

thermocouples the "rotated"

are

calibrated which

on block, are calibrated

thermcouples

same

way.

Crushed,
for and calibration, a check

melting
boiling made has with an

ice

is
water

used
as lead

as the
an to to place

lowest

set
set

point
point, each data

intermediate determine temperature. of decimals.

melting equal tape

whether The

thermocouple is stored on

response to one

punched

The with of
spot

temperatures in glass

of

the

lowest

set

points

were millivolt

checked outPut

a mercury the fabricated

thermometer,

and the

thermocouples

was first

checked

using

galvanometer.

-95-

6
La M

-i
Z

WOO
z

x0< "'L'c0

o,;

I- ui X V) La CL t w ED 0I 000

<

,,,: -, (N

0 -J

I w

U C,

ZZ
m 0 0 uj V)za z; i W, t1i cc -0 W

CCLU ui

_j cl

, n"mcn r-M2 IX < Yc UJ UJ 0. ir nir W Ir 0 CL IL : DDcl [ z I-- s Lj 7, cr c) < Z3 Z) C) , L L) z:. ) LUD aoW

xQ
C OIL . i(M

Z CD F--1 E-

co via W .. j

-jw
TDS

U) Z

cn c

CD V; U)
2c) lox
CL (I

r Z. IW

w UJI0,
cr V) C) CL CL

7,
it 0

NX

Ul

CD
I Nu<

r-

Ll

2w

cr

'Lo X

:1,
cli
L; CL

n
ui C-

P4 g:

0. Ll V,

CL

r-4

iii

-96-

(vii)

Gas

temperature

control.

The furnace air by

gas

temperature conditions damper the 6.6)

is

controlled in The conjunction

by

altering with is model the set exit

the furnace manually gas

operating fan and error, (Fig.

dilution trial

"F". control

temperature being the

temperature.

(viii)

Slurry

temperature

control.

In through temperature

the

inlet

slurry distributor the desired

storage is

tank, to

direct raise slurry

steam the bulk

injection slurry

a flow to

used

model

inlet

temperature.

6.2.2.

Flowrate

measurement

and control.

(i)

Gas

flowrate

through

the

kiln.

The are

inlet by
flow

and outlet two, in line,

gas

flowrates stainless

of steel

the

chain

model

measured

Annubar

pitostatic

elements.

The measured which This has

differential by a portable a range of

pressures pressure 0 to sends in 500mm.

from and Wg.

the flow

flow

elements

are

analyser G to its

(P. P. F. A. ),

(Appendix output

micromanometer chart recorder

an electrical addition

a single own meter

channel display.

to-having

Each

Annubar

signal

is

read

in

turn

via

a manual

-97-

switching hand in

valve, case of

and dust

a, compressed build (Fig. up 6-5) in

air the

blow-out elements

system or the

is

at

pressure

transmitting

lines.

(ii)

Gas

flowrates

from

the

furnace.

At from the

low

gas

flowrates, pitot the gas rakes

the

differential to a point

pressure where

signal precise To counter

Annubar of

drop

measurement the problem,

flowrate flow give

becomes streams the total

difficult. into gas the

the

separate

furnace

are

monitored, ihe kiln

and summed to model.

flowrate

entering

The and kiln dry gas

flowrates dilution meter,


signals

of air

combustion are measured tubes


the orifice limb tubes. is are

air,

natural

gas, plate, The

eductor

air

by orifice

cumulative

and pitot
from and the the

respectively.
plate is

differential
on to a read

pressure simple the used and

displayed are used

U-tube, signal to the from evaluate flow

inclined pitot

manometers The computer in in

program Appendix F. H.

flowrates used

given

equations

given

Appendix

(iii)

Gas flowrate

control.

The gas

gas

flowr. ate the

is

regulated coupled

by with The

the the air

rate

of

natural air fan fraction

entering for to

furnace,

excess dilution

chosen is by used

combustion trim the

conditions. flowrate, "F". (Fig. fine 6.6)

adjustments

being

made

altering

damper

-98-

(iv)

Slurry

flowrate

control.

The

slurry

flowrate

is

regulated

by

a positive

displacement

'Mono' a range

pump driven of slurry

via

a 'Carter' to

hydraulic be achieved.

gearbox, (Plate 8)

enabling

flowrates

(v)

Gas flowrate

calibration.

A steel 305mm. hole was identical This

cylinder mounted to unit

of

length

1 metre on

and

internal

diameter

horizontally ihose was in then the

a support, being in the made wind

a mounting for tunnel of Surrey, using to be a the of and

flue

Annubar. the the Civil wind

placed

Engineering effects pitot due tube.

Department, to the support effects

University investigated were found

standard negligible).

(These

A single as only with a factor

tunnel for

air the

speed Annubar pitot

was chosen pitostatic tube

for

the flow

calibration, rakes

respect

to

a standard

was necessary.

A pitostatic Annubar cylinder


taken in

transverse hole but at

was then 25.4mm.

made through across measurements

the the being

mounting diameter,
the

intervals

with
of the

additional
walls.

proximity

The

pitot

was

then

replaced

by

the

first

Annubar

and

a mean differential Annubar was then

pressure treated

reading

taken;

the

second

similarly.

-99-

-'*5

Plate

5.

Side chain

view and

of

hot

kiln

model,

showing

drive

support

bearings.

ii .uI

#i

-I

-100-

The pressure was (in used this

measurement output as the to input 3000 average

technique

was

to

feed the

the

differential of up to which take

a micromanometer, to a computer readings before

transducer set the

system, of

case) and

separate these

differential the printed

pressure output.

displaying

The

K-factor

for

each

Annubar

was

then

evalued

by

plotting
determining

the

pitot
the

transverse
mean value

values
across the

and graphically
duct area.

(vi)

Slurry

flowrate

calibration.

The rotation "bucket slurry

slurry of the

flowrate 'Carter'

was calibrated gearbox method. final

against drive

the shaft

speed by of a the

of

and stopwatch" was evaluated (950C

The moisture

content

using oven

conventional

weighing

and drying

techniques.

temperature).

6.2.3.

Kiln

chain

model

hardware.

(i)

The

kiln

tube.

The three at the

rotated to end.

kiln the

section horizontal,

is

angled the

at

approximately outlet being

degrees lower

slurry

-10100m CD -i (D -Z x

LU Z: > -i LLJ -1 LL w crui Lu F- Ci:D< cn im

w --1 < >> LU (D

z Z: l- Cl LU c -i ZZ _j

z CL 2-: n:: -i ir 1-j )-LU rL 2: LLJ ZD -i 0- U

e-. LU wW LLJ U LL(n a-, < (D

0-1-. im LU LU U LL. = _j o

-1 < (D Uci:: ZZO

ce:

C: :: D 4--1 LU Url -1

Co ;C

C:)

cMZ<< C:) (-) 0 LU Z LLJ UJ C:) c 0 LL

im -i

t 1

c4

LL-

C-4 LL-

uj

mc

LL
0
cn cn cn uj et 0Z oc u

Ul

ce.
C ME mc u

U)

co

LLJ M -i LL LU En Lli Q
Cj &-4 <

0 u

LLJ

i-

cn

-102-

6.7 FIGURE

EXPLODED

DIAGRAM

OF MODEL END SEALS

AND

FLUE.

FLUE

GAS OUTLET SLURRY INLET MANIFOLD (and end seat ) FLUE, GAS INLET

-L
VIEW TUBES TRAVELLING LIGHT PACKING RETAINERS

-Z
SLURRY OUTLET MANIFOLD

SELF

SEAL

SLURRY SAMPLE PORT

-103% %N

Plate

6.

Kiln

flue

and

damDer

arrangement.

-104v-%

Plate

7.

Mk. I slip-rings multiplex system.

and rotated

amplifier/

-105-

The

section

is

supported

on

brass

rollers

such

that

it

cannot

rise

up off

its

bearings movement. electric shell. The unit

when rotated, The kiln motor, range is 0.1 via of to tube

locating is driven ring speeds

grooves by

preventing speed the the

axial D. C.

a variable around by

a gear rotational

bolted provided per

model

motor

control

4 revolutions

minute.

The

model

itself

is

positioned

for

ease

of

access

to

the

main

furnace area. The

flue, flue

and

from

necessity and also gas

is

fitted

into bends been chosen

a small than

has more the loss

tighter path (Plate has

desired;

however,

shortest consideration.

on a gas

temperature

6)

(ii)

Chain

installation.

Because necessary which system would to

of

the

limited a suitable relative unit.

size

of method

the for

model, chain of

it

was hanging

devise enable

ease

of

removal

the

chain

as a complete

Spiral

hangers.

A three cage slurry hanger is to support

spiral the is

start three

is

modelled

using

a cylindrical the upstream Each and point

spiral

hangers; part of this

dam ring is formed

an integral 3.2mm. to are is the held

cage. rod

from

square cage at

section each

silvered the

soldered spirals direction end,

contact 6.8)

so that The slurry spiral

rigidly. when are

(Fig.

clockwise starts

viewed

from spaced

the at

feed

and the

mutually

-106-

E-1 0

co

r4
z Ln
p P. f

Ln

Cl)

cn

cn

Tifl:
00
00 C14

ZD

FA =w=-

pq w C-4 Z
P4 r-i WH pq

E--i N
F-4

04
Lr)

P-4 _4

14 E--' E-4 :3:


Z E-4

W4 E-4

-14

z En -4 cn 0= 0-1 w 1-4 En L) .4N-

pq Z fn P-4 P-4

L IN

C14 rA

E-4 : 3:
U0 w=0

E-4 -4 UU z

04 C4 =

14

cn

-107-

1200.

The

spiral

pitch

is

one

(inside)

kiln

diameter

and

there

are

ten

bays

in

the

model.

The unit removed for

is

a close or

fit

inside

the

kiln

and can be

rechaining

thermocouple

servicing.

(b)

Attachment

to

hangers.

Each face of

chain spiral hang

top_link

is

silver 6'. 2),

soldered and the each

to

the

inside end

the to

hanger-(Fig. freely. The

other

I aloowed chain in is

gap between are

successive 120 chains

25.4mm. spiral, from

and there i. e. the bays

approximately total. end) is The

each

360 chains feed all.

first

bay and there

(measured are

slurry in

unchained

10 chained

(iii)

Slurry

mixing

and

heating

loops.

Agitation tanks bent cross is by air

in

the

slurry through each

in

both 12.7mm.

inlet

and outlet diameter

slurry pipe,

mixing to fit

internal

and welded pieces

tank to

and having evenly are

interconnecting the in is the air loops

where of

necessary 1.6mm. such

distribute drilled

pressure. at spaced

Holes intervals the

diameter that even

agitation

achieved

throughout

slurry.

In heating replacing

the of

inlet the

tank slurry

only,

a two when the

way valve required, mixing

allows the

direct steam'

by steam through

the

air

flow

loops.

In

this

-108-

tank,
recycle

mixing
loop.

is

also

aided

by

the

return

flow

from

the

pump

(iv)

View

portholes.

Two view the of heat is time l. oop the outlet

tubes gas Each glass a water for from

are flue tube

welded

into

the to at

lowest give the

section best

of view

and angled is sealed is

chains.

its for

viewing cleaning

end by and at a

resistant cooled is by used

which jacket.

removable (Fig. 6. j)

One porthole is used for

viewing

and the light

other

illumination

a condensed

source.

6.2.4.

Difficulties

encountered

in

the

experimental

rig.

(i)

Slurry

handling.

Conventional unsuitable cement flow slurry, characteristics for the

pumps

and valves and abrasive material.

were flow

found

to of

be the raw

transport the of

control

due to

nature

and the

non-newtonian

this

The self section seal

outlet system, to fill

from at with

the times

model

was prone the

to entire

blockages chain

in model

the

causing

slurry.

Electrical because However, in practice, caused of the life

heating degree of of the the

of

the

slurry

bulk control

was first that it

attempted affords. lived the as

temperature heater poor

the

elements thermal of the

was very

short of

because rapid

conductivity elements

slurry

overheating

as soon

-109-

slurry

had

solidified

around

the

heater

thermostat.

Thermocouple

life.,

Initially temperatures being length upwards mounted of to the

the inside inside model.

thermocouples the model

used section tube tube

to

monitor not

gas rotated, along

and slurry

were positioned the

a support From gas this

the

axial

thermocouples for

protruted slurry which to

monitor This

temperature,

and downwards by tube section. the

temperature. wrapped rotate

assembly around along with

was damaged the support kiln

chains,

themselves this tube

and attempted

the

In under chain

addition,

the conditions

chain

tip

thermocouples of mechanical

had

a short in

life the

working system.

because

stress

(iii)

Temperature

monitoring

system.

A continuing output electrical around the from the noise chain by the

difficulty rotated generated model

in

measuring has copper This being

the been

amplified that of situated

thermocouples by the

slip-rin2s interference carried

circumference. of rise slurry to the caused poor ageing

was caused slipring In addition stems

splashes giving

onto contacts.

the

brushes, to of not this

electrical of the

problem, brushes

beryliumbrush lift-off,

copper

the

occasional by providing

a situation brush set.

entirely

rectified

a parallel

-110-

Gas

suppl

The burner visual the hence the

oil-fired rig,

furnace and of being the flue. fan is the

was provided flames

initially with inside. above that the can

designed sliding These lmm. be doors

as

an to

oil enable

test

examination furnace restrict model loop eductor the chain of from

doors Wg, ducted of the and

prevent

pressurised of after the still gas

volume Even to

through a forced gas by flowrate

installation suction,

draught through perturbations ,

boost was

flue

model the wind

strongly-affected the chimney stack.

around

(v)

Chain

model'slurry

seal.

Due to
slurry does at the not through

the

action
the model

of

the
is not fill

chain

spirals,

the
stream seal also fell

flow
and

of
hence

a steady the self was content

always slurry when

completely exit. the This slurry

arrangement prone below to

arrangement moisture

blockages 35, wt

% (wet

basis).

6.2.5.

Resultant

alterations

in

design

nhilosophy.

(i)

Slurry

handling.

To dispense Valves

with

the

unreliability a variable to

of

flow speed the

control positive raw slurry

and pump recycle

loops,

displacement to the model

11.1ono' pump was used at a controllable rate.

deliver

-111-

Also,,

motor

driven

screw

type

conveyor

was

installed and electrical

in

the

slurry

outlet of heating the

pipe slurry alone

to by being

aid

material

transport elements raise the

heating steam

immersion used to

was abandoned, slurry

temperature

when necessary.

(ii)

Thermocouple

life.

The
slurry inserted being along are more the used

static

thermocouples
were the kiln are able kiln; the slurry

used

to

monitor
probe-type

gas

and

temperatures through robust, axis to ofthe

removed shell. to

and These monitor

thermocouples probes, temperature

replacement the gas

smaller

probe

thermocouples (Fig. 6.3)

monitor

temperature.

Prior thermocouples temperature temperatures that of an the

to

the it

failure was that found are able possible of

of

the to

flexible compare

chain the

tip

measured The

with were probes

the to to (Fig. be

smallerprobe very similar, the

units.

indicating thermal response

represent 6., 4)

individual

chain.

Thermocouple

slip-ring

assem-bl

. has has plated

The been been

design

and siting revised having in and

of - the

slip-ring

assembly unit rings, gold

completely constructed

a precision-built copper (Plate

machined holder

and sandwiched

a perspex

The a drive

assembly shaft

has

been

resited, in one

now being end of

driven the model

by loop

through

a gland

0) 1-4

--

92

"4

r=
tel r-

fd

0 u

00

Co

Q) Q) 0 , zi 10 wW lu 0 tu Q) w0

pw 1: 14 &A P4

I C )w
w ZD n :31. CD

:4
Pw gz CD

w
H

cn
P4

C)

:: D CD C)

-4 Qi 7)--4 15z.

p4

U) E-4 p4 Z

. Ad ,jX

"-4G) D-4 gn ul
1 4.1 1

cu44 LO Z:

tu

0 u

. -2 p4

CD

Vi

CD

w N-2 r4 :: 3 f2.

4J
41 ZI

N4 cu 41

c2. 0 41

4.1
(U ch 0) r: c 0u

cn cn t:4

92 .

lie

Fr vI
qlllllllllm! llL7l

UK,

11

114-.
L'*)

Plate

9.

Mk. II

slip-rings

and

brush

assembl

-115-

flue. the

The slip-rings

drive

shaft and is

houses driven

the by

electrical the kiln as

connections it rotates.

to

The

brushes

are

constructed

from

low

resistance

carbon,

and this

are

sprung

loaded by slurry

against is

the

sliprings;

fouling impossible.

of

assembly

now virtually

Gas

supply.

The

combustion

gas

flowrate

to

the

model

has

been

increased at This unit, up to

by

using

a gas-fired gauge easily stable In gas to the

furnace positive controlled in order operation to

capable pressure. than the as

of

operating 'G)

75 mm. is is also

water more more

(Appendix. Oil-: 4irdd as

furnace and

well a finer

having degree

a shorter of the the flue control eductor model to

warm-up over air inlet prevent the

period. inlet

obtain to

temperature model plate the outlet inserted

the

model, ducted to

supply and

was

a blanking past

into

the

leakage

dampers.

(v)

Chain

model

slurry

seal.

The although the range

screw ensuring of

conveyor the

installed efficient contents gas seal.

in

the

slurry of did the not

outlet slurry effect

pipe, over a

removal studied,

moisture adequate was

sufficiently arrangement seal at this

A "nodding-donkey" to provide an "on-off"

fabricated

(Fig6AO)

point.

-116-

to 0)
C: : ]c

H0

\ L J

(n

c
0 rc C: 0 -P

'U

M 0 U" j It

LD -0 0 -P 0

4-3 0 >
-r-4 IL

1 it

It T3
vv En 0 r4 Li

C Cl 0

I
0 C-) 4-J 03 -e cn c

t'a C:
-r-4 -. 1 :1 >0 IU r-4 M

bLO
C H (U a) CO -P

6 r-i

4 00 (1)

4 >,

Ef)

LL

(1)

iLO

> C: 0 =) u cn

a) Cf) (n U

-117-

7.

Treatment

of

results,

and

discussion.

The approximated in heat for the three which and

equations by gas mass and

previously assuming slurry a step conditions take length i. e. system.

derived length are within as

in

seAion the

55' are kiln axisAll and of

along steady this 1 kiln diameter

state. section, bay for

transfer its

place is 0.33 taken

convenience chained spiral

length a

section, start

x kiln

1
EGG C [GG PGTG]i ], $G T G +,

m. wi

cl

CPS T

[GB

Sl i-i
I

Cs

- -LBay

.ps
(i) I Bay (i+l)

Bay

(i-1)

Figure

7.1

Heat-transfer

in

a one

bay

section.

It

can be deduced

by reference
IGBli-l -

to

Fig.! 7.1

that

IGGli+l GGli -

IGBIi ` MWJ 7., l

where area

Mwi (csa)

is of

the

moisture per

evaporated hour.

per

unit.

cross'sectional

slurry

-118-

7.1.

The

prediction

of

net

radiant

heat

transfer.

Using

the

exchange

view

factors

evaluated

from

section

it

is

possible within

to

predict drying to be

the

net

heat thus

transfer enabling

to the

all convective

surfaces heat

the term

zone, isolated.

transfer

Using general denote

the

same heat

flow

terms but the

described suffixed individual 'Ir"

in to

the

approach radiative

of section-5, heat transfer,

heat

flows

are

as follows:
(t4 t4) + C(t4 _ t4) + VC(t4 t4))

Qlr =a
Q3r =a Q5r =a
the

9cscwc
{CW(t4 t4) + :W-(t4

...

7.2

9wswcw
{j-S(t4 _ t4) + (5-S(t4

t4)

CW(t4 _

t4)

...

7.3

9scsws

t4)

W-S(t4 _

t4))

...

7.4

where
length.

exchange

areas

(FC, d-W etc.

are

for

one. bay

The heat would when denote these

flows heat

Q2r transfer are

and Q4r

do not

exist to the slurry.

because wall

these

quantities immersed in

and chain

surfaces

the

7.2.

Evaluation

of

convective

heat

transfer

coefficients.

7.2.1.

Gas to

slurry.

(Slurry

side)

The

gas

to

slurry

heat

transfer

coefficient

is

evaluated

by taking
gas to the

into
slurry

account
from

all
all

convective
causes in

heat
a one

transfer
bay section

from
of

the

-119-

the

kiln.

Hence,

h5 = (Q5 - Q5r)/{As(TG

TS)l

7.5

where

Q5 =

(GBCPSTS)i

(GBCPSTS)i_l

7.6

(CPS)i

= 0.2616(l

XS)i -

+ 1.0076(XS)

...

7.7

h6

= HTC gas/slurry

Kcal/h

M20C

7.2.2.

Gas to

chain.

. and

Neglecting

conduction no-interaction

along

the

chain chains:

from

the

kiln

wall,

assuming

between

hl

= (Ql

QlR)/{AC(fG-

T-C) Ix

3600

...

7.8

where

Qj

= MCCpCATC chain per bay x RPM/60 of chain/second gas bay to chain Kcal/hM20C

MC = mass

ATC = temperature hl = heat transfer area

change

coefficient chain per

Ac = surface

x RPM/60

7.2.3.

Slurry

to

chain.

h2 = Q2/ {Ac (Ts

Tc-) Ix -

3600

...

7.9

where

Q2 =-

MCCpCATC

7.10

-120-

If is the In to
the

Q2 takes to is

a negative in

value, the

fGTC then > and slurry; in the the if positive, moving chain by is the gas

the

chain

assumed chain the

be immersed assumed to

then stream.

be hanging is last zero,

case the

where fluid

the

value

assumed sign of

be in

stream
change.

identified

temperature

7.2.4.

Gas

to

wall.

This

individual

heat

transfer

coefficient

is

calculated

in loss

a similar from the

manner kiln

to shell

the is

chain taken

coefficient, into account.

but

the

heat

h3 = (Q3 - Q3R + QL)/{AW(T-G

T-W)j

...

7.11

where

Q3 = +MWCpCATW MW = mass CpC = specific TW = change of of wall/bay heat wall of

... x RPM/60 steel

7.12

temperature/second

7.2.5.

Slurry

to

wall.

M=

(Q4 + QL)/{AW(T-S

fW-))

...

7.13 . 7.14

where

Q4 =-

MWCpCATW to wall leaving: entering the

h4 = HTC slurry AW = area wall/bay

gas

7.3.

Prediction

of

kiln

shell

heat

losses.

These atmosphere

losses by

are

essentially through

the the

heat kiln

loss shell.

to

the

conduction

Providing

-121-

that by the

the

system

is through and

under the

steady shell

state can be losses

conditions, directly from

the related the shell

losses to

conduction radiative

convective

heat

surface.

From relationship coated been

experimental for shells the

work emissivity in terms

carried

out

by Kuhleso, heavily temperature dust

(-ds)'of of surface

steel derived,

has

Eds = 0.96

5.2

10-4(t

373)

...

7.15

Jenkins'3 with the general

has

combined

convective heat transfer

heat

transfer 7.16

data

radiation

equation.

QR

t4 (ka 'ds

t4)

7.16

to

give

an

expression

for

the

total

heat

loss

from

a unit

area

of

kiln

surface.

6.2039

10-4

(tk

72)f (t

8813.4 __9.181*33X 273)

(tk

4ka

ta)

I* 33 +

4.88

10-8(0.96

5.2

10-4(t

k-

373)1

(t

t4)

Kcal/m

2h...

7.17
OK

where

t,. = kiln

shell

temperature

ta

= ambient

air

temperature

OK

7.4.

Evaluation

of

slurry

drying

rate.

The

drying

rate

per

bay

section

is

evaluated

from

the

change

of

slurry

moisture

content

across

this

section.

-122-

Hence MWj = GB(XSi XSi-l)/(loo XSJ-J) ITD2 X 4 7.18

...

where

MW, = mass GB : flow

of of

water slurry content

evaporated/hr kg/h of M2 slurry

in

the

bay

section

XS = moisture

(% wt

basis)

The predicted
and slurry

amount from
outlet.

of the

moisture measured
In the

evaporated values
absence

from inlet,
further

each

bay

is

at
of

mid-section
data, a linear

relationship

is

assumed

between

measured

data

values.

-123-

7.5

Prediction

of

slurry

shear

rate.

In calculation able It not is by to

order of predict

to

evatuate

the

viscosity it

of is

the

slurry to at

for be any

the

dimensionless the that of kiln shear the rate

numbers, acting

necessary slurry is but

on the

time.

assumed the of flow

greatest along wall

shearing the and kiln

action axis,

caused by the

material shell

rotation

the

the

attached

chains.

7.5.1.

Shear

rate

due

to

kiln

shell

wall.

'. I-I

Consider slurry exist layer in this at a radial

an element velocity wall to

of of

wall

moving

through

a bed gradient-,

of *ill

w m/h. A velocity slurry with boundary respect

between is

the

and the

layer to

6, which

assumed instance.

be stationary

the'VLll

W=o w =2TrNR
Boundary layer thickness

Wall
Fig. 7.2 Schematib representatfon 'at the kiln wall. shell of 'the' boundary

element

layer

The

rate

of

shear

of

the

slurry

streamlines

at

any

point
layer

between
can be

the

kiln

shell
by

wall

and
7.19.

the

slurry

boundary

expressed

equation

-124-

AT =Aw/A6

....................

7.19

7.5.2.

Shear

rate

due

to

chains.

This

treatment

is

from

necessity

an

oversimplific-

ation in of the

of

the

viscosity of within

relationship previous complex


w=OU

of

the

slurry.

However, subject

abscence rates

experimental models, it

data must

on the suffice.

shear

w=2TrNR

OMOC

T
Fig. 7.3 Boundary layer applied to a chain length

The slurry except


the

shear

rate in

due

t6

the

action to will

of that

chains of

on the the from wall,

is that

treated

a similar boundary
of the

mann6r layer
chain.

a tubular
submergence

result

complete

On a macroscale, boundary layer

the

rate in

of the

shear form

across of

the

slurry 7.20.

can be written

equation

T= w /6

....................

7.20

7.5.3.

Prediction'of

boundary

1"er'thi'ckne's's.

For

turbulent

flow,

boundary

layer

theory

34

predicts

that: 6 =x( lj/Vpx)* 2 *0.376 ........... 7.21

and

for

laminar 6=(

flow: 5 *4.64 ........... 7.22

llx/pv)*

-125-

Because is is expressed sophistical. It thickness of moisture of has the in

the terms

prediction of the fltdd

of

boundary viscosity,

layer the

thickness problem

thus been cement

necessary

to

actually layer

measure over

the

slurry

boundary

a range A simple thick-

contents, method in

temperatures of assessing C2.

and shear the boundary

rates. layer

experimental ness is

described

Appendix

7.6.

Revised

prediction

of

heat

transfer

areas..

In within the kiln

order chain

to

estimate model, the using it depth

the is

area

for

heat to

transfer certain charge. bed action slurry.

necessary of the to slurry

make bed

assumptions The design

concerning concept of

dam rings

control of the of

the the

height of the

was not chain most the

entirely

satisfactory and the conditions, very

because nature the but of

spirals operating model is

cement material of

Under through irregular

passage is more to the

not

smooth, chain

a series next. passage deal with

motions Current

from

one

bank

literature kilns

concerning does

the not

of

wet

solids

through

and dryers most of the

slurries

and dispersions,

maerials, et the kiln al.


41

studied in their

being

sand, plastics original their ions kiln and paper time

and woodchips. on this formula

Sullivan limit

subject, to They

application void of

of obstructto take

an empty also

constrictions.

propose

a factor

-126-

into

account

the

effects

of

chains,

lifters

and other

inserts.

Observation passage 300 kg/h this the ring), data slurry it is of at material a kiln

of

the is

kiln optimum

model at

has

indicated mass

that flowrate

the of

a slurry of 1.5

rotational 3.4 of to

speed and

RPM. By substituting value slurry for dam

into

equation

assuming width factor

a global of the

bed height possible

50 mm., (the estimate the

'IF". 3.4

where

FSDNf................. 1.77 L v/0 The factor Sullivan 0.40 SDN "F" et assumes a value of

0.227,

and

the

relationship

of

1 14 now becomes: a 7.23


material can be

L VO .................
the holdup of bed

From

the

residence

time,

evaluated

using

equation

7.24.

Volumetric H=

flowrate, Empty

of. material volume of kiln


1 to

E. x x.. 100
7.24

........... The (direct) calculating solids slurry rotational holdup, in the area for heat transfer for from froM a given equations to slurry gas

slurry

charge speed by first the of

may be estimated the it holdup is then for

rotational 7.23 evaluate mass

and 7.24. the flowrate

From

possible a given

volume

model

and kiln.

speed.

-127-

Referring can be expressed

to

figure7.4, in terms of bed

the the

volume kiln

of

the

slurry and the

bed half

'IV" angle

radius

subtended

by the

slurry

planar

chord. J.

V=r.

[yl 2 -

tan iteration

......... it 7.25 calculate

7.25 is for the the

By simple possible half


Fig. kiln 'I. 4- Sketch of cross-section.

procedure equation to then

to

solve "" depth and

angle bed

slurry

from

equation

7.26.

r-r. L The slurry,


then

sin tan

fl ...... between the slurry ....

7.26

direct

area simply
from

for

heat as the

exchange chord
7.27.

the

gas

and the is

reckoned
calculated

of

surface,

equation

Ags The area of wall

=2. r. sin. to

L the gas stream

.......... is estimated

7.27 from

exposed

equation

7.28. Agw =2-r-OT-O. L in the wall total direct gas ......... streamin 7.28 the slurry, by for the heat

and or

the laying

area

of

chains the in

hanging kiln shell

against program is taken

can be calculated internal area area

computer exchange the

Appendix

H. The the

as the

sum of areas.

"Ags to plu s

gas: wall

and gas: chain

-128-

7.7

Results

of

experimental

investigation

(Isothermal

model).

7'. '7.1.

Water

modelling.

Using photography model is

the has devoid

techniques revealed of to

discussed that the

in fluid the

section flow chains

6, high through acting areas of

speed the

cine

perspex

macroturbulence, fluid be is less not stream.

as flow high but of in turbany

straighteners ulence event were water

the to

Localised than to the

found

frequent suited

expected, detection

modelling

micro-

turbulence.

Kiln flow

rotation in the

had the chain the wall.

no visible but the

effect

on the to by the

aerodynamic fluid faster flow bead chains

patterns by

model,

resistance

exhibited velocities and the

banks tunnel

was indicated left beneath

the

through kiln shell

hanging

7.7.2

Air Wind

modelling. tunnel in tests using hot wire perspex the gravel anemometry model charge Air and pitot proved up to that 20%

tube the

traverses axial gas than also chains

a non-rotated across the the cause chains findings

have is

velocity through

greater have the

themselves. of water in

model

results in that gas stream.

confirmed do not

modelling the moving

macroturbulence

-12900

t
N

%D

14
Lr) 0) 10 0

44

.0
Co

10

P-4

cn

Co

44

41
d-, % Ici

t
1Z2 cu ci Q
44

%_o

r.
to

"0 tu ai c
44

0 ., 4 C C) r-1 g

9)
0 1-4 0 1--4

0 >

. "4 44

Q)

(U >

G) >

41 to

F-4 00
r_ clo

a)

41 0

r. 0 . "j
41

,Z Co

01 OA

-130-

7.8.

Results

of

experimental

investigation

(Hot

model).

7.8.1

Gas

to

chain

heat

transter.

The heat representing the relationship In the

transfer scale

from is

the gas to presented

the in

probe

thermocouples which shows

chains the Number correlated

figure7.6,

between Reynolds has been

dimensionless range to studied, yield

Nusselt

and Prandtl the empirical

groups.

(2000-50,000), the following

relationship relationship:

[hgc k or

De]=

3.08

10-19

[2

4*33 D

Nuc

3.08

10 -19

Re

4 33 .

......... 52 to tube.

7.29

Coulson the transfer

and Richardson of heat Nu = from 0.24

33 use a gas

the

data over

of

Hilpert a single

predict

flowing

6 o. Re predicted
the

.................. by equation
gas: chain

7.30 7.30 (30-440

The heat
kcal/hm2C, of 1-85

transfer
) are

coefficients
higher . than

experimental

coefficients

kcal/hm2C

The flow over

experimentally a bank is This chain, of based tubes

derived or ov6r heat

data

does

not tube to

agree

with

that the

for Nusselt

a single transfer the the

because a dry, slurry transfer coating

Number

group

on the

coated surface is a rate,

thermocouple. of the real

accurately but the

represents thickness slurry of moisture

heat slurry

variable and

dependant is not

on the

content

and drying

as such

quantifiable.

-131-

- f 1 t
3-. . : WR LHI [I

2 o-I
ca

x, u

1 -1

-4 :1 C: 71 Q)

e
1

L n cf

NUL
"o W !

s7 V-1 'e

cn

It

W mll If ,,

tp,

z 4.1 Lr

t
U) z z

t+I +- ft-

I+, - + I-A I

41 11 # 41h

lit

Jii t- IN :1-

i
lo
23456789

i 'I

`
ro-

[ " T M M"', ; I , i
1456759 11()-

Gas

Reynolds

Number

Fig.

7.6

Nusselt Number

Number vs' Reyn'dl'ds_ (Gas: Cha:in)

-132-

The unless

effect

of

the

film

resistance coatings by the are chains.

is

likely

to which

be very would

slight

considerable

slurry

present, Further of flow

subsequently the banks the two

be destroyed lie to in the

differences across Irregularity result in n6nthe

between chain of

systems

distribution of staggered buildup

as compared chain geometry


highly

a bank t6

tubes. will

due

slurry
flow.

uniform,

turbulent

7.8.2

Gas

to

wall

heat

transfer.

The groups and This the

relationship on the flowing

between heat

the

dimensionless between the

Nusselt dry, dust in

and Prandtl covered figure of wall 7.7. the

based gas

transfer the

through has been

model,

is to

presented yield
686

relationship

correlated
fG

an equation

orm:

r hgw D ] L -k

0.58

DIO .

UTI-i

or
Nuw

0.686 0.58 Re ........... 7.32

These proposed coefficients.

findings

are

in

close

agreement gas to wall

with

equation heat

7.33 transfer

by Perr Y23 to

predict

convective

hI=

23.7

G'o .

67 ...........

7.33

The Nusselt higher than the

Numbers values

in

the

kiln

chain

model

are

in

general is

predicted

by Perry's

23 equation,

which

-133-

M 02

L. -j

.151 LEI

10

10

ooe
-4

u-at* .
1,

(n

L `2 El E

Ni
f bjj'Winb;t

1OF

Figure

7.7

Nussel't Number

Number

vs

Reynolds

(Gas': Walls)

for heat kinson

gas

flowing

over coefficients

a rough, is of

empty 10-104 12.5 flux

tube.

The

range.

of

convective and to Watwall of fluxes

transfer 27 'predict for 0.2 kg/hm2

kcal/hm2C. for kg/hm2 limited be

Tscheng the in to gas a kiln gas

a value a gas but less,

kcal/hm2C of 2000 is

coefficient diameter of 3000

mass their and

metres, or

data cannot

mass

reliably

extrapolated.

7.8.3

Slurry

to

chain

heat

transfer.

Measurements and been the heat

of

the

heat

transfer within moisture over-thinning

betweeh the kiln

the chain range

raw

cement

slurry

exchange slurry

surfaces in the with

model 35-50 slurry

have weight have been

made using

content of

7o (wet

basis)Experiments

the

-134-

Clq

0 F-I

0 0 C/I
a)

4-4 0
$-4

00
w I I P4

U)

w ., I 0

t4-) Cd
4-3

4J Cd q

E E
4-3 0

CD

F-4
r
C)

z
a "0
P4

P4 ;3

ro

(1) Cd (3)

4
r.
Cd

Cd Q) $_4 Uu

Cd C)

w C) P-4 U

0
rq

>1 Cd 9Q

rn

>1

; m4

144

Cd

Cd

co

ul

E-4 00

. rl

Cd

; -4 z

(1)

0
4J Cd

TI

co

Cd

k .q
P-4 UO "A Pr

Ei Q

;.4 (1)
Ei E-4 >1 k 4

ib
I
04

C9

Cd E-4 C)
P-4

$--4

4-

a)

r-4

:z

4J ---

cd

Cd blo
r-I

08 pcq cr)
ce) r--q n0 Ln 00 Ln mn 00 tcr)
e% m 0 r4 m 4j

(D cri

W (1)

9-4 u,

uu

+i

TEXT OFF ORIGINAL

CUT IN

300 Slurrv
250

Flowrate

0410 0 300 200 Kg/h

200 Cd 0 150
4-J IH 4-4 0) 0 u A 0)

0
100

0
Cd 4

E-4
4J Cd (1)

50 0

0 Fig. 7.9

20 (above).

# 40 Kiln Variation Rotational

60 Rotational of Speed Slurry:

80 Speed Chain

100 (Elbep/Rev)

120

HTC vs. Kiln

250

200 Cd 0 150
4-4 0 u

100
Lo r. Cd $-4

50 Cd

00
KNn

61D Rotational

90 100 Speed(Secs/Rev.

Fig7.

lOslurry:

Wall

HTC vs Kiln

Rotational

Speed.

-136-

undertaken Scale contents viscosity chains

in

an attempt-to were found to

kinematically become ineffective to the its

scale... the at

slurry

bed.. moisture

__

slurry

below of

35 weight the slurry

%, owing as it

rapid puggy

increase zone.

in

apparent

enters

Heat thermocouple

transfer

coefficients

between chain

the

slurry in

and the the range and the

probe 20 to kiln on I, eval-

representing depending (fig7.9). surfaces holdup

a single on the slurry

were

275 kcal/hm2C, rotational the uated heat

mass

flowrate have been

speed. transfer the

The coefficients presented in

based

table

I. 2, Appendix 7.24.

from

predicted

by equation

Although expected the from

the

scatter

on the having mass

experimental

results

is

high,

as

a system of slurry

complex flowrate

and unpredietable, on the coefficients

geometry, can be a positive the increased are the dragged effects

influence

seen, to effect velocity through of bed being heat the

be significant. on the coefficients, of

The kiln which the heat

rotational can

speed, has by

be explained surfaces has been mixing,

component the solids

exchange

as'they made for within the and

charge. caused of by

No allowance the internal

transfer effects

slurry conduction

penentration a combined

on solids coefficient.

convection

absorbed

into

(i)

Prandtl

Number.

The

physical

properties

of

the

slurry

are

present-

ed in

figure7l.

which

is

a plot

of

the

Prandtl

Number

vs.

the

-137-

I-

(n

V-1

(D

d-% 1 %-l'

CO

P
e -r-4

tp4 0 0 0

Co >

0
0

:Z
(n ce

0-%

r-1
0

Cd

.0 E Co
r.

::
p ce 9-,

:1

m
uj -0

Co

Q) ce ri =
v 4-4l
. r

>

r.

p4
10

c u ;-4

rn m Cd
:
p

>-

0
Co

Ir-4

:ZN

1-e

r-A Fro

Ic e

LO CY)

0 cr)

LO cq
r-i 4-) r4
Cd

N
10 ;m1

LO r-4

LO

-138-

$-4

9 z m Ici
r-i Z

Ici
CH
. "j

0 Ici

Ici
10

Iri
r_ ce 4--) Gal

C14

r--l

cli

P-4

I; q

llv, k: AaanTS ( olx). iaqwnN uo4u'e4S

uT, eqo:

A. T.TnTS

-139-

modified

Reynolds

Number by kiln the

for

three

slurry

mass flowrates. in Appendix rate of

This

Reynolds

Number, calculated account of both the

method

described speed

B, takesinto passage

rotational the kiln.

and, te

material

through

The plots easing rate is Reynolds

show

that

the

Prandtl the'

Number effect

decreases of theslurry

with

incrflow-. *:.

Number

and that

mass

significant.

(ii)

Stanton

Number.

The effect Number on the latter on the results cannot Stanton with Number is

of

the

modified in but data

slurry

Reynolds The scatter of the

presented is high,

figure7.12,. the effect

slurry

flowrate with the

be analysed

limited

available.

Because relatively Stanton ividual

the constant

specific over this

heat

and bulk of to and

density conditions the the

of

the

slurry the the

are

the'range case reduces

studied,

Number heat

in

ratio-between fluid although heat respect viscosity

ind-

transfer the between

coefficient kiln the the rotational slurry return and for

term. the

Thus, increasing coefficient surfaces, speed.

speed, the effort

increasing exchange to the

internal with

decreases

kiln

lljh"-f

actor

f or'

heat

transf

er.

Using

data

taken

from

lines

drawn

through

the

points

-140-

of

figures

7.11,

and 7.12, in

the figure can

"j"-factor 7.13as be seen is not to

for

heat

transfer of the

has modified

been

evaluated slurry the at

and plotted Reynolds

a function that marked, one or at

Number. It slurry speeds.

slow

rotational more

speeds, pronounced

effect higher

of kiln the

flowrate This is

but more 7.5 is in

becomes of the

due

following: bed holdup

a)

hypothesis kiln that heat

proposed*in speed are

section and slope, occurring

for not the

solids entirely

with and the

rotational discrepencies exchange

accurate of

calculation

areas.

b)

solids speeds, well thick

convection leading to beds

becomes the is is being

more

significant that heat

at

higher in that

kiln thin in the of '

conclusion fundamentally

transfer from this is

stirred

different show that of

beds. There reason slow

evidence the

to

indeed core

case, the slurry, at

existance speeds,

an unmixed

r6tational

as investigated

by Vaillant?

c)

the

basis is

for not

the

calculation

of accurate.

the

modified

Reynolds

Number

sufficiently

It

is

likely

that

any

deviation

from

the

ideal

case

is

due

to

a combination

of

a), b)

and c),

Direct of of equation the

comparison 5.3 is not

of

these

results because

with of

the the of

"J"-factor in

analogy basis

possible calculation.

difference a hydraulic

Reynolds

Number

The use

mean dia-

-141-

2
.a 0 A 41 Q ii4O; Mi 4ti l I

0 -,

z (n 10 r-q 0

mu m

I
, Wt
ai l
,0 1.4 0
r I ot t 14 1 1
tI

I, N M
1 7

P4 "o .W

. 41 I H tH M f

NEI! it, 4. j4 fl 44 'M


17f 4 41
94

i 11 I'l

e 10
4
'All

4-4 -4

0 E U)

tH

M 0 Cd
Cd (D 4 P4 0

w H H Cd

-wwrw
z

@%
Ici * Is

I,: ,

p zi r-1 Co

Tj fi ll! jil
4 4J4 r

Eii
1" 1. 4 1 11 r 11

Cd

j;

t 14

.0 r-q

;4 4 + i it 71 1 t

t-

I!V ii

4 11 ttlt

Ej

10

l ti I

tf

ii

i i+

4f

++tt ++-t +

Tt7T 77,

4t. 10

v rm 1 -4w
E/Z a cl* Is

aN

-142-

meter meter

might with

enable reference

an analogy to cement

to

be made, but is

defining

a wetted

peri-

slurry

almost

meaningless.

The

results

correlate
JR = ScPr 2/;

to

give
31.2

equation

7.34

:
-7.34

Re-o: ' 72 G 0-60

...

7.8.4.

Slurry___to

wall

heat

transfer.

The slurry: compare and have speed. well the with

wall the

heat

transfer chain

coefficients coefficients curve to changes

of of

80-225 section in kiln

kcal/hm2C 7.8.3 rotational

slurry:

same shape

response

(1)

Prandtl

Number.

The Prandtl erties except The the (fig. for 7.11) the for are

Number

values to those Number in

for of at

the the which

slurry: slurry these is

wall to

propchain occur. in

identical Reynolds difference of

modified this

values discussed

reasons bdundary

Reynolds 7.5.

Number

layer-theory

section

(H)

Stanton

Number.

The

slurry:

wall

Stanton

Number

groups,

(fig.

7.12)

show

less

scatter

than to in (ii)

the

slurry:

chain

values, from

and exhibit the range

a similar of the latter

relationship mentioned

Reynolds above.

Number, apart

-143The results
jv,

correlate
= ScPr2/3

to

yield
32.8

equation
Re0.6 1 GO-59

7.35!
...

7.35

(ii!

) "j"-factor

for

heat

transfer.

This described figure7.14it rate is for the

factor slUrry:

was evaluated chain factor_in the effect

in

a similar section'7.8.3". of the

manner

to

that From flow-

(111). mass m6re

can be seen-'that insignificant, at faster at kiln low

slurry

Reynolds

Numbers, becoming

noticable

speeds.
0

The reasons in the section concerning

for

this the

have

been

discussed for slurry:

previously chain.

"Jh"-factor

7.8.5

Overall

heat

transfer.

i)Effect

of

gas

flowrate.

The'overall inlet range shows and the 7.8.3. and outlet 2.3-16.4 the

heat conditions

transfer of the

coefficients kiln chain gas

calculated model flowrate. overall rotational discussed in are in

from the

the

kcal/hm2C, effect the the

depending of gas

on the flowrate effect having

Figure

7.15

positive illustrates governing

on the of'kiln been

coefficient speed, section

also factors

negative latter

Bowers kcal/hm2C These in in

and Reads' limestone kilns

have of are

reported inside inclusive is the

overall diameter of the

coefficients 1.2 to 2.7

of

35

metres. zone,

coefficients. radiative

however, heat

calcining mode.

which

transfer

dominant

-144A 0

Gas

Mass

Flux

8
Oil-Fired

2715 3560 4360 52601 Furnace

Kg/hm

Results

Cd 05

F-4 =

r-4 r-I Cd 01

A'I

Kiln

Rotational f. 0

Speed

(RPM) f. 5 2! 0

0
0 Cf. 5

Fig 7.15 Overall Heat Transfer Speed for a range of

Coefft. vs Kiln Gas Mass Fluxes.

Rotational

0'20

Gas

Mass

Flux=9600 Rate T)

Kg/hm Coefft.

Cd 0

o From n Prnm

Drying 0/(A-

15
U

Cd P 010 0

Cd

Slurry
ID Fig7.16

Mass Flowrate 360


Transfer Coefft. Mass Flowrate.

(Kg/h)

00
Average_Heat Slurry of the

as

a function

-145-

ii)Effect

of

slurry

flowrate.

The coefficient have been

irifl'iience'of is shown in

slurry'flowrate figures 7.17.

on the-'overall-he'at and 7.18.


f

transfer coefficients

Two overall

calculated:

a)

from

the

inlet

and outlet-gasland

slurry.

conditions.

b)by the

back-calculation measured wet gas

from

the

drying

rate

coefficient

using

temperature.

Comparing in close. of

the

values despite

of

a)

and b), it of

can be seen on the

that results.

they

are The

agreement kiln

a degree speed is

scatter

effect

rotational

insignificant.

The table rate

range

of

values results effect

of

the

overall been

coefficient in

are figur6'7,16to on the

given

in illust-

I. 3. Averaged the positive

have of slurry

plotted

mass

flowrate

overall

coefficient.

7.8.6.

Gas to

slurry

hea: t'transfe'r.

Gas to using due to

slurry

(direct) outlined derived in by

heat section

transfer 7.2.1

coefficients showed To obtain analogy

evaluated scatter

the. method their of being these can

extensive approximate for

difference. an electrical

values resistance

coefficients, be applied to

thermal

the

individual

coefficients.

-1462 00

20

300 410

Kg/h:

Slurry

Mass

Flowrate

A
15

0
r-q r-I Cd

0.5
Kiln Fig . 17

1.0
Rotational Speed

1.5
(RPM)

2.0

Heat Transfer (Above) Coefft. Overall as a Rotational SReed. derived function of Kiln drying from overall rate coefft.

20

I A

0%

15 Cd 0

10
Cd 0

0 Fig 7.18

0.5 Kiln Overall of Kiln

1.0 Rotational

Speed

1.5 (RPM)

2.0

Heat Transfer Coefft. a-function Rotational Speed. from --as &T) -(Q/A,

-147-

Neglecting are represented

conduction by figure

from 7.19.

chain

to

wall,

the

thermal

resistances

GAS

CHAIN

WALL

Fig'7.10 Summing heat transfei by electricalcoefficients resistance analogy.

I Equation 7.35 then follows from this analogy:

u Using slurry /haj2C flowrate


Tscheng for

hl+h2 for

+1+1............ h3+h4 the individual

7.36 h5

averaged heat the of

values transfer flux

coefficients, in the range for

the 2-19 a slurry reported


kcal/hm were

gas: kcal mass by


C

direct over

coefficients range values


which

are

gas mass

2700-9600 are lower


in the These

kg/hm2 than
range

410 kg/h.
Watkinson flux

These
272 of

those
17-40

and

were kg/hm2.

a gas

mass

500-3000

determinations

achieved pointed heat out

using

Ottawa use

sand

in

a small

rotary to

kiln,

and the

the

authors

that the area

of a plane chord is

calculate

gas: solids

exchange

(figure'7.4)

an oversimplification.

-148-

7.8.7'.

''Drying'rate'coefficient.

Drying indicate a moving This drying result rate that hot

oven the gas

test slurry

results,

which

are

presented wet theory

in

figure

7.20, in

behaves

as a typical in the 7.23

solid section

drying

stream,

as' discussed to figures in

5.1.3. are typical

can be compared curves for

and 7.24 bed.

which

granules

a static

i)

Effect

'of

gas

flowrate.

The slurry
moisture rates from contents,

drying
is

rate,
plotted kg/hm2.

calculated
in The figure gas rate

from
-7.22 mass flux

the

inlet

and outlet
of gas to flowhave from

for-arange can be which

2715-5260 effect on

seen

a positive 0.2-1.2

the

drying

coefficient,

varies

kg/hm2.

This and the drying drying

agrees rate of

with

the

relationship as related

between

the

air

stream

rate

coefficient granules in

by Nonhebel experiments. directly data rate

and MOSS31 for (fig.. 7.24), although of

laboratory are not

the.,, coefficients'themselves material ion has properties no apparent etc. effect From

comparable available, coefficient.

because kiln

the

limited drying

rotat-

on the

ii)Effect

of

slurry

flowrate.

The positive drying mass rate flux of

effect

of is

the shown

slurry in

mass figure

flowrate 7.21 for

on the a constant is 1-1.8

overall gas kg/hm2,

coefficient 9600 kg/hm2.

The

range

of

coefficients

-149-

4-4 0

IL4 $0

4-1

a (n 4-

:z r-4

cli 0
. bD loo
LO t..I .

M a) w r-I Cd
4-) V. a)

IT2 10 0 (1) P4
0)

r .:: r0 4J U) T r. Q) > 0 bio

44 c
r--l 4 rA 0 =

P 4-) Cd P P4 Q) " U)

bn 4-3 .,-i cd a) Cd P

la x pq

C) c! t-,
., 4 P4

E (D
Q) Cd

93 (1)
SL4 a., 1: V)

E-4
.,-q cd C4 0

p (D

-4J ) C.

U) 0

t-

Cd 0 . r-I 4-)

bD r.

(1) 4-1 cd

bb

0 Cd

0 u>

r Cd

i
LO

C; 2UTA. I(j AjanTs

-150-

and

the

effect illustrated laboratory the

of

slurry in

flowrate figure of

compares

favourably the latter

with result

the is

results for to the show

7.23.. Although granules, it

drying of bed

serves drying

as a comparison rate.

effect

loading

on the

iii)Comparison

with

kiln

drying

rate

data..

The cement

data

of has

Weber 42 for been used

the, as

drying

zones for

of

long the

wet kiln

process chain mod-

kilns

a comparison

el kiln

results, volume

(Fig. basis.

7,251which

results

have

been

converted

to

an empty

It lower "Shr". it than is

can be seen gas temperatures, constant that in the

that

the are rate of

model the

drying

rates,

although

taken the

at kiln

same order would

as those-of in model both

Because likely that

drying mass

prevail in the

cases,

the'gas kiln.

flowrate

was higher

-1512.0

A
Cd 94,

A A

A
1.5

Co H r--4 Cd

1.0 410 300 Kg/h: 200


0 0.5 Kiln

Mass Slurry Flowrate

0.5

Gras Mass Flux 2 =9600 Kg/hm Areas Internal from estimated 7.24 equation
I. b Speed(RPM) Z. U

1.0 Rotational

4-3

(1)

1.5 A

Gas Mass Flux:

A2715 03360 o4360 A5260

Kg/hm

>b

1.0
J. " p

bD

co
r-q H Cd

0.5 A

0.0 I

5101.5 Kiln
Fig 7.21(TOP)

2.0 Speed (RPM)


on total inter-

Rotational

Slurry-Drving--Rate(based

nal Fig

surface

arealas

a function

of

kiln of kiln

rotational 7.22(BOTTOM)Slurry rotational fluxes

speed. Drving Rate speed, for

as a function a range of

gas mass

-152-

10

kg dry/rn2 69 kg /rn2

8-

51 kg /rn2

6E
3-4 kg /rn2

,Z;

4-

Dry-bultb temp Approacm cir nurnidity Dia. of granules Mass velocity

z 70 "C : 000b kg/kg =4 5m z '360 g/srr2

10

2c

30

V*bel &P), Now,. k MOSS &-Z-rO K3/h. -) I I 70 60 80 40 50 90 V. -O'Sture Content (*,'. 0 BI

100

Fig

7.23 Variation bed loading

of

drying

rate

with

solids

14

0= 2030 g/SM2 12 E71qoo g/SM2


0 KO T F Dr. Kroll's tests on rotary drwrs with 1.(Ier $coup% Q,)Jf_ quadrunta, -n, erls , wet-DroCess kitris 0 I.yqi
fi Net IA;

chain zone W)%/,, e(Ij IS)%.*0

10
1430 g/SM2

9,

7=1170

IM

91SM2
JO

insertwith rportillons

r if 0 N,, C,- goo g/M2


r

11-O%H 00
kiln without inserts . 4j- Is)% Aijo

60

Y a NO

I I
I AV Av I

AFber ing ral , edr Ya0

I Avrz II 700 ver Iarger _j AV

I.

I III 0

range
II

6m JAI, #W J%W temperature oNhe gas T

jW

2 htef,

Drying rate in the drying zone of long wet-process tins.


70 80 90 IC0

10

20

30

40

50

50

Moisture content I ariation itilh ol driipiqraie% It,loc, lit, of air

Fi'97.24Dr'yhi'ng' zone of 'long'

'r'ate' In' 'the* 'dryIng ki'Ins. wet' 'process

Fi9725 with

Variation mass velocity

of

drying of air

rates stream.

-153-

Table

4.

Nomenclature

for

section

7.

A ..... C P'*** d ..... D ..... F..... G ..... G ..... h ..... h ..... H ..... ih .... k ..... 1 ..... M ..... M ..... N ..... r ..... Ue .... S ..... t ..... t ..... T..... Pr ... St ... U ..... V ..... V ..... x ..... X .....

heat transfer Areafor (constant heat Specific pressure) Bed depth diameter Kiln factor Conversion Gas mass flux Gas mass flux Heat transfer coefficient Heat transfer coefficient holdup Material for heat transfer j-factor Thermal conductivity 1/2 -leneth bed chord of slurry Mass flux Mass Kiln speed rotational Kiln radius Number Reynolds Kiln slope Absolute temperature time Mean residence Temperature Number Prandtl Number Stanton heat transfer Overall coefficient bed Volume of slurry Velocity of slurry Film thickness (wet basis) Moisture content

M2 kcal/kgOC m m 2 k9j hm 2 kg/sm 2o C kcaj/hm W/M K %kiln volume kcal/h2oC/m m2 kg/hm kg RPM m
0 K h oc

kcal/hm2oC m3 m/h m wt. % Greek C ... 6 ... * ... * ... p... T ... P ... 0 ... ... Emissivity m layer Boundary Const. Stefan Boltzman Angular mi velocity kg/r Density . kg/mI. Shear stress kg/r Viscosity Angle of repose 0 half ra( subtendangle bed chord ed by slurry

Suffixesa..... b ..... ambient bulk

C ..... g ..... i ..... r ..... s ..... W..... 1 ..... 2..... 3..... 4 ..... 5 .....

chain gas bay no. radiative slurry wall gas: chain chain slurry: gas: wall wall slurry: gas: slurry

Constant= Value of Stefan Bollzman 1.3667xlO-llkcal/sm4OK4 time (NB. Transient heat transfer interval is one second)

-154-

Conclusions

and

recommendations

8.1.

Isothermal

Modelling

(a) tation has

Water of the that:

modelling aerodynamic

has

provided through

a quick, the

visual chain

'represenbanks and

flo*

shown

I)

The
fluid

chains
stream

act

as flow

straighteners

to

the

II)

The less below

fluid than the

velocity that

through through chains nolapparent of the the has the

the

chains left

is

tunnel

hanging has

III)

Kiln the

rotation flow has and the in

effect stream. modelling that the

on

patterns confirmed addition

fluid

(b) results gas

Air I)

modelling and II),

water shown

axial slurry chain

velocity

across

gravel higher

charge than

representing that through

the the

bed was up to banks themselves.

20 percent

8.2.

Hot

gas

modelling.

(a) storage at

A reliable, of

noise-free data

system from has

for

the

gathering kiln model A novel and

and

temperature gas

a rotating been

elevated of

temperatures, slip-ring

developed. proven,

design

electrical

has

been

problems

with

-155-

velocity

measurement

have

been

overcome.

(b) bed loading

The use

of

dam rings of Further the

to

maintain feed

a constant rate is holdup of is

slurry not a to

independent proposition.

solids

feasible confirm ence internal time

investigation solids

required

the

hypothesis

concerning used for in heat the

and residthe true

predictions surface areas

calculation

transfer.

(c) to port has those

Scaling in a real

of

the kiln

model is of

chains

by equal in all by

voidage but solids of

factor transwater

effective the slurry

properties. proved

Thinning to

addition similarity.

necessary

ensure

kinematic

(d) bay to

Constant bay is not

monitoring possible the off model has

of where rotation

the

gas

temperature and waiting most the wet slurry for reliable mini

from are thermmethod. probes and accu",:.

chains and to be

present. ocouples The probe

Halting to dry

the

proved in the wall Any

the and been

thermocouples in their the kiln shell

slurry, have

embedded rate should the wet in

reliable investigations model at

measurements. that the slurry

subsequent enters the

ensure gas

or

above

temperature.

(e) same order

The as

gas:

wall

heat quoted

transfer by literature

coefficients and have

are

of

the corr-

those

been

-156-

elated

to

yield

the

equation: Re
0.686 ...

Nu = 0.58

7.32

Comparison transfer ure has results proved

of

the

slurry the

to

gas, chain data gas

and wall

heat literat-

with

limited The half

available side heat

from transfer slurry highly gas

disappointing. are less gas gas to than chain

coefficients values, pendent coefficient. equation:


Nu.

the

corresponding is the more

side deto wall

and the on the

coefficient than heat is

flowrate

analogous is

The gas: chain,

transfer

summarised

by the

= 3.08

10-11

Re 4.33

...

7.29

Gas side indicating by merit

heat that of

transfer the

is chains

the are

rate the

controlling most for dominant heat

function, single factor,

their

large

surface

area

transfer.

(f) creases, coefficients surfaces of of solids the

An increase in

in

kiln

rotational manner, the

speed heat

beyond

1RPM intransfer exchange time value 7.18). insigheat

an exponential between the 7.9

and mass heat the

slurry and

and the 7.10). decreased

internal

(see is Stanton the

Figures

However,

residue

proportionately Number effect by in the of

as shown (Figures

by the and is

system kiln

7.17 speed

Hence nificant, transfer

overall

rotational of the

as confirmed coefficient.

the

values

overall

-157-

: 1,

(g)

Slurry

to

chain to

transfer wall

coefficients

are and, have

of

the been

same order correlated jH jH

as slurry to yield Se Pr

coef f icients, of the, form:

equations = 31.2

Re-0 -72 Re-0*61

GO. 60 (Slurry: 0-59 (Slurry: for

Chain) , Wall) heat

... ...

7.34 7.35

2A Sc Pr = 32.8 "j. " is the

where er.

Chilton-Colburn

factor

trans-

(h) effect of the

The on the latter

gas

and slurry drying

f lowrates rate

have

positive and the literature values

slurry compare

coefficient, with published

favourably zones.

concerning

kiln

drying

(i)

The

concept

of

conventional

viscosity

in

a Non-

Newtonian standard of the

slurry

is

untenable, groups of these

making

the

calculation

of

dimensionless application requires shear the the stress

problematical. results to

A prerequisite chain rate

a particular of the shear

system versus using

detailed relationship

knowledge of the

slurry in

concerned, Appendix C.

measurement

techniques

outlined

The model can the (that be spen residence

particular is, to foreward hold time the

chaining screw feed

arrangement spiral with back

used reverpe

in

this

motion), increase

material

and hence

and holdup.

-158-

(k)

Chains

frequently

become

entangled

with

one

another,

but the

the limits

effect of

of

this

phenomenon of the

was not

quantifiable

within

accuracy

apparatus.

(1) range table. of

The

values

of

heat

transfer can

coefficient

over by the

the following

conditions

studied

be summarised

Coefficient Gas Gas Gas Slurry Slurry Overall : Chain : Wall : Slurry : Chain : Wall

Value rang QC k/ al/hM2

IC WIM2 199,

1 -

85

10 - 104 2 19

12 - 121 222

20 - 275 80 - 225 2 16

23 - 320 93 - 262 319

-159-

References BARREL K. C. Cement The manufacture of Portland 46,3-10th Cement Lime and Gravel, 2. DUDA W. H. Cement Data Book, 2nd (MacDonald and Evans: JENKINS B. G. Heat transfer Ph. D. Thesis,

(1, Introduction). January 1971.

Ed., p. 355-366, London 1977).

3.

in rotary cement kilns. Guildford) Surrey, (Univ.

1976.

4.

DURANT H. Communication. Private SA., (Ciments d'Obourg COMMENE A. Communication. Private Usine (Ciments Frangais,

Obourg,

Belgium:

October

17th,

'1979)

5.

de Barlin,

France:

July

3rd,

1980)

6.

FELLNER und ZIEGLER A. G. der Fellner Die Schlammtrocknung der Wirmewirtschaff Verkesserung 1934. 4,41-42p Zement, V-NORBOM H. R. kiln Wet or dry process 71,92-98, Rock Products, for

AG zur & Ziegler in Nassdreh5fen.

7.

ne w installation. your May 1974.

8.

9.

DERSNAH W. R. in installations Chain system 48,94,96-99,104, Pit and Quarry, Ve GARRETT H. M. and MURRAY J. A. kiln thermal Improving efficiency 2. evaluations, part Rock Products, -71,88-92,102,104, R.,

cement

1. kilns, part 1956. 134, Nov.

existing June 1974.

kiln

10.

AZBE V. J. Rotary kiln Rock products,

its and development. performance 62,101-102,104,106,109,122, kiln. of Cement, paper

Feb.

1965

GYGI H. Thermodynamics of the cement (Int)__Che'mistry 3rdSymp. Proc. (London), 750-789,1952. 12. Anon Private Communication. cement (Assoc. Portland 1975. Kent) Greenhithe,

21.

Manf.

Ltd.,

Engng.

R&D

Dept.,

-160-

13.

NORBOM H. Application preheater of suspension in N. America. kilns other Technical I. E. E. E. Cement Industry May 1973). (Miami, Florida, MULLINGER P. J. Communication. Private Guildford, (Univ. of Surrey,

kilns

versus

Conference,

14.

Surrey)

Nov.

10th

1980

15.

TYLKO J. K. and STRIKE A. H. from Manufacture cements of hydraulic 62-68,1978. I. C. S. Proceedings,


DERSNAH W. R. in installations Chain system 119-122, Quarry, Pit 4.8 and ,

waste

materials.

16.

kilns. cement 1956. Dec.

17.

WALKER P. design. Spiral chain Presented at Assoc. Conference, (Westbury, Wiltshire, DRAYTON W. E. Know your kiln's Rock Products,

Portland January

Cement 28/29th

Manf.

Wet Works

1974).

18.

system. chain 69,88-89,126,

May 1972. the

19.

BURKB E. and FIELD G. from flames in Problems of heat transfer industry. One-day Symposium on Flames and Industry, B15 to B17 (Inst. Fuel: London). DE BEUS A. J. and NARZYMSKI G. J. Design systems. chain of kiln May 1966. 63,77-80,156, Rock Products,

cement 6,

Paper

20.

21.

EDMISTON D. J. Spiral review. svstems-performance chain Oct. Cement Ltd.,, Australia: (Swan Portland

1976).

22.

23.

RIFFAUD J. B., KOEIIRET B. and COUPAL B. kiln. Modelling of an alumina and simulation (Process Engineer Design Chemical British and Develo, 17, No. 5,413-418,1972. M, PERRY W. H. Handbook, 4th Edn. Engineers Cliemical 1969). (McGraw Hill: New York,

ent),

-161-

24.

McADAMS W. H. 3rd Heat Transmission, Hill: New York. (McGrdw

Ed. p. 104. 1954).

25.

LYONS J. W., MIN H. S., PARISOT P. E. and PAUL J. F. Experimentation cement kiln a wet process rotary with computer. via the analogue 1. Design Eng. Chem. Process Ind. and Development, 29 to 33,1962. GARDEIK H. O. and JESCHER R. for the Simplified calculating models mathematical heated'adiabatic in internally heat transfer rotating Model). (Convection tubes. :L2,134-138,1979. Zement Kalk und Gips, No. 7,1979). ffom No. 5,1979; (English Translation TSCHENG S. H. and WATKINSON A. P. kiln. in a rotary heat transfer Convective 57,433-443,1979. Jn1. Chem. Eng., Canadian McCORMICK P. Y. Gas velocity'effects Chem. Eng. Prog., heat on direct 58, No. 6,57-61, in No. dryers. rotary June 1962.

26.

27.

28.

29.

SAEMAN W. C. Air-solids interaction 58, Chem. Eng. Prog.,

dryers and coolers. rotary June 1962. 6,49-56,

30;

FRIEDMAN S. J. and MARSHALL W. R. 1. drying, Studies in rotary part 45, No. 8,482-493, Chem. Eng. Prog., NONHEBEL G. and MOSS A. A. H. in the chemical Drying of solids London 1971). (Butterworths:

August

1949.

31.

industry.

1st

ed.

32.

33.

SAEMAN W. C. and MITCHELL T. R. dryer Analysis and cooler performance. of rotary 1954. Sept. 50, No. 9,467-475, Chem. Eng. Prog., V%: COULSON J. M. and RICHARDSON J. F. Volume 1, Revised 2nd Ed. p. Chemical Engineering 1964). Oxford (Pergamon Press: BONILLA Preprints American C. F. A. et al. symposium. of the heat transfer 1971 Inst. of Chem. Engineers, 309,582,1930.

45.

34.

35.

ANDRADE W. 125., Nature,

-162-

36.

KUNITZ General

J. Physiol.,

9,715,1926

37. 38.

TING and LUEBBERS. American Inst. of Chem. JONES N. E. Communication. Private (British Products Titanium 15th 1980). July VAILLANT A. Thermal of the analysis (Columbia Ph. D. Thesis,

Engineers,

3,,, No.

1,111,1957.

Ltd.,

Pywipe

Works,

Grimsby,

39.

fired-rotary direct University, Ohio)

kiln. 1965. in

40.

AKERMAN A., HOFFMAN P. and ZABLOTNY W. Mechanisms of materials of passage and rate kilns. January 11, No. 1,26-29, British Chem. Eng.,

rotary

1966.

41.

SULLIVAN J. D., MAIER G. C. and RALSTON O. C. kilns, Flow of materials through rotary coolers dryers. Paper, 384,1927. US Bureau of Mines Technical

and

42.

WEBER P. kilns due regard Heat transfer to in rotary with cyclic and phase formation. processes (Wiesbaden, Zement Kalk und Gips Spec. English Ed., Bauverlag GMBH) 1963. HEILIGENSTAEDT fUr WHrmetechnische Rechnungen (Springer: 1951). Dusseldorf, Industrieofen, 3rd Ed.

43.

44.

GRAY W. A., KILHAM I. K. and MULLER R. 1st Ed., Heat transfer from flames, p. (Elek London) 1967. Science: CHILTON T. H. and COLBURN A. P. Mass transfer (adsorption) coefficients from data on heat transfer and fluid Ind. Chem., 26,1183,1934. __Eng. SHERWOODT. K. and PIGFORD R. L. 2nd Ed. Absorption extraction, and (McGraw Hill: 1952). New York,
HOTTEL H. C. and SAROFIM Radiative 1st Transfer, (McGraw New York, Hill: A. F. Ed. 1967).

23,

45.

- production friction.

46.

47.

-163-

48.

ERKKU H. Radiant heat cylinders. Sc. D. Thesis,

transfer (Mass.

in Inst.

gas

filled

slabs Cambridge)

and 1959.

Tech.,

49.

EINSTEIN T. H. Radiant heat transfer to absorbing gases enclosed in a circular conduction, gas flow and pipe with heat generation. internal (N. A. S. A.: Cleveland) 1962. Tech. Re2t-, R-156, KUHLE W. Uber die Hussere wirmabgabe Untersuchungen drehofen durch strahlung und konvektion. Zement Kalk und Gips, 23,263-268,1970. %Z% BOWERS T. G. and READ H. L. kilns. Heat transfer in rotary Chem. Eng. Prog. Symp. Series Boston, 61,340-345,1965.
HILPERT R. Wrmabgabe von Forsch. Gebeite

50.

von

51.

No.

57,

Heat

Transfer'

52.

dhahten geheizten 4, Ingenieurw.,

und rohren. p. 215,1933.

A. l.

SCHEIBEL Ind. Eng. Chem., 46, p. 1574,2007,1954.

D. l.

FOLLIOT A. dans le four rotatif La transmission de chaleur a ciment. No. Publication Technique, _7. de 11industrie (Centre d'6tudes et de recherches 1955. Paris) des liants hydrauliques,

-164-

APPENDIKATERIVED PHYSICALPROPMrIES.

-165-

APPENDIX

A.

Derived

physical

properties.

A. 1

Gas

Properties.

A. 1.1.

Dynamic_viscosity.

The data
viscosity term

of
for

Schiebel.
a range f (Ti f(T2) )

Alis
of

used
gas

to

evaluate

a mixed

gas

temperatures.

...

A. 1

11 1 92 gas viscosity
f(T) Tr T= = 1.058 = T/Tcrit gas temperature

at

temperature
l/ ( 1.9Tr)

1,2'

(kg/h

rr,
A. 2

0.26 Tr 0-6165 _

o-glog (1.9Tr) (-) '** (OK)

A. 3

Tcrit

= critical

temperature

of

gas

as shown

in

table

Table

Al:

Critical

temperature ( OK)

of

gas

species. 6230K (kg

Gas

Tcrit

11 at 5.972 9.444

m'f-h

H20 02 N2 C02

430.2 154.2 125.9 33.1

x x x x

10-2 10-3

8.4722 7.6667

10-3
10-2

v mixture
where u= Mi

= Eyi

i(Mi)I/Euim(Mim)l
fraction weight of species

...

A. 4

volumetric = molecular

-166-

A. 1.2.

Specific

heat.

For sufficiently

combustion accurate

products, providing

the the

specific moisture

heat

of

air is

is

fraction

accounted

for.

CpG

Specific 2 ,,

heat

dry

gas

= 0.24

+ T/1000..

0.2

kcal/kg

...

A. 5

CpW = Specific

heat

water

vapour

+ 0.00015T = (8.22 0.00000134T2)/18


X)

+ kcal/kg
...

A. E ...
A. 7

CpX = Specific

heat

wet

gas

= CpG(l

+ CpW. X kcal/kg

where

x9= T=

the the

moisture gas

fraction

in (lK)

the

gas

(wet

basis)

temperature

A. 1.2.

- Thermal

conductivity.

For

a wet

gas

comprising

mainly

nitrogen,

KT

1.405

PX -P mixture

...

A. 8

where

KT

thermal

conductivity

of

wet

gas

temperature with (kcal/h M20C/M)

Equation
Prandtl number

A-8
of

above
a gas,

is

a back

calculation

from
number

the
is

which

dimensionless

a constant.
A. 2. Slurry

properties.

Dynamic

viscosity.

The

subject

of

dynamic

viscosity

of

chalk/clay

slurries

-167-

is

dealt

with

in

detail

in

section

4 and

in

Appendix

C-

A. 2.2.

Specific

heat.

For the specific

a slurry heat

of

moisture

fraction by

(weight the

basis)

XS#

can be expressed

equation

CpS = 0.2616(l

XS) -

+ 1.00763.

Xs

...
(kcal/kgOC)

A. 9

where

CpS

= specific

heat

of

slurry

A. 2.3.

Thermal

conductivity.

In of the

the slurry

absence over

of the

further moisture
of

data,

the

thermal studied
M20C/M.

conductivity was

contents
0.59 kcal/h

assigned

a constant

value

A. 2.4.

Bulk

density.

The bulk content and is

density expressed

of 10,

the

slurry

is

based

on the

moisture

by equation A. 10

XS. SGB SGW +

(1

XS)SGB SGS

where SUffiX

SG = specific B, W,S = bulk,

gravity water and solid respectively

Re-writing

in

terms

of

the

bulk

density

gives A. 11

SGB =-11

X+

X) SGS

.. o

-168-

where

SGW =1 SGS = 2.65

A. 2.5.

Slurry

composition.

On adry of be chalk taken

basis, in

the the

raw ratio

slurry of

comprises 3.8: 1. The of

a mixture chalk the can clay

and clay as pure

CaC03 and the

composition

is

as follows:

Table

A2

Material
CaC03 MgC03 S102 A1203 Fe203

% 4.0 1.5 5.0 1.9 -

63.0 16.0 5.0 4.0 2.0 0.6 4.5 3.0 1.5 0.7 -

CaO
K20

Mn Na2O

-169-

APPENDIX B

NUMBERS. : SIGNIFICANCE OF DIMENSIONLESS

-170-

Appendix

B.

Significance

of

dimensionless

numbers.

Reynolds

number.

RI

VDlp

B. 1

The Reynolds inertia is that forces in to

number viscous

can be shown forces similar for the fully to in

to

be the

ratio

of significance

a fluid

and its the

geometrically will

systems, a given flow

velocity number. tubes Re ' lOoOOO; place in

distributions In is the long laminar transition these Nusselt tubes, for

be similar example, and

Reynolds these for flow

for

through turbulent

Re < 2300 from values. number. laminar

turbulent

takes

between B. 2.

Nu =

heD k

B. 2

The Nusselt the in ratio contact of the

number

can

be interpreted gradient to in

physically a fluid

as

temperature the surface

immediately

with

a reference

temperature

gradient.

i. e.

Nu = (dT/dy

(dT/dy)y=()

(Tf =

TS)/L -

>,...

13.3

where

y=

distance

normal

to

the

heat fluid from

exchange

surface at

Ts and Tf

temperature and surface distance a considerable respectively.

temperature the surface,

-171B. 3. Prandtl number.

CP "g k

.. o

B. 4

The alone. viscosity It

Prandtl

number

is

a function as the ratio

of

the of

fluid

properties

can be expressed to the thermal

the

kinemitic

diffusivity.

Pr

p/p - k/pCp

kinematic thermal

viscosity diffusivity

B. 5

B. 4.

Stanton

number.

The divided

Stanton by the

number quotient

is of

defined the

as the

Nusselt

number numbers.

Reynolds

and Prandtl

St

(hcD)(VDp)_, = __Lu k RePr 11 hc VPC p hc GCp

(Cpp)_, k

...

B. 6

Hence

St

B. 7

where

G= V= p=

mass fluid fluid

flowrate velocity density transfer viscosity heat

(kg/h (m/h) (k g/M3)

M2)

hc = heat p= fluid

coefficient (kg/m of fluid h)

(Kcal/h

M20C)

Cp = specific k= thermal

(Kcal/kgOC) (Kcal/m hOC)

conductivity

Since the must whole

slurry

flowing

through area,

a kiln the term. mass This

does flow

not term

take "GII term

up

cross-sectional by

be replaced

a velocity

velocity

-172-

has

also

to

take

account kiln the shell slurry.

of

the

angular which

velocity are both

of

the

chains with

and the respect to

wall,

rotating

Because rate taken drying of

this section

investigation of the cement in

is

confined kiln,

to

the

constant is

no account

solids

convection

the

velocity-factor.

The the slurry

Stanton velocity

number

can

thus Vc:

be re-written

in

terms

of

component hc

St

=-

B. 8

Psvccp

where

Vc is

derived vizt

from

the

axial

and radial

velocity

components, Consider an axial

a section

of

rotated

slurry velocity

(Fig. Vr.

a)

having velocities by can

velocity

Va and radial by the vector

These

be represented reference to

diagram

(b)

and resolved

(c)

Va.

Vr
Hence the component vblocity Vc (VI

Vt.
V2)0.5 + ra..

B. 9

The modified on this basis to

Reynolds take into

Number account

for the

slurry kiln

is

also

calculated speed.

rotational

-173-

PRCPERTIES.. RHEOLCGICAL SLURRY OF C MEASUREMENr APPENDIK :

-174Appendix
C. l. C. 1.1. The

C.

Measurement

of

slurry
viscosity.

rheological

pr02erties.

Measurement Experimental viscosity

of

slurry apparatus.

of

the

raw

cement

slurry

(ex

Shoreham

Works) which of

was made on an IlEpprecht the torque inside is measured a-fixed

Rheostat on a cylinder

15"

viscometer, at Cl) one

in

rotated (Fig

15 speeds

outer

cylinder.

Fig.

Cl

Diagramatic _cylinaer

sketch viscomeTer.

of

concentric

Since complex, Newtonian slurr these but y,

the the fluid

flow

geometry of

at the In

the end the

ends effects case

of

the even

cylinder for a

is

calculation is difficult.

of

the

cement as

these deDend

cylinder not o'nly rate of

end effects on the shear. tgpe

have of

been

ignored,

fluid

also

on the

C. 1.2.

Results

of

investigation.

The -results the shear rate/shear are

of

temperature stress

and moisture for

content the raw

on

relationship Figs. C3 and C4.

cement

slurry

shown

in

C. 1.3.

Correlation

of

relationships.

The statistically

results to

shown yield

in the

r-igs. C3, C4, expression


1452-A

were

correlated

It

:t= 240.77

xT

0-2321

r-D.

X-5-637e ...

C. 1

-1751
6
Ul 1 41 i iI iI H WMI P MP U MM M MIM -1 i

rM, -M 1171ll j ilii i 1h 'W, I , ! W! I W. 1!. : tj :i,

ij

1,44-i4jjoj I ff i I ll

1 i1 i -- 44144 11+ 04 14 A 4 I I 11 1111 1111 1 11 11111 1i

i4 4+H-t + M T 1! 1 AI

ill i hilt Hill!! 1 111 .1

5
4 3 -L Ajilli 1

f 1h,
f 2r shear rate taken over a range
contents. two ` --J "
fl*.. 4 t. '141 , I

L: 71-I

Fig. C3 Shoreham
V of

(PaS) vs Viscosity Works cement slurry,


for

temperatures t1t1--T

moisture f .... .... .

100
4,
6 5 4

f-: 444' t-H

tt .

jt: ..... .

---

--

AP:

PK
3

M I -

U f il l
1 '4-1

To ,

19
1-4 1-4-, 1

NN

o...... Iif

....

.... ... -+-4 -h 4

. It,

j 1

4j

I t

J jj I j

j Ij jj tj+

j J,i ;,

I j1

hi: Pl: I fti ; T T, N


4 3

i j 4]

I \ 11"" t --II -1 , %--

1
. . 14
.1

IT M
H ill lI; i 1 4 . U-11 I

2 4E -

ti

4 U 1, tn 11 Tl l, ll ` flk I

N "N N t,il11 11

44 * 1 11

H -- 0 1 4 j: iltillil!

!i ft i;

NP, R I T.

q -1 H t 1 11 1 IM1141

0.1
e
7 6 5 4 3
P I

f
z 4 - 1 1. "' t

Tj 4 flTR T,, ! l ViJflli

14 f- I

fl N.,

d: 1: 1: 11 i!j.,ij. 1: 1 4 1Hti ll 11i't fl.: 1: i! 11111


'if
ij v

60 50 c :50c 59 40.8 0 c 0 40 5 C' od 30: 0 0 18 .5c

iH 1 116 1,11

1i
1 11 1 4 4 1 1

iii iiii T
fi 1 111

--

iEl

1111: n

4'

: j:

4 141 11

' '

:11
1 :,
it, 100

_7

Q, OQ

3456789

10 10

23456789

34567a

9-1

Shear

Rate

(sec

-1)

1000

-1761000
4
1 jj j;; j;. j j ' AtIi1 1t

44+

-4-

4j4-I

f-

j44jjj

01

1il -1, i jII1

-44-H

i i

f- iI

hi- H4404

1i i ji lAi ii4 iII

a
4 3

717
tF i

i9

i 9*111
US I 4ff

it

I.:

-----

A N

I! i I

Fig

C4

viscosity

- (Pas)

vs

shear

rate

for a

U1 11 4

I r,
9

Shoreham of range
e
7 6 5

taken Works over sluirry, cemant 20-degrees at contents moisture


A -1 t I I

11i +t j
iB4! 4rt: H_a_ T

l +Ai .. ..1

41 1 11i H 4-1 fi 4 f+ N44ii4 4 4-lit-t4 t-UH-1 4F

71

A
3

4 -4-4 4 4-4

2
4H I

t f+ +:m

10

:g

m
it
>1 41 . r4 U) 0

-i-i

71

U
JI- T fj'

F FMT P
j;R

4 t

4 ,

-1 L

tp

"4

t Hii

R ill

-. 4

42+1
14
Ili ;. Ii hP NI iiii 11

' fTj-, -

HT ,

-4 lT it

A- i
1 1

I MI

N!

:Hi

iii

12

+4 4

1_1_

q 4 H1 ff 1R f -qV , ."

N 'I f. I : !Il l;i

Ti

S IN

%1

111

2
I I

I II TI + + 7

TI

0.1 1 9
S 7 I 5 4 3
iq ...... i iM1i.

4+, 4 0; +

4M 44 ilill

i.

M 0 ,IT _4
I MM

Wil W T: 1111! ill 44f t IN V 111 11; V 4-1

V, .
Vr

31 0 M 11 1 1 w i11 4 1 'q
I N 9 H'11
jo

-T

ll

V t4

0.

OIL
ol

23456789

10

234567B9

lo

34567a9

I'd
Shear R'. Y'tle

LOB 1 ) e:d'

-177-

where

p=

viscosity

(kg/m

h)

temperature -r = shear X= moisture rate content, wet basis (8-1) (wt%)

C. 2.

Measurement

of

slurry

boundary

layer

thickness.

C. -2.1.

Experimental

procedure.

A simple boundary speeds marking (Fig. at layer

method

was devised for the

to

measure of

the kiln

slurry rotational the dye

thickness properties. slurry

range

and slurry of the

The method with a chain a water across part and

comprised immiscible this the

surface of

C2) and the of

drawing The

surface dyed surface layer

a range then

speeds.

affected

of the

could

be visually measured with

ascertained, a rule.
Tracer Dye
dp

boundary

thickness

Slurry Surface

Fig.

C2.

C. 2.2.

Experimental

results.

Over and of
to

a range of

of

slurry

moisture equivalent boundary

content to

from

35-45,. it

%,

for 0.5-2.0
be

a range

velocities slurry
x

periphdral was

speeds found

RPM, the
at

layer

thickness

constant

3.175

10-3M.

-178-

APPENDIEK D

OF'RADIATIVE EXCHANGE EVALUATION APtEAS.

-179Appendix D. Evaluation of radiative exchange areas.

Table

Dl.

Gas properties

at

each

end

of

the

chain

zone.

% Gas Composition
C02 02

(IC) Gas Temperature

(kN/m2) Partial Pressure C02 15.9 H20 40.9

Species Emissivity

Gas Emissivity

N2 70.7

H20 (40.9)

B/END 220 FLAME END

C02 0.078

H20 0.188 0.261

26.9

2.4

25.5 II -

2.5

72.0

(0.0) I II Weber 49

700

25.5 I

0.0 I

0.103

0.00

0.103

Raw Data

ex.

The mean beam length thus for the chain model,

for

the

systedistaken

as 0.9

x Dl;

L=0.2743m

D. 1

The charts of the of

emissivities Hotte 147 zone is

(Table Correction obtained

Dl)

are for

found overlap the

from at

the the

emissivity back end

drying

using

expressions

PH20 PCO2 + 420

= 0.72

(B/end)

...

D. 2

PCO, 21,

+ PH20L

= 15.58

kN/m*

(B/end)

...

D. 3

Ac

0.005

from

the-charts

published

in

fA., --Adams24,.

L 1P-CO2

6.995

N/m

(Flame

end')

...

DA

-180-

D. l.

Calculation

of

the

absorption

coefficient.

Using and emissivity

Beer's

D1 Law for to

monochromatic an assumed grey

absorptivity gas

applied

L p. e-k.

...
6*9 9S ekH.

D 5 .
D. 6 D. 7
2B

Hence

CgH

0.103 = 0.261

= 1. = 1_

1:gc

15.5a o eke ...

!1 1

kH H

0. -01546 kH-PH

... 0.39

D. 8(kN/M' ... D. l0(kN/m-)-1 D. 9

IL I
IT

kc

=-0.0l936kc. p

...

C6aln banks 12 mD. 11 Fig'. ' Dl Zoning th6'oneUay system. length B, as 2m.

For described

this in

system, chapter.

t he characteristic 5, is 4.88E -

Thus

KHB = KcB = .

0190 0547 ...

D. 12 D. 13

D. 2.

Evaluation

of

direct

exchange

'areas.

Table interpolation (b, b= al, al, a2)

D2shows of refer distance

the the to

view

factors of

evaluated

by

linear

values

ErkkU48,.

The suffixes where

figure-51.6-in in the axial in the

Chapter-5, direction radial

maximum

a2 = maximum

distances

direction

of

the

element.

-181-

Table

D2.

Direct

exchange

areas.

Element b, al, a2 ill 112 113 121 122 123 131 132 133 211 212 213 221 222 223 231 232 233

S-e-; w 2 B 0.2983 1.3955 5.7915 0.5739 1.9089 2.3922

IfSe (KCB)B 2.8903 1.5920 0.4880 1.5920 9.2370 3.4965 0.4880 3.4965 15.2768 0.8576 1.3357 0.8759 1.3357 3.6169 3.3509 0.8759 3.3509 5.9917
2

SeSe (KCB)B 6.366 2.9248 2.9248 14.3886 1.8332 6.7874 1.9163 2.0263 2.0263 5.2664 1.5435 5.0361 51.0367 0.4820 0.8241 0.5571 0.8241 2.1117 2.0392 0.5571 2.0392 3.4347
2

SWSW B2

b, 13 23 23 13

al

2.3750 1.9225 1.9225 2.3750

TOTAL (Imperial Units)

12.3603

60.1483

12.8692

8.5949

View Factor m2

SeSw' 3.189E-2

GSe 8.380E-3

GSw 7.116E-3

SeSe3.321E-2 2.219E-2

The the

same procedure

is

followed

for

the

'hot'

erid

of

chain'zone:

-182-

0
>-4

(D

IID 4

W W
PL4

R
pq

O U
-

Go

co KV .
0

E-4 pq p --4 z
" PQ

E-4 o W
%-e

00

00

t-

oo

CO

oo

qdq C\l 0 00 CY) cq cq N

t-

(n
cq
Cf)

CD
00
m cq cq

co

cq t ce) C CC ce)

00
LO

M cq

to

cq pq 0 0) r-q C

cq

CY)

pq 0 (D r--i C

pq a) CD 4 r-4 cq r-4 C r

0 ce)

C3) m cq 0) 00 00 CY) 00 cr) CO Lo 00 C C C

C) m m

cq m

cq clq LO Cd (D p Cd bD r. Cd N 44 -. 0 - cq -. e W 0 r-14 cli cr)


-%

m C;
0 r-4 N

C "

r-4

v lt: %-" I

tLO ; a

LO to 114
-%

to " Cl

v %-., CO H, C*4

-. - -,, Cl co pq 0 (n H C pq 0 oo C

_e cq0 --.-, o

m v 1-: ce) t

tH C

0 mcr) C

cq to C14 C

cr) cr)

cq

4-3 C14 SA .. A
4H 0 r-I 0

U) L
,v -o, C11

C-4 tC

m v It:

tLO

LO LI)
114 "

6
0
N -o

_;
CY)
0 00 Cf) C

%.. o

> Cd

111' 0 pq I wI wI
.-I N ce) C m oo r-4 C

cq

C-1 N

pq ;A
tr- (D

I I I W
0 N M to CY) cq C C

4 .
Cf)

H %-." C14

C14

CY)

C14

co C

Q)
Cd N

r-4

cq

ca

r-4

C14 ca

E-4

pq

t; ---

E-4

9 -C9:

-183-

D. 3.

Evaluation

*of

total'

'e'xchange

areas.

It exchange surfaces account

is

necessary for

at each

this

-trge

to by

evaluate replacing surfaces

the the which

total 'black' take into

areas by the

surface, 'grey'

ambivalent emission

plane

47

and absorption.

D. 3.1.

Wall

properties.

For p is given

oxidised

steel, Since

C=0.7 the

24

and

for

raw

cement are and if both wall

slurry, in

as 0.2D2. contact are would for

steel cycle

and the of value

slurry

intimate both and

much of then

the

events, for

surfaces slurry

grey, be

typical

cw = cs = 0.75

...

D. 14

pw ps -= 0.25

D. 15

Since,

for

a grey

surface,

c=1-p.

'

D. 3.2.

Chain

properties.

In

the

case the

of

the

chain to

banks,

it

is

expedient of

to

approximate
surface area.

cha: ins

a series

of-tubes
cgg

equivalent

Chain Equivalent Diameter

d0 Ec

CD

CD4-

c Ac

Black Fig. D2 Model of equivalent grey plane for chain bank.

Plane

Ap

-184-

Now,
fraction

of
ccFpc

the
is

energy
directly

emitted

from

black
by

plane
the

Ap,

a
Of the'

intercepted

tubes.

remaining or re-emitted

energy, back a fraction

1-

ccFpc,

a fraction, the is tubes.

cg,. Of this

it

reflected reflected tubes.

towards ccFpc

radiation,

intercepted

by the

Hence

the

total

energy

absorbed

by

the

tubes

is

F PC - Cc -. 2 CcFpC{l

+ cg(l

ccFpc))

... the

D. 16

where bank.

is E: c

the

equivalent

grey

plane

comprising

chain

The spacing
body total

factor c,

Fpc,

which equivalent
44-.

is

a function diameter

of

the

tube black

and the
view

dE# is
for Cc may

the

factor

The

value

be-assumed-

to

be the taken

same as that as the

for

the

wall/slurry along the

system, chain

and

Eg is

mean value

system.

The length are which

diameter

of

a pipe is of

having 1.24E-2 2.54E-2

the

same surface

area/ chains = 2.04,

as a scale at

chain

m. As individual m, the ratio c/dE

hung

a distance a value

gives

Fpc

= 0.87

Cc = 0.617

and

PC = 0.383

As there between values radiation the for

is 'hot'

little and 'hot'

difference 'coldlends end are takes used place of

in

exchange chain the this

area system,

values the

the

the heat

since in

bulk

of

transfer

section.

-185-

Hence, becomes

the

transfer

matrix

described

in

section

7.297E-2 0.383

3.617E-2

3.389E-2

3.617E-2

0-7.297E-2 0.383

3.389E-2

3.389E-2

3.389E-2

2.532E-2

9.729E-2 0.25

the

value

of

which

is

-1.2209E-2.

The values

ofDij

are

as follows:

ij 11,22 12,21 13,23,31,32 33

aDj j -6.8168E-2 1.4308E-2 7.6824E-2 3.4988E-2

Using

equation ALci =. Pi

5.35 j Pj

Sisi

(Aj

Sii.

ci)

SIS2 SISI S2S2 S3S3

S2S3 S2S2 S2SI

S3092

"-'3

S3SI

= 2.159E-2 = 4.617E-2 = 1.619E-2 = 2.197E-2

m2 m2 m2 m2

-186-

From

equation

5.36-*. itis

possible

to

evaluate

Gllgi since

( GiSj)n

'"' (W) Pi

gi

Wi

...

D. 17

GS1
GS3

4.236E-3 GS2 = =
-=6.327E-3

m2

TableD4.

Summary of

total

exchange

areas.

m2 SURFACE 1 SURFACE 2 WALL GAS

SURFACE 1 4.617E-3 1.619E-2 2.159E-2 4.236E-3

SURFACE 2 1.619. E-2 4.617E-3 2.159E-2 4.236E-3

WALL 2.159E-2 2.159E-2 2.159E-2 6.327E-3

*GAS *By difference,

2.620E-3 d-Si

2.620E-3 Aici EjS-iSj

7.813E-3

since

DA.

Adjustment of charge. slurry

total

exchange

areas

for

presence

of

For up by the

a kiln charge areas are is

loading is

of

16.7%, the

the total

area wall

of

wall

taken Thus

23.776 of the of the

area.

exchange surface/gas exchange

between 23.7%

slurry. total

charge

and other area and wall

the total

exchange area.

76.37o of

exchange

-187-

Table

D5.

Areas chain

for heat model.

transfer

within

the

kiln

M2

/BAY

Al A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 Bl

Surface Exchange Exchange Surface Surface Surface Exchange Exchange Exchange Exchange

area area area area area area area area area area

chains chains: chains: gas: walls slurry: gas: gas: chains: slurry: gas: walls slurry walls walls walls slurry (CW) (NFC) (9-W) (d-S) (C-) slurry gas (6C-)

0.2808 0.0051 0.0042 0.0712 0.0261 0.0231 0.0051 0.0165 0.0051 0.0015

See

Table

3 for

nomenclature

used

in

Appendix

D.

-188-

APPENDIK E: f

TREAIMM CF CHAIN ARFASAND THEDRETICAL WEIGHr SCALIM FACIORS. *

-189-

Appendix

E.

Theoretical scaling

treatment factors.

of

chain

areas

and

weight,

E. 1.

Circular

chain

links.

Consider

the

chain

link's

represented

in

Fig.

F-i

dw

dL

The

surface

area
2 Ild w

per

link

= RdL#Rdw = 112

dL. dw -

Ild

E., 1

Fig-El

Diagramatic The

representation

of "circular" small

link

chain. to the area

area 'seen' for

quantity by the

11 dwII is gas

compared streams,

of

chain

and slurry

and can be

ignored

practical

considerations. E. 2

Hence

the

surface

area/link
11 2 = HdL, -4
2

=]T'dLdw
ji 22E. dLdw -T-.

...

The

link

volume

Hence

weight/link

IT dLdw ps. 4 . ratio can then

...

EA

The equation

surface E. 5

area/weight

be expressed

by

AL WL

4 psdw

E. 5

It is

is

of

interest of the

to

note

that dL,

the

above

expression

independent

link'sizel

-190-

E. 2.

Rectangular

chain

links. of chain link = 2dL + 2(dL 2d W)

T
dw
d2 L I-4

Length

Surface
Weight

area

Rd 2x w
ndw

Length
x Length x ps

Hence

the

surface

area/weight

ratio E.6 of "rectangular"

Fig. Fig. E2.

AL -4... WL : Psdw E2 Diagramatic representation link chain. representation of

Diagramatic link rhnin-

"rectangular"

E. 3.

Suspendedchains.

From that the

the surface of

preceeding area/weight the link

two

sections, ratio 'dLI for

it

has

been link of

shown is the

a chain

independent chain shape.

size

irrespective

However, gravitational link to

when forces,

a'chain it is

is

suspended to

and subjected derive of

to

necessary the chain

an effective

length-Ideff''to be evaluated for

enable a given

number length.

links/chain From Fig. E3 it

can be seen

that

dL 2

T deff I The

deff

= dL of

2dw , links then Le eff) in

's..

E. 7 of as

number ILCI

a chain

length

can

be expressed E. 8

nc = integer

Fig.

'E3

Diagramatic of representation link length showing effective

suspe nded Id, ff,. -.

chain

links

T1

-0

0 . r1

ca I-i

El

0 41 %2
erd

4-4 0 1.4 0

.= 0 -A 41

a)

p4

auuo-4 /

UIC) z0
-4 oII

000a0

(7N

00

r-

1.0

Ln

V-d jiq2iaM/v9aV

eoulanS

uiuiqo

-192-

The exchange

surface medium

area is thus

per ,

chain

presented

to

the

heat

AC

]T2 dL dw. nc * . length is

E. 9

and

the

weight

of

chain
2-2

per

suspended

EL. dL. dw. nc WC = p's. 4

...

E. 10

The It link was

above'relationships simpler to

are

for

"circular" "rectangular" "circular"

chains.

considered

represent

chains

by'equivalent

diameter

chains. dw

Hence

it

follows

that

for

M kg.

of

chain

in

a drying

zone ,
AZ =mx W Ae .. o E. 11

or

MX 112dLdwne AZ = --liz 2ne -psdLd 4w

4M psdw

...

E. 12

AZ ol m -4E. Psdw

13

This is shown

expression, graphically

which in Fig.,

is E4

identical over

to a range

equation of chain

E. 5

stock

diameters.

It of

can be observed link, chain the

that

the the of

smaller surface chain link

the area

diameter per or unit type.

a chain of

greater

length

irrespective

size

-193-

E. 4.

Enuivalent

pipe

diameter.

It length

is of

found chain

necessary, by a pipe in the

on occasions equivalent. estimation

to This of

represent method is in

particularly chain banks.

useful -1

radiation

For length

a heat IIdLII,

exchange the su

surface rface E. 14

of chain

area of

dL. dw 112 =

ic

The

surface

area

of ...

a pipe-the E. 15

same

length
0

= RdedL

de

Fig.

E5

Representation

of

chain

links

by

equivalent

pipe.

By setting that

the

surface,

areas

equal

it

can be, shown

dw de =2 11 E. -7

E. 16

Since,,

from

equation

dw =--

dL -2 def f

...

E. 7

deff

= dL --

2de 11 ...

E. 8

-194-

E. 5.

Projected

surface

area.

In to

the

modelling the area area,

of of

chain chain

surface

area,

it

is

necessary kiln

evaluate

as a projection shadow.

on the

cross-sectional

i. e.

as the

As a simplification,
I dL I

circular area of

links two dw
2

are links

assumed:

Projected

RdL. dw + dL. dw Since to


Fig. E6

E. 9 small it in comparison

the

term

dw is link

the

chain
circular

area,
links.

can be ignored

Simple

Hence

projected

area/link

+ 2 d* is e

dLdw

E. 10

If diameter length

an equivalent giving the

diameter

defined

as the area per

pipe unit

same projected then TI )dLd

surface

as a chain,

d*d1+ f -- (2w e ef 'deff' as dL 2de 11 2de 11 has been

E. 11

previously

defined

in

equation

E. 8

Hence

d*(dL e

+ 11 )dLdw 2

E. 12

and since

de dw = 11 1+ 11 (HdL dLde 2de) ...

de =(2)

E. 13

-195E. 6. Application to scaledown theory.

E. 6.1.

Chain

weight.

For tonnes/1000 the and

an even M3. in the

density For

system,

a typical to of

chain

density

is

130

modelling model must

conditions equal must that

be satisfied, the in real both system systems.

voidage hence

the

chained Vc Vk

density Mc -P -Vk

be equal

Since

1-e=

..

4.12

it

follows

that

Mr- I q Vk model I LC ! model model internal

me Ps Vkj

real

oir

Vk the

-C Vk

E. 14 real of 7.296 x 10-2 m3

Hence, 9.49 kg of

for chains

volume

are

required.

E. 6.2.

Chain

area.

The e),

chained where

area

ratio

of

the

system

to

be modelled

is

eI real

Lc* Ak

II real
from

1 A*c Ak

model

*0* .

4.13

"ereal"

can be evaluated

equation

4.12

1-e
I and I A*1.313 cz model

real

= 0.982

10-3M2

where

is A* c

the

projected

area

of

chain

across

the

kiln

c. s. a.

-196-

By expressing . diameterg de

Ac in

terms

of

the

chain

length

and equivalent

Ac = Lcde

... d* for e

E. 15

it Lc

is

possible kiln x 3

to

evaluate

the

chosen

chain

length

of

diameter

d*=6.463

10-3M2

In

Pquation 1+

E. 13 'it li

-shoth,. that was ., dL de

de =(2)

(HdL

2de)

By means de it size is which

of

a trial to give select the

and error a scale approximate

solution chain chain of

for the

dL and correct when stock

possible will in the

density

installed

kiln.

The was 1.24 hanger weight surface a mild

scale steel,

chain oval This

chosen link

from type

commercially of equivalent around give ten

available diameter the spiral chain

sizes

x 10-1m at of 2.54 9.27kg

chain

was spaced to

x 10-2M over of

intervals approximately

an overall bays, with

a chain

area/bay

0.2808

M2.

-197-

Table

El.

Nomenclature

for

App'endix

E.

..... .....

:. Area Projected Kiln area of chain zone

M2 M2 m diameter voidage factor kg of links M3 giving A* cz M

Acz d

......

diameter

d* e ...... e ...... M .......

Equivalent Volume Mass Number Volume

n ....... V .......

C......

chain equivalent effective kiln link wire/stock .. (chained)zone Gre'ek pipe

e ...... eff k L ....

...... ......

W...... cz, z

Density

kg/M3

-198-

APPENDIX F:

INSIRUMENT FLOW EQUATIONS AND OMMMONS

-199-

A pendix

F.

Instrument

flow

equations

and

corrections.

F. 1

Slurry

"mono"

pump.

The relationship

"Mono" of

pump calibration the form

was

found

to

fit

a simple

M-B = 8.727

NR

...

F. 1

where

MB = the NR = the final

mass

flowrate

of of

slurry the

(kg/h) "Mono" pump

setting speed drive shaft

F. 2.

"Annubar"

pitot

rates.

The section
pitot

flow

in

the

gas

duct from

and hence the

through

the

model for

can be calculated
tubes for low velocities

standard

equation

11

F. 2
h/PG

where

V= h=

gas

velocity

(m/s) pressure under flow (mm. Wg) conditions (kg/M3)

differential density

PG = gas

This the static

equation pressure

is is

valid less

for than

gas

flow

through

pipes

where

254mm. Wg.

For "Kf"

a differential unity,

pressure

device

with

a K-facto,

other-than

h=

hr/Kf

-200-

where

hr

= measured

differential

pressure

(mm. Wg)

The K-factor at NTP,

"Annubar" of i. e. 1.7.

pitot The gas

flow density

rates is

were taken

found

to

have of air

as that

PG 1.2928

k g/M3-

Under from

flow

conditions pressure,

of

IC and h

mm Hg variation

atmospheric

PG = 1.2928(

1+T1

)(1 G/273

hG 273

F. 4

However., + hG/273)

over is not

the

pressure

range

studied,

the

term

significant.

Hence

equation

simplifies

to

PG -- 1.2928(

1+

1 TG1273

F. 5

For can

all

practical

purposes,

the

flow

equation

be written

GG = 1.22

104 VhrPG

F. 6

where

GG = gas mass Kf = 1.7 a gas duct of

flow/unit

area

for

DP devices

with

In gas/hour

diameter by

0.3048

m, the

mass

flow

of

"MG" is

expressed

MG = 891.92>/-hrpG

F. 7

The

theory

of

prediction

of

radiation

effects

to

-201-

temperature is is given listed in in

measurements section Appendix

using

unshielded computer

thermocouples programme iteration

7 and the H.

-202-

APPENDIX G:

ANCILLARY BQLJIFMENr.

-203Appendix G. Ancillary_equipment.

G-l.

Gas-fired

recuperative

furnace.

The gas-fired Hotwork air. lined having The

flue

gas

to of

the

chain

model output

is

supplied

by Utilising

a a combustion

furnace recuperative furnace of

maximum burner

15therms, the comprises

to

preheat

incoming

combustion length operating 8000C is in

chamber 2 metres. temperature are obtained sink

a refractory

cylinder

a maximum

of from apart

16500C. the from

Flue

gas

temperatures (Fig. water inlet Gl)

up to since

furnace, shell and the

there

no heat the

cooled

targets air.

combustion

chamber,

combustion

The of fluid

furnace

is

fully

instrumented surface are

for

the

monitoring and the gas to the lightinlet

and refractory of gas and air tube

temperatures, by The valves by

streams meter burner up

measured

cumulative gas and supply automatic

and pitot is

respectively. by solenoid

protected is air

and shut-down of the

facilitated to fuel ratio

a "Honeywell" by a "British lead shows

controller. Gas system the layout in

Control

is

Corporation" with Of air the

ratio enrichment

regulator, at low fire. which

using Fig. is

a gas Gl

control of

equipment, Surrey report

fully

described

University

number

FT-RII-69.

-204-

LI,

co

---:.

0 -l I-

oll

,IIII

rNN
I

5 1 -tm jI I '-

.-n.

-...

IhI

-205-

G. 2

Portable

pressure

and

flow

analyser.

_(P.

P. F. A. )

The P. P. F. A. pressure 10,000: can measuring 1 to

micromanometer unit with of a'total 1% in and

is

a sensitive pressure

differential range The meter of

an accuracy to 0.5%

any the

range. 5000

be read of

F. S. D., can

millivolts to a D. V. M. or The overload pressure

output chart capacity range static

the

instrument for greater is

be coupled

recorder of or the

discrimination. ten-times is the greater.

unit

maximum

50 mm Wg, whichever is 150 p. s. i.

The maximum

pressure

The micromanometer differential flow ranges is the ranges to pressure operate give

utilises transducer

a capacitance (FC 18"')0), and highest The flow and

btidge the

on the

lowest

pressure signal an

1076 and root of

100% of the the

range.

square of

pressure output of

signal, a pitot

having tube.

effect

linearising

The velocity and to a pitot frequencies gives or a2

readings of

are 1.

given

for

air will

at

N. T. P., respond

'K'-factor up to

The diaphragm and the

200 Hz, time

FAST/SLOW meter for turbulent

switch flow

second readings.

constant

pressure

UNIT
Input

NUMBER FM 1351
voltage 240v AC

TRANSDUCER NUMBER FC 1820 Output voltage 500 mV

Flowranges

100% 0-500 lo% 0-50

mm Wg % 90 metres/second mm Wg lu Controls 9 metres/second Limited

Manufacturers:

Furness

11
It

"06

G. 3

"Annubar"

pitotrakes.

The Annubars (12 sides inch of /305 the

are

k'Type size) I

7411 standard having

insert

sensors, on both

mm pipe pipe.,

a support

Material Accuracy: Measured Maximum

of

construction: to 1.55% 1.7

316 stainless of standard flow

steel

0.55 K-factor: differential

(mean) 1525 650 mm Wg OCentigrade

pressure: temperature: 23343,23347 Standard Instrument

4aximum operating Annubar Numbers:

Manufacturer:

Dieterich Ellison

Corporation, Division

-207-

G. 4.

Electronic

equipment.

The 555 Timer all the

system

is

controlled signal clocking is

by gated in the

a clock and

derived to

from provide is 10

and the necessary

divided The a 7442 to

system.

clock 1 of update

divided decoder channel to the provide

by a 74% decade to provide the

counter sequence pulse to punch.

feeding of to signals the

the -and

counter the

and clock necessarydrive on the

multiplexor to punch

the

logger

out

information

Addo

The start/stop, nal/external single condition the

unit

is

controlled

by reset

a series single The

of

switches and and up in The

providing interare stop from 'on'

auto/manual, clock facilities. gates

increment start/stop

reset the' output the

cross-coupled and reset is

biased

to

power

conditions fed to

respectively. of gates

start/stop is to

a system pulses

and when at the one

condition intervals indication controls pulse reaches These the

selected, a decade

clock counter

are

passed to give

second

system to

channel which The count switches. mode clock

and via the channel to

slip-rings selection update indicated two the given the

a binary

. counter

on the channels on the functions; switches when the to

multiplexes. until the

continues the switches

number

two in

thumbwheel the automatic four count

provide feed from is

BCD code

a 7485.

comparator.

Apulse

channel

is

greater

-2011-

than system In

the

select

count unit mode, counts

on the sequences when are

switcher, through is

which the

resets channels

the separately. O/P channel

and the manual two

the

a start equal)stops

indicated, the count

a pulse on the

(when

the

indicated.

AA11 the to the

thermocouples (Ag

on the 5706.16 amplifie'r

rotary

section

are

coupled fed to

multiplexer thermocouple slip rings

way Cmos switches), and logger, linearizer, and a digital and

an Ancom via meter the

routed thermo-

to

the

data

indicator.

The switch often driving

static

thermocouples a binary

are

selected is

by a thumwheel by 74145 the channel readout. one by

giving decoder reed

code which of gates

converted to select

and a system relays with

indication

on a digital

The channel vals

internal/external updating by the

clock internal or still

switch clock a channel logging

provides at one update at one

either second interby

and respective micro

logging switch

indicated, inter-

an external vals.

second

-209-

APPENDIKH:

MHMM

PROGRAMS USE[) IN THE INVESTIGATION.

-210-

EVALUATION ROTATION.

OF CHAIN

TO WALL AREAS

WITH

KILN

-211-

C.....

10 AUG 76

REQUIRED INPUT:- H, R, FHI, CCF,DIST, NCH WHEN DIMENSIONAFFAY0,73) PI, TAU,DELTA COMMON NTOTAL, ARRAY, 10 READ(5,*) H IF (H. LE. O. 0) GOTO60 R=0.1524 PHI=10.0 CCF=1.333333333333 DIST=O' '0254 NCH=100 WRITE(6,20) WRITE(6,30) H, R, FHI, CCF H=H*R/100 CL=CCF*R PI=4*ATAN(I. ) PHI=PHI*PI/180 DELTA=PI/18 C TAU:2*PI FROM TRIANGLE. HYPOT SPIRAL DIST: ..... P=2*R TAU=DIST*2*PI/((4*PI*PI*R*R+P*P)**0.5) C-----3 BAYS =I SPIRAL ROTATIONAS TRIPLE START BAYS=3*NCH*TAU/2/PI BAYS WRITE(6,40)DIST, NCH, /, 25X, 7HBY MICK, //) 20 FOFMAT(///, 20X, 18HCHAINCALCULATIONS, 30 FOEMAT(3X, 2HH=,F8.4,3X, 2HF=, F8.4,3X, 4HPHI=, F8.4,3X, 4HKCF=,F8.4) 40 I4,3X, 5HBAYS=, F8.4) FOFMAT(3X, 5HDIST=, F8.4,3X, 4HNCH=, C.....
CALL SETUP(H, E, FHI, C, S, X5, Y5, X6, Y6) PALL WOEKIT(S, C, X5, Y5, X6, Y6, R, CL, DELTA) CALL SUM3

50 60
c C ..... C .....

CALL SUMSEX(NCH, CL) WRITE(6,50) FORMATM GOTO10 STOP 3 END


SUBEOUTINE SETUP(H, R, PHI, C, S, X5, Y5, X6, Y6) SLURFY LINE Y=SX+C INTEECEPT @ CIECLE X5Y5 X6Y6 C=(H-E)/COS(PHI) S=-ATAN(PHI) Al=S*S+l A2=2*C*S A3=C*C-R*R Z=SQRT(A2*A2-4*Al*A3) X5=(-A2+Z)/2/Al X6=(-A2-Z)/2/Al Y5=s*x5+C Y6=s*x6+c RETUEN END SUBROUTINE WOFKIT(S, C, X5, Y5, x6, Y6, R, CL, DELTA)

-212-

C..... C..... C ----C. ....

10

C..... C.....

C.....

20 30

40

XlYl=FIXED END OF CHAIN XlY2=FFEE END OF HYPOTHETICAL CHAIN XlY3=INTERCEPT OF VERTICAL CHAIN AND KILN SLURRY XlY4= DIMENSION ARFAY(3,73) COMMON ARFAY, NTOTAL, PI Izo THETA=O. CGAS=O. CWALL=O. CSLURY=O. YI=COS(THETA)*R Xl=SIN(THETA)*Ft Y2=Yl-CL Y3=-SQRT(E*E-Xl*Xl) Y4=S*XI+C CALL GAS(Yl, Y2, Y3, Y4, CGAS) IF TRUE ALL IN GAS IF (CGAS. GE. CL) GOTO 30 IF TRUE NONE ON WALL IF (Y3. LE. Y4) GOTO 20 CALL'WALL(X5, Y5, x6, Y6, xl, Y3, F, CWALL) TEST=MAX POSS CHAIN LENGTH TEST=CL-CGAS IF (CWALL. GT. TEST) CWALL=TEST CSLURY=CL-CGAS-CWALL DEGFE=THETA*180/PI I=I+l AFFAYO , I)=CGAS ARRAY(2, I)=CWALL ARRAY(3, I)=C-"-LURY THETA=THETA+DELTA IF (THETA. GE. 6.283) GOTo 4o GOTO 10 NTOTAL=I RETURN END SUBROUTINE WALL(X5, Y5, X6, Y6, Xl, Y3, R, CWALL) THINK OF CIRCLE X=FSINE(O); Y=ECOS(O) PSII=ATAN((R**? -Y3**2)**0.5/Y3) IF TRUE 180<PSI1<360 IF (Xl. LT. O. ) PSII=2. *3.14159265-PSIl IF TRUE CHAIN OUT OF SLURRY IF (Xl. LT. X6) GOTO 10 PS12=ATAN((R**2-Y5**2)**0.5/Y5) IF (X5. LT. 0) PS12=2*3.14159-PSI2 CWALL=(PS12-PSII)*R RETURN 5/Y6) PS12=ATAN((R**2-Y6**2)**. IF (X6. LT. 0) PS12=2*3.14159-PSI2 CWALL=(PSII-PSI2)*R RETURN END

C C C C ..... ..... .....

10

-213-

C
C. -. SUBROUTINE GAS(YI, Y2, y3, Y4, CGAS) FINDS MAX OF Y2 Y3 Y4 YMAX=Y2 IF (Y3. GT. YMAX) YMAX=Y3 IF (Y4. GT. YMAX) YMAX=Y4 CGAS=Yl-YMAX IF (CGAS. LT. 0) CGAS=O ]RETURN END

SUBROUTINE SUM3
C..... SUMMS FOR THREE CHAINS AROUND KILN DIMENSION AFRAY(3,73) COMMON ARRAY, NTOTAL, FI, TAU, DELTA THETA=O.

N=NTOTAL/3 DO 20 Izl, N DO 10 J=1,3


10 AFRAY(J, I)=AFRAY(J, CONTINUE THETA=THETA+DELTA DEGRE=THETA*180/FI CONTINUE RETURN END I)+ARPAY(J, I+N)+ARRAY(J, I+N+N)

20

C C ..... SUBROUTINE SUMSEX(NCH, CL) SUMMS OVER A SECTION OF KILN DIMENSION ARFAY(3,73) WITH NCH CHAIN CURTAINS

COMMON AFFAY, NTOTAL, PI, TAU, DELTA WRITE(6,10)


10 FORMAT(//, 4X, 5HTHETA, IOX, 4HWALL, 10X, 7H ETA=O TCHAIN=NCH*3*CL TGAS=O TWALL=O TSLURY=O THETA=ETA SUMM NCH CHAIN SETS. START @ ETA, POTATE BY TAU DO 30 J=I, NCH IND, PI, DELTA) CALL PICKIT(THETA, TGAS=TGAS+ARRAY(I, IND) TWALL=TWALL+APFAY(2, IND) TSLURY=TSLURY+ARRAY(3, IND) THETA=THETA+TAU CONTINUE TGAS=TGAS/TCHAIN TWALL=TWALL/TCHAIN TSLUEY=TSLURY/TCHAIN DEGFE=ETA*180/Pl WRITE(6,40) DEGFE, TGAS, TWALL, TSLUPY

20

.....

30

40

FOPMAT(F9.0,6X, 3(F9.4,6X)) ETA=ETA+DELTA

-214-

50 c C .....

IF (ETA. GT. 2-0930) COTO 20 RETURN END

COTO 50

.....

C ..... C..... C ..... C..... C .... C ..... P ..... C ..... c..... c ..... C..... C ..... C .....

SUBROUTINE PICKIT(THETA, IND, PI, DELTA) GIVES INDEX OF ARRAVIND) FOR THREE CHAINS AT THETA DUM=INT(THETA*3/2/PI) THETA=THETA-(DUM*2*PI/3) NTHETA=THETA(MOD120) THETA NOW IN RANGE 0-120. IND=INT(THETA/DELTA)+l RETURN END ARFAY FIRSTLY LENGTHS 1 CHAIN 360, THEN 3 CHAINS 120 DELTA INCREMENT IN RADIANS OF AFFAY(I) TO ARFAY(I+l) DIST DISTANCE BETWEENCHAIN ANCHORSALONG SPIRAL ETA INITIAL STARTING POSITION FOR SUMMOVER NCH CHAINS H BED HEIGHT AS KCF KILN CHAIN FACTOR NCH NUMBEROF CHAIN CURTAINS FOR SUMMATION PHI ANGLE OF SLURRY BED FROM HORIZONTAL ) PI PI (3.1415..... R RADIUS OF KILN TAU ANGLE BETWEENANCHORPOSITION OF TWO SETS OF CHAINS ALL OTHERS GENERAL CONSTANTS PROGRAMME W0FKS IN RADIANS, IN/OUT IS IN DEGREES

-215-

H. 2.

FLOW EQUATIONS.

-216-

ICO 110 120 130 140 1150 160 . 1-10 180 190 -200 -210 -220 230 , 40 -_2 250 260 270 28o 290 300 301 302 310 315 320 330 340 350 360

REM IRROPPOR1*00"I"PFOGFAM FLOWS" *****o F. ry, REM REM EDUCTOF 2 INCH PIPE, PITOT TUBE .................. 4 INCH PIPE, OFIFICE PLATE REM COMBUSTIONAIR ........ 4 INCH PIPE, PITOT TUBE REM DILUTIGN AIR ............. POTAMETERAND METER REM GAS SUPPLY .................. RE F EM N=l FEINT DATA SET", N FEINT GOSUB 380 GOSUB 460 GOSUB 540 GOSUB 620 REM REM PRINT PRINT "TOTAL FLOWFATE THROUGHMODEL=", Q+Ql+Q2+Q3, "KG/H" FEINT PRINT PRINT ll PRINT "DO YOU WANT TO CALCULATE ANNUBAF FLOWFATES? PRINT "(IF REQ."EFARATELY, TyrE ##FUN 720W11 INPUT A$ PRINT 11 11 IF A$z"YE-I"THEN GGSUB 720 IF A$="YIITHEN GOSUB -120 GOTG200

370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 I500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600

REM REM SUB EDUCTOR INPUT DP, in WgIl FEINT IIEDUCTOR FLOWFATE ........ INPUT H Q=190.149*(H**. 5) Q, llKG/Hll EDUCTOR=ll, FEINT "AIR MASSFLOWTHROUGH PRINT FETUFN FEM REM SUB COMBUSTION AIF PRINT "COMBUSTION INPUT DP, WgIl AIR FLOWRATE mm ....... INPUT Hl Ql=3-t. 54*(Hl**. r)) PRINT "COMBUSTION l, Ql, llKG/Hll AIR TO BUFNEF=, PRINT RETURN REM REMSUB DILUTION AIR PRINT "DILUTION AIR TO MODEL INPUT DP, in WgIl ...... INPUT H2 Q2=760.62*(H2**. 5) FEINT "DILUTION AIR TO MODEL=", Q2, llKG/Hll PRINT RETURN

-217-

610
620 630 640 650 660 6-io 680 690

REM

REM GAS ROTAMETERSETTING PRINT "BOTAMETEE SETTING" INPUT X Y=2.733*X+7 Q3=Y*. 0424*60/2.2 PRINT "GAS MASS FLOWRATETO BURNER =", Q3, "KG/Hll PRINT N=N+l 100 RETURN 110 REM

740 750 760 770 780 790 800 810 820 830 840 850

FLOWRAKES j20 REM SUB ANNUBAR 130 I=O

PRINT"ANNUBAR FLOW FAKEll, I+l PRINT" " PRINT "DF, V24WG AND GAS TEMP, DEG C.... SEPARATED BY A COMMA" INPUT H4, T R=1.2923*2-t3/(273+T) 5) Q4=891.9*((H4*F)**. PRINT"FLOW READ BY ANNUBARll, I+lq,, =, l, Q4, llKG/Hll IF I=1 THEN 840 I=l GOTO 740 RETURN REM

-218-

H. 3.

UNSHIELDED

THERMOCOUPLE

CORRECTIONS.

-219-

100 110 120 130 140 150 151 160 161 170 171 180 190 191

REM REM REM FEY. FEM REM THIS FFOGFAM IS DESIGNED TO EVALUATE THE CORRECTED REM TEMPERATURE BEADING REM FOE A PROBE OF DIA D1 METFES IN A DUCT MUCH LARGER REM THAN ITSELF REM IT THEN CAN EVALUATE THE GAS FLOWFATE THROUGHTHE REM DUCT USING STD. FLOW EQUATIONS. REM AN INITIAL GUESS FIRST HAS TO BE MADE AT THE GAS REM MASS FLOWFATESO THAT THE GAS-PBOBE HTC CAN BE REM ESTIMATED

195 REM
200 GOSUB 260 210 GOSUB 350 220 GOSUB 460 230 IF AB-I(G3-G2)>10 240 GOSUB 540

THEN 210

250 251 REM


260 270

END

REM SUB READ DATA READ Tl, T2, Gl, H3, T3

280 DATA200,500,9000,1.2,185 290 H1=13-5


300 310 315 320 330 D1=2/1000 G2=Gl FEINT G2 T4=Tl N=l

340 RETURN 345 REM


350 REM SUB TEMP ITERATE 360 IF N=l THEN 380 370 TI=T4

380 Clz. 24+TI/1000*. 02


390 H2=2.237*Cl*(G2*0.6)/(Dl**. 400 T4zT2*(l+Hl/H2)-T3*Hl/H2 420 430 440 445 450 460 465

4)

410 11=0
IF AB-S(T4-Tl)>l THEN 370 N=l RETURN REM REM SUB FLOW ITERATE IF G3=0 THEN 480 PRINTlIG3=11,G3 Fl=1.2928/(l+T4/273) G3=12200*((H3*F1)**-5) IF ABS(G3-G2)>10 THEN 520 N=O RETURN REM

470 G2=G3
480 490. 500 510 520 525

-220-

530 540 550 56o 565 570 580 590 600 61o 620 630 640 650 66o 670 700

FEm SUB rRINT IT P----DEGFEES C=", T4 PRINT "COFFECTED GAS TEM. G3 M2 KG/HF. PFINT "GAS FLOWEATE =", ---------IRETUFN FEM REM TI-GUESS TEMP REM V T2-PFOBE TEMP REM a T3-WALL TEMP REM r T4-GAS TEMP REM i Hl-FAD HTC REM a H2-CONVHTC REM b Gl-FLOW GUESS GAS FLOW REM 1 G2-WOFKING REM e Cl-SP HEAT GAS REM 3 Rl-DENSITY OF GAS WITH TEMP REM N-COUNTER REM

-221-

H. 4.

PAPER

TAPE

READER

PROGRAMS.

-222-

TAFE: PPOCEDURE OFTIONS(MAIN);

/* GS /f L /*

TAPE

READS IN A FILE OF TAPE AND PEOCESESOUT THE INTEGER STRIN IT WILL TERMINATE WITH A CTFL+C THE EOF SYMBO

IN IT UP TO 32367.

27-11.79

ANDY TATE

INITIAL

CODING

DCL DCL DCL DCL DCL DCL DCL

CH CHAE(l); (I, NO) FIXED BIN; VAL CHARM) VARYING; LINE CHAR(400) VARYING; (FILOUT, FILNAM) CHAF00) INFILE FILE INPUT; OUTFILE FILE OUTPUT;

ON ENDFILE(INFILE) BEGIN; PUT SKIP FILE(OUTFILE) LIST(2300); PUT SKIP LISTOEND OF FILE FOUND'); ENDFILE ON BlOCKI); PUT SKIP LIST(IIN STOP; END; PUT SKIP LISTOSTART OF TAPE PEOGEAMEI); PUT SKIP LISTOGIVE INPUT FILE'); GET LIST(FILNAM); PUT SKIP LISTOWILL PFOCESS AND FEINT NUMERICS FOR FILEI, PUT SKIP LISTOGIVE OUTFUT FILE'); GET LIST(FILOUT); STEEAM INPUT; OPEN FILE(INFILE) TITLE(FILNAM) STREAM OUTPUT; OPEN FILE(OUTFILE) TITLE(FILOUT) LOOP: INTO(LINE); READ FILE(INFILE) CALL PROCESS; GOTO LOOP;

FILNAM);

PROCESS: FFOCEDUPE; DO I=l TO LENGTH(LINE); CH=SUBSTR(LINE, I, l); /*FUT SKIP LIST(UNSPEC(CH), RANK(CH), CH, I); */ IF VERIFY(CH, 10123456789')=O THEN VAL=VALIICH; ELSE IF LENGTH(VALM THEN CALL OUTN; END; /*put */ skip list('******end of record******'); IF LENGTH(VAL)>O THEN CALL OUTN;

-223-

OUTN:PFOCEDUEE; DCL COUNT FIXED BIN STATIC INITIAL(O); NO=BINAPY(VAL); VALZII; IF NO>2000 THEN DO; NO=2300; PUT SKIP FILE(OUTFILE); COUNT=O; END; EDIT(NO, ', ') PUT FILE(OUTFILE) COUNT=COUNT+l; IF COUNT=10 THEN DO; PUT SKIP FILE(OUTFILE); COUNT=O; END; IF NO>2000 THEN DO; PUT SKIP FILE(OUTFILE); COUNT=O; END; END OUTN; END PFOCESS; END TAPE;

(F(5),

A);

-224-

SUBBOUTINE MAIN STACK HEADER 34 $INSERT SYSCOM>KEYS. F $INSERT SYSCOM>ERED. F EXTERNAL ERROR RUNNO INTEGER*4 11,12, I3, I4, EESU1, EESU2, COUNT,TCNUMB, 1, TCCON1,LINBUF(10) FUNIT, CODE,TYPE INTEGER JI, I, FBUF(34), NAMBUF(16), INNBUF(ii), 1, IMBUF3(32), IMBUF4(32), Ml, STATUI, STATU2, STATU3, LINLEN, TEON,TROFF,K 21, K2, I8, J5, j6, I9, I7, K3, ONNAME(3)

COMMON/Al/NAMBUF, FUNIT DATA FBUF/68H(I3, lH,, I3, lH,, I3, IH,, I3, lH,, I3, IH,, I3, IH,, I3, lH,, I3 I, lH,, I3, lH,, I3) /
DATA DATA CALL CALL NAMBUF/32HEUN. ONNAME/6HQUIT$ TNOU(I[VARIABLE FOEMAT TAPE READ rev 5, ERFOR) MKON$F(ONNAME, 150.711,37)

FUNIT=9 TYPE=l I1=4 M1=13 TFON=145 TROFF=147


10 20 30 WRITE(1,20)Ml FOFMAT(lA2) FOFMAT(l 1) CALL DUPLX$(: 20000) WRITE(1,40) FOFMAT(lType run number-') READ(1,50, END=60)INNBUF FOFMAT(llA2) CONTINUE STATU1=1 STATU2=0 STATU3=0 CALL DUPLX$(: 100000) CALL UNPACK(INNBUF, IMBUF3,16) CALL UNPACK(NAMBLIF, IMBUF4,16) DO 70 K1=1,32 K2=KI+4 IMBUF4(K2)=IMBUF3(KI) CONTINUE CALL FACKIT(IMBUF4, NAMBUF,16) CALL SECH$$(K$EXST, NAMBUF,16, FUNIT, TYPE, CODE) CALL SECH$$(K$CLOS, O, O, FUNIT, TYPE, CODE) IF(CODE. NE. 0) CALL EFPR(CODE) CALL SRCH$$(K$WRIT+K$IUFD, NAMBLIF, 32, FUNIT, TYPE, CODE) IF(CODE. NE. 0) CALL EFPR(CODE) WRITE(1,80) FOFMAT(lPut the tape in the tape reader and switch it CALL TONL CALL TONL CALL TONL WRITE(1,90)

40 50 60

70

80

to auto. ')

-225-

90 100

110 120

130

140

150

160

170

FOF. the run') MAT(lType S to start WFITE(1,30) CALL TlIN(I8) IF(I8. EQ. 211) GOTO 110 IF(I8. EQ. 243) GOTO 110 GOTO 100 CONTINUE WFITE(1,120) TFON FOFMAT(A2) CALL TNOU(lYour tape reader is now onl, 26) J1=13 J5=LINLEN TCCON1=2300 TCNUMB=2300 FUNNO=000000 STATU1=0 CALL ATTDEV(6,8,9,0,80) I1=4 12zO 13=lT6 14=0 LINLEN=10 CONTINUE DO 140 Jlzl, LINLEN LINBUF(Jl)=O CONTINUE DO 220 I=1, LINLEN CALL BEINT(I3, I4, I2, RESU1, FESU2, COUNT) CALL FCFMAT(j6, FBUF, LINBUF, LINLEN) DO 160 12=1, Il 13=0 CALL VIVID 13=13/65536 IF(I3. GT-185) CALL FEINT(I3, I4, I2, RESU1, FESU2, COUNT) IF(I3. LT. 176) CALL REINT(I3, I4, I2, FESUI, RESU2, COUNT) IF(STATUl. EQ. O) GOTO 150 IF(COUNT. GT. 20) GOTO 230 CONTINUE 13=I3-176 14=(Il-I2) FESU1=(13)*(10**I4) FESU2=FESU2+RESUl CONTINUE FESU2, STATU1, STATU2) CALL TCCON(TCNUMB, IF(STATU2. EQ. 1) GOTO 170 IF(STATU2. GT. 1) GOTO 210 TCNUMB=2300 LINBUF(I)=RESU2 STATU1=1 RESU2=00000 GOTO 220 CONTINUE J5=1-1 CALL FOFMAT(j6, FBUF, LINBUF, J5)

-226-

180 190

200 210 220 230

240

250 260 270 280 290

300

IF(J5. EQ.0) COTO 180 WHITE(I, FBUF)(LINBUF(I9), I9=1, J5) WEITE(1,190)TCCON1 FOFMAT(I4) IF(J5. EQ.0) COTO200 CALL FOEMAT(J6, FBUF,LINBUF, J5) WRITE(6, FBUF)(LINBUF(I9), I9=1, J5) WRITE(6,190)TCCONI I=LINLEN CONTINUE IF(STATU2. NE.O) COTO240 CONTINUE IF(COUNT.GE-20) LINLEN=I-1 IF(LINLEN. LT. 1) COTO240 CALL FORMAT(j6,FBUF,LINBUF, LINLEN) WRITE(1, FBUF)(LINBUF(I9), I9=1, LINLEN) WRITE(6, FBUF)(LINBUF(I9), I9=1, LINLEN) I=LINLEN CALL FORMAT(j6,FBUF,LINBUF, LINLEN) TCNUMB=TCCONl 12=Il IF(COUNT.GE-20) COTO250 COTO 130 CONTINUE DO 260 K3=1,16 INNBUF(K3)=000000 CONTINUE WRITE(1,120)TROFF WPITE(1,270) FOFMAT(lDo you want another run') WFITE(1,280) FOFMAT(16HTypeY or N CALL TIIN(I7) IF(I7. EQ.206) COTO300 IF(I-f. EQ.217) COTO 10 COTO290 CONTINUE O, O, FUNIT, O, CODE) CALL SFCH$$(K$CLOS, CALL DUPLX$(:20000) CALL EXIT END EESU2,COUNT) SUBROUTINE REINT(I3, I4, I2, RESU1, INTEGER*4 13, I4, I2, FESU1,FESU2,COUNT IF(I3. EQ. 128) COUNT=COUNT+l IF(I3. NE. 128) COUNT=000000 13=176 14=000000 12=000000 RESU2=000000 FESU1=000000 RETURN END SUBROUTINE TCCON(TCNUt4B, FESU2,STATUI, STATU2) INTEGEF*4 TCNUMB, FESU2

-227-

10

20 30

40

10

10

INTEGER STATUI, STATU2 IF(RESU2. GE. 1900) STATU2=STATU2+1 IF(RESU2. LT-1900) STATU2=000000 RETURN END SUBROUTINE FOPHAT(j6, FBUF, LINBUF, J5) INTEGER14 LINBUF(10) INTEGER FBUF(34), IMBUF1(68), IMBUF2(68), OFBUF(34), JI, J2 1, J3, J4, J5, j6, WRDLEN(10), K9, J DATA OFBUF/68H(I3, lH,, I3, lH,, I3, lH,, I3, IH,, I3, lH,, I3, lH,, I3, lH,, I3 1, lH,, 13, lH,, I3) DO 10 K9=1,34 FBUF(K9)r. OFBLT(K9) CONTINUE CALL UNFACK(OFBUF,IMBUFl, 34) CALL UNFACK(FBUF, IMBUF2,34) DO 30 J=1,10 DO 20 JI=1,9 J2=9-Ji J3=LINBUF(J)/10**J2 IF(J3. GE. 10) GOTO 20 IF(J3. GE. 1) WFDLEN(J)=J2+1 EQ. 0) WEDLENOW IF(LINBUF(J). CONTINUE CONTINUE J6=1 DO 40 J4=1,68 NE. 1-19) GOTO 40 IF(IMBUF1(J4). IMBUF2(J4)=WRDLEN(j6)+176 J6=J6+1 IF(J6-GT. J5) IMBUF2(J4+4)=160 CONTINUE CALL FACKIT(IMBUF2, FBUF, 34) RETURN END SUBBOUTINE UNFACK(INBUFF, IMBUF1, Nl) INTEGER INBUFF(34), IMBUF1(68), J, J2, J3, Nl DO 10 Jzl, Nl J2=2*J J3=J2-1 IMUFl(J3)=(INBUFF(J)/256-1)*256 IMBUF1(J2)=(INBUFF(J)-IMBUF1(J3)) IMBUF1(J3)=(IMBUF1(J3)/256)+256 CONTINUE RETURN END SUBROUTINE PACKIT(INBUFF, IMBUF1, Nl) INTEGER INBUFF(68), IMBUFI(34), J, J2, J3, Nl DO 10 J=1, Nl J2=2*J J3=J2-1 IMBUF1(J)=INBUFF(J3)*256 IMBUF1(J)=IMBUF1(J)+INBUFF(J2) CONTINUE

-228-

FETUFN END SUBPOUTINE EFPF(CODE) INTEGER CODE CALL EFFPR$(2, CODE,lWRONG AGAIN BRUCEI, 18, 'FADEI, 4) RETURN END SUBROUTINE EFROR(CP) INTEGER*4 CP E, TYPE INTEGER NAMBUF(16), FUNIT, K$CLOS, COD COn4ON/Al/NAMBUF, FUNIT CAL& SRCH$$(: 4,0,0, FUNIT, TYPE, CODE) CALL DUPLX$(: 20000) CALL TONL CALL TONL CALL TNOU('End of tape input. 1,18) CALL TONL CALL EXIT RETURN END

-229-

H. 5.

DATA

HANDLING

PROGRAM RESU

PLOW -230-rA P--T

Cl-lAeT

FOP-

RE-SU

IIJ

EXALUPC-l G7aANl-Sr-E-PCHAII--A osu a PP-l WT H&ADitIrAS

HF-A-, TO

c5cLsus

Q-

EYALUA-TF-

TE--s-r
lie-, nL

>, C)

r s
C"A iM

rb

aI=I -S-TE. P

-T 0 I km-Ab,

Fiznm P-AW

FILE

W IWTA

CJA At M CnA-S

Fi: P- WAU FOP- GAG,

14_C- M Le_ 2

pe3 p-

7-

14-

- 10

') 2 - -

41

IN7F-epr-ZNL-A-Tr.

-"5-rF

') iGAS

-TJ', APEP-4; TL)C-

L-L-1E-! Q

C A-T

-rc-,

23
rr

dr-, z a f: F T.

rsT INTE-P-Pi2
WAL-L-

-4
1

FC3P-

EACH

E>A'J

&VAL-UA
e--"Asr, J TC3

' TEL-

6A.:

GnLsu6,5
S

aF-Nle-IZA

H FA-%
7PIANSFEC F- F -. .

51 CS -7 -: ,
if

TF-rvl P-

VAL-UE-G

FL, Q

:E

EUA L-L)AT FHaA-r -TPANI-S

-S

E-r

L3P

-To

WA L-L-

IPEe-

231-

GL

10 1 IN-i EP-POLA-1
Mo I -n.-I u -, F-

>1

-4 E-S

C--cls us

1a
WAL-L (M GA-S A L-L-

6 F--r vi E. F- t--i EA-4 <

EUAIJ-VVM

31
FAJA

VJAL-LLLIA-T E

,T,!::, L. Ll P-P--4 HEAT


7P-At4.SFIEe=F-FFICtF-KIT

S L-L3 Ce4 16A PA -1-51CA Lf ZO F'E-e-T I E-S


F.6c 1 -7 o nt F-P 1 a-= 'N

Mcls-TL-NC-F
EU A LU A-M-

VJ %-r ri r=Ai P. r

;17

Go'. 5U&S

5,11

60-sua 12.13 14 1-5 .

GAS

EA'T
EFF le- IE Ki-I S6

e--P Fp IC-1EmT

4A I I-r 1

F-UA LU AT E LIAS To --SLiJV-P-\4 HEAT 'TPANSFEf, C=EIRCIENCT

bup-tTe-

Ps.

1 2F: 94t t tig-S , 9V-4,WG

"r1 1101 F-VALL)AT Grit-NI CS, A-S. UI -Sc-" lEjLif-lS. 1-: SL-UV-P-'4 1 -r -1 Y

aNj D
EUAL-UkYrE A riii

'THF-CAIAL41cle-Mit=U1 1-11 s PFICI Pt Zh F-A-r E:-%C..

12 FTr-. -9,

-2392-

10 FEM 20 FEM LIST OF MODIFICATIONSFROM16.06.80 KCAL/K 0.24+T/1000*0.028 NOW AIR HT. REM SPECIFIC 30 40 REM SLURRY VELOCITY IN STANTON NO. NOWHAS AXIAL THE FROM SIMPLIFIED IS VISCOSITY GAS AS FADIAL. REM WELL 50 NOW IN 60 REM EXPRESSION BASED ON INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS .... 70 REM TEMPERATUFE/MOISTUFECONTENT FORMULATION. 80 REM DRYING PATE ADDED 23.06.80 100 REM 110 REM SID TAKES DATA GENERATEDFROM THE HOT KILN CHAIN FOR GROUPS READY DIMENSIONLESS PRODUCES REM MODEL 120 MREG. FROGRAM SYSTEM BY CORRELATION REM 130 200 REM 6 AND 2,3,4,5 TO 1; WFITE 210 REM FILES: READ FROM 220 REM NAME" FILE INPUT PRINT "GIVE 230 240 INPUT F$ 250 DEFINE FILE #1=F$ 260 PRINT"GIVE OUTPUT FILE NAME" 270 INPUT G$ 280 DEFINE FILE #2=G$ FILE READ ONTO THE TYPED MANUALLY IS THIS DATA REM 290 (WT. MOIST. IN/MID/OUT REM X1-3 300 ) /HR. FLOWS(KG. SLURRY AND GAS 310 FEMG1,G2 ARE (DEG. C) TEMP. IN REM T IS GAS 320 330 REM Z IS RUN NO. (-) (RPM) SPEED REM Zl IS ROT. 340 STARTS HERE 350 REM PROGRAM 360 GOSUB 3200 370 REM GOSUB CONSTS. AND DIMENSIONS Zl N(2), N(3), N(l), X3, X2, Xl, T, T(24), * G2, #1, G1, READ Z, 380 390 PRINT Z, G1, G2, T, T(24), XI, X2, X3, N(l), N(2), N(3), Zl 400 GOSUB 3150 410 REM GOSUB INTERPOLATE GAS TEMPS BETWEENBAYS FROM 411 REM IN AND OUT VALUES 420 GOSUB 4040 430 REM SUB PFINT. IT 440 FOR I=l TO 13 450 E=O 460 Sl=o 470 P=O 480 GOSUB 2780 490 REM GOSUB READ PAW DATA, CHAIN (I<10), WALL (I>10) 500 NEXT I 510 REM GOSUB READ PAW DATA, GAS, EVEN NOS.ONLY 520 FOR I=l TO 10 530 GOSUB 3070 540 REM GOSUB WALL TEMP. ITERATE 550 GOSUB 930 560 REM EVALUATE GEN.TEMP.VALUES 570 GOSUB 1000 580 REM EVALUATE HT. TFANS. TO CHAIN 590 NEXT I 600 PRINT

-233-

610 WRITE #2,11 11 620 FOR I=11 TO 13 630 GOSUB 1900 640 REM GOSUB SETUP TEMP. VALUES 650 GOSUB 1450 660 REM GOSUB HT. TFANS. T0 WALL 670 NEXT I 680 GOSUB 2170 690 REM GOSUB INTERPOLATE MOIST. CONTENTS 700 FEINT 710 WFITE #2,11 11 714 FOE I= I TO 10 718 NEXT I 720 FOR I=l TO 9 730 GOSUB3070 740 REM GOSUB WALL TEMP. ITERATE 750 GOSUB 2700 760 FEM GOSUB CONTROLSUBROUTINE 770 NEXT I 771 REM WORKOUT DRYING FATES AND HTC BASED ON EVAPORATION 772 GOSUB 6000 780 REM 790 GOTO 4300 WET GAS TEMPERATURE 800 REM SUB MAX-MIN .......... 810 IF I0P THEN 870 820 IF V>Ml THEN 840 830 Ml=V 840 IF V<=M2 THEN 860 850 M2=V 86o GOTO 890 870 Ml=V 880 M2=V 890 F(I)=M2 900 P=I 910 RETURN 920 REM SUB GEN TEMP VALUES 930 T2=N(I) 940 R2=T2+273 950 Tl=T(I+13) 960 Rl=Tl+273 970 R4=T4+273 980 RETURN 990 REM SUB CHAIN/GAS, CHAIN/SLURRY HTCS looc) H1=0 loic ) H2=0 ) L1=0 102C ) L2=0 103C ) Z2=0 104C ) Pl=l 105C ) FOR N=2 TO S(I) 106C ) T9=C(I, N)-C(I, N-1) 107C ) Q9=M3*C3*T9/S(I) 108C ) IF T9>0 THEN 1200 109C 1 loc) IF T9>0 AND Pl=l THEN 1200

-234-

1110 1120 1130 1140 1150 1160 1170 1180 1190 1200 1210 1220 1230 1240 1250 1260 1270 1280 1290 1300 1310 1320 1330 1340 1350 1360 1370 1380 1390 1400 1410 1420 1430 1440 1450 1460 1470 1480 1490 1500 1510 1520 1530 1540 1550 1560 1570 1580 1590 1600 1610 1620 1630 1640

T9=(C(I, N)+C(I, N-1))/2 Z2=Z2+Q9 T9=T9-T2 Pl=O Ll=Ll+l IF T9=0 THEN 1320 02=ABS(Q9/(08*T9)) H2=H2+02 GOTO 1320 R9=273+(C(I, N)+C(I, N-1))/2 R9=F9**4 Pl=l L2=L2+1 Q3=S*A3*(R9-Fl**4) Q8=S*A8*(E9-F4**4) Q2=S*A2*(R9-R2**4) Q9=Q9-(Q3+Q8+Q2)/3600 T9=Tl-(C(I, N)+C(I, N-1))/2 IF T9=0 THEN 1320 01=Q9/(08*T9) Hl=Hl+ABS(Ol) NEXT N IF L2=0 THEN 1350 Hl=HI/L2*3600 IF Ll=O THEN 1390 H2=H2/Ll*3600 Z2=Z2*3600/Ll Q(I)=Z2 PRINT "Hl=", INT(Hl*100)/100, 'IH2=", INT(H2*100)/100 WRITE #2, "Hl=", HI, VIH2=", H2 H(I)=Hl H(I+10)=H2 RETURN REM SUB WALL/GAS, WALL/SLURRY HTCS H3=0 Z4=0 H4=0 Ll=O Pl=l L2=0 FOR N=2 TO S(I) T9=C(I, N)-C(I, N-1) Q9=M4*c3*T9/S(I) IF T9>0 THEN 1660 IF T9=0 AND Pl=l THEN 1660 T9=(C(I, N)+C(I, N-1))/2 Q9=Q9+L*09/3600 Z4=Z4+Q9 T9=T9-T2 IF T9=0 THEN 1640 04=ABS(Q9/(09*T9)) H4=H4+04 Pl=o Ll=Ll+l

-235-

1650 1660 1670 1680 1690 1700 1710 1720 1730 1740 1750 1760 1770 1780 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080 2090 2100 2110 2120 2130 2140 2150 2160 2170 2180

GOTO1780 F9=T9+273 R9=P9**4 Pl=l L2=L2+1 Q7=S*A7*(R9-Rl**4) Q8=S*A8*(E9-E6**4) Q5=S*A9"(R9-R2**4) Q9=Q9-(Q5+Q7+Q8-L*09)/3600 T9=Tl-(C(I, N)+C(I, N-1))/2 IF T9=0 THEN 1780 03=Q9/(09*T9) H3=H3+ABS(03) NEXT N H3=H3/L2*3600 IF Ll=O THEN 1880 H4=H4/LI*3600 PRINT 'IH3=", INT(H3"100)/10091IH4=11, INT(H4*100)/100 H4 WRITE #2, 'IH3=", H3, 'IH4=11, H(I+10)=H3 H(I+13)=H4 Z4=Z4*3600/Ll Q(I)=Q(I)+Z4 RETURN REMSUB SETUPTEMPVALUES IF I=11 THEN 1970 IF I=12 THEN 2020 T2=N(9) Q(I)=Q(9) Tl=T(18) T6=T(9) GOTO2060, T2=N(3) Q(I)=Q(3) Tl=T(15) T6=T(3) GOTO2060 T2=N(6) Q(I)=Q(6) Tl=(T(16)+T(17))/2 T6=T(6) Rl=TI+2-13 E2=T2+273 T4=T(I) R4=T4+273 R6=T6+273 REMPREDICTED SHELL HEAT LOSSES L=((8813/(R4-273)-9.18)*(D**3)*1000000*(R4-273)/2)**(1/3) L=L*0.13*(R4+72)*(R4-293)/D/16670 lE-3*(R4-373))*(R4**4-293**4) L=L+4.88*0. lE-7*(0.96-5.2*0. RETURN CONTENTS REMSUB INTERPOLATE MOISTURE X(1)=Xl X(6)=X2

-236-

2190 2200 2210 2220 2230 2240 2250 2260 2270 2280 2290 2300 2310 2320 2330 2340 2350 2360 2370 2380 2390 2400 2410 2411 2420 2440 2450 2460 2470 2480 2490 2500 2510 2520 2530 2540 2550 2560 2570 2580 2590 2600 2610 2611 2620 2630 2640 2650 2660 2670 2680 26go 2700

X(11)=X3 FOE W=2 TO 5 X(W)=(X(6)-X(1))/5 X(W)=X(W)*(W-1)+X(l) NEXT W FOR W=7 TO 10 X(W)=(X(li)-X(6))/5 X(W)=X(W)*(W-6)+X(6) NEXT W RETURN REM SUB MOISTURE ADJUSTMENT THEN 2350 IF I01 M=G2*(X(10)-X(l)) M=M/(X(10)-100) Gl=Gl+M GOTO 2400 Ml=G2*(X(I+1)-X(I)) Ml=Ml/(X(I+1)-ioo) G1=G1-M1 G2=G2-Ml M=M-M1 G=M/G1*100 Q3=M1*539.4 R(I)=MI/0.37366 RETURN REM SUB SETUP TEMP VALUES R9=N(I)+273 C9=(8.22+0.15E-3*R9+0.134E-5*(R9**2))/18 C2=0.26161*(l-X(I+1)/100)+(C9*X(I)/100) Rl=T(I+13)+273 R4=T4+273 R6=T(I)+273 RETURN R9=(R9**4) REM SUB GAS/SLURFY HTC Ql=S*Bl*(R9-Rl**4) Q2=S*A5*(R9-R4**4) Q8=S*A2*(R9-R6**4) Q9=G2*C2*(N(I+I)-N(I)) Q9=Q9+Ql+Q2+Q8+Q3 Q9=Q9+Q(I) Q9=Q9+L/10*(1-0.388) Heat losses from shell REM 07.05.80... REM ADJUSTED ON THE ABOVE LINE T9=T(I+13)-(N(I+I)+N(I))/2 IF T9=0 THEN 2690 H5=ABS(Q9/(. 02272*T9)) IF T9=0-THEN 2690 PRINT IIH5=", INT(H5*100)/100 WRITE #2, 'IH5=", H5 H(I+26)=H5 RETURN REM SUB CONTROLOTHER SUBROUTINES

2430 W=I+13

in

slurry

are

-237-

2710 2711 2720 2730 2740 2750 2760 2770 2780 2790 2800 2810 2820 2830 2840 2850 2860 2870 2880 2890 2900 2910 2920 2930 2936 2940 2950 2960 2970 2980 2990 3000 3010 3020 3030 3040 3050 3060 3070 3080 3090 3100 3110 3120 3130 3140 3150 3160 3170 3180 3190 3200 3210 3220

SET UP TEMP VALUES REM ADJUST MOISTURE CONTENTS, REM EVALUATE GAS/SLURFY REM HTCS, EVALUATE PForS AND THEN DIMENSIONLESS NOS GOSUB 2300 GOSUB 2430 GOSUB 2520 GOSUB 3680 RETURN REM SUB READ IT ALL IN N=l IF E=O THEN 2820 GOTO 2840

IF I=l THEN 2840 GOTO2850


READ * #1, V

IF V>2000 THEN 2870 GOTO2900 IF E=O THEN 3030 GOTO2970


IF V>2000 THEN 2970 IF I<14 THEN 2930 GOSUB 810 GOTO 2940 C(I, N)=V REM SUB MAX-MIN FOR Twg N) Sl=Sl+C(I, N=N+l GOTO 2840 IF (N-I)=O THEN 3020 T(I)=Sl/(N-1) S(I)=N-1 08=AI*H/S(I) 09=B3/S(I) GOTO 3050 E=l GOTO 2840 RETURN REM SUB WALL TEMP ITERATE IF I<=4 THEN 3110 IF I<=7 THEN 3130 T4=T(13) GOTO 3140 T4=T(11) GOTO 3140 T4=T(12) RETURN REM SUB INTERPOLATE GAS TEMPS BETWEENBAYS FOR I=l TO 10 T(I+13)=T(24)+(I-1)*(T-T(24))/10 NEXT I REM SUB CONSTANTSAND DIMENSIONS REM MODIFIED VISCOSITIES FOR GAS AND H20 VAPOUR. Al=0.78E-2

-239-

3230 3240 3250 3260 3270 3280 3290 3300 3310 3320 3330 3340 3350 3360 3370 3380 3390 3400 3410 3420 3430 3440 3450 3460 3470 3480 3490 3500 3510 3520 3530 3540 3550 356o 3580 3590 3600 361o 3620 3630 3640

A2=0.512E-2 A3=0.424E-2 A4=0.7124E-1 A5=0.2605E-1 A6=2.808/10 A7=0.512E-2 A8=0.1647E-1 A9=0.512E-2 F1=0-388 H=36 Bl=0.2E-2 B2=0.6499E-1 B3=0.2919 C3=0.1222 DIM T(30), S(30), C(30,200) DIM X(11), J(20), H(40) DIM M(10), N(ll) DIM A(36), B(54), D(18) DIM W(10) DIM Q(13), F(20) D1=0-3048 M3=0.927 M4=9.4 S=0.488E-7 G8=Gl D=0-3293 D4=. 0125 RETURN REM SUB PROPERTIES FOR RE, NU, PF NOS. ARE DYN. VISC. OF 02/N2/H2O/CO2 REM Ul/U/U9/U3 Ul=G/1O0*(-00013*F8+-032) 0685) 000li9*F8+. U9=(IOO-G)/100*(. ul=ul+u9 S9=301-59*Zl U2=240-77*(F8**0.2321)/(S9**0.9024*(X(I)/100)**5.6378) C8=0.24+(F8+273)*0.28E-1/1000 C9=(8.22+0.15E-3*(F8+273)+0.134E-5*((F8+273)**2))/18 Cl=C8*(IOO-G)/IOO+C9*G/100 K8=i. 405*Ul*C8 K9=U9*C9*0.968 Kl=KB*(IOO-G)/100+K9*G/100

3570 D3=100000/(X(I)+(100-X(I))/2-65)

3650 C2=0.2616*(100-X(I))/100+1.00763*X(I)/100 3660 K2=0.59 3670 RETURN


3680 36go 3700 3710 3720 3730 3740 3750 376o F8=(T(I+13)+T(I))/2 GOSUB 3510 Pl=0.2877*Gl/B2/Ul Nl=H(I)*D4/Ki F8=(N(I)+T(I))/2 GOSUB 3510 P2=2*0.59847*D*Zl*D3/U2 S2=H(I+9)/(C2*D3*((G2/D3/. P2=C2*U2/K2

0082)**2+(3-142*D*Zl*60)**2)**0.5)

-239-

3770 3780 3790 3800 3810 3820 3830 3840 3850 3860 3870 3880 3890 3900 3910 3920 3930 3940 3950 3960 3970 3980 3990 4000 4010 4020 4030 4040 4050 4060 4070 4080 4090 4100 4110 4120 4130 4140 4150 4160 4170 4180 4190 4200 4210 4220 4230 4240 4250 4260 4270 428o 4290 4300

F8=(T(I+13)+T4)/2 3510 GOSUB F3=0.2877*Gl/B2/Ul N3=H(I+20)*0.2877/Kl F8=(N(I)+T4)/2 GOSUB3510 R4=. 59847*D*Zl*D3/U2 0082)**2+(3-142*D*ZI*60)**2)**0.5) S4=H(I+23)/(C2*D3*((G2/D3/. P4=C2*U2/K2 3510 GOSUB R5=0.2877*GI/B2/Ul N5=H(I+26)*1.1894/Kl A(I)=El A(I+9)=Nl A(I+18)=R3 A(I+27)=N3 B(I)=R2 B(I+9)=P2 B(I+18)=S2 B(I+27)=F4 B(I+36)=P4 B(I+45)=S4 D(I)=R5 D(I+9)=N5 RETURN GOSUB4300 GOTO4860 REMSUB WRITEIT Z, PRINT "RUN NUMBER=11, PRINT Zl, "RPM" Gl, "KG. /HF. " PRINT "GAS MASSFLOW=11, G2, llKG. /HR. " PRINT "SLURRYMASSFLOW=", KCAL/H. M2.DEG C" PRINT 11 NUMBER=11, Z, WRITE-#2,11RUN WRITE #2, Zl, "RPM" Gl, llKG. /HR. " WRITE #2,11GASMASSFLOW=l', G2, "KG. /HR. " MASSFLOW=ll, WRITE #2,11SLURRY KCAL/H.M2.Cll WRITE #2,11 KCAL/H. M2. C VALUES REMSUB ITERATE SLURRYTEMP. N(6)=N(2) N(11)=N(3) FOR I=2 TO 5 N(I)=(N(6)-N(l))/5 N(I)=N(I)*(I-1)+N(l) NEXT I FOR I=7 TO 10 N(I)=(N(11)-N(6))/5 N(I)=N(I)*(I-6)+N(6) NEXT I 2160 GOSUB RETURN REMSUBROUTINE DIAGNOSTICPRINT. IT PRINT 1111 TEN BAYS" PRINT "GAS TEMPTHROUGH

-240-

4310 4320 4330 4340 4350 4360 4370 4380 4390 4400 4410 4420 4430 4440 4450 4460 4470 4480 4490 4500 4510 4520 4530 4540 4550 4560 4570 4580 4590 4600 4610 4620 4630 4640 4650 4660 4670 4680 4690 4700 47 10 4720 4730 4740 if
4750 4760 4770 4780 4790 4800 4810 4820 H-M2.

FOR I=14 TO 23 PRINT T(I), NEXT I PRINT PRINT "SLURRY TEMP.THROUGHBAYS" FOR I=l TO 10 PRINT N(I), NEXT I PRINT PRINT "SLURRY MOISTURE THROUGHBAYS" FOP I=l TO 10 PRINT X(I), NEXT I REM SUB WRITE DIM GROUPSTO FILE FOR ANALYSIS NU(GAS: CHAIN)ll WRITE #2,11 PE(GAS: CHAIN) FOR I=l TO 9 WHITE #2, A(I), A(I+9) NEXT I NU(GAS: WALL)lf WRITE #2.11RE(GAS: WALL) FOR I=l TO 9 WRITE #2, A(I+18), A(I+27) NEXT I ST(SWCHAIN)'' WRITE #2, "RE(SL: CHAIN) PR(SL: CHAIN)

FOR I=l

TO 9

WRITE #2, B(I), B(I+9), B(I+18) NEXT I ST(SL: WALL)" WRITE #2, "RE(SL: WALL) PR(SL: WALL) FOR I=l TO 9 WRITE #2, B(I+27), B(I+36), B(I+45) NEXT I NU(GAS: SL)II WRITE #2, "FE(GAS: SL) FOR I=l TO 9 WRITE #2, D(I), D(I+9) NEXT I F8=(T+T(24))/2 GOSUB 3510 PRINT 11 11 WRITE #2,11 11 Q=GI*Cl*(T-T(24)) TI=T-N(I) T2=T(24)-N(10) Tl=(Tl-T2)/(LOG(TI/T2)) H=Q/(Tl*3.7366) WFITE #2, "OVERALL HTC GAS TO SLURPY (GAS SIDE)=", H, "KCAL/H. M. DEG.C PRINT "OVERALL HTC GAS: SLURRY (gas side)=ll, H, llKCAL/H. M2. DEG. Cll PRINT 11 11 WRITE #2,11 11 FB=(N(1)+N(10))12 GOSUB 3510 Q=G2*C2*(N(10)-N(l)) H=Q/(TI*3.7366) HINT "OVEFALL HTC GAS: SLUFRY (slurry IIKCAL/ side)=I', INT(H*100)/100, DEG.CII

-241-

C M2.DEG. HTC GAS:SLUFRY (SLURRYSIDE)=11,H, 11KCAL/H. 4830 WRITE #2,11OVERALL is HTC's are based on the total internal 4840 PRINT "The above overall surf ace area" HTC's are based on the total internal s 4850 WRITE #2, "The above overall urface area" 4860 Hl=H(I)+H(2)+H(3)+H(4)+H(5)+H(6)+H(7)+H(8)+H(9)+H(IO) 4870 H2=H(11)+H(12)+H(13)+H(14)+H(15)+H(16)+H(17)+H(18)+H(19)+H(20) 4880 H3=H(21)+H(22)+H(23) 4890 H4=H(24)+H(25)+H(26) 4900 H5=H(27)+H(28)+H(29)+H(30)+H(31)+H(32)+H(33)+H(34)+H(35) 4910 FOR I=2 TO 9 4920 A(I)=A(I)+A(I-1) 4930 A(I+9)=A(I+9)+A(I+8) 4940 A(I+18)=A(I+18)+A(I+17) 4950 A(I+27)=A(I+27)+A(I+26) 4960 B(I)=B(I)+B(I-1) 4970 B(I+9)=B(I+9)+B(I+8) 4980 B(I+18)=B(I+18)+B(I+17) 4990 B(I+27)=B(I+27)+B(I+26) 5000 B(I+36)=B(I+36)+B(I+35) 5010 B(I+45)=B(I+45)+B(I+44) 5020 D(I)=D(I)+D(I-1) 5030 D(I+9)=D(I+9)+D(I+B) 5040 NEXT I 5050 J=O VALUES FIND AVERAGE 5060 REMTHE ABOVEARRAYSUMMATIONS 5070 K=O 5080 L=O 5090 M=O 5100 N=O 5110 FOR I=1 TO 35 5120 IF H(I)=O THEN 5260 5130 IFI>26 THEN 5250 5140 IF I>23 THEN 5230 5150 IF I>20 THEN 5210 516o IF I>10 THEN 5190 51-10 J=J+l 5180 GOTO5260 5190 K=K+l 5200 GOTO5260 5210 L=L+l 5220 GOTO5260 5230 M=M+1 5240 GOTO5260 5250 N=N+l 5260 NEXT I 5270 U=J/Hl+K/H2+L/H3+WH4+N/H5 5280 PRINT "Average values of the individual are as follows coefficients 5290 PRINT Gas: Chain=", Hl/J, "HTC Slurry: Chain=", H2/K, "HTC Gas: Wall= 5300 PRINT 11HTC H3/L, "HTC Slurry: Wall=", H4/M, "HTC Gas: Slurryz", H5/N 11, HTC calculated from H1-H5 is11, INT(1/U*100)/100,11KCA 5310 PRINT "Overall

-242-

L/H. F2. DEG.C11 are as follows" 5320 WRITE #2,11Average values of individual coefficients 5330 WRITE #2,11 11 HTC Gas: Wa 5340 WRITE #2, "HTC Gas: Chain=", H1/J, 11HTCSlurry: Chain=", H2/K, 11 H5/N ll=11, H3/L, 11HTCSlurry: Wall=", H4/M, "HTC Gas: Slurry=", from H1-H5 is11,1/U, 11KCAL/H-M2.DEGC HTC calculated 5350 WRITE #2, "Overall 5360 PRINT 11 11 5370 WRITE #2 , 11 11 5380 PRINT "Average values of dimensionless groups over the model length arell 5390 WRITE #2,11Average values of dimensionless groups over the model len gth are" TNT(A(9+9)*100/ "Nu(gas: chain)=II, 5400 PRINT "Re(gas: chain)=11 TNT(A(9)/9), 9)/100 11 Nu(gas: chain)= 11,T-NT(A(9+9)* 1 5410 WRITE #2, "Re(gas: chain)= 11,INT(A(9)/9) 00/9)/100 11Nu(gas: wall)= 11,INT(A(9+27) * 10 5420 PRINT "Re(gas: wall)= 11,INT(A(9+18)/9) 0/9)/100 11Nu(gas: wall)=11, INT(A(9+27) INT(A(9+18)/9) 5430 WRITE #2, "Re(gas: wall)=", *100/9)/100 (slurry: VI 0000, "Pr * 10000/9 INT(B(9) cha 5440 WRITE #2, "Re (slurry: chain)=", TNT(B(q+18)*10000/q)/1O "St(slurry: INT(B(9+9)*100/9)/100, in)=", chain)='I 0 (slurry: / 10000, * "Pr 10000/9) 11 TNT(B(9) PRINT Re(sl 11 chain) 5450 urry: chain) = , INT(B(9+18)*10000/9)/10000 "St(slurry: INT(B(9+9)*100/9)/100, chain)=", =11, "Pr(slurry: 5460 PRINT "Re(slurry: wall wall)=11 TNT(B(9+27)*10000/9)/10000, INT(B(9+45)*10000/9)/1000 "St(slurry: )=", INT(B(9+36)*100/9)/100, wall)=", (slurry: 10000, "Pr * 10000/9)/ TNT(B(9+27) w 5470 WRITE #2, "Re(slurry: wallW', INT(B(9+45)*10000/9)/1 tfStslurry: TNT(B(9+36)*100/9)/100, 1) wall)=", al. 00 TNT (D(9+9)/9 "Nu(gas: slurry)=" INT(D(9)/9) 5480 PRINT "Re(gas: slurryW', 5481 N9=GI*Cl*(T(23)-T(14))/(G2*C2*(N(10)-N(l))+(X(10)-X(l))/(X(10)-100) *G2*539.4) 1/N9*100 5482 PRINT "Overall efficiency=", "Nu(gas: slurryW', INT(D(9)/9) 5490 WRITE #2, "Re(gas: slurry)=", /9) 5491 GOTO 7000 6000 REM SUBROUTINE DRYING RATE COEFFICIENT 6001 PRINT 11HTCbased on drying rate ......... rate calen/Drying ***Kg/hm2l' 6002 WRITE #2,11HTC based on drying rate ....... rate calen/Drying C**Kg/hm2l'
6040 6050 6060 FOR T= I TO 10 J(I)=T(I+13)-F(I) NEXT 1

INT(D(9+9)

Kcal/m2C Kcal/hm2

6070 6080 6090 6100 6200 WO 6215

FOR I=1 TO 9 J(I)=(J(I+1)-J(I))/LOG(J(I+I)/J(I)) H9=R(! )*(597-31-T(I+13)/100*58.31)/J(I) PRINT H9, R(I) WRITE #2, H9, R(I) NEXT I RETURN

-243-

H. 6.

NUMERICAL

SOLUTION

TO HEAT AND MASS BALANCE.

-244-

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

90

REAL KI, K2, K8, K9, M3, M4, M9, L, N, INGAST COMMON//H3,Kl, T, D1, GI, UI, Al, INGAST, XSLRYT, T9, C3, M3, Q, Q1, H, C1, N, 1 T8, T7, M9, SLURYT, G9, D2, G2, Xl, G7, X, G8, C8, C9, U8, U9, K8, K9, R, 2 P, F2, F8 PEAD(5, *)MAXBAY, INGAST, SLURYT, WALLMT,G1, G2, U2, C3, K2 PEAD(5, *)H, N, F1, F2, AI, A2, A3, A4, A5 PEAD(5, *)A6, A7, A8, A9, BI, Dl, D2, M3, M4, NCHAIN G8=Gl G7=G2 Xl=0.0 XZ0.0 S=0.488E-7 P=3.1415926535897 DO 530 NOBAY=I, MAXBAY L=N*Fl WEITE(1,10)NOBAY WRITE(1,20)NCHAIN WRITE(1,30)INGAST WRITE(1,40)SLUPYT WEITE(1,50)GI WRITE(1,60)G2 WEITE(1,70)N WRITE(1,80)L FORMAT(' BAY NO-.1, I3) FOFMAT(l NUMBEROF CHAINS PER BAYI, T35,1 =', 13) FOFMAT(l GAS TEMPERATUEEI,T35,1 =', F7.2,1 C. 1) FORMAW SLURRY TEMPERATUREI,T35, ' =', F7.2,1 C. 1) FORMAW GAS FLOWRATEI,T35, ' =', F9.2,1 KG/HR/M2') FOFMAT(l SLURRY FLOWFATE1,T35, ' =', F9.2,1 KG/HR/M2') FORMAT(' TIME FOR ONE FEVOLUTIONI, T35, ' zl, F5.1,1 SECONDS') FORMAT(' CHAIN TIME IN GAS PER EEVI, T35,1 =', F5.1,1 SECONDS') OLDT=210.0 XSLRYT=210.0 Sl=1.0 Q8=0.0 S2=0.0 Q=0.0 Q9=0.0 CGASMT=0.O IMAX=INT(L) DO 100 J2=1, IMAX T9=(INGAST+XSLRYT)*0.5 CALL S224 Rl=INGAST+2"13.0 F2=SLUPYT+2"i3. O F4=XSLEYT+273.0 F3=WALLMT+273.0 Hl=(Kl*0.174*(Dl*GI/Ul)**0.618)/(DI*3600.0) Ql=Hl*Al*(INGAST-XSLRYT) P44=F4*R4*R4*F4 Q2=A3*S*2*((El**4)-R44)/(3600.0*H*Fl) Q3=A2*S*2*(R44-(F2**4))/(3600.0*H*Fl) Q5=AB*S*2*(R44-(E3**4))/(3600.0*H*Fl) Q4=Q2-Q3-Q5

-245-

QI=Ql+Q4 T9=Ql/(C3*M3) XSLEYT=XSLRYT+T9 Q=Q+Ql Qg=Qg+Q4 100 CGASMT=CGASMT+XSLRYT T9=Q*900.0*H/(Cl*Gl*N*P*Dl*Dl) T8=INGAST-T9 E8=T8+2-i3. O Q9=Q9*36oo.O/N CGASMT=CGASMT/(N*Fl) E6=CGASMT+273.0 Q=0.0 CALL S197 IMAX=INT(N*(l-FI-F2)) DO 110 J3=1, IMAX C2=0.2616*(l-Xl)+1.00763*xl 33)/(D2* H2=(0.35+0.56*(D2*G2/U2)**0.52)*K2*((C2*U2/K2)**O. 1 3600.0) Ql=H2*Al*(XSLFYT-SLUFYT) T9=Ql/(C3*M3) XSLRYT=XSLRYT-T9 110 Q=Q+Ql Q=Q*3600.0/N Y=XSLRYT-OLDT IF(Y)120,130,120 120 IF(SIGN(l. 0, Y). EQ.S2)GOTO 140 130 IF(Y+S2. EQ.O. O)GOTO140 Sl=Sl*0.5 GOTO150 140 Sl=Sl*2.0 150 IF(ABS(Y). LE. 0.1)GOTO 180 XSLRYT=XSLRYT+Y*Sl OLDT=XSLFYT IF(Y)160,170,160 160 S2=SIGN(l. 0, Y) 170 S2=0.0 GOTO90 180 H4=3600.0*Hl H5=3600.0*H2 WRITE(1,190)H4 WRITE(1,200)H5 WRITE(1,210)XSLRYT WRITE(1,220)T7 WRITE(1,230)CGASMT QH=Q*H WRITE(1,240)QH WRITE(1,250)Q9 CALL S209 WRITE(1,260)T8 190 FOFMAT(l CONVECTIVE H. T. C. GAS-CHAINI, T40,1 =', FT-3,1 KCAL/HR/M 12/C. 1) 200 FOFMAT(l CONVECTIVE H. T. C. SLURRY-CHAINI, T40,1 =', F7.3,1 KCAL/H IR/M2/C. 1)

-246-

210 220 230 240 250 260

FORMAT(' CHAIN TEMPERATUREEX SLUEFYI, T40,1 =', F7.2,1 C. 1) FORMAT(! CHAIN TEMPERATUREPPE SLUFFYI, T40,1 zl, F7.2,1 C. 1) FORMAT(' MEAN CHAIN TEMPERATUREIN GASI, T40,1 =', F7.2,1 C. 1) FORMAT(' TOTAL HEAT TRANSFEREDBY CHAINSI, T40,1 =', F9.3,1 KCAL/ 1HPI) FORMAT(' HEAT TRANSFER BY RADIATION TO CHAINSI, T40,1 =', F6.3,1 IKCAL/HFI) FOFMAT(l GAS TEMPERATUREEX CHAINSI, T35, ' =', F7.2) OLDT=XSLRYT

C2=0.2616*(l-Xl)+1.00763*Xl
XSLRYT=T-t+50.0 Sl=1. O S2=0.0 Q=0.0 WALLMT=0.0

270

Q9=0.0 IMAX=INT(N*(Fl+F2)) DO 280 J4=1, IMAX T9=(T8+XSLRYT)*0.5 CALL S224


R4=XSLRYT+273.0 R44=R4*R4*R4*R4

H3=(KI*0.58*(Dl*Gl/Ul)**0.686)/(Dl*3600.0)
Ql=H3*A4*(T8-XSLRYT)/N Q2=A7*S*(E8**4-R44)/(3600.0*N) Q3=A9*S*(R44-R2**4)/(3600.0*N) Q4=A8*S*2*(F6**4-R44)/(3600.0*N) Q8=((Dl**3)*(R4-293.0)*((8813.4/(R4-273-0))-9-18)*500000.0 )**0.33

Q8=Q8*(0.13*(R4+72.0)/(DI*16670.0))*(E4-293-0) Q8=Q8+S*(0.96-0-52E-3*(E4-373.0))*(R44-293.0**4) Q8=Q8*A4/(3600.0*N) Q5=Q2+Q4-Q3-Q8 Ql=Ql+Q5 T9=Ql/(C3*M4) XSLRYT=XSLRYT+T9 Q=Q+Ql


280 Q9=Q9+Q5 WALLMT=WALLMT+XSLEYT Q=Q*3600.0 T9=Q/(Cl*Gl*P*Dl*DI*0.25) F9=T8-T9 Q9=Q9*3600.0 WALLMT=WALLMT/(N*(FI+F2)) F3=WALLMT+273.0 T7=XSLRYT Q=0.0 IMAX=INT(N*(l-FI-F2)) DO 290 J5=1, IMAX

C2=0.2616*(l-Xl)+1.00-i63*Xl H4=(0.35+0.56*(D2*G2/U2)**0.52)*K2*((C2*U2/K2)**O-33)/(D2* 3600.0) Ql=H4*A5*(XSLEYT-SLURYT)/N Q8=((Dl**3)*(F4-293.0)*((8813.4/(F4-273-0))-9-18)*500000.0)

-247-

290

300 310 320 330

340 350 360 1

**0.33 Q8=Q8*(0.13*(F4+72.0)/(DI*16670.0))*(E4-293-0) Q8=QB+S*(0.96-0.52E-3*(R4-373.0))*((R4**4)-(293.0**4)) Q8=Q8*A5/(3600.0*N) QI=Ql-Q8 T9=Ql/(C3*M4) XSLEYT=XSLEYT-Tg Q=Q+Ql Q=Q*3600.0 Y=XSLRYT-OLDT IF(Y)300,310,300 IF(SIGN(l. 0, Y). EQ.S2)GOTO320 IF((Y+S2). EQ.O. O)GOTO320 Sl=SI*0.5 GOTO330 SI=Sl*2.0 IF (ABS(Y). LE. O. I)GOTO 360 XSLEYT=XSLRYT+Y*Sl OLDT=XSLRYT IF(Y)340,350,340 S2=SIGN(I. 0, Y) S2=0.0 GOTO270 Q8=((Dl**3)*(R3-293.0)*((8813.4/(E3-273-0))-9-18)*500000.0 )**0.33 Q8=Q8*(0.13*(R3+72.0)/(Dl*16670.0))*(R3-293-0) Q8=Q8+S*(0.96-0.52E-3*(E3-373.0))*((F3**4)-(293.0**4)) Q8=QB*DI*Dl*P*0.3333333333333 H8=H3*3600.0 H9=H4*3600.0 E24=F2*R2*R2*E2 P34=R3*R3*R3*R3 F64=R6*R6*R6*R6 Q"I=A2*S*2*(E64-R24)+AB*S*2*(R34-R64) Q"i=Q7+BI*S*(E8**4-R24)+A9*S*(R34-F24) T9=(T8+'MRYT)*0.5 CALL S224 H3=(Kl*0.58*(DI*Gl/Ul)**0.686)/(DI*3600.0) Q6=H3*A6*3600.0*(T8-SLURYT) T9=(Q6+Q7+Q8)/(Cl*Gl*DI*Dl*P*0.25) T8=F9-T9 H6=H3*3600.0 WRITE(1,370)H8 WEITE(1,380)Hg WRITE(1,390)H6 WRITE(1,400)XSLEYT WRITE(1,410)T7 WRITE(1,420)WALLMT WRITE(lp430)Q WRITE(1,440)Q9 WEITE(1,450)Q6 WRITE(1,460)Q7 CALL S209 WRITE(1,470)T8

-248-

370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530

WRITE(1,480)Q8 X6=Xl*loo. o WFITE(1,490)X6 WFITE0,500) WRITEO 510) WRITE(l 520) FORMAT(' CONVECTIVE H. T. C. GAS-WALL' T35,1 =1 F7.3,1 KCAL/HR/M2 i/C. 1) FORMATO - CONVECTIVE H. T. C. SLUERY-WALLI, T35, ' =', F7.3,1 KCAL/HR
I/M2/C. 1) FORMAW CONVECTIVE H. T. C. GAS-SLURRYI, T35, ' =', F7.3, ' KCAL/HP/ IM2/C. 1) FORMAT(' WALL TEMPERATUREEX SLURRYI, T35,1 =', F7.2,1 C. 1) FORMAT(' WALL TEMPERATUREPRE SLURPY1, T35, ' =', F7.2,1 C. 1) FORMATO MEAN WALL TEMPERATUREIN GASI, T35, ' =', F7.2,1 C. 1) FORMAT(' TOTAL HEAT TRANSFEREDBY GASI, T40,1 =', F8.3,1 KCAL/HR' 1) FOFMAT(l HEAT TRANSFEREDBY RADIATION TO WALLt, T40,1 =', F8.3,1 1KCAL/HRI) FORMAT(' HEAT TPANSFERED GAS/SLURRY BY CONVI, T40,1 =', F8.3,1 K 1CAL/HRI) FORMAT(' HEAT TRANSFERED GAS/SLURRY BY RADI, T40,1 =', F8.3, ' KC 1AL/HRI) FORMATO GAS TEMPERATURE EX BAYI, T40,1 zl, F7.2,1 C. 1) FORMATO HEAT LOST TO ATMOSPHEREI, T40, ' =', F8.3,1 KCAL/HRI) FORMATO SLURRY MOISTURE CONTENTI, T40,1 =', F6.2,1 FORMAT(' FORMAT(' FORMAT(' CONTINUE CALL EXIT END SUBROUTINE S197

PEAL KI, K2, K8, K9, M3,M4,M9,L, N, INGAST COMMON//H3, Kl, T, D1, Gl, Ul, Al, INGAST, XSLRYT, T9, C3, m3,Q, Q1, H, C1, N, I T8, T7, M9,SLURYT, G9, D2, G2, Xl, G7, X, G8, C8, C9, U8, U9, K8, K9, R,
2 P, F2, P8 IMAX=INT(N*F2) DO lo j6=1, IMAX T9= (INGAST+XSLRYT) *0.5 CALL S224

10

H3=(Kl*0.58*(Dl*Gl/Ul)**0.686)/(Dl*3600.0) Ql=H3*Al*(INGAST-XSLRYT) T9=Ql/(C3*M3) XSLRYT=XSLRYT+T9 Q=Q+Ql


T9=Q*3600.0*H/(Cl*Gl*N*P*DI*Dl*0.25) T8=INGAST-T9

R8=T8+273.0 T7=XSLRYT Q=0.0


RETURN END SUBROUTINE S209

-249-

REAL Kl, K2, KB, K9, M3,M4,M9,1.,N, INGAST COMMON//H3, Kl, T, D1, Gl, Ul, Al, INGAST,XSLEYT,T9, C3, M3,Q, Q1, H, C1, N, I T8, T7, M9,SLURYT, G9, D2, G2, Xl, G7, X, G8, C8, Cg, UB,U9, K8, K9, R,
2 P, F2, R8 T9=(T8+INGAST)*0.5 CALL S224 Q=Cl*Gl*(INGAST-T8)*Dl*Dl*P*0.25 Q=Q-Q8

M9=Q/(539.0+(0.15E-3*((SLURYT+T8)*0.5)+0.432)*(T8-SLURYT)) G9=M9/(DI*Dl*P*0.25)
GI=Gl+G9 G9=M9/(D2*D2*P*0.25) G2=G2+Gg T9=M9*(0.15E-3*((SLURYT+TB)*0.5)+0.432)*(T8-SLURYT)/(CI*Gl*DI*DI*P 1*0.25) T8=T8-T9 INGAST=T8 Xl=(G2-G7)/G2 X=(GI-G8)/Gi RETURN END SUBROUTINE S224 PEAL Kl, K2, K8, K9, M3, M4, M9, L, N, INGAST COMMON//H3,Kl, T, D1, Gl, Ul, Al, INGAST, XSLEYT, T9, c3, M3, Q, Q1, H, C1, N, 1 T8vT7, M9, SLURYT, G9, D2, G2, Xl, G7, X, G8, C8, C9, U8, U9, KB, K9, R,

2 PIF2, R8 C8=O.2E-4*T9+0.236 C9=0.15E-3*T9+0.432 Cl=CB*(l-X)+c9*X U8=0.119E-3*Tg+0.685E-1 U9=0.13E-3*T9+0.32E-1 UI=U8*(l-X)+U9*X K8=1.405*U8*C8 K9=U9*C9*0.968 KI=K8*(l-X)+K9*X RETURN
10 END

-250-

APPENDIK I:

TABLES OF PESULTS.

-251cu bn
r-I 0 Cd U 4-)

0 (D XP [-.' = pq -:4

CdCd .0 UW Cd CII

0 r-4
C

m cr)
C

to

tT-4 o
C

oo

t-

cli

co

00
C

LO

0)
1;

0 r-I
C4

C14

t-

a) CY)
C

r4

C4

co w 0 Cd
Cd

a) P
-: 9

4-4 0U .

Cd 0 11
-H

r-l o

-%

cqe

(D v
1

tLO
1

CY) to
r

V-4 0
1

N cl
r

cm v
4

LO
4

r It:

m tC;

V-4

LO co

to

0H

"-I

W r-q

4-)

= Q Cd Cd $-44H 4 r! P4 0U0 r. 0'


H

Cd

to

CV)

t0

a)
T-4

CII
0

(m 0

co
T-1

to
T-4

T-4 0

M
C)

0
T-4

co
V-4

ho
r.

(1) w

4-) Ics
Cd 0

0 Cd
., -40

Cd q 'H
P4 00

Cd Z

tce)

CY)

co

(3)

ce)

(7)

V)

ce)

00
Cf)

m
co

m
co

t-

t-

00
co

m
m

-H

.,-f 14 . 10 4-3 0 -H

4-3 H cc r-I Cd (1) C14 co 0

Cd Cd P4

Itli

to

to

ce)

cq

to

t-

t-

t-

t-

C)

LO

0 C.

t-

L-

LO

t-

4-3 Sf

P-4 Cd z a) Cdr-I 4
4-3 .0
ro

0-% 0

tN

cr) cli

0 cq

00

m C-3

LO cq

CV)

T-4 ci

0 co

tcli

CY) U') C11 C14

--%
8

03
00

T-4

OD

r-4

V-4

t-

T-4

r-I

ce)

T-4

a) a) 10 to Cd

-r-I

LO

co

Cf)

T-4

CD

Lo

IRZV

IV

co

to

LO

rn tZ
ce) a) >b $-4
$4

r-4

r-q

CDO T-4

Cf)

C)

t-

qq

C)

ol

Cd
$4 Cd

Q)

>0

co

0 10 ce) r-i a)

C
C'j

C
V-4

C
CY)

t
r-4

C;
T-4

r4 ) C. x

Cd

>

o l) 4 -o 'D l r r-I p (D 4-3 CY) 0 4-) Q) Cd S


a) P4 C4

Cf) C) . ol

ce)

CY)

cm 1

0 T-4 X

(3) 1
0 . Co

C) T-4 m

C11 I
Clq .

Q)
4-3 Cd

W
0) ON U)

(1)

a) "I C4 E-4

U) Ei

(D

91.

rl Z4
%-"

00
t

m
C4

to
C

0)
14

00
t

m
C

m
C

(n
r

00
tz

m
C

to
C

0)
4

C:

0
r-q

CD
a)

04

LO

LO

LO

LO

LO

to

C
(a 0 4-) bD -0 Cdr-f cd m r--4 :4 P4 P 0 0 cli

14 r4 C

C; r 1 C

0 co

r-I

-252TABLE (i) 1'. 2 Heat Summary transfer Value Slurry _ Mass T'lowrate 2o 58 104 18.6 13.8 8.4 6.1 Overall 23 16.4 8.5 5.2 Overall 23 4.5 4.1 3.4 2.3 (ii) Mass Transfer (Drying rate coefficients) Overall 3 6.8 5.2 4.3 3.1 400* 275 225 200 200 410 410 300 210 410 300 210 5260 4360 3360 2715 9600 9600 410 410 C) (kg/h) Gas Mass Flux (kg/hm 2715 2715 2715 2 9600 9600 9600 of heat and mass transfer coefficients

Coefficient

(kcal/hm Gas Gas Gas Slurry Slurry Overall : Chain : Wall : Slurry : Chain : Wall 13 110 220 80

9600 9600

(kg/hm

1.8 1.2 1.0

410 300 200 5260 400 4360 3360 2715 3 410 300 200 9600 9600

Overall

1.2 0.6 0.5 0.2

Average

4 Gas Te p 1 oc 95 98 101

(kg/hm 51.0 36.2 31.8

1 2 3 4

From drying rate coefficient From (Q/AAT L11) Based on total internal predicted Based on empty kiln volume

surface

area

-253-

Table

1.3

Results of Determination of Nusselt for and (Gas: Walls) a SI]jrrv-free Gas to Chains Nusselt No. Gas Reynolds to

Number(Gas: Kiln Walls

Chains)

Reynolds'No.

No.

Nusselt

No.

46000

20.6p39.1,16.3. 17. SP17.8,17.8 19.6,24.4p39.1 6.1,6.3,6.3,6.1 6.1? 5.8,11.9 6.1,6.3,6.3,6.6 6.8,7.1,7.3,8.0 8.4 3.3,3.3,3.2,3.2 3.103.3,3.4,3.5 3.7,3.7,3.8,4.0 4.1,4.3,4.5,4.7 0.6,0.6,0.6

45000

1500

32000

42000

590,618,652,681 70OP1350

25000

36000

752,829,840,891 949 999,1010 )

17000

24000 19000

698,706,752,780 824,850 370,395,406,418 340 295,361,360 330 252 115,141 135,144

Kiln

Speed= Rotational 1RPM=60secs/revn.

10000 9500 9400 5700 2600 2400

-254TABLE 1.4 Variation operties ro A veraged = 9600 kg/hm2 St. No. Slurry Wall 5 HTC Slurry Chain St. No. Slurry Chain Modified Reynolds Number (-) Slurry Wall 0.44 1.47 2.97 5.14 0.70 2.39 5.08 9.19 0.77 1.89 3.82 7.50 Modified Reynolds Number Slurry Chain 0.88 3.01 5.89 10.20 1.39 4.77 300 126.4 204.0 76.3 104.1 121.4 180.1 146 180 244 181 142 160 74.8 160.1 35.2 44.3 55.0 90.1 86 97 113 77 65 89 9.91 17.95 1.51 3.76 200 7.65 15.03 410 Slurry Flowrate of *slurry kiln with results) physical rotational and heat speed transfer

das

Mass Flowrate

Kiln Rationa Speed

HTC Slurry Wall

(RPM)

-kcqll/. hm2oC 92.5 127.8 178.3 225.4 89.2 119.5

(-)Xlo

kcal/ hm2oC

(-)xlo-5

kg/h

0.5 1: 0 1: 5 2.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

232 203 201 193 255 200

'81.8 83.9 136.9 278.8 29.1 68.7

204 134 155 107 200 115

-255-

TABLE

1.5.

Number, vs Prandtl (batch feed slurry

modified Gas 2)"

Reynolds flow rate

kiln for number 1 9600 kg/hmZ-

Slurry Mass Flowrate

Modified Reynolds Number Slurry to Chain (-) 1.63-5.72 2.32 6.49 -10.00 -17.21 1.28 1.51 4.94

M6dified Reynolds Number Slurry to (-) Wall 0.81 2.87 4.40 8.05 1.15 3.25 5.00 8.60

Prandt1L. Number Range (-)

Ki ln Revolution per Minute (RPM)

183 . 87 64 44 306 242 140 129 101 75 376 277 224 204 167 178 178 128 97 76 -

160 75 52 38

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

200

8.81 16.10 1.07 1.36 4.53

0.53 0.68 2.27 2.49 4.67 8.35 0.42 1.10 1.36 2.29 2.77 3.55 3.56 4.78 6.45 8.39

0.66 0.76

250 216 127 111 91 78 343 206 197 171 148 143 142 116 105 68

0.5 0.5 1.0 1.5 1.5 2.0 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.2 2.0

300 5.01 9.31 16.68 0.85 2.20 2.73 4.58 410 5.54 7.12 7.12 9.55 12.87 16.74

2.50 2.84 5.17 9.02 0.46 1.50 1.57 2.74 3.16

5.87 -10.17 -18.01 0.93 2.98 3.11

5.48 6.28 8.93 8.94

4.50 4.48

-10.48 -13.92 -18.06

5.28 6.93 9.40

-256-

TABLE 1.6 Data taken

11hll-factors He-at transfer from Wall StPr 2/3 solid

for lines

slurry 'figures

wall 7.11

and slurry and 7.12 Chain StPr 2/3

chair

Slurry Re

Slurry' Mass Flowrate (kg/h)

Slurry

Re

0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0

1218 919 676 574 503 457 4.18 1120 814 536 450 396 362 334 1031 688 475 343 285 270 244 200 300 410

1.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 1.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 1.0 2.0 4. o 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0

1072 627 405 311 287 239 209 986 555 322 240 211 189 167 908 469 285 186 152 141 122

-257-

TABLE 1.7 Elapsed Time (mins) 0 23. 32 40 50 60 70 107 Wet Bulb Air to

- Results .cement Moisture Content (Wt/%) 38.5 27.7 21.8 15.8 7.9 3,1 0.6 0.0 Temperature

of drying on kiln oven tests Shoreham slurry ex APCM Ltd. Drying Rate (kg/hm2 0 1.33 1.47 1.45 1.27 0.67 0.33 0.02

feed Works

Moisture Average Content over'drying Rate Interval (wt/%) 38.5 33.1 24.8 18.8 11.9 5.5 1.9 0.3

Slurry based

380C 10.7 kcal/hm 2o C

Heat Transfer Coefficient Rate Coefficient on Drying

ZOO-

>1 0 r-I Eio -4 a a) %rJ2" E-4


0) 1: 4 rj co
CO

r-4 ca Cd 4 0 Iri U3

co 10 Itil

Lf)

CD to

00

IC34v

1w

(3)

T-4

(M

LO

CO

lcv

t-

Itiq LO

co

It*1 "

to fI Cd 0

+-) 0 -% 0 O. U

(D

CD

00

to

00

t-

EA

EO (1)

t-

cq

t-

T-4 C%l cq C*l

cq C11

cli cli

C14 C14 cla cli CN cq

03 cq C14 cq

C-4 cq

cq

cq

U') cq

LO cq

J .Cd 10
.c
4-) 02 . u r.
p a) P4

a)

14 4-)
4.3 : C .

r10 a r-,

4-) -H 0 00%.

:J0 bR 4-3 0) --, W

r-4

0
. co .

. co

r-4

0
. co

co
. cq "

cq
. cq V

C14 a)
. Cq " . r-4 c44

00
v R:

M
C; "

r-I
c; "

C)

E-

r-I

0)
C4 .0

t
C4 "

-4 GO :4 r-)

W 0 a) ," 10 w >1, Cd a )
r-4 $.4 Cv) C. 0

t-

10

I'll

Cd

O=Z
CH

; C
0

; 11

t
0
. rq

'Cd

4-)
lz .W

H" r-I

a)

4-) Cd
(D 0 tr-4
CO

Cd

IL4 4.3 L)

0
.0

(D cd >
b.0

t-

C14 co

00

ce) t-

r-I

cli

00

-1

C11 CY) 0

r-4

Cm

"

C14 cq

E!

.Q CH
0 co

E-4 cd ,

r--4

cq C4 C 1

v;

V; V; V;
I

t
10 W

in
ho >% ; V,
-4

(D
4-3

cqS

00

(3)

CD

t-

00

T-4

cq Cq N

cq

cq

co

1-4

Lo

4-) p 0 CH 10

H C:
.E

Cd p H

-4 P Cd U CO1:1 94 g H
Cd 0 0 4J 11

:J >v 4-) -,

cq 0 0

T-4 0 0 0

0 0 0

, Z44
.

LO 0 0

Lo 0 0

L-) 0 0

Lo 0 0

C'l 0 -4

cq r-I

0 0 'r.,

r-4 a r-4

(1)

P4

r, ,,

:3 ,

0 a) cd = 12 ' r ' '+


, W 4 0 14 U3 4

LO 10

LO

LO

LO

LO -

to

LO
C;

LO

Cd 0

co

co

ro

-:4

0 U) :j Cd Cd r-4

:% P4

tC-4

LO V-1

0 to

C) CD

0 CD

CY) CY)

cr) v

cli to

-259-

>t

4-3 Cd

a bn cq %-o cr)

Br Pm 0w0w r-4 Cdr-4 :S P4


02

4- Cd
;4 u

Id

w
0) p0 4
CD

>)
p

CH 0

Lo

CO

0)

t-

10

rq 0 o Id >1 0 0 Q) 14 Z

:1 Cd I
Cc

P r4

to

E-

CD 0

CY) t-

r-4

to

00

(n

00

r-I

00
L

cq

: 1: C4t 1

: 4 4 C t 1

4 C

a) ril
4-) 4-3 Cd 0 ;4 0 :
0 r1

cd --r-4 Cd o CY

r-i

4-) C%< a) . co -W.

-14

0
0 cli s
0
00

CV)
v

LO
0

to
v

to
7-4

0)
00

co

LO
IN14

LO

V-4 -Im LO LO Ce)


0

00
r-I

.0 r-i

t:

0 r-4

Cd

a W U)w d C -qE Cd 4-3 0 0 Q)


-ri r-I 4-) 0 cd -ri 4-3 o
0

00

> E-4 r.

'TJ
0) V4

4-4
4)

0
cli

r-q En -ri 0
H Cd > 0
Cd PV .0P-. 0)

Ei
.0
H 1

CD t0 to

0 T-4
r.0 to

00 Q0
0 LO 0 t-

ta t-

ce) 0
00

C14 (n 00 T-4
0 cli T-4 LO T-4

m t-cli r-4

00 r-I
C11 r-I

CDU 0=0

r-I r-I
CH CH 0 0

> E--f0 Cd 0
$4

+-)

cd

!4

CM
bC
0e
-r4 (1)

Ei J., 14

a)
U 0
r.

ol
X: cr) cq lq4 t00 T-4 r-I

W Cd C.4 k CH a) Cd a) 0

>w 4-)

Cq

r-4

Cr) 0

00 M

:v

t-

r-4

Oo

00

CD

P Cd

bb

0 CD

C;

C;

C;

Cd 0 .rj 4J 10 Cd (D 4-) (D
0 04

Cd
o-% LO
C;

14 E-4

LO

0
C

LO
0

LO

0
C

Lf)
C;

VO

0
C

H
-H

P4 U2

Cd 0