submitted Doctor of
for
the
degree
of
Philosophy
in
Chemical at
University
University
Chemical
Engineering of
Department Surrey
University
Guildford Surrey
November
1980
Iso
s 57.
"You
push
the
And you
But
smoke just
Extract
from
Cockney (Anon. )
song.
To Diana
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
wishes people:
to
express
his
sincere
gratitude
to
the
Mr. F. D. Moles, for his helpful advice visor over the past six years. My wife and for Lilia, Diana, for her her help with for her continued encouragement, the diagrams. interest in
cowork
expertise
discuss
and
help
on computing, furnace.
ex
for
his
slurry
visedsity
measurements. of the
Mr. J. Webb and Mr. P. Pennington, ications they have suggested Mr. D. Arnall, electronic The Associated part of this for the design instrumentation Cement
for the many modifand made. and development for the rig. Ltd., for of the funding
Portland project.
Manufacturers
a research
SUNMARY
The of Surrey
Fuels
and Energy
Research the
Group
at
the of
University
Chemical in long
investigating kilns
systems when
supported Ltd.
Cement been to
and and
transfer, banks
pressure
relationship,
through
multiple
heat
transfer
areas bed
by the of
walls rotation,
and
any material
degree have
length
been
has
and the
surroundings, I
been
form into
of
the
slurry the
has
been
account rate
rotationSlurry pred
solids also
feed been
on the
rheology icting
a method
viscosity
Water
modelling
techniques
have
been
used
to
give
an
of
the
aerodynamic This
models.
the gas
chains velocity
that kiln
the has
tunnel no
perceptible
Air
water across
model
tests
in
and
a wind
also to
tunnel
show that
have
the than
confirmed
axial that gas through
the
velocity the
model the
results slurry is
up
20% higher
chains.
In scale,
order
to
generate rotary
basic
heat
a 1/20th
indirectfired
model
constructed.
Flue
gas
from
has
been
used of
to gas
dry, and
countercurrently, slurry ment, with flowrates many teething consequent system from been been
a range a very
at
4 kiln difficulties
speeds.
novel
experi
had
to
of gas
a novel
electrical velocity
and problems
have
been
overcome.
of
to
maintain feed
slurry not
bed
independent
solids
proved
to that
be a feasible further
proposition. are
The
investigation to confirm
shown hypo
experiments solids
required
holdup of the
predictions areas
calculation
surface
transfer.
It equal in all
been
found to
that those
scaling in
of a real
the kiln
model is
by
factor
solids
transport of water
Thinning necessary
slurry kinematic
by addition similarity;.
ensure
heat
transfer
between individual
gas
and
determined the
within transfer
model. have
of
been
for
slurryside of the
have presented to
been
results equations.
compared heat
literat
transfer indicating
proved the
arethe of their
in
the trans
system, fer.
large
model differential
has
been
proposed, has
and been
the
solution by
equations
achieved
numerical enables
solVed of range
program. of chain
program to
be simulated
process
conditions.
The discussed
of
the
modelling
techniques have
have
been
recommendations
beenmade.
1.
2.
Introduction.
Brief 2.1. description The 2.1.1. Portland The (i) (ii) 2.1.2. 2.1.3. 2.1.4. 2.1.5. The The The of the cement making making process. process.
Cement wet
process. slurries. manufacture. with process. process. dry process with suspension calcinator.
process
semi,. %, et semidry
2.1.6. 2.2. 3. (a) Process Historical aevelopment The role kilns. Types 3.2.1. of
methods consumption
of
manufacture. figures.
encountered
in
the
3.1.
in
wet
process
3.2.
chain chain
3.2.2.
suspension.
3. (b)
Previous within
process
occurring
3.3.
Design 3.3.1.
chain
Chaining
(i) (ii) 3.3.2. Wear (i) 3.4. 3.5. 3.6. Convective Heat Slurry 3.6.1. transfer rheology.
chain chain
systems. systems.
27 30 31
chain in rotary
wear. kilns.
32 33 35 37
dryers.
characteristics
of
cement
38
Bingham
38 39 39 42
Pseudoplastic of and
Prediction time
holdup
4.
Physical 4.1.
applied criteria
to in
chain models.
systems.
47 47 47 48 48
4.2.
48
4.3.
down
chain
zone.
51 51 52
and and
stock mass
size. transfer
52 55
5.
heat
mass
55 56 57 57
Effects
of
radiation
on
mass
transfer
60
(ii) (iii) 5.3. Theoret chain 5.3.1. 5.3.2. 5.4. The rical 5.4.1. 5.4.2. 5.4.3. 5.4.4. 6. Description 6.1. of
The
drying
zone
in
wet zone.
process
kilns.
60 61
Slurry,
preheating of heat
transfer
through
62
balances to
in heat
66 68 72
heat analysis.
data. zoning. of of and direct total exchange exchange areas. areas. techniques.
72 73 74 74 79 79 1. 2. procedure: velocities. tests using determination cold model of Mk. II. 79 79 82 83 84 measurement tip and temperature. slurry temperature. and control. S7 87 89 92 93 unit. technique. 93 94 96 96 96 kiln. 96 97 97
experimental
6.2..
Hot 6.2.1.
modelling. Temperature (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Chain Chain Gas Shell
temperature. temperature. monitor calibration control. control. and through from control. the, control. the
furnace.
Slurry
flowrate
control.
(v)
(vi) 6.2.3. Kiln M (ii)
Gas flowrate
Slurry chain The Chain flowrate model kiln
calibration.
calibration.
hardware. tube.
Thermocouple
(iii)Temperature (iv) (v) 6.2.5. Resultant (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Gas Chain supply. model alterations Slurry
slurry in
Thermocouple Thermocouple Gas Chain and of of supply. model discussion. net radiative heat (slurry
slurry
seal.
7.
of
results
prediction
transfer. coefficients.
to to
7.3. 7.4.
Prediction Evaluation
7.5.
boundary heat
7.6. 7.7.
transfer
experimental
investigation
modelling. modelling.
7.8.
(Hot
model).
Number. Number. actor for heat Number. Number. for heat transfer. heat transfer.
7.8.4.
to Prandtl Stanton
wall
transfer.
(iii)"j"factor 7.8.5. 7.8.6. 7.8.7. Overall Gas Drying (i) (ii) (iii) 8. Conclu 8.1. 8.2. 9. sions 'and to heat slurry rate Effect Effect
transfer. heat coefficient. of of gas slurry with flowrate. flowrate. kiln drying zone data. transfer.
Comparison
recommendationsmodelling. modelling.
References.
Appendix
A. '
Derived
physical
properties.
A. 1.
Gas properties. A. 1.1. A. 1.2. A. 1.3. Dynamic Specific Thermal properties. Dynamic Specific Thermal Bulk Slurry of viscosity. heat. conductivity. viscosity. heat. conductivity.
A. 2.
Appe ndix
B.
dimen'sionl'ess Number.
Appendix
C.
Measurement C. 1.
Experimental of
Results Correlation of
'C. 2. ,
slurry
procedure. results. exchange absorption exchange exchange areas. coefficient. areas. areas.
Appendix
D.
Evaluation D. 1. D. 2. D. 3.
properties.
D. 3.2.
Chain
properties.
D. 4. Appendix E.
Adjustment prescence
areas
for
the
Theoretical treatment factors. scaling E. 1. E. 2. E. 3. E. 4. E. 5. E. 6. Circular Rectangular Suspended Equivalent Projected Application E. 6.1. E. 6.2. Chain Chain flow chain
and weight
links.
Appendix
F.
Instrument F. 1. F. 2. Slurry
equations pump.
"Mono" pitot
"Annubar"
rakes.
Appendix
G.
Ancillary G. 1.
Computer H. l. H. 2. H. 3. H. 4. H. 5.
programs
chain:
program to
solution
LIST
OF FIGURES. 6
2.1
Sketch of rotary wet process. Heat consumption inlet of their Curtain hung
kiln
for
the
manufacture kilns
of
cement
by
the
2.2
of slurry chain
process content.
as
a function
radial of
section. chains.
20 20 21
suspension of chains.
chain
system: of chain
radial systems
21 26
efficiency
3.6
of chain (Northfleet
zone on Works)
output
of
29
3.7
of
an
29
NonNewtonian
39 49
of for
three
spiral
start drying
hangers. with
53 58
convection
Zoning
transfer for
zoning attachment
radiative to spiral. to
Thermocouple Position of
attachment thermocouple
86 90 91
temperature
Comparison thermocouple tip of thermal response of chain thermocouple with probe at 1.5 RPM. corresponding Drawing Chain rig of "Annubar" flowsheet. pilot rakes showing installation.
6.5 6.6
95 101
diagram of hot
of gas
model model
and
flue.
of
conveyor
7.1 7. '2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13
in
a one bay of to
Schematic representation at the kiln shell wall. Boundary Sketch of layer kiln applied
a chain
crosssection. velocity ratio Number Number and Reynolds (gas: chain). Number
between Relationship for cold model 2. Nusselt Nusselt Typical Variation , kiln with Slurry: speed. Modified i)slurry: wall Number Number measured
12E131 1K
(gas: wall). content coefficient vs. kiln for for Modified rotational profiles.
transfer
coefficient
Reynolds chains
Number Number vs. Prandtl ii)slurry: wall. and Number Reynolds slurry: wall. (slurry: (slurry: chains)
Stanton Number vs. Modified ii) i). slurry: chains and "j"factor Reynolds ITIfactor Reynolds for heat Number. for heat Number. transfer
vs.
transfer
vs.
Modified
Overall heat transfer speed for a range of heat transfer Average mass flowrate. slurry Overall rotational Overall rotational heat heat
as a function
of of of
transfer as a function coefficient from (Q/A, AT ). speed, derived transfer as a function coefficient from drying speed, derived coefft. rate
7.19
Summing electrical
individual resistance
heat
transfer analogy.
coefficients
by
7.20
Experimental results (Shorehain Ltd. Works) Slurry Slurry speed Variation Variation stream. Dryingrate kilns. drying rate as
oven
test
on
A. P. C. M.
7.21 7.22
of
kiln kiln
speed. rotational
of as a function of gas mass fluxes. rate rate with with solids mass
7.23 7.24
mass velocity
flowrate. of air
7.25
the
drying
zone
of
long
wet
process
B. 1. C. 1. C. 2. C. 3. C. 4. D1. D. 2. E. I. E. 2. E. 3. EA.
Velocity Sketch of
for
rate rate
curve curve
section. grey link plane chains. link chain ratio links chain. links showing stock effective size for full for chain bank.
 Surface area chains. size Representation Simple Line Flow circular diagram chart for
vs. by
E. 5. E. 6. G. 1. H. 1.
of
chain
equivalent
pipe.
handling
LIST
OF PLATES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Aerial
view of of
of cold
Blue
Circle 11 II,
Group
Northfleet
Works.
4 80
model model
cold
General view of laboratory panel and instrumentation. Side view of hot bearings. support Kiln flue kiln model
showing
and damper
assembly.
LIST
OF TABLES
1. 2. 3. 4.
3. 4. 5. 7.
46 54 77 15,'
TABLES GIVEN
IN APPENDICES..
A. I. Critical A. 2 Slurry
temperature composition. at
of
gas
species.
16F 16
D. 1 Gas properties D. 2 Direct D. 3 Summary D. 4 Summary D. 5 Areas for exchange of of direct total heat for
each
end of
chain
zone.
17f 181
areas. exchange exchange transfer Appendix areas. areas. within E. the chain model.
18, 1 8C 18 f, 197
E. 1 Nomenclature
Derived heat loading. kiln 1.2. 1.3. Summary Results chain) Variation transfer of o,f and
exchange heat
areas
based
on
the
predicted
251
and
mass
transfer
252 253
1.4.
of with
254
1.5.
Number Prandtl vs. feed kiln slurry. "j"factors transfer. Results of for
255
1.6.
slurry:
chain
heat
256
1.7. 1.8.
drying
oven of
tests
on
slurry. tests on
257 258
constant
1.9.
The effect of kiln rotational for drying rate coefficient mass flowrates.
speed a range
on of
259
1
1.
Introduction.
long
cement the
kiln,
with semidry
its
high
fuel
the the
wave oil is
new plant of
such to
be in in
operation America,
years U. S. S. R. are
come. in very
and
countries
where
wet
still
of in
the its
kiln utilise
lies
in cheap,
its low
which semidry
dry can
process. offset
usage day to
day long
back to
process, at least.
stay
late
1930's,
the
output
of
wet by
introduction These
drying
kiln
a festoon
curtain
system,
installed
and error.
2
mid
1950's
the
very to less
Industry
systems", output.
Circle to
world's kilns to
largest spirally
cement hung
manufacturer, systems in
began 1962
and the
conversion
was complete
by 1968.
the
forty
that the
chain drying,
have heat
been transfer,
in
Industry, collection,
material
have
are of of
observation.
In Mr. the F. D.
1974 Moles
this of of
by Group at
Surrey
(FERGUS). fluid
The flow
the
programme data
and heat
transfer
which,
hopefully,
principles.
3
in
January
1977, financial
Blue
substantial its
backing
and development by studies had been this of time the had chain
"chains"
aerodynamics the
and heat
a hot
constructed in wet
investigate kilns.
and mass
transfer
mechanisms
process
of
further of the
money model, to
at
this for
and
interpret 1978, to
October decided
support
had proceeded
sporadically
during
the the
model relationships to
over
the from
programme of
design in an
to
prolong
process
kiln.
4j
4_)
Plate
1.
Aerialview
of
Blue
Circle
Groun's
Northfleet
Workskilns.
ARIP, 1,4
f
LO
Lfl
Cp
C)
'1
C)
Ifl
Ln
co
LLS
s
LL ci
7
moist,
a discovery
early
in
the
century washing
by
the
cement of
industry
and most
method the
producing
desired This
fineness further
of
method are
which occur
unavoidably in that
with within of
naturally found
was also
subsequent
presented
no problems.
technological been
or related
operating to the
problems
of
the
wet
process of
inevitably slurry
nature
and the
wide
These
properties
degree of
grinding chalk/clay in
storage the
main
reasons
difficulty
analysing of
transfer part of
transport in such
characteristics kilns.
The water dent being basis); permit, reduce on the in the where chemicals its free
content moisture
of
the of
cement the
slurry
is
highly typical
depenvalues
moisture the
content
range properties
weight raw
% (wet
physical can be
added
to
the
cement
viscosity,
hence
allowing
moisture
8
Heat consumpt
1.2
Pf er ,
ion factor
erred weight to
refa 38
0.9
percent
(wet basis)
0.1
moisture
content
0.1
1.0 42 44
28
30
3z
34
36
38
Slurry
inlet
moisture
content
(wt%) a
longwet process*kilns'as of Fig. consumption inlet 2.2_Heat content. moisture function of slurrZ
to Fig. to
be
The
of
this
are
apparent
heat
a basis
moisture
increases for
kiln
1.57o
burning
reduced
by
approximately
172 ,3 0
practice, thinning
however, that
there
are
limits Slurry
to
the
of
moisture
as low resulted
end
S4 . The and
Works thinners
Frangais a slurry
carbonate
moisture on
of
29 wt. %, with
no apparent
effects
9
kiln
performance
appropriate each
slurry
thinner as is
is the
ascert
beyond
which
increases
(ii)
Cement
manufacture
The of a long
cement inclined
slurry rotary
is
into which In
the is the
revolutions chains
per are
dr'y'ing or
hung the
curtains combustion
festoons gases
exchangers these
and the
wet
act
as dust
collectors
and as aids
material
transport6,7,8.
11 in
Various kilns to
designs increase
of the
are
commonly
installed and
surface "Vickers"
between I'Smidth" to
designs exchanger
such rely
these
latter.
units
result they
which
in are
very often
the
effective prone to
and gas
feed
dedusting,
blockages
irregularities
upset
normal
10
running
of
the
kiln
12
.
the content and leaves weight into that the the the the percent calcining residual and of the the drying 13 in
In section the zone. moisture chains dust and the kiln are tend so is form
a "nodule" with of
kiln,
raw
material of 68
"Dust" is are
some
along
metres type,
whereas
kilns
In the feed
the
zone,
carbon the
dioxide kiln
and is
away by the
calcination greater
to
temperatures
calcined where it
material attains
then its
the
burning
of
place,
combine of
to
3S).
approxim
11
all
of
the
free
lime
combines balance
A delicate of
of
overburning which
material, product
it
determines
grindability.
The
clinker
is
then
processed
as described
in
section
2.1.
2.1.2.
 The wet
process
with
calcinator
the
raw to
are to
commonly Krupp 2.
units
Buhler preheater
concentrator,
These heat
devices
have they
the
advantage
unlike kiln
exchangers,
are
separate of the
be operated
independently
kiln
rotational
The
semiwet
process.
method
is
used
where usually of
must pressing
diameter are
approximately discharged
length
cylinders
12
moving In this
metal
grate the
through
which
the is
hot both
kiln dried
gases
pass.
manner,
decarbonated (relative to
the for
feed final
end of
processing.
of of
the the
process to
depends form
very
stable
moving clinker
grate. is
An advantage produced
because
standardisation
starting
materials'
2.1.4.
The
semidry
process.
semidry route,
process but
utilises differs in
the that
same grate it is
kiln
as for
semiwet dry
suitable
raw materials.
of
and clay
or
produces of
1015
percent moving
are
then in
processed section
short
as described
2.1.5.
The modern
dry
process
with
suspension
preheater.
The blending
finely ground to
of
dry
raw material
a homogeneous
requires
mixture.
that
In
they
areas
be
produce
13
where had
the tobe
materials used in
hard, to
mills materials
achieve before
advances
pneumatic the
blending, grinding
slurry. blending
aerodynamics preheater
has
become
a feasibl'e
economic
process.
In
the
modern
dry
processs,
a dry,
milled
mixture
of
limestone of to 3 or the
and
clay
or
shale it
is
fed
to in
the
top
of
passes is
drops
the
final
process
clinker
ground
as described
previously.
2.1.6.
Other
methods
of
manufacture.
In commonly kiln
the
United in
States
of
America, to the of
the
long
dry
kiln
was
chosen the
preference outlay
suspensionpreheater former was less, the clogging In North process of the was prea
because its
capital
the
fuel
frequently
encountered.
America
14
special
trap
problem
alkalis,
was the
resulting American
preheater's
in high alkali 13 .
unfortunate
cement the long
ability
unacceptable dry kiln,
to
to
the
general
market
In
are
used
to
recuperate external
frequently to produce
recovery
steam
for
although in Australia.
obsolete
in
vertical low of
suitable
volatile
forces'.
In such as
to
the
kiln, are
bed
novel
installed and
in
minimise are to
example as
temperature process's.
plasma
the
basis
manufacturing
2.2.
Process
fuel
consumption
figures.
CUT IN
15
Wet process
long short kiln kiln
kilns
pical" 1650
'(kcal'/kg) 1250
*Best
and
calcinator
1300
Grate
process
kilns
1000 950
semiwet semidry
Dry kilns
850 800
process
long
1300 875
1100 '750
suspension
* Confidential
data
from
more
than
one
source.
16
3(a)
Historical development
encountered
in
the
in
the of
early
chains kiln to in
were Northern
first
hung France
in to
zone heat
a wet
increase the
chains as the
absorbed much
cooler todescribe
cement the of
section industry
cement
of
the
role
and also
who have
experience. for
reasons
discussed.
3.1.
The
role
of
kiln
chain
systems
in
wet
process
kilns.
of
a chain
system, state is to
which of the
are
complex in
and the
material raw
convert
nodular
mechanical
attrition
17
The heat
chain
zone in from
to fluid
a massive streams to
exchanger state
which
a NonNewtonian finally
evaporated along
axis steady
as more state
Although
condipre
heat wall
transfer enter
and leave
in
that
the
rheological by the the of the will with composition moisture slurry also the wet
chalk/clay viscosity as
age content
slurry
dramatically 16 .
cement
recombined
follows
a kiln of the
drying
zone
must
be tailored
to and the
tx) be processed Dust losses filter however, end of over the from
gases
are
chains curtain
when is is hand,
slurry. the
a chain the
system,
spill
the at
On the
chain
density
18
of
the
kiln
will gases,
cause
less
heat in
to
be removed gas
from
the and
combustion correspondingly
elevated
temperatures
losses.
low
of
the
gases to
in
end of
be the
within wet
system contact
gas is
rate of to
area also
carried carried
Therefore will
the
densities
influence
evaporative
effect
its is which
passage
through
the
zone, enters
the its
evaporated it shows
region,
mud rings to
Failure
do so can and
surging
which
adversely
affects
productoutput
19
At time heat longer expose their radiation significant nodular gas kiln. material core of
the
hot into
end of
the
chain
zone,
the bed,
has
by
this
a rolling,
nodular from
the
other they
can
as they In this
zone, more
temperatures the
higher surface by
stream The
caused the by
the
chains,
walls
dissipated bed.
solids
the
solids
this of
of be
the
chain
zone from
is the as the
too slurry,
long
for then
the dust
removed the
chains of
become In the
the too
calcining region
high the
temperatures literally
rates
as
away.
20
3.2.
Kiln
chain
systems
used
in
the
wet
process.
3.2.1.
Curtain
chain
systems.
t
In
the
curtain
system,
one
end
of
the
chain
is
allowed
to
hang
free,
the
other
being
attached
to
the
kiln
circumference.
u00vu0 'd 000000 000000 00 00000000 00000000 000000 00 000000 00 0000000 so 000
Fia. 3. lCurtain
hung
chain
system.
Radial
section.
to
which
the to axis.
attached axis, or
method
"crosssectional suspension".
suspension",
and the
latter
"helical
(i)
Crosssectional
suspension.
Fig.
3.2
Chain
Curtains
is of
to
the
form
"dams" the
slurry
kiln,
chains
general, arrestors
suspended
"hot"
end
21
of
the
drying
zone.
(ii) ,
HelicAl
suspensioa.
Fig.
3.3
In
the
this
system
of the
the
kiln
chains
rotation
are
uniformly
and in the
spaced
direction
both
in
of
direction
slurry helices
flow. in
The
system
is
built
up by
adding
successive
a multistart
fashion.
are chain
gained spiral
conveyor, of chains
distribution point is
on the less
important
because
entanglement
damming.
3.2.2.
Garland
chain
systems.
In to the
many kiln
chain shell,
zones, the
both
ends point of
of
the
chain
are
attached
exact
attachment
depending
Fig.
3.4 Garland
hung
chain
system.
Radial
section.
22
on
the
required
"sweep"
of
the
chain.
Many
different
garland
systems defined
exist, in the
but
broadly
they
fall
into
the
same categories
curtain
system.
Crosssectional
suspension.
are
mounted at right
in
rows the
around The
the free
axis.
end of one or
is
taken
axis, is
the
kiln manner
Additional succeding
fastened
The the
chain is kiln
is
installed sufficient
such
that to at
the
free
height the
beneath
garlands the
just
transport maximum
material
through
when operating
capacity.
chain
systems,
the
garlands This
and downstream
directions.
"reverse
(ii)
Helical
suspension.
'
In with
this
the
chain
hangers being
of in
a flange adjoining of
a wide to
edge, shell
these so in
forming parallel
A series the
flanges
installed kiln.
transport
down the
23
are across
to
these axis,
hangers rather
such than
that
a the
along
as in
previous
case.
24
3(b)
Previous within
related drying
to zone.
the
processes
occurring
work
on this
subject
has various of
been
of
no data chain
measured to review
This publically
chains the
years,
in
surveying the
which of
gas: liquid of
studies,
NonNewtonian rotating
and the
through
25
3.3.
Design
of
chain
zones.
of
the
ever
increasing consumption
cost of the to
of
fossil
fuels
and
specific is fuel
heat
wet work
process at
cement
desirable efficiency;
for
the in is
maximum cost of
the
capital
a chain
system
are
a multitude to
of
of
these
systems, to
company that
another is
one
country
usually
because valid
a logical enable
on which designs
parisons
zone
be rationalised.
has
attempted different
to
of
56
conditions, data is
while
comprehensive
conclusions
absolute.
Murray9 from
have
derived
kiln
thermal
efficiency substantiated
theoretical
graphs kilns
be substantially compared to
an increase referred
chained to a kiln
production,
26
pi ,I
WET DRY
14 7
26 14
42 21
56 28
es x14 0 35
savings of
per
Tonne
of
clinker in
efficiency kilns.
chain
systems
of
chains.
The
predictions presented
do not by the
take chain
into
account to
extra
resistance streams,
system be viewed
should
as an
theoretical
17 has
shown
the output is
effect of
of
altering
on the kiln. it
an APCM Ltd.
particularly is an optimum
there
clinker of
production chained in
tailing length
metres
diameter.
27
in chain heat
studies zone
wet
kiln,
that effect
consumption
1150
Kcal/kg
3.3.1.
Chkining
practice.
DeBeus prior small giant design "dust" kilns to kilns kilns criteria kilns. behave
and
i20
state
that
195558 had of
meaningless then.
than
chain
invariably large
There differently
is
practice,
small
It of the
realised can
that be divided
because into
the three
physical distinct
state
i. e. systems
plastic
have of that
uneven in that
density, particular
section
bel).
(i)
Uneven
density
chain
systems.
(a)
Slurry
zone
dust
curtain.
Curtain
hung
chains
are
frequently
used
to
give
the
best
28
dust
in free
this
zone.
and Narzymsk 12Q should actual laden are of chain height The gas that be as contact, stream the
end of
surface between
order
other should
recommendations be 813m 2
zone volume,
surface beneath
kiln
should to the
slurry to the
increase kiln
height section.
heap
"bottom"
(b)
Plastic
region
garland
zone.
slurry or
has
lost
it chains
puggy
state. of
no longer by layers
eachother, increased of
obstruct rise to
passage
material of
and of and
a specific grinding.
material
transport,
a low
of
3545% of
of
the
kiln
is area 1.53.0
6.510 length
m2 chain of this
typical
diameters.
60
50
Chained Length of Kiln (M)
40
30
20
(
()
Fig.
6 above 3.
of of
clinker Works)
Fig.
3.7
below.
of chain A. P. C. M.
clinker Works)
output kiln.
1
An
%J
0 0
0 co
10
After
LI
Walker
17
50 . Clinker
do output
/0 (tonnes/h)
96
LVU
30
(c)
Material
preheating
zone.
The to the
role
of
this section
zone of
is
to
preheat kiln.
the Various
material
prior
the
zone at
comprises
resisting surface
a density a length
m3 of to
1.01.5 202576 of
and hung
20 .
a freeboard
(ii)
Constant
density
chain
systems.
In
his
investigations
Walker slower drying having less
into
spiral
low
curtain
density resulting proposing minor
chain
chain in systems a more that in the
configurations, as giving
product
losses,. to
becomes conditions.
sensitive
changes
also
curtain a high by
density in the
can
slurry caused
as well heat
by a toorapid regard to
transfer. to
system than
with
appears
be a prevention
rather
collection.
By their
very
nature,
even
density
systems
lend
them
31
to
more
ready of
Fig.
3.7
shows
clinker
Works) of
improve
chained kiln
particular
although density at
paper
losses
became
unacceptable.
In always
practice, easy to
however, apply to
these
are in not a
not
other
kilns. chain
review to
constant the
reason in this
being
correct
case
and no real
conclusions
be drawn
3.3.2.
Wear
in
chain
systems.
to
Ili than
inch" "i
stock inch"
chains stock
20% less
smaller unit
stock
length, of
as soon zone, to
as any since
chain due
moisture heat
evaporate
the
reduced
exchange
32
area9.
Regular
checks
of
the
chain
area
are
therefore
required
to
maintain
kiln
efficiency
and maximum
capacity.
Mechanism
of
chain
wear.
highest
rate end of of
of the
wear chain
generally zone
in
the abrasion,
the
the
high
oxidation at
associated
gas
temperature
point'.
33
3.4.
Convective
heat
transfer
in
rotary
kilns.
is
little
published
concerning rotary
mechanisms state is
analysis is
limited, exchange
flexible of heat
estimation their
relationship in the
fundamental systems.
importance
design
improvement
of kilns in
previous is
workers
into in this
heat section,
summarised 5.3.
section
dynamic
model
of
kiln of calc
and Coupa 122 defined transfer radiation the coefficients coefficients convective by Perry" coeff
For
recommended
hf, = k.
Go .
67 ...
3.1
34
and
used
the of
given of
in
the transfer
between data of
wall et al.
was
perfect
mixing
of the bed.
21 have heat
transfer
where
Keff
= hGSeff
11 +
...
3.2
h=
heat
transfer of filling
coefficient
P = degree d=
dimensionless S= suffixes
W, G,
Tscheng
and
Watkinson27
in
recent
experiments
on
heat walls in
from
hot rotary
air
to kiln,
coefficients to wall.
a factor
of this
ten to
those
attributed charge,
surface of the
and the
effect
velocity solids
particles
on the
resistance
flow
interface.
35
3.5.
Heat
transfer
in
rotary
driers.
In
his
review
of
published
data,
McCormick
28 has
correlated to produce
data
from
direct of
heat the
single
shell
rotary
driers
an equation
form
k. LDGn ATM Q= D= G= dryer dryer gas heat length, mass flux flux ( kcal/h) diameter (kg/hm2) driving force
...
3.3
where L,
respectively
(m)
AT = temperature
k= proportionality
0C) (
()
constant
0.46
0.67
In of the
the
absence 'In"
of is
further 0.67.
data,
the
recommended
value
exponent
The of
effect
of
gas
velocity,
has
been
subject on
Saeman 29 out
published
rotary assumed
that
investigators in
an incorrect
temperature
distribution
the
drier
36
and had
taken
to
obtain
accurate influence of
air
large
these
most
coefficient
varied
1, MOSS3 and that unit the mass square effected heat of root
in
book
on drying
of exis speed
solid of
the
by the
diameter
The
results
of
in
a small consistent
dryer with
reported these to
insufficient a doubt..
measurements
37
3.6.
Slurry
rheology.
nature of
of
the
of
cement choice
making of
is
the
cement the of
making
in effects
slurry
throughout resistance of
zone.
under
various of the
will wet
also
determine
the
amount the
of of
chain,
and hence
degree convection
Solids the
depends
mixing the
addition,
which
transported viscosity.
through
kiln
of
slurry devoted
rheology to the
is
reflected of
in
the
study
effect
on the
moisture of
content: slurry
viscosity
dimensionless characteristics
transfer zone.
drying
38
3.6.1.
Shearing
characteristics
of
cement
slurries.
Viscosity fluid,
of the
is
a measure conditions
(Ty) to
of of
the
the
internal
of ratio
rate
and under
shear stress
streamline
corresponding
is
equal
to
the
viscosity
(p)
dux dy
of
the
fluid.
33
Ty
...
3.4
where
dux dy at
m the
velocity
gradient
in
the
fluid
a given and
temperature of
independant
behaviour pattern is
Newtonian particles
as the
slip
made complex
themselves.
In
these
nonNewtonian
fluids,
the
ratio
of
the
shearing
stress
to
of
shear with
is
as the of
apparent
viscosity,
a quantity
varies
shear.
of relationship
nonNewtonian between
fluids stress
(i)
Bingham Bingham
Plastics. Plastics known as the can resist stresses stress, before up to flow a critical takes
value
"Te"
yield
39
'
place.
Once
this
value
has
been
exceeded,
however,
the
rate
of
shearis
proportional
the critical
to
the
amount
by which
the
shear
stress
exceeds
value.
i. e. Ty  Te
dux dy
...
3.5
7) WI1;
of fluids.
T
A number of kiln
lo
RaLe v SKQcr
feed
slurries
are
Bingham
plastics.
(ii)
Pseudoplastic
materials.
is the rate.
a maximum kind of
feed
this
investigation.
3.6.2.
Prediction
of
slurry
viscosity.
By
its
very
nature,
cement
slurry
does
not
lend
itself
to with
accurate various
prediction levels of
of
its
viscosity content
at
different
shear
rates
moisture
and temperature.
40
In viscosities in
the
past, of
workers
have of
attempted slurry.
to
correlate et al
the
34
various
types
Bonilla
turbulent pipes,
heat
transfer the
studies Hatzchek
on chalk equation
flowing to estimate
used
viscosity
p=11...
3.8
X3) v
Pw
where
of fraction
This the
relationship, of the
however, slurry,
not
take
into rate.
account
temperature
shear
The GuzmanAndrade
equation
35
p=A.
e%
....
3.7
where
A and B= T=
is
suitable
for liquids
estimation
values is
of
A and B.
suited liquid
pure
inorganic etc.
and organic
liquids,
metals
The estimated
viscosities for xv
of < 0.5
liquidsolid by Kunitz's"',
suspensions relation
may be
41
1PL* (1
+ 0.5xv)(1
xv)'
3.3.
where
IJL is
the
viscosity
of
the
pure
liquid.
Equation
3.8
is
roughly
only
when
the
solids
are
free the
flowing viscosities
such larger
as clay than
and chalk,
always
calculated.
Ting
and
LuebberS37
relationship
for
suspensions
of
spheres
of
unequal
Xv
diameters
0.460 PL)
0.00158(11L) R
0467 _
0.79
xv
3.9
where solids
R=
ratio (or
of the
liquid reverse
(OL) 1)
divided
by
the
density
does f luid.
not
take
into
account
the
shear
rate
exerted
on the
Owing
measurement
to
of
the
peculiar
properties
at
of
different
kiln
feed
moisture
slurry,
slurry
viscosity
over this
a range dissertation.
of
shear
rates
choice of
of the cup to
is
linked
directly in closest
to this in slurry.
the case
through
apparatus C
experimental
results
appendix
42
3.7.
Residence
time
and hold
up in
rotary
kilns
and dryers.
is
fed
into to
it other very
can
someThe
24 hours of solids
end. often
passage the
through of
determine Also, termed transport into the The function parameters degree the have of the
quality of
holdup, from
exposed
innermost
the the
bed
charge this
in rate
a kiln
is
a on
of
passage, of
as angle speed It of
inclination, and
rotation that
angle
of would
material40 varying
different
materials on their
residence
that varies
the with
constant,
transformations
initial
charge
undergoes.
The is
of
the
rate
of
passage
in of
cement gas
kilns
by the by the
evolution of
and in the
drying
evaporation
the
water
slurry.
Sullivan
the basis of
et
most
al 41published
kiln,
a formula
in
1927 which
since the then.
has forme(
For
studies uroduced
rotary empirical
kilns,
dryers
following
formula:
43
T=
kILO' SDN
3.10
where ,T= 0= L= D= S= N= kj= average the kiln internal the kiln of angle length residence of repose (m) of the kiln W time of in the the kiln (h) (degrees)
material
(degrees) (RPM)
speed constant
30
state
that
the the to
amount heat
of
material
power (T)
rotate (X)
residence
time
holdup
by
T=
LX k2F
3.11
where
X= F=
k2
holdup solids
= constant
volume) (m'/hM2)
of
previous that
workers in the
by Friedman can be
and
Oagreed by
holdup of
3.12,
where
k3
= constant
44
Saeman29
derived
a relationship
from
the
observations
of
Sullivan
loaded
et
a 141 together
kilns. k4LsinO 2,arNS radius = constant of the
with
his
own observations
on lightly
industrial
...
3.13
where
k4
r=
particle
path
in
the
bed
(m)
For equation
heavily
loaded
kilns
Sullivan
41 derived
the
q=
s+ ks7rN(
TcosG sinO
D2 )(7
2) ro
3.14
where
q= T=
rate
through of
the the
kiln material
(M3 /h)
surface
minimum (m)
Nonhebel
and
MOSS 3Al ,
in
their
book
on
rotary
drying,
recommended more
the
formula than
L k6ND(S
of that
satisfactory
and Marshal
T=...
+ k7vm)
3.15
where
k7Vm = the of
due by
to the
the air
displacement stream(degrecs)
(m/h)
45
his
study the of
of work these
heat of
in
reviewed analysis
dimensional of
ll It .
kilns
and uses
Heiligenstaedt
1+3 to
predict
a material
loading
kg. sino.
cross
sectional
loading 3.16
pe xNxSxD
where
ke = constant
pe = bulk density (kg/M3)
46
Table
1.
Nomenclature
for
section
3.
A ............. B ............. D ............. F ............. G ............. h ............. k ............. k7vm .......... keff .......... L ............. n ............. N ............. q ............. Q ............. r ............. ro ............ R ............. S T ............. ............. T ............. dux/dy ........ Vm............ V ............. xv ............. X .............
Constant. Constant (V/hm2) diameter Kiln or dryer (m So lid s f ee d ra t e 2) (kg/hm Gas mass flux 20 C) (kcal/hm Heat transfer coefficient Constant Equivalent slope 2o C) Effective heat transfer coefficient(kcal/hm Kiln (m) length or dryer (value Exponent 0.460.67) (R) Kiln rotational speed . Solids (m /h) transport volumetric rate Dryer (kcal/h) heat flux Radius W of particle path in bed W Minimum value of r density Liquid: ratio solid (0) Kiln slope (h) Mean residence time of solids (OC) Temperature (h1) Fluid gradient v6locity (m/h) Mean velocity of fluid (m/h) Gas velocity Volume fraction dry solids kiln Solids holdup volume)
Suffixes
c ..... convective G gas ..... L liquid ..... S..... solids w..... water W. ,... wall Greek
..... 0 ..... 6 ..... AT .... ..... p..... ? ? .... .... .... degree of filling angle of repose of material dimensionless temperature difference temperature between angle material and density s h ear s t ress (critical)stress yield viscosity
47
4.
Physical
modelling
applied
to
chain
systems.
4.1.
Similarity
criteria
in
models.
In data under is
where the it is
heat
transfer
consideration,
evaluate techniques.
coefficients
by employing
model
reliable
of
these
are under
based
on the
the
model related 5.
versa.
section
Equations
can
SC
be
23
ih
= hGCp
Pri
...
for
conditions
of
geometric,
kinematic
and dynamic'similarity.
44
4.1.1.
Geometric
similarity.
the
simplest of
of the
the
dimension
model of the
corresponding this
dimension for
isothermal of heat
is
necessary
sources
release
48
4.1.2.
Kinematic
similarity.
implies in is
that
the
fluid
follows of
corresponding a velocity
means maintained
that
between system.
corresponding
points
model
and the
4.1.3.
Dynamic
similarity.
similarity of
requires the
that in
the the
force
ratios
masses
ThIS
condition are
by ensuring
numbers
4.2.
Theoretical a chain
analysis system.
of
the
pressure
drop
through
p
In simulate of
this
to
a kiln
chain
it
is
required similarity
to
resistance hanging in in
dynamic
system
stream; For
by means
of
scaled model
to air
hanging with
a'moving or mass
or
stream. the
baffles
an isothermal 'is
large
no heat
a baffle,
transfer,
6f
system
of
analogous
voidage.
approaching
series
then
act
as a sudden
contraction
to
flow
energy
U22
lost/unit
mass
of
fluid
F=
(HcU2
1)
2 ...
4.2
49
where
U2 = final Uc = velocity
Rewriting
in
terms
of
coefficient
of
contraction,
(Cc)
U22
(1_
1)2
Cc
...
4.4
and
APf
= pF
(Cc
varies
from
0.6
I
as
do/D
varies
from
0 l 1)
Now,
for
a sudden
expansion,
APf
=2
(U2
UI)2 ...
4.5
OU22
(A2)2)
A,
...
4.5(a)
U0
FU77
Fig. 4.1.
Vena
contracta.
Thus, a chain is
the given
total by
loss the
APfT
for
each
pass
through
equations
50
IPff
2 PU 2
Al
cc
...
4.5
If flow is
it
is
assumed
that
the the
fluid
plug
next
chain
bank
assumption
suffices
as a first
approximation).
Then: Case 1.
Ul
thus the
energy, generating
heat
generated
Case
2.
UO (TO) U2 = f(T2) Ul(TI) 4.7 4.8
... ...
any is
temperature likely to
change be very
in small
the
system
due case
to 2
and thus
may be safely
disregarded.
Thus, chains is
loss
through
a bank
of
In'
layers
of
Ap fTn
nPU2 2
[,
(A2)21
(1
A,
cc
1)2
...
4.5(a)
By assuming
A2)
that
A2)
A,
real
"
J,
4.6 model
51.
and thus
Ccreal
then equation
cc 4.10
model
...
4.10
gives
JnPreal
(U2 )2
real
7 JnPmodel
(U2 )2
model
...
4.11
or, the
real
in
other in
words, the
for model
dynamic must
similarity, to
the that
voidage of the
of
chains
system.
be identical
4.3.
Scaledown
of
kiln
chain
zone.
4.3.1.
Chain
density.
it equal
that in
the the
of
a chain real
the
e=
fractional Vchains
volume Mchains
of
voids chain
in
kiln density
Vkiln
Pc x Vkiln
PC
...
4.12
where
Vchains/Vkiln
= volume
of
chains/kiln length
of
per kiln
unit (M3)
Mchains
= mass of
in a (kg)
pc
= density
for density
equal in
systems, should
it equal
is
apparent that of
that the
52
4.3.2.
Chain
area.
Another utilised
consequence
of the
equal voidage
voidage fraction
systems in
can be form:
by expressing A* c Ak
another
...
4.13
where
A.
the
projected
area
of
chain
in
Ak
the
crosssectional
area
of
the chained
Thus
A; Ak model
C* Ak real
...
4.14
4.3.3.
Chain
configuration
and
stock
size.
to
current of the
practice spiral
17 the
length
of
each in
hanger
can be expressed
diameter.
Hence,
chain
length, pitch
Lc
spiral
kiln x a 3 1x kiln
diameter diameter
4.15 4.16
The been
number at
of 3,
spiral in line
starts with
of the
the current
chain
has
chosen
practice.
By trial
correct.  chain
and error
stock to size give
it
for
is
now possible
a given required distance
to
evaluate
between area
the
chain and
points
the
surface
53
T
Spiral pitch :: D.
L1 4Kiln
IID circumference
I
Fig.
4.2.
of
three
spiral
54
Table
2.
Nomenclature
for
section
4.
A ........ Ac ........ Ak ........ cc ........ CP ....... e ......... F ......... G ......... h ......... hd ........ ih ........ id ........ Lc ........ Mchains n ........ Pr ....... Sc ....... T ........ U ........ V ........
Surface area Projected in kiln area of chain csa. (csa) Crosssectional area of kiln Coefficient of vena contraction (constant Specific heat pressure) Volume voidage factor Frictional lost/unit mass fluid energy Gas mass flux Heat transfer coefficient Mass transfer coefficient jfactor for heat transfer jfactor for mass transfer Length of chain Mass of chains .. Number of layers banks of chain Prandtl Number Sherwood Number Temperature Fluid velocity Volume
2 c!,,
0C Sh M
Rilf
f izgnc
contracta
drop
due to
friction
kg/m3 kgf/m2
55
5.
analysis
of
the
heat
and mass
transfer
in
kiln
is
are
exposed
stream;
tangled
Knowledge required in
exchange transfer
be estimated calculat.
and the
convective
coefficient
ed accurately.
exchange
areas
were
first
using
2dimensional to extrapolate
model, to
which banks
tedious of
A computer
program
has
been
written
(Appendix
H. 1),
heat or
within chain
the hanging. in
chain
the
immersed kiln
the
kiln can
charge,
against
loading,
be calculated.
5.1.
Simultaneous
heat
and
mass
transfer.
In
the
upper
section
of
the
chain
zone
the
gas,
wall,
chain
low
and the
gas form
be the'dominant
significantly temperatures
673 K approximately.
56
5.1.1.
Convection
heat
transfer
to
a surface.
Heat scopic
transfer of
by
convection
is
to to
macrogases
motion
a fluid,
Natural caused
from
the
system,
forced which
convection is in
eddy
currents
of of the
rates
a velocity temperature
across the
surface
occurs. from a surface energy gradient is assumed according to a fluid this is occurs initially layer.
transfer of
by the
kinetic
boundary determined,
place basic
by conduction equation
through
boundary
the 5.1
kA(dT/dy)
... I'dy" is
effective therefore
film the
thickness equation
is
not
generally in
usually
rewritten
forM34
hA(dT) h is
reciprocal
... heat
the
5.2 (HTC)
where
the
known
as the
transfer
thermal
coefficient
resistance.
and
represents
57
5.1.2.
Heat
and
mass
transfer
factors.
Difficulties
arise
in
the
evaluation
of
mass
transfer
the the
composition surface.
of
the
material
varies
The physical
constant,
Chilton
heat The and jfactor mass
and Colburn's
transfer for heat to
have
a fluid
introduced
flowing can be
jfactors
through by
for
a tube. equation
transfer
expressed
ih
=h
cppu
Re 02
and,
by
Chilton transfer,
have they
also have
deduced expressed
a factor by the
id
hd. CBM Z u T
11 PD
06 7
...
5.4
Sherwood
and
Pigford
46 have
correlated
previous
published to assume
data that
that jfactors
it
is
reasonable approximately
are
equal.
5.1.3.
Heat
and mass
transfer
applied
to
drying
theory.
When heat, is
a stream
of to
hot the
gas
passes by
across convection
a wet
solid,
transferred
solid
simultaneous
to
the
removal
of
the
heated
vapour.
If
the
hot
gas
is
58
supplied it
to
the
at
the
distinct then
drying content
constant to is
moisture it is zero
reduce completely
progressively dry.
when the
The moisture
diminish is termed
content
the
at
critical
which
the
drying
content,
rate
starts
but the
to
moisture
change
contents.
tends
to
occur
)
gradually.
over
a range
of
moisture
(f iFr. 5.1
4 4 0 10
Drying
L
Q) 4j 14 r. 4 Q) 0
0) A)
W 41 1
1I , z
0 :31
1
4j
Rate (kg/h)
>0 0 00 0
4
41 4 r 00 E! 4 ,4
> 00 CO
P 11 0)
1 00
$4
VC, U)
4 Cd U
1 4
41 4 4 UU 4J 0
(U I
I alling Fig. 5.1 T yl2ical constant Rate Constant for rate drying
Moisture of solid
content (kg/kg)
convection
dry ing
with
The
critical
moisture
content
represents
the
range
of
moisture to
that
over
which
the equals
rate the
of rate
migration of
of
liquid
from
surface
evaporation
surface.
As
long
as
the
surface
of
the
material
is
moist,
vapour
pressure of
will the
exist material
at
the will
surface remain
and constant.
temperature
59
Only
through
as much vapour
the boundary
will
layer
emerge
of
from
the
material
given
as can pass
gas
under
conditions.
While
these
conditions
remain
unchanged
and
the
of
the will
boundary also
layer
does
not
vary, (Fig.
the 5.2)
remain
unchanged.
drying 74
.01
.0
Temperature
Moisture
content
of surface inteftor
the
becomes action
water
from
material, greater
such a free
lower
than hence
surface,
decrease
rate
as drying
proceeds.
the the
ratio amount by
heat
and mass
transfer also
is decrease.
must
achieved
material
a temperature force
reduction material.
driving
between
and the
60
(i)
Effects
of
radiation
on
mass
transfer
theory.
In
this
case,
it
is'necessary
to
apply
a surface
the radiation
degree
of
temperature It is
alone. is
surface
elevation only
constant for
drying
be calculated
simpler
constant
rate
In
dryers
where
the
proportion
of
heat
received
is from relatively
small, the
of to
throughout
ambient
conditions.
tS4
where
hr tg
ts
...
5.5
It
has
been
shown
that
the
drying
coefficients
are
of
the
drying drying
calculated radiation
convection place.
where
(ii)
The
drying
zone
in
wetprocess
kilns.
In subdivided
the
wet into
process three
kiln, sections:
the
drying
zone
can be
1.
The
slurry
preheating
zone,
where
the
slurry
is
heated
61
to 2. The
the
dew
point of the
of
the
exit where
drying
charge,
is
wet
and at
a constant
temperature
in
the
region
of the
the
water
held content
by
absorption of the
action In this
material rises
temperature
approximately
1301C.
*. GAS
I Preheat ing
SLURRY
PLASTIC
GRANULAR
Fig.
5.3
Zoning
the
drying
section
of
the
kiln.
(iii)
Slurry
preheating
zone.
The
drying
itself
does
not
commence
until
a material
is Below
reached this
which
is
above when
the the
encounters
vapour
from
condenses
and enters
material.
It
is
then
possible
for
the
slurry
to
acquire
a higher
62
moisture gas
content
until
its
temperature
has
risen
dew point.
slurry and
preheating should be
zone as
is short
ineffective as possible
for 7 .
drying
5.3.
analysis
of
the
heat
transfer
through
In the slurry
water gases
is
which
increased
necessary by to
water It is to
loss
their
velocity
due
to
two
effects density at
the
value
of
the
pass.
system at of
is
assumed
to
a mass at
of
air,
enters A mass
temperature
evaporation to
superheated evaporation;
gas
the is
water
remains
1000C between
throughout passes.
uniform
section, to
vapour
makes
difference
properties.
63
In
this
system
the
combustion
gases
pass
countercurrently
the
surface
of mixed of the
the
raw
cement
charge, to the by
is gases action of
constantly rotation
chains
suspended
frorp
In within
individual
order the
tofully zone,
flow
describe it is
the necessary
method to
of
heat
chain
heat
isolate
processes:
Ql:
Net gas
by
radiation
and convection
from
Q2:
Net from
by the
(solids) slurry.
mixIng
and conduction
Q3:
Net
gas
by radiation
and convection
from
Q4:
Net
by
(solids)
mixing
and
conduction
wall heat to
to
transfer
slurry.
the is
only
truly
heat the
Q5,
between in exterior.
chains, to the
'
addition
from
the
The
very
nature
of
the
system
does
not
lend
itself
64
Ei
z 1. I
C/D
0N
Ei
%.,
E4 ul
+ >4 W
rn (n
Ici r.
E4
4
u Z K4
L4
rI Cd E
Cd S
I : Ei
(Do ) allaJVdHdWaL
0 Cl)
Co
65
to of
ready steady
the
axis can be
of
the
kiln, as the
end to the
towards kiln
transfer is lifted
cascades chains.
walls
and
is
further surface
by charge, charge
the
evaporation recycling
the
the
changing
properties
from
the axis
is order
to to
section study
the the
occurring As the
the change
equivalent pitch
formed
by
hanger.
66
5.3.1.
Heat
in
a kiln
section.
QL
[G Gc PGTGI x, t EG G X]
[G G
CPGTGI
x+dx, t
x, t
CGG X]
X+dx, t
[G B [G
wh,
[G
W]
x+dx, t
T Bc PS BI x, t
Fig.
5.5
Heat
and mass
transfer
in
a kiln
section
of
length.
dx.
balance in
over 5.5, it
an incremental is possible to
equations area
describe section:
heat
balance equations
on the 5.6
and on the
gas
streams
6(GBCpSTS)/6x
(GBCpSTS)/6t + V, "I
= Q2 + Q3+
= Q2 + Q4 + Q5 + mwX ...
TS) 5.7
5.6
d(GGCPGTG)/dx
Q5 + MwCpw(TG
...
The
mass
balance
on
the
section
I'dx"
is
described
67
by equation
5.8.
6(GBW)/dx
+ 16(GBW)/6t VO
mw = dGG/dx
Note in the
that
"W"
is
the the
ratio moisture
between
water
and solids
slurry,
termed
fraction.
Gg Gv
GBG GW...
W) 
5.9 5.10
fraction, moisture
WG5 GB
basis, by
is
related 5.11
to
equation
X=
5.11
Since
X.
Gv GB
5.12
A heat equations
balance 5.13
a section
of
wall
yields
dTw/dt dTw/dt
(gas) (slurry)
... ...
chain
5.13 5.14
yields
dTc/dt dTc/dt
(gas) (slurry)
= Ql/(McCp) = Q2/(McCp)
... ...
5.15 5.16
68
use
of
a numerical
method
of
solving
these process
(partial) of
equations by a step
replaces wise
a continuous
approximation.
5.3.2.
Numerical
solution
to
heat
By assuming chain between and the at the passes the total (Fig. gas
that 5.5),
heat it
transfer to
only
at
a relationship
temperature of water
point, to
mass
transferred
the
Imwx',
same point.
The by equation
rate
of 5.2(a)
heat
transfer,
IQ'
in
the
system
is
given
U VAT
...
5.2(a)
Friedman
have
shown
that
...
5.17
where
GG = mass D=
U= V=
velocity (m)
heat volume
of
gas
(Kg/h
M2)
diameter
overall system
transfer (M3)
coefficient
(Kcal/h
M20C)
Thus,
by
I assuming KIGX D
an
expression
of
the
form
5.17
69
5.18
AT
5.19
K2G
MAT G
5.20
By chain chain
using it
the is e.
relationship to work
(i.
gas Qii+l*
conditions,
measured)
calculate
Hence
Q= 0311
K2GYDAL(T 01...
TO)
5.21
where
AL = distance
between
each
chain
bank
(m)
By the gas
assuming stream of
relationship
for
Ti
= To
+ axb
5.22
where then,
IxI
is
the
distance
(m)
from
the
back
end
of
the
system
0_.,I
y K2GODALa(AL)b
5.23
aK2GYD(AL)b+l 0 This
gives
rise I
to
the
general
relationship I
Qi
i+l _,
= KAAL 1_
{(i
+ l)ALjb
(iAL)b
...
5.24
70
a given of water
value
of
Qi, i+l,
it Imwil,
is
possible
to
calculate
transferred,
since
Qi. i+j
Thus
Mwi
I = Mwi
Psteam
fT 0+
a(iAL
)b
5.25
+ 1)AL + a(iAL)b
P
(iAL)b loo _ }+
5.26
and note
2) ...
Gj+j
Gi
(4mwi/HD
5.27
Ti
= To + a(iALP
...
5.22(a)
where
a, Ki, K2, b, K= y= T= constants exponents temperature (OK)
C Psteam
heat
of
steam
G=
mass of
gas/unit water
length
mw = mass of
L= system
transferred/unit
(m)
time (kg/h)
From
Gi
and
Ti,
the
velocity
Ui
may
be
calculated
Ui
= Gi/P(Ti)
...
5.28
71
where
Ui
p(Ti)
= gas
= gas
velocity
density
(m/h)
at temperature Ti (kg/m 3)
From Ui
and A, /A2.
the
reduced
gas into
velocity equation4.5(a)
UJ2 to
and substituted
Hence a value of
by total
summing Pit A*
i E
equationp. is
Gi 2
29over
n chain
passes
obtained.
i.
e.
APft
{1
(A2/Al
)2
(1/
cc
2]
o*n 2p(Ti)
AP ft
(A2/Al
)21
(1/C
1)
21
Qj2 E
0on 2p (Ti
5.29
As could are be
a first attempted, If it
decay Tin
known.
expression
i
mwi Mw ... 5.30
is kiln,
condition length of
on the chained
chain
requirement
of
the
section
can be predicted
rom
L= nAL 5.31
...
between
T and
x and
is
heat
programme results
devqloped
72
from mass
the
kiln
chain from
'hot' one
by to
and
transfer
this
be and surface
chained a real
a chain
system.
5.4.
The
prediction by
of
radiative
heat
transfer
in
cylindrical
enclosures
zonalanalysis.
In
47
this ' is
researgh used to
the
zone
method heat
of transfer
Hottel in
and
Sarofim
radiant
the
chained
drying
section
of
the
rotary
cement
kiln.
By
knowing
the
gas
composition
and
temperature
within
the
the and
drying
zone,
it
is
possible
due to
by this
radiation
method
of the
to
estimate
chains
temperature slurry.
change
walls,
5.4.1.
Gas data.
The
emissivity/absorptivity
relationships
for
real
gas
system sum of
by the
use
of the
the C02
weighted
and H70
of
the
gases,
gas
providing
are known.
concentrations
cg a9
=2
{agn(Tg) 0 {asn(Tg)
1 (1 1 (1
eknpL) eknpL
5.32 5.33
where
n=n{agn(Tg) E 00
E {asn(Tg))
...
5.34
73
chosen of can kn be
for
the gas
mean
beam
length, and a gn
compositions of
calculated, accordingly.
the
variation
determined
Where vapour
PH20 PC02 +P _ H20
necessary, present
must
in in
be
conditions gas
to
where
both
C02
and factor
H20
are
the
used
stream,
determine
a correction
the spectral
overlap
and corrections
to
eg made.
5.4.2.
System
zoning.
is
zoned desired.
into In
the this
consistent is
cylinder Sl
two
the wall.
and S2 contained
Because
conditions has been
of
along
the
the
relatively
kiln bay axis, then
slow
rate
of
change
of
of
one bay
a system divides
length conveniently
chosen,
which
into
three
annular
zones
and two
slices.
53
Dp
f
52
[Gas]
S+
zoning
radiative
74
Since of pitch
chains to
are
hung
on a three the
spiral distance of
diameter, D,., or 3 2B in
successive dimension.
terms
5.4.3.
Evaluation
of
direct
exchange
areas.
is
necessary gas or
at
to 'see' derived
how
much gas of
surface These
zone.
actual by
reference
of
calculated
of
absorptivity/emissivity
5.4.4.
Evaluation
of
total
exchange
areaR.
areas
evaluates areas
in
the
between black
a gas total by
exchange replacing
surface by
black
surfaces absorption.
account
exchange
emission
leaving the on
flux
at
any
surface
zone
is
emitted
fluxes;
a radiation
surface
zone
75
Aii
i(ciEsj
Ri)
iciEsi
+ pi(E ii
sjsiWj
+E
gjsiEgj)
or
E i 6ij
Ai
pi
)wj
AiciEsi
P,
iplEgi I
...
5.35
A series surface/surface
of
equations
similar
to zone
varying pair is
for
each up.
and surface/gas
i
From surface/surface
these
values,
the
total zone
exchange pairs
areas may be
between evaluated
and Lcin
gas/surface
jj gi ij sijci)
Pj
...
5.36
(Si8j)n Pi Si
...
5.37
Hence
sisj
Aici
Pi
(Ajcj
Pj
6ij.
cj)
...
5.38
and by difference
GSi Aici SiSj
5.39
where, value
f) of
is the
the
the
cofactor as follows:
of
the
ijth
produced
SIS3
wl
S2S3
*2
TRANSFER
MATRIX
RESPONSE VECTOR
76
where
6=
Kronecker's
Delta
6=0
for
all
itj
6=1
for
i=
77
Table a)Section
for
section
A heat exchange Area for ..... Al,,,, Area at recovery from vena contracta A2.,,, Area of expanding jet b Exponent ..... Cbm Log mean value conqn. of molar ... CC Coefficient contraction of vena .... Cp Specific heat (constant pressure) .... Ct Total molar concentration .... D Kiln dryer diameter or ..... G..... Gas mass flux Heat transfer h coefficient ..... Jh, idjfactors for heat and mass transfer Xl, k2' Constants Thermal k conductivity ..... System length L ..... Mass flowrate m... '. :. Mass M ... Pressure P ..... Heat flow Q ..... Reynolds Re.... Number Time variable t ..... Temperature T ..... Absolute tgpt temp. of gas and solid s Fluid u..... velocity U Overall heat transfer coefficient ..... Gas velocity U iI System volume V ..... Velocity kiln V axis of solids along ..... Moisture fraction (dry) W.. ' , .. Moisture (wet) X content .....
a .....
Constant
M2 M2 M2 kg/M3 kcal4kg kg/m m2 kg/hm kcal/hm2oC 0C
kcal/hm2oC/m
m kg/h kg kgf /m2 keal/h
20C
Suffixes
B.... C ....
Greek
a....
air
slurry chain
bulk
frictional total gas losses shell outlet radiative slurry time water wall
distance exponent from inlet
p.. X.. u.. p.. l.. Gas: chain 2.. Slurry: chain 3.. Gas: wall 4.. Slurry: wall 5.. Gas: slurry
Pi (3.142) kg/m3 Density kcal/kg heat Latent Stefan Boltzman const. kg/mh Viscosity
1.
x ..... y .....
....
Solidr.
78
b)Section a ....... A ....... B ....... a) ....... 0 ...... E ....... k ....... L ....... P ....... S ....... ...... ...... T ....... W .......
5.4
to
5.4.4
(Table
3.
continued
factor Weighting Zone area dimension Characteristic Value of determinant Cofactor of determinant StefanBoltzman x const. Mean absorption coefficient Length zone of system Partial pressure Surface area Direct area exchange Total area exchange temperature Leaving density flux
abs. temp.
Carbon Chain
dioxide
Water vapour Slurry Gas Surface zone Surface zone Number of intervals Chain bank 1 Chain bank 2 Walls Gas
Greek
cc....... E:....... absorptivity emissivity
6 ....... p .......
Kroneckers density
delta
79
6.
Description
of
apparatus
and
experimental
techniques.
6.1.
Isothermal
modelling.
6.1.1.
Cold
model
1.
initial gas
approach flow
was to in
use
a water
model the
to
patterns kiln.
chain
a typical of 1/60th
A model
constructed kilns, stock one kiln because influence the chain, chains and
a scale
being onestart
geometrically spirally
model to
model.
Each
model
chain
was
two
thirds
kiln
diameter
in
to
a brass tube of
spiral, scale
the
latter
a perspex
tube
bearings the
perspex at
spiral Water
motor.
through to those
scaled
by Reynolds
6.1.2.
Cold
model
Using
the
approach
some
was
on improving a result,
the a larger
design model
of to
the
isothermal scale
model
and as
1/30th
was constructed
80
Plate
2.
End view
of
Cold
Model
Il.
81
Plate
3.
Side
view
of
Cold
Model
Il,
showing
spirals.
82
Plates
2,3.
This three to
a revised hung of in
chain
system
a threestart substitution,
designed
chain
and variation
spacing.
were
used
to
replace
the with
drive
slip
and give in
an improved of removal
position for
to
and ease
maintainance.
6.1.3.
Experimental velocities.
procedure:
determination
of
mean bead
The these
cold
model
Mk.
at the
eight data
flow of
conditions,
being
equation, used; Petax range varying velocities Hyeam cine marks trial fixed the
speeds. of bead
photography enable
was to
comparative method passing outer per system. was to between surface. second
camera one
two By (fps)
and error
speed
100 for
frames the
as that
suitable
developed film
negative at replay
motion fps.
analyser,
83
6.1.4.
Wind
tunnel
tests
using
cold
model
Mk.
2.
to
quantify
the
water
modelling to
results, contain a
Mk. which
modified to taken
profile wall
end effects.
to
average
suitable
points, positioning
accurately
a vernier
of
the
user of this
demand points,
on the a single
wind air
tunnel velocity
and of
density in
was used
determination.
for
the the
relative beads
bead across
timing the
through chains.
formed
84
6.2.
Hot
gas modelling.
model
is
built
to section
a scale of
of
approximately
an A. P. C. M. Ltd.
Works
is
not
full
but real
can kiln
backend
limiting slurry
length which
slurry
a mild gas
seamless
cylinder
(preheated)
cement located
are the
at
sampling
to
give content
on temperature
be evaluated.
85"l) %
Plate
4.
General
view
of
laboratory
test
rig,
showing
control
panel
and instrumentation.
10 x
86
3.2
mm.
mm.
KILN DIAMETER
_____TllERMOCOUPLE
JUNCTION
87
is
by dampers temperature of
situated is
inside by
operating
an auxiliary fan
conjunction
dilution
slurry
flowrate
is pump,
regulated and is
by
a variable using
speed
displacement weighing
measured
apparatus.
The numerous
over
five this
and
state in
given, development.
more
significant
6.2.1.
Temperature
measurements
and control.
(i )
Chain
tip
temperature.
temperature
at
the
chain
tip
flexible, junction
the
free the
hanging
(Fig.
6.2)Other were
methods investigated
thermocouple
chain
unsuitable.
the the
loosely
through to is with
rest
chain
as possible thermocouple
a brass
gland
sealed
cement.
98
Because
of
the
short
life a series
of of
these tests
sheathedthermocouples, establish to in the from represent physical chain Fig. (in whether
a probe
thermal
response
method, of
response and
through
The or in the if
of
the
probe,
whether from
in the
the
gas
stream, 
assumed
gas
negative, to
thermocouple slurry. If is
cooled
temperature to
thermocouple
assumed
be in
last
identified
89
(ii)
Chain
and
slurry
temperature.
thermocouples, centre
bay, along
are
mounted length
at
the
kiln
section. to the is
position port of
probe shell.
by glands
screwed are
through
The
stainless inertia as
sheathed chain.
same thermal
a hanging
probe and is
tip
extends at enter
of
angles gas
such
that
on the
and slurry
from TDC.
depending
degree
no successful slurry
method
has
been, devised
temperature
on a continous
basis.
were
a support the
kiln to
thermocouples causing
prone
chains, spiral
chain
hanger
and the
of
the
90
w
J 4. ., 41 U
0 0., 4 4
a)
4.J
Ai
(U 0
W :1
44 rA c tu
:j 41 4 H
91 EI
G) H
cn Q)
14 ei
0 4 w
tu
"4 (V 10 0
v
0) w rd 4 ;j : 3: tu
4Z
cu 0Z
w 40
a) 0
0
l* 41
0 tu
(L)
: 3: 0)
:i
tn Q)
. t2
"m 4 ro
4 C) (V 0
41
CU (2)
41
r, H
(1) w
:j 41
:1 2
Q)
j2 4
:i
Ei 0
0 u 0
:i
Ei Q) (L) H 41
CD.r4 =
0 P4
Z
4
to k
(1)
92.
91. lu 04
92 0) Pf
Q. p4 Ei
:jW
:j
4 FZ
d
C)
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0
(L)
> , Co  , f D 0 w C. r ; 4
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11)
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r00 al
m
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$4
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w. 
U) a) 40 0 $w4
tz.
0 0
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0 04 Cl cc
Cd a)
t P4
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91
fI m CY)
r. 0
0 0 0
a) rl 4J
co
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4) d
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e C) Q) E4) Cd
P; E
4)
r.
0)
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"o
rA 10 Cd 0
LO
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0 0 , rq 4J
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to
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C14
r4
(0'2@P)
aldnooowaaq;
So asuodsaj
ain;
naadwal
92
it
that I
the
chains this
used is not
in
cooled assumption
a valid speeds.
slowest
rotational
it
to
stop
the
kiln
rotating
at
bottom to
equilibrium profile
temperature
axis.
on these
readings,
the
temperature
of
the
was measured
by mercuryinglass
thermometers.
(iii)
Gas
temperature.
gas in of the
are
similar
to
those to
robust
temperature are
and the
thermocouples
These slurry
thermocouples the of
with
nature
the
careful analysis
vetting
computation' be reasonably
consistent
93
and should
the
inlet static
and
possible place.
"rogue"
data
computation
(iv)
Shell
temperatures.
At chains into in
points described
to
the
of
the
monitored
a hole position
drilled by
a spring
surface.
(v)
Thermocouple
monitor
unit.
amplifiers
and panel
meters
checks drifting
temperature
conditions.
one
thermocouple
is
logged
at
a time;
second, next
commencing top
a microswitch
updating
thermocouple. thermocouple of
eighteen the
same number
It
is
apparent
that
the
number
of
readings
per
'94
will rate of
vary the of
with
the
kiln uple
RPM. is
However, times
many
system, RPM to
achieve
of
what time.
essentially,
a system
(vi)
Thermocouple
calibration
technique.
Since
each
thermocouple
millivolt
output
is
switched,
and only
two
amplifiers the
individual
are
used
to
process possible
thermocouples,
rather than
only
calibration
thermocouples.
The separately
in the
"static" from
are
calibrated which
thermcouples
same
way.
Crushed,
for and calibration, a check
melting
boiling made has with an
ice
is
water
used
as lead
as the
an to to place
lowest
set
set
point
point, each data
whether The
thermocouple is stored on
response to one
punched
The with of
spot
temperatures in glass
of
the
lowest
set
points
were millivolt
checked outPut
thermometer,
and the
thermocouples
was first
checked
using
galvanometer.
95
6
La M
i
Z
WOO
z
x0< "'L'c0
o,;
I ui X V) La CL t w ED 0I 000
<
,,,: , (N
0 J
I w
U C,
ZZ
m 0 0 uj V)za z; i W, t1i cc 0 W
CCLU ui
_j cl
, n"mcn rM2 IX < Yc UJ UJ 0. ir nir W Ir 0 CL IL : DDcl [ z I s Lj 7, cr c) < Z3 Z) C) , L L) z:. ) LUD aoW
xQ
C OIL . i(M
Z CD F1 E
co via W .. j
jw
TDS
U) Z
cn c
CD V; U)
2c) lox
CL (I
r Z. IW
w UJI0,
cr V) C) CL CL
7,
it 0
NX
Ul
CD
I Nu<
r
Ll
2w
cr
'Lo X
:1,
cli
L; CL
n
ui C
P4 g:
0. Ll V,
CL
r4
iii
96
(vii)
Gas
temperature
control.
gas
is
by
dilution trial
"F". control
temperature.
(viii)
Slurry
temperature
control.
In through temperature
the
inlet
storage is
tank, to
injection slurry
a flow to
used
model
inlet
temperature.
6.2.2.
Flowrate
measurement
and control.
(i)
Gas
flowrate
through
the
kiln.
The are
inlet by
flow
gas
flowrates stainless
of steel
the
chain
model
measured
Annubar
pitostatic
elements.
the flow
flow
elements
are
analyser G to its
(P. P. F. A. ),
(Appendix output
an electrical addition
channel display.
tohaving
Each
Annubar
signal
is
read
in
turn
via
a manual
97
switching hand in
valve, case of
and dust
air the
blowout elements
system or the
is
at
pressure
transmitting
lines.
(ii)
Gas
flowrates
from
the
furnace.
At from the
low
gas
the
differential to a point
pressure where
Annubar of
drop
the
separate
furnace
are
flowrate
entering
of air
air,
natural
eductor
air
by orifice
cumulative
and pitot
from and the the
respectively.
plate is
differential
on to a read
inclined pitot
program Appendix F. H.
flowrates used
given
equations
given
Appendix
(iii)
Gas flowrate
control.
The gas
gas
is
regulated coupled
by with The
rate
of
entering for to
furnace,
excess dilution
chosen is by used
adjustments
being
made
altering
damper
98
(iv)
Slurry
flowrate
control.
The
slurry
flowrate
is
regulated
by
a positive
displacement
'Mono' a range
via
a 'Carter' to
hydraulic be achieved.
gearbox, (Plate 8)
enabling
flowrates
(v)
Gas flowrate
calibration.
of
length
1 metre on
and
internal
diameter
flue
placed
standard negligible).
(These
tunnel for
air the
for
the flow
calibration, rakes
respect
to
a standard
was necessary.
mounting diameter,
the
intervals
with
of the
additional
walls.
proximity
The
pitot
was
then
replaced
by
the
first
Annubar
and
pressure treated
reading
taken;
the
second
similarly.
99
'*5
Plate
5.
Side chain
view and
of
hot
kiln
model,
showing
drive
support
bearings.
ii .uI
#i
I
100
technique
was
to
feed the
the
system, of
case) and
separate these
pressure output.
displaying
The
Kfactor
for
each
Annubar
was
then
evalued
by
plotting
determining
the
pitot
the
transverse
mean value
values
across the
and graphically
duct area.
(vi)
Slurry
flowrate
calibration.
slurry of the
flowrate 'Carter'
against drive
the shaft
speed by of a the
of
The moisture
content
using oven
conventional
weighing
and drying
techniques.
temperature).
6.2.3.
Kiln
chain
model
hardware.
(i)
The
kiln
tube.
rotated to end.
kiln the
section horizontal,
is
angled the
at
degrees lower
slurry
10100m CD i (D Z x
z Z: l Cl LU c i ZZ _j
01. im LU LU U LL. = _j o
ce:
C: :: D 41 LU Url 1
Co ;C
C:)
im i
t 1
c4
LL
C4 LL
uj
mc
LL
0
cn cn cn uj et 0Z oc u
Ul
ce.
C ME mc u
U)
co
LLJ M i LL LU En Lli Q
Cj &4 <
0 u
LLJ
i
cn
102
6.7 FIGURE
EXPLODED
DIAGRAM
AND
FLUE.
FLUE
GAS OUTLET SLURRY INLET MANIFOLD (and end seat ) FLUE, GAS INLET
L
VIEW TUBES TRAVELLING LIGHT PACKING RETAINERS
Z
SLURRY OUTLET MANIFOLD
SELF
SEAL
103% %N
Plate
6.
Kiln
flue
and
damDer
arrangement.
104v%
Plate
7.
and rotated
amplifier/
105
The
section
is
supported
on
brass
rollers
such
that
it
cannot
rise
up off
its
grooves by
axial D. C.
a variable around by
a gear rotational
model
motor
control
4 revolutions
minute.
The
model
itself
is
positioned
for
ease
of
access
to
the
main
flue, flue
and
from
is
fitted
a small than
desired;
however,
shortest consideration.
on a gas
temperature
6)
(ii)
Chain
installation.
of
the
size
of method
the for
model, chain of
it
was hanging
devise enable
ease
of
removal
the
chain
as a complete
Spiral
hangers.
spiral the is
start three
is
modelled
using
spiral
cage. rod
from
square cage at
section each
silvered the
contact 6.8)
(Fig.
clockwise starts
viewed
from spaced
the at
feed
and the
mutually
106
E1 0
co
r4
z Ln
p P. f
Ln
Cl)
cn
cn
Tifl:
00
00 C14
ZD
FA =w=
pq w C4 Z
P4 ri WH pq
Ei N
F4
04
Lr)
P4 _4
W4 E4
14
pq Z fn P4 P4
L IN
C14 rA
E4 : 3:
U0 w=0
E4 4 UU z
04 C4 =
14
cn
107
1200.
The
spiral
pitch
is
one
(inside)
kiln
diameter
and
there
are
ten
bays
in
the
model.
is
a close or
fit
inside
the
kiln
and can be
rechaining
thermocouple
servicing.
(b)
Attachment
to
hangers.
Each face of
top_link
is
to
the
inside end
the to
other
I aloowed chain in is
each
first
(measured are
slurry in
unchained
10 chained
(iii)
Slurry
mixing
and
heating
loops.
in
the
in
both 12.7mm.
inlet
slurry pipe,
mixing to fit
internal
tank to
where of
distribute drilled
pressure. at spaced
agitation
achieved
throughout
slurry.
In heating replacing
the of
inlet the
tank slurry
only,
allows the
direct steam'
by steam through
the
air
flow
loops.
In
this
108
tank,
recycle
mixing
loop.
is
also
aided
by
the
return
flow
from
the
pump
(iv)
View
portholes.
welded
into
the to at
section best
of view
chains.
its for
viewing cleaning
end by and at a
which jacket.
removable (Fig. 6. j)
viewing
other
illumination
a condensed
source.
6.2.4.
Difficulties
encountered
in
the
experimental
rig.
(i)
Slurry
handling.
pumps
were flow
found
to of
be the raw
transport the of
control
due to
nature
and the
nonnewtonian
this
from at with
the times
model
to entire
blockages chain
in model
the
causing
slurry.
of
the
slurry
bulk control
the
was very
short of
because rapid
conductivity elements
slurry
overheating
as soon
109
slurry
had
solidified
around
the
heater
thermostat.
Thermocouple
life.,
to
monitor not
and slurry
the
axial
thermocouples for
monitor This
temperature,
chains,
and attempted
the
In under chain
addition,
the conditions
chain
tip
thermocouples of mechanical
had
a short in
life the
working system.
because
stress
(iii)
Temperature
monitoring
system.
A continuing output electrical around the from the noise chain by the
in
the been
thermocouples by the
splashes giving
onto contacts.
the
electrical of the
problem, brushes
beryliumbrush liftoff,
copper
the
occasional by providing
entirely
rectified
a parallel
110
Gas
suppl
oilfired rig,
as
an to
oil enable
test
prevent
volume Even to
installation suction,
boost was
flue
around
(v)
Chain
model'slurry
seal.
Due to
slurry does at the not through
the
action
the model
of
the
is not fill
chain
spirals,
the
stream seal also fell
flow
and
of
hence
arrangement moisture
blockages 35, wt
% (wet
basis).
6.2.5.
Resultant
alterations
in
design
nhilosophy.
(i)
Slurry
handling.
To dispense Valves
with
the
unreliability a variable to
of
loops,
deliver
111
Also,,
motor
driven
screw
type
conveyor
was
in
the
slurry
to by being
aid
material
heating steam
immersion used to
temperature
when necessary.
(ii)
Thermocouple
life.
The
slurry inserted being along are more the used
static
thermocouples
were the kiln are able kiln; the slurry
used
to
monitor
probetype
gas
and
removed shell. to
smaller
probe
monitor
temperature.
to
the it
of
the to
flexible compare
chain the
tip
measured The
the to to (Fig. be
units.
represent 6., 4)
individual
chain.
Thermocouple
slipring
assembl
design
of  the
slipring
completely constructed
machined holder
and sandwiched
a perspex
The a drive
assembly shaft
has
been
resited, in one
by loop
through
a gland
0) 14

92
"4
r=
tel r
fd
0 u
00
Co
Q) Q) 0 , zi 10 wW lu 0 tu Q) w0
pw 1: 14 &A P4
I C )w
w ZD n :31. CD
:4
Pw gz CD
w
H
cn
P4
C)
:: D CD C)
4 Qi 7)4 15z.
p4
U) E4 p4 Z
. Ad ,jX
"4G) D4 gn ul
1 4.1 1
cu44 LO Z:
tu
0 u
. 2 p4
CD
Vi
CD
w N2 r4 :: 3 f2.
4J
41 ZI
N4 cu 41
c2. 0 41
4.1
(U ch 0) r: c 0u
cn cn t:4
92 .
lie
Fr vI
qlllllllllm! llL7l
UK,
11
114.
L'*)
Plate
9.
Mk. II
sliprings
and
brush
assembl
115
flue. the
The sliprings
drive
shaft and is
houses driven
the by
connections it rotates.
to
The
brushes
are
constructed
from
low
resistance
carbon,
and this
are
sprung
loaded by slurry
against is
the
sliprings;
fouling impossible.
of
assembly
now virtually
Gas
supply.
The
combustion
gas
flowrate
to
the
model
has
been
by
using
of
operating 'G)
75 mm. is is also
furnace and
well a finer
having degree
period. inlet
obtain to
the
model, ducted to
supply and
was
a blanking past
into
the
leakage
dampers.
(v)
Chain
model
slurry
seal.
screw ensuring of
conveyor the
in
the
pipe, over a
removal studied,
fabricated
(Fig6AO)
point.
116
to 0)
C: : ]c
H0
\ L J
(n
c
0 rc C: 0 P
'U
M 0 U" j It
LD 0 0 P 0
43 0 >
r4 IL
1 it
It T3
vv En 0 r4 Li
C Cl 0
I
0 C) 4J 03 e cn c
t'a C:
r4 . 1 :1 >0 IU r4 M
bLO
C H (U a) CO P
6 ri
4 00 (1)
4 >,
Ef)
LL
(1)
iLO
> C: 0 =) u cn
a) Cf) (n U
117
7.
Treatment
of
results,
and
discussion.
in
seAion the
transfer its
length a
section, start
x kiln
1
EGG C [GG PGTG]i ], $G T G +,
m. wi
cl
CPS T
[GB
Sl ii
I
Cs
 LBay
.ps
(i) I Bay (i+l)
Bay
(i1)
Figure
7.1
Heattransfer
in
a one
bay
section.
It
can be deduced
by reference
IGBlil 
to
Fig.! 7.1
that
IGGli+l GGli 
where area
Mwi (csa)
is of
the
moisture per
evaporated hour.
per
unit.
cross'sectional
slurry
118
7.1.
The
prediction
of
net
radiant
heat
transfer.
Using
the
exchange
view
factors
evaluated
from
section
it
is
possible within
to
predict drying to be
the
net
heat thus
transfer enabling
to the
all convective
surfaces heat
the term
zone, isolated.
transfer
the
same heat
flow
in to
the
approach radiative
heat
flows
are
as follows:
(t4 t4) + C(t4 _ t4) + VC(t4 t4))
Qlr =a
Q3r =a Q5r =a
the
9cscwc
{CW(t4 t4) + :W(t4
...
7.2
9wswcw
{jS(t4 _ t4) + (5S(t4
t4)
CW(t4 _
t4)
...
7.3
9scsws
t4)
WS(t4 _
t4))
...
7.4
where
length.
exchange
areas
are
for
one. bay
flows heat
and Q4r
do not
because wall
these
quantities immersed in
and chain
surfaces
the
7.2.
Evaluation
of
convective
heat
transfer
coefficients.
7.2.1.
Gas to
slurry.
(Slurry
side)
The
gas
to
slurry
heat
transfer
coefficient
is
evaluated
by taking
gas to the
into
slurry
account
from
all
all
convective
causes in
heat
a one
transfer
bay section
from
of
the
119
the
kiln.
Hence,
h5 = (Q5  Q5r)/{As(TG
TS)l
7.5
where
Q5 =
(GBCPSTS)i
(GBCPSTS)i_l
7.6
(CPS)i
= 0.2616(l
XS)i 
+ 1.0076(XS)
...
7.7
h6
= HTC gas/slurry
Kcal/h
M20C
7.2.2.
Gas to
chain.
. and
Neglecting
conduction nointeraction
along
the
chain chains:
from
the
kiln
wall,
assuming
between
hl
= (Ql
QlR)/{AC(fG
TC) Ix
3600
...
7.8
where
Qj
= MCCpCATC chain per bay x RPM/60 of chain/second gas bay to chain Kcal/hM20C
MC = mass
change
Ac = surface
x RPM/60
7.2.3.
Slurry
to
chain.
Tc) Ix 
3600
...
7.9
where
Q2 =
MCCpCATC
7.10
120
If is the In to
the
Q2 takes to is
a negative in
value, the
fGTC then > and slurry; in the the if positive, moving chain by is the gas
the
chain
be immersed assumed to
then stream.
case the
where fluid
the
value
assumed sign of
be in
stream
change.
identified
temperature
7.2.4.
Gas
to
wall.
This
individual
heat
transfer
coefficient
is
calculated
in loss
manner kiln
to shell
the is
chain taken
but
the
heat
TW)j
...
7.11
where
7.12
temperature/second
7.2.5.
Slurry
to
wall.
M=
(Q4 + QL)/{AW(TS
fW))
...
7.13 . 7.14
where
Q4 =
gas
7.3.
Prediction
of
kiln
shell
heat
losses.
These atmosphere
losses by
are
essentially through
the the
heat kiln
loss shell.
to
the
conduction
Providing
121
that by the
the
system
is through and
under the
steady shell
losses to
conduction radiative
convective
heat
surface.
carried
out
(ds)'of of surface
steel derived,
has
Eds = 0.96
5.2
104(t
373)
...
7.15
has
combined
heat
transfer 7.16
data
radiation
equation.
QR
t4 (ka 'ds
t4)
7.16
to
give
an
expression
for
the
total
heat
loss
from
a unit
area
of
kiln
surface.
6.2039
104
(tk
72)f (t
(tk
4ka
ta)
I* 33 +
4.88
108(0.96
5.2
104(t
k
373)1
(t
t4)
Kcal/m
2h...
7.17
OK
where
t,. = kiln
shell
temperature
ta
= ambient
air
temperature
OK
7.4.
Evaluation
of
slurry
drying
rate.
The
drying
rate
per
bay
section
is
evaluated
from
the
change
of
slurry
moisture
content
across
this
section.
122
...
where
of of
in
the
bay
section
XS = moisture
(% wt
basis)
The predicted
and slurry
amount from
outlet.
of the
moisture measured
In the
evaporated values
absence
from inlet,
further
each
bay
is
at
of
midsection
data, a linear
relationship
is
assumed
between
measured
data
values.
123
7.5
Prediction
of
slurry
shear
rate.
order of predict
to
evatuate
the
viscosity it
of is
the
slurry to at
for be any
the
numbers, acting
on the
time.
action axis,
caused by the
material shell
rotation
the
the
attached
chains.
7.5.1.
Shear
rate
due
to
kiln
shell
wall.
'. II
of of
wall
moving
through
a bed gradient,
of *ill
between is
the
and the
layer to
6, which
assumed instance.
be stationary
the'VLll
W=o w =2TrNR
Boundary layer thickness
Wall
Fig. 7.2 Schematib representatfon 'at the kiln wall. shell of 'the' boundary
element
layer
The
rate
of
shear
of
the
slurry
streamlines
at
any
point
layer
between
can be
the
kiln
shell
by
wall
and
7.19.
the
slurry
boundary
expressed
equation
124
AT =Aw/A6
....................
7.19
7.5.2.
Shear
rate
due
to
chains.
This
treatment
is
from
necessity
an
oversimplific
ation in of the
of
the
viscosity of within
of
the
slurry.
However, subject
abscence rates
experimental models, it
data must
on the suffice.
shear
w=2TrNR
OMOC
T
Fig. 7.3 Boundary layer applied to a chain length
shear
rate in
due
t6
the
action to will
of that
chains of
is that
treated
a similar boundary
of the
mann6r layer
chain.
a tubular
submergence
result
complete
the
rate in
of the
shear form
across of
the
slurry 7.20.
can be written
equation
T= w /6
....................
7.20
7.5.3.
Prediction'of
boundary
1"er'thi'ckne's's.
For
turbulent
flow,
boundary
layer
theory
34
predicts
and
for
laminar 6=(
llx/pv)*
125
the terms
of
boundary viscosity,
layer the
thickness problem
necessary
to
actually layer
measure over
the
slurry
boundary
contents, method in
rates. layer
experimental ness is
described
Appendix
7.6.
Revised
prediction
of
heat
transfer
areas..
order chain
to
the is
area
for
heat to
make bed
concerning concept of
dam rings
control of the of
the the
height of the
entirely
cement material of
not
smooth, chain
motions Current
from
one
bank
literature kilns
concerning does
the not
of
wet
solids
through
slurries
and dispersions,
studied in their
being
Sullivan limit
subject, to They
application void of
of obstructto take
an empty also
constrictions.
propose
a factor
126
into
account
the
effects
of
chains,
lifters
and other
inserts.
Observation passage 300 kg/h this the ring), data slurry it is of at material a kiln
of
the is
kiln optimum
model at
has
indicated mass
that flowrate
the of
a slurry of 1.5
rotational 3.4 of to
speed and
into
equation
a global of the
'IF". 3.4
where
FSDNf................. 1.77 L v/0 The factor Sullivan 0.40 SDN "F" et assumes a value of
0.227,
and
the
relationship
of
L VO .................
the holdup of bed
From
the
residence
time,
evaluated
using
equation
7.24.
Volumetric H=
flowrate, Empty
E. x x.. 100
7.24
........... The (direct) calculating solids slurry rotational holdup, in the area for heat transfer for from froM a given equations to slurry gas
slurry
From
possible a given
volume
model
and kiln.
speed.
127
to
the the
volume kiln
of
the
bed half
'IV" angle
radius
subtended
by the
slurry
planar
chord. J.
V=r.
[yl 2 
tan iteration
to
angle bed
slurry
from
equation
7.26.
sin tan
7.26
direct
area simply
from
for
heat as the
exchange chord
7.27.
the
gas
and the is
reckoned
calculated
of
surface,
equation
=2. r. sin. to
.......... is estimated
7.27 from
exposed
equation
7.28. Agw =2rOTO. L in the wall total direct gas ......... streamin 7.28 the slurry, by for the heat
and or
the laying
area
of
chains the in
Appendix
H. The the
as the
sum of areas.
"Ags to plu s
gas: wall
128
7.7
Results
of
experimental
investigation
(Isothermal
model).
7'. '7.1.
Water
modelling.
techniques revealed of to
in fluid the
speed the
cine
perspex
the to
found
frequent suited
expected, detection
modelling
micro
turbulence.
Kiln flow
rotation in the
effect
on the to by the
patterns by
model,
resistance
banks tunnel
the
hanging
7.7.2
Air Wind
modelling. tunnel in tests using hot wire perspex the gravel anemometry model charge Air and pitot proved up to that 20%
tube the
have is
velocity through
themselves. of water in
model
confirmed do not
macroturbulence
12900
t
N
%D
14
Lr) 0) 10 0
44
.0
Co
10
P4
cn
Co
44
41
d, % Ici
t
1Z2 cu ci Q
44
%_o
r.
to
"0 tu ai c
44
0 ., 4 C C) r1 g
9)
0 14 0 14
0 >
. "4 44
Q)
(U >
G) >
41 to
F4 00
r_ clo
a)
41 0
r. 0 . "j
41
,Z Co
01 OA
130
7.8.
Results
of
experimental
investigation
(Hot
model).
7.8.1
Gas
to
chain
heat
transter.
transfer scale
from is
the in
probe
figure7.6,
Nusselt
groups.
relationship relationship:
[hgc k or
De]=
3.08
1019
[2
4*33 D
Nuc
3.08
10 19
Re
4 33 .
......... 52 to tube.
7.29
33 use a gas
the
data over
of
Hilpert a single
predict
flowing
6 o. Re predicted
the
.................. by equation
gas: chain
The heat
kcal/hm2C, of 185
transfer
) are
coefficients
higher . than
experimental
coefficients
kcal/hm2C
data
does
not tube to
agree
with
that the
for Nusselt
Number
group
on the
heat slurry
variable and
dependant is not
on the
content
and drying
as such
quantifiable.
131
 f 1 t
3. . : WR LHI [I
2 oI
ca
x, u
1 1
4 :1 C: 71 Q)
e
1
L n cf
NUL
"o W !
s7 V1 'e
cn
It
W mll If ,,
tp,
z 4.1 Lr
t
U) z z
t+I + ft
I+,  + IA I
41 11 # 41h
lit
Jii t IN :1
i
lo
23456789
i 'I
`
ro
[ " T M M"', ; I , i
1456759 11()
Gas
Reynolds
Number
Fig.
7.6
Nusselt Number
132
The unless
effect
of
the
film
is
likely
to which
be very would
slight
considerable
slurry
between chain of
systems
a bank t6
tubes. will
due
slurry
flow.
uniform,
turbulent
7.8.2
Gas
to
wall
heat
transfer.
between heat
the
based gas
transfer the
model,
is to
presented yield
686
relationship
correlated
fG
an equation
orm:
r hgw D ] L k
0.58
DIO .
UTIi
or
Nuw
findings
are
in
close
with
equation heat
7.33 transfer
by Perr Y23 to
predict
convective
hI=
23.7
G'o .
67 ...........
7.33
Numbers values
in
the
kiln
chain
model
are
in
general is
predicted
by Perry's
23 equation,
which
133
M 02
L. j
.151 LEI
10
10
ooe
4
uat* .
1,
(n
L `2 El E
Ni
f bjj'Winb;t
1OF
Figure
7.7
Nussel't Number
Number
vs
Reynolds
(Gas': Walls)
gas
flowing
over coefficients
a rough, is of
tube.
The
range.
of
kcal/hm2C of 2000 is
metres, or
data cannot
mass
reliably
extrapolated.
7.8.3
Slurry
to
chain
heat
transfer.
of
the
heat
raw
cement
slurry
exchange slurry
made using
content of
7o (wet
basis)Experiments
the
134
Clq
0 FI
0 0 C/I
a)
44 0
$4
00
w I I P4
U)
w ., I 0
t4) Cd
43
4J Cd q
E E
43 0
CD
F4
r
C)
z
a "0
P4
P4 ;3
ro
(1) Cd (3)
4
r.
Cd
Cd Q) $_4 Uu
Cd C)
w C) P4 U
0
rq
>1 Cd 9Q
rn
>1
; m4
144
Cd
Cd
co
ul
E4 00
. rl
Cd
; 4 z
(1)
0
4J Cd
TI
co
Cd
k .q
P4 UO "A Pr
Ei Q
;.4 (1)
Ei E4 >1 k 4
ib
I
04
C9
Cd E4 C)
P4
$4
4
a)
r4
:z
4J 
cd
Cd blo
rI
08 pcq cr)
ce) rq n0 Ln 00 Ln mn 00 tcr)
e% m 0 r4 m 4j
(D cri
W (1)
94 u,
uu
+i
CUT IN
300 Slurrv
250
Flowrate
200 Cd 0 150
4J IH 44 0) 0 u A 0)
0
100
0
Cd 4
E4
4J Cd (1)
50 0
0 Fig. 7.9
20 (above).
80 Speed Chain
100 (Elbep/Rev)
120
250
200 Cd 0 150
44 0 u
100
Lo r. Cd $4
50 Cd
00
KNn
61D Rotational
90 100 Speed(Secs/Rev.
Fig7.
lOslurry:
Wall
HTC vs Kiln
Rotational
Speed.
136
in
scale... the at
slurry
bed.. moisture
__
slurry
below of
%, owing as it
rapid puggy
increase zone.
in
apparent
enters
Heat thermocouple
transfer
coefficients
between chain
the
slurry in
were
mass
based
table
I. 2, Appendix 7.24.
from
predicted
by equation
the
scatter
experimental
results
is
high,
as
a system of slurry
complex flowrate
influence
rotational can
speed, has by
exchange
charge. caused of by
transfer effects
slurry conduction
penentration a combined
on solids coefficient.
convection
absorbed
into
(i)
Prandtl
Number.
The
physical
properties
of
the
slurry
are
present
ed in
figure7l.
which
is
a plot
of
the
Prandtl
Number
vs.
the
137
I
(n
V1
(D
d% 1 %l'
CO
P
e r4
tp4 0 0 0
Co >
0
0
:Z
(n ce
0%
r1
0
Cd
.0 E Co
r.
::
p ce 9,
:1
m
uj 0
Co
Q) ce ri =
v 44l
. r
>
r.
p4
10
c u ;4
rn m Cd
:
p
>
0
Co
Ir4
:ZN
1e
rA Fro
Ic e
LO CY)
0 cr)
LO cq
ri 4) r4
Cd
N
10 ;m1
LO r4
LO
138
$4
9 z m Ici
ri Z
Ici
CH
. "j
0 Ici
Ici
10
Iri
r_ ce 4) Gal
C14
rl
cli
P4
I; q
uT, eqo:
A. T.TnTS
139
modified
Reynolds
for
three
slurry
This
Reynolds
method
described speed
B, takesinto passage
and, te
material
through
show
that
the
Prandtl the'
Number effect
decreases of theslurry
with
incrflow. *:.
Number
and that
mass
significant.
(ii)
Stanton
Number.
The effect Number on the latter on the results cannot Stanton with Number is
of
the
slurry
presented is high,
slurry
be analysed
limited
available.
the constant
heat
of
the
are
studied,
Number heat
in
ind
term. the
internal with
decreases
kiln
lljh"f
actor
f or'
heat
transf
er.
Using
data
taken
from
lines
drawn
through
the
points
140
of
figures
7.11,
and 7.12, in
for
heat
transfer of the
has modified
been
slow
rotational more
speeds, pronounced
effect higher
of kiln the
flowrate This is
becomes of the
due
a)
solids entirely
accurate of
calculation
areas.
b)
more
at
higher in that
conclusion fundamentally
stirred
evidence the
to
indeed core
existance speeds,
an unmixed
r6tational
as investigated
by Vaillant?
c)
the
basis is
for not
the
calculation
of accurate.
the
modified
Reynolds
Number
sufficiently
It
is
likely
that
any
deviation
from
the
ideal
case
is
due
to
a combination
of
a), b)
and c),
of
these
results because
with of
the the of
"J"factor in
analogy basis
possible calculation.
difference a hydraulic
Reynolds
Number
The use
mean dia
141
2
.a 0 A 41 Q ii4O; Mi 4ti l I
0 ,
z (n 10 rq 0
mu m
I
, Wt
ai l
,0 1.4 0
r I ot t 14 1 1
tI
I, N M
1 7
P4 "o .W
. 41 I H tH M f
i 11 I'l
e 10
4
'All
44 4
0 E U)
tH
M 0 Cd
Cd (D 4 P4 0
w H H Cd
wwrw
z
@%
Ici * Is
I,: ,
p zi r1 Co
Tj fi ll! jil
4 4J4 r
Eii
1" 1. 4 1 11 r 11
Cd
j;
t 14
.0 rq
;4 4 + i it 71 1 t
t
I!V ii
4 11 ttlt
Ej
10
l ti I
tf
ii
i i+
4f
++tt ++t +
Tt7T 77,
4t. 10
v rm 1 4w
E/Z a cl* Is
aN
142
meter meter
might with
enable reference
an analogy to cement
to
be made, but is
defining
a wetted
peri
slurry
almost
meaningless.
The
results
correlate
JR = ScPr 2/;
to
give
31.2
equation
7.34
:
7.34
...
7.8.4.
Slurry___to
wall
heat
transfer.
wall the
heat
transfer chain
of of
slurry:
same shape
response
(1)
Prandtl
Number.
The Prandtl erties except The the (fig. for 7.11) the for are
Number
for of at
wall to
propchain occur. in
modified this
values discussed
reasons bdundary
Reynolds 7.5.
Number
layertheory
section
(H)
Stanton
Number.
The
slurry:
wall
Stanton
Number
groups,
(fig.
7.12)
show
less
scatter
than to in (ii)
the
slurry:
chain
values, from
relationship mentioned
Reynolds above.
Number, apart
143The results
jv,
correlate
= ScPr2/3
to
yield
32.8
equation
Re0.6 1 GO59
7.35!
...
7.35
(ii!
) "j"factor
for
heat
transfer.
factor slUrry:
in
manner
to
slurry
Reynolds
Numbers, becoming
noticable
speeds.
0
for
this the
have
been
previously chain.
"Jh"factor
7.8.5
Overall
heat
transfer.
i)Effect
of
gas
flowrate.
The'overall inlet range shows and the 7.8.3. and outlet 2.316.4 the
heat conditions
transfer of the
from the
the
depending of gas
Figure
7.15
also factors
negative latter
have of are
of
35
metres. zone,
coefficients. radiative
however, heat
calcining mode.
which
transfer
dominant
144A 0
Gas
Mass
Flux
8
OilFired
Kg/hm
Results
Cd 05
F4 =
r4 rI Cd 01
A'I
Kiln
Rotational f. 0
Speed
(RPM) f. 5 2! 0
0
0 Cf. 5
Rotational
0'20
Gas
Mass
Flux=9600 Rate T)
Kg/hm Coefft.
Cd 0
o From n Prnm
Drying 0/(A
15
U
Cd P 010 0
Cd
Slurry
ID Fig7.16
(Kg/h)
00
Average_Heat Slurry of the
as
a function
145
ii)Effect
of
slurry
flowrate.
irifl'iience'of is shown in
transfer coefficients
Two overall
calculated:
a)
from
the
inlet
and outletgasland
slurry.
conditions.
b)by the
from
the
drying
rate
coefficient
using
temperature.
Comparing in close. of
the
values despite
of
a)
and b), it of
that results.
they
are The
agreement kiln
a degree speed is
scatter
effect
rotational
insignificant.
range
of
of
the
overall been
coefficient in
given
in illust
have of slurry
plotted
mass
flowrate
overall
coefficient.
7.8.6.
Gas to
slurry
hea: t'transfe'r.
slurry
heat section
transfer 7.2.1
evaluated scatter
difference. an electrical
values resistance
coefficients, be applied to
thermal
the
individual
coefficients.
1462 00
20
300 410
Kg/h:
Slurry
Mass
Flowrate
A
15
0
rq rI Cd
0.5
Kiln Fig . 17
1.0
Rotational Speed
1.5
(RPM)
2.0
Heat Transfer (Above) Coefft. Overall as a Rotational SReed. derived function of Kiln drying from overall rate coefft.
20
I A
0%
15 Cd 0
10
Cd 0
0 Fig 7.18
1.0 Rotational
Speed
1.5 (RPM)
2.0
Heat Transfer Coefft. afunction Rotational Speed. from as &T) (Q/A,
147
conduction by figure
from 7.19.
chain
to
wall,
the
thermal
resistances
GAS
CHAIN
WALL
hl+h2 for
7.36 h5
direct over
are
gas mass
kg/hm2 than
range
410 kg/h.
Watkinson flux
These
272 of
those
1740
and
were kg/hm2.
a gas
mass
5003000
determinations
using
Ottawa use
sand
in
a small
rotary to
kiln,
and the
the
authors
of a plane chord is
calculate
gas: solids
exchange
(figure'7.4)
an oversimplification.
148
7.8.7'.
''Drying'rate'coefficient.
test slurry
results,
which
are
in
figure
7.20, in
behaves
solid section
drying
stream,
which
granules
a static
i)
Effect
'of
gas
flowrate.
The slurry
moisture rates from contents,
drying
is
rate,
plotted kg/hm2.
calculated
in The figure gas rate
from
7.22 mass flux
the
inlet
and outlet
of gas to flowhave from
27155260 effect on
seen
a positive 0.21.2
the
drying
coefficient,
varies
kg/hm2.
agrees rate of
with
the
relationship as related
between
the
air
stream
rate
coefficient granules in
the.,, coefficients'themselves material ion has properties no apparent etc. effect From
because kiln
the
limited drying
rotat
on the
ii)Effect
of
slurry
flowrate.
effect
of is
the shown
slurry in
mass figure
The
range
of
coefficients
149
44 0
IL4 $0
41
a (n 4
:z r4
cli 0
. bD loo
LO t..I .
M a) w rI Cd
4) V. a)
IT2 10 0 (1) P4
0)
44 c
rl 4 rA 0 =
P 4) Cd P P4 Q) " U)
bn 43 .,i cd a) Cd P
la x pq
C) c! t,
., 4 P4
E (D
Q) Cd
93 (1)
SL4 a., 1: V)
E4
.,q cd C4 0
p (D
4J ) C.
U) 0
t
Cd 0 . rI 4)
bD r.
(1) 41 cd
bb
0 Cd
0 u>
r Cd
i
LO
150
and
the
of
slurry in
flowrate figure of
compares
with result
the is
drying of bed
serves drying
as a comparison rate.
effect
loading
on the
iii)Comparison
with
kiln
drying
rate
data..
The cement
data
of has
the, as
drying
zones for
of
long the
wet kiln
kilns
a comparison
el kiln
results, volume
(Fig. basis.
7,251which
results
have
been
converted
to
an empty
that
model the
drying
rates,
although
taken the
at kiln
drying mass
prevail in the
cases,
the'gas kiln.
flowrate
was higher
1512.0
A
Cd 94,
A A
A
1.5
Co H r4 Cd
0.5
Gras Mass Flux 2 =9600 Kg/hm Areas Internal from estimated 7.24 equation
I. b Speed(RPM) Z. U
1.0 Rotational
43
(1)
1.5 A
Kg/hm
>b
1.0
J. " p
bD
co
rq H Cd
0.5 A
0.0 I
5101.5 Kiln
Fig 7.21(TOP)
Rotational
SlurryDrvingRate(based
nal Fig
surface
arealas
a function
of
kiln of kiln
as a function a range of
gas mass
152
10
kg dry/rn2 69 kg /rn2
8
51 kg /rn2
6E
34 kg /rn2
,Z;
4
10
2c
30
100
Fig
of
drying
rate
with
solids
14
10
1430 g/SM2
9,
7=1170
IM
91SM2
JO
insertwith rportillons
11O%H 00
kiln without inserts . 4j Is)% Aijo
60
Y a NO
I I
I AV Av I
I.
I III 0
range
II
jW
2 htef,
10
20
30
40
50
50
Fi9725 with
of
drying of air
rates stream.
153
Table
4.
Nomenclature
for
section
7.
A ..... C P'*** d ..... D ..... F..... G ..... G ..... h ..... h ..... H ..... ih .... k ..... 1 ..... M ..... M ..... N ..... r ..... Ue .... S ..... t ..... t ..... T..... Pr ... St ... U ..... V ..... V ..... x ..... X .....
heat transfer Areafor (constant heat Specific pressure) Bed depth diameter Kiln factor Conversion Gas mass flux Gas mass flux Heat transfer coefficient Heat transfer coefficient holdup Material for heat transfer jfactor Thermal conductivity 1/2 leneth bed chord of slurry Mass flux Mass Kiln speed rotational Kiln radius Number Reynolds Kiln slope Absolute temperature time Mean residence Temperature Number Prandtl Number Stanton heat transfer Overall coefficient bed Volume of slurry Velocity of slurry Film thickness (wet basis) Moisture content
M2 kcal/kgOC m m 2 k9j hm 2 kg/sm 2o C kcaj/hm W/M K %kiln volume kcal/h2oC/m m2 kg/hm kg RPM m
0 K h oc
kcal/hm2oC m3 m/h m wt. % Greek C ... 6 ... * ... * ... p... T ... P ... 0 ... ... Emissivity m layer Boundary Const. Stefan Boltzman Angular mi velocity kg/r Density . kg/mI. Shear stress kg/r Viscosity Angle of repose 0 half ra( subtendangle bed chord ed by slurry
C ..... g ..... i ..... r ..... s ..... W..... 1 ..... 2..... 3..... 4 ..... 5 .....
chain gas bay no. radiative slurry wall gas: chain chain slurry: gas: wall wall slurry: gas: slurry
Constant= Value of Stefan Bollzman 1.3667xlOllkcal/sm4OK4 time (NB. Transient heat transfer interval is one second)
154
Conclusions
and
recommendations
8.1.
Isothermal
Modelling
modelling aerodynamic
has
provided through
a quick, the
visual chain
'represenbanks and
flo*
shown
I)
The
fluid
chains
stream
act
as flow
straighteners
to
the
II)
velocity that
the
chains left
is
tunnel
hanging has
III)
Kiln the
on
fluid
Air I)
water shown
velocity
across
gravel higher
charge than
the the
20 percent
8.2.
Hot
gas
modelling.
(a) storage at
A reliable, of
noisefree data
for
the
and
temperature gas
a rotating been
elevated of
temperatures, slipring
developed. proven,
design
electrical
has
been
problems
with
155
velocity
measurement
have
been
overcome.
The use
of
to
maintain feed
slurry not a to
independent proposition.
solids
investigation solids
required
the
hypothesis
calculation
transfer.
Scaling in a real
of
the kiln
model is of
chains
by equal in all by
factor transwater
properties. proved
Thinning to
addition similarity.
necessary
ensure
kinematic
(d) bay to
of where rotation
the
gas
temperature and waiting most the wet slurry for reliable mini
chains and to be
Halting to dry
the
slurry, have
ensure gas
or
above
temperature.
The as
gas:
wall
heat quoted
transfer by literature
are
of
the corr
those
been
156
elated
to
yield
the
equation: Re
0.686 ...
Nu = 0.58
7.32
of
the
slurry the
to
and wall
heat literat
with
the
flowrate
analogous is
transfer
summarised
by the
= 3.08
1011
Re 4.33
...
7.29
heat that of
transfer the
is chains
the are
rate the
their
large
surface
area
transfer.
An increase in
in
kiln
speed heat
beyond
slurry and
internal
Figures
However,
residue
as shown (Figures
by the and is
system kiln
7.17 speed
overall
rotational of the
as confirmed coefficient.
the
values
overall
157
: 1,
(g)
Slurry
to
chain to
transfer wall
coefficients
of
the been
as slurry to yield Se Pr
equations = 31.2
... ...
7.34 7.35
where er.
ChiltonColburn
factor
trans
gas
f lowrates rate
have
slurry compare
favourably zones.
concerning
kiln
drying
(i)
The
concept
of
conventional
viscosity
in
a Non
slurry
is
making
the
calculation
of
problematical. results to
detailed relationship
knowledge of the
slurry in
concerned, Appendix C.
measurement
techniques
outlined
used reverpe
in
this
motion), increase
material
and hence
and holdup.
158
(k)
Chains
frequently
become
entangled
with
one
another,
but the
the limits
effect of
of
this
phenomenon of the
was not
quantifiable
within
accuracy
apparatus.
The
values
of
heat
transfer can
coefficient
over by the
the following
conditions
studied
be summarised
Coefficient Gas Gas Gas Slurry Slurry Overall : Chain : Wall : Slurry : Chain : Wall
IC WIM2 199,
1 
85
10  104 2 19
12  121 222
20  275 80  225 2 16
159
References BARREL K. C. Cement The manufacture of Portland 46,310th Cement Lime and Gravel, 2. DUDA W. H. Cement Data Book, 2nd (MacDonald and Evans: JENKINS B. G. Heat transfer Ph. D. Thesis,
3.
1976.
4.
DURANT H. Communication. Private SA., (Ciments d'Obourg COMMENE A. Communication. Private Usine (Ciments Frangais,
Obourg,
Belgium:
October
17th,
'1979)
5.
de Barlin,
France:
July
3rd,
1980)
6.
FELLNER und ZIEGLER A. G. der Fellner Die Schlammtrocknung der Wirmewirtschaff Verkesserung 1934. 4,4142p Zement, VNORBOM H. R. kiln Wet or dry process 71,9298, Rock Products, for
7.
8.
9.
DERSNAH W. R. in installations Chain system 48,94,9699,104, Pit and Quarry, Ve GARRETT H. M. and MURRAY J. A. kiln thermal Improving efficiency 2. evaluations, part Rock Products, 71,8892,102,104, R.,
cement
kiln
10.
Feb.
1965
GYGI H. Thermodynamics of the cement (Int)__Che'mistry 3rdSymp. Proc. (London), 750789,1952. 12. Anon Private Communication. cement (Assoc. Portland 1975. Kent) Greenhithe,
21.
Manf.
Ltd.,
Engng.
R&D
Dept.,
160
13.
NORBOM H. Application preheater of suspension in N. America. kilns other Technical I. E. E. E. Cement Industry May 1973). (Miami, Florida, MULLINGER P. J. Communication. Private Guildford, (Univ. of Surrey,
kilns
versus
Conference,
14.
Surrey)
Nov.
10th
1980
15.
waste
materials.
16.
17.
WALKER P. design. Spiral chain Presented at Assoc. Conference, (Westbury, Wiltshire, DRAYTON W. E. Know your kiln's Rock Products,
Portland January
Cement 28/29th
Manf.
Wet Works
1974).
18.
19.
BURKB E. and FIELD G. from flames in Problems of heat transfer industry. Oneday Symposium on Flames and Industry, B15 to B17 (Inst. Fuel: London). DE BEUS A. J. and NARZYMSKI G. J. Design systems. chain of kiln May 1966. 63,7780,156, Rock Products,
cement 6,
Paper
20.
21.
EDMISTON D. J. Spiral review. svstemsperformance chain Oct. Cement Ltd.,, Australia: (Swan Portland
1976).
22.
23.
RIFFAUD J. B., KOEIIRET B. and COUPAL B. kiln. Modelling of an alumina and simulation (Process Engineer Design Chemical British and Develo, 17, No. 5,413418,1972. M, PERRY W. H. Handbook, 4th Edn. Engineers Cliemical 1969). (McGraw Hill: New York,
ent),
161
24.
25.
LYONS J. W., MIN H. S., PARISOT P. E. and PAUL J. F. Experimentation cement kiln a wet process rotary with computer. via the analogue 1. Design Eng. Chem. Process Ind. and Development, 29 to 33,1962. GARDEIK H. O. and JESCHER R. for the Simplified calculating models mathematical heated'adiabatic in internally heat transfer rotating Model). (Convection tubes. :L2,134138,1979. Zement Kalk und Gips, No. 7,1979). ffom No. 5,1979; (English Translation TSCHENG S. H. and WATKINSON A. P. kiln. in a rotary heat transfer Convective 57,433443,1979. Jn1. Chem. Eng., Canadian McCORMICK P. Y. Gas velocity'effects Chem. Eng. Prog., heat on direct 58, No. 6,5761, in No. dryers. rotary June 1962.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30;
FRIEDMAN S. J. and MARSHALL W. R. 1. drying, Studies in rotary part 45, No. 8,482493, Chem. Eng. Prog., NONHEBEL G. and MOSS A. A. H. in the chemical Drying of solids London 1971). (Butterworths:
August
1949.
31.
industry.
1st
ed.
32.
33.
SAEMAN W. C. and MITCHELL T. R. dryer Analysis and cooler performance. of rotary 1954. Sept. 50, No. 9,467475, Chem. Eng. Prog., V%: COULSON J. M. and RICHARDSON J. F. Volume 1, Revised 2nd Ed. p. Chemical Engineering 1964). Oxford (Pergamon Press: BONILLA Preprints American C. F. A. et al. symposium. of the heat transfer 1971 Inst. of Chem. Engineers, 309,582,1930.
45.
34.
35.
162
36.
KUNITZ General
J. Physiol.,
9,715,1926
37. 38.
TING and LUEBBERS. American Inst. of Chem. JONES N. E. Communication. Private (British Products Titanium 15th 1980). July VAILLANT A. Thermal of the analysis (Columbia Ph. D. Thesis,
Engineers,
3,,, No.
1,111,1957.
Ltd.,
Pywipe
Works,
Grimsby,
39.
kiln. 1965. in
40.
AKERMAN A., HOFFMAN P. and ZABLOTNY W. Mechanisms of materials of passage and rate kilns. January 11, No. 1,2629, British Chem. Eng.,
rotary
1966.
41.
SULLIVAN J. D., MAIER G. C. and RALSTON O. C. kilns, Flow of materials through rotary coolers dryers. Paper, 384,1927. US Bureau of Mines Technical
and
42.
WEBER P. kilns due regard Heat transfer to in rotary with cyclic and phase formation. processes (Wiesbaden, Zement Kalk und Gips Spec. English Ed., Bauverlag GMBH) 1963. HEILIGENSTAEDT fUr WHrmetechnische Rechnungen (Springer: 1951). Dusseldorf, Industrieofen, 3rd Ed.
43.
44.
GRAY W. A., KILHAM I. K. and MULLER R. 1st Ed., Heat transfer from flames, p. (Elek London) 1967. Science: CHILTON T. H. and COLBURN A. P. Mass transfer (adsorption) coefficients from data on heat transfer and fluid Ind. Chem., 26,1183,1934. __Eng. SHERWOODT. K. and PIGFORD R. L. 2nd Ed. Absorption extraction, and (McGraw Hill: 1952). New York,
HOTTEL H. C. and SAROFIM Radiative 1st Transfer, (McGraw New York, Hill: A. F. Ed. 1967).
23,
45.
 production friction.
46.
47.
163
48.
transfer (Mass.
in Inst.
gas
filled
slabs Cambridge)
and 1959.
Tech.,
49.
EINSTEIN T. H. Radiant heat transfer to absorbing gases enclosed in a circular conduction, gas flow and pipe with heat generation. internal (N. A. S. A.: Cleveland) 1962. Tech. Re2t, R156, KUHLE W. Uber die Hussere wirmabgabe Untersuchungen drehofen durch strahlung und konvektion. Zement Kalk und Gips, 23,263268,1970. %Z% BOWERS T. G. and READ H. L. kilns. Heat transfer in rotary Chem. Eng. Prog. Symp. Series Boston, 61,340345,1965.
HILPERT R. Wrmabgabe von Forsch. Gebeite
50.
von
51.
No.
57,
Heat
Transfer'
52.
A. l.
D. l.
FOLLIOT A. dans le four rotatif La transmission de chaleur a ciment. No. Publication Technique, _7. de 11industrie (Centre d'6tudes et de recherches 1955. Paris) des liants hydrauliques,
164
APPENDIKATERIVED PHYSICALPROPMrIES.
165
APPENDIX
A.
Derived
physical
properties.
A. 1
Gas
Properties.
A. 1.1.
Dynamic_viscosity.
The data
viscosity term
of
for
Schiebel.
a range f (Ti f(T2) )
Alis
of
used
gas
to
evaluate
a mixed
gas
temperatures.
...
A. 1
11 1 92 gas viscosity
f(T) Tr T= = 1.058 = T/Tcrit gas temperature
at
temperature
l/ ( 1.9Tr)
1,2'
(kg/h
rr,
A. 2
0.26 Tr 06165 _
A. 3
Tcrit
= critical
temperature
of
gas
as shown
in
table
Table
Al:
Critical
temperature ( OK)
of
gas
Gas
Tcrit
11 at 5.972 9.444
m'fh
H20 02 N2 C02
x x x x
102 103
8.4722 7.6667
103
102
v mixture
where u= Mi
= Eyi
i(Mi)I/Euim(Mim)l
fraction weight of species
...
A. 4
volumetric = molecular
166
A. 1.2.
Specific
heat.
For sufficiently
combustion accurate
products, providing
the the
specific moisture
heat
of
air is
is
fraction
accounted
for.
CpG
Specific 2 ,,
heat
dry
gas
= 0.24
+ T/1000..
0.2
kcal/kg
...
A. 5
CpW = Specific
heat
water
vapour
+ kcal/kg
...
A. E ...
A. 7
CpX = Specific
heat
wet
gas
= CpG(l
+ CpW. X kcal/kg
where
x9= T=
the the
moisture gas
fraction
in (lK)
the
gas
(wet
basis)
temperature
A. 1.2.
 Thermal
conductivity.
For
a wet
gas
comprising
mainly
nitrogen,
KT
1.405
PX P mixture
...
A. 8
where
KT
thermal
conductivity
of
wet
gas
Equation
Prandtl number
A8
of
above
a gas,
is
a back
calculation
from
number
the
is
which
dimensionless
a constant.
A. 2. Slurry
properties.
Dynamic
viscosity.
The
subject
of
dynamic
viscosity
of
chalk/clay
slurries
167
is
dealt
with
in
detail
in
section
4 and
in
Appendix
C
A. 2.2.
Specific
heat.
a slurry heat
of
moisture
fraction by
(weight the
basis)
XS#
can be expressed
equation
CpS = 0.2616(l
XS) 
+ 1.00763.
Xs
...
(kcal/kgOC)
A. 9
where
CpS
= specific
heat
of
slurry
A. 2.3.
Thermal
conductivity.
In of the
the slurry
absence over
of the
further moisture
of
data,
the
thermal studied
M20C/M.
conductivity was
contents
0.59 kcal/h
assigned
a constant
value
A. 2.4.
Bulk
density.
density expressed
of 10,
the
slurry
is
based
on the
moisture
by equation A. 10
(1
XS)SGB SGS
where SUffiX
Rewriting
in
terms
of
the
bulk
density
gives A. 11
SGB =11
X+
X) SGS
.. o
168
where
A. 2.5.
Slurry
composition.
basis, in
the the
raw ratio
slurry of
composition
is
as follows:
Table
A2
Material
CaC03 MgC03 S102 A1203 Fe203
63.0 16.0 5.0 4.0 2.0 0.6 4.5 3.0 1.5 0.7 
CaO
K20
Mn Na2O
169
APPENDIX B
170
Appendix
B.
Significance
of
dimensionless
numbers.
Reynolds
number.
RI
VDlp
B. 1
number viscous
to
be the
ratio
of significance
a fluid
geometrically will
for
through turbulent
turbulent
takes
between B. 2.
Nu =
heD k
B. 2
number
can
be interpreted gradient to in
physically a fluid
as
immediately
with
a reference
temperature
gradient.
i. e.
Nu = (dT/dy
(dT/dy)y=()
(Tf =
TS)/L 
>,...
13.3
where
y=
distance
normal
to
the
exchange
surface at
Ts and Tf
CP "g k
.. o
B. 4
Prandtl
number
is
of
the of
fluid
properties
the
kinemitic
diffusivity.
Pr
p/p  k/pCp
kinematic thermal
viscosity diffusivity
B. 5
B. 4.
Stanton
number.
The divided
Stanton by the
number quotient
is of
defined the
as the
Nusselt
number numbers.
Reynolds
and Prandtl
St
(Cpp)_, k
...
B. 6
Hence
St
B. 7
where
G= V= p=
M2)
hc = heat p= fluid
(Kcal/h
M20C)
Cp = specific k= thermal
conductivity
slurry
flowing
through area,
does flow
not term
up
crosssectional by
be replaced
a velocity
velocity
172
has
also
to
take
of
the
angular which
of
the
chains with
wall,
rotating
this section
is
confined kiln,
to
the
constant is
no account
solids
convection
the
velocityfactor.
Stanton velocity
number
can
thus Vc:
be rewritten
in
terms
of
component hc
St
=
B. 8
Psvccp
where
Vc is
derived vizt
from
the
axial
and radial
velocity
a section
of
rotated
slurry velocity
(Fig. Vr.
a)
velocity
These
be represented reference to
diagram
(b)
and resolved
(c)
Va.
Vr
Hence the component vblocity Vc (VI
Vt.
V2)0.5 + ra..
B. 9
Number account
for the
slurry kiln
is
also
calculated speed.
rotational
173
174Appendix
C. l. C. 1.1. The
C.
Measurement
of
slurry
viscosity.
rheological
pr02erties.
of
slurry apparatus.
of
the
raw
cement
slurry
(ex
Shoreham
Works) which of
Rheostat on a cylinder
15"
in
rotated (Fig
15 speeds
outer
cylinder.
Fig.
Cl
Diagramatic _cylinaer
sketch viscomeTer.
of
concentric
flow
geometry of
at the In
of
the even
cylinder for a
is
calculation is difficult.
of
the
cement as
these deDend
have of
been
ignored,
fluid
also
on the
C. 1.2.
Results
of
investigation.
of
temperature stress
on
cement
slurry
shown
in
C. 1.3.
Correlation
of
relationships.
The statistically
results to
shown yield
in the
were
correlated
It
:t= 240.77
xT
02321
rD.
X5637e ...
C. 1
1751
6
Ul 1 41 i iI iI H WMI P MP U MM M MIM 1 i
ij
1,44i4jjoj I ff i I ll
i4 4+Ht + M T 1! 1 AI
5
4 3 L Ajilli 1
f 1h,
f 2r shear rate taken over a range
contents. two ` J "
fl*.. 4 t. '141 , I
L: 71I
Fig. C3 Shoreham
V of
temperatures t1t1T
100
4,
6 5 4
tt .
jt: ..... .


AP:
PK
3
M I 
U f il l
1 '41
To ,
19
14 14, 1
NN
o...... Iif
....
. It,
j 1
4j
I t
J jj I j
j Ij jj tj+
j J,i ;,
I j1
i j 4]
1
. . 14
.1
IT M
H ill lI; i 1 4 . U11 I
2 4E 
ti
4 U 1, tn 11 Tl l, ll ` flk I
N "N N t,il11 11
44 * 1 11
H  0 1 4 j: iltillil!
!i ft i;
NP, R I T.
q 1 H t 1 11 1 IM1141
0.1
e
7 6 5 4 3
P I
f
z 4  1 1. "' t
14 f I
fl N.,
iH 1 116 1,11
1i
1 11 1 4 4 1 1
iii iiii T
fi 1 111

iEl
1111: n
4'
: j:
4 141 11
' '
:11
1 :,
it, 100
_7
Q, OQ
3456789
10 10
23456789
34567a
91
Shear
Rate
(sec
1)
1000
1761000
4
1 jj j;; j;. j j ' AtIi1 1t
44+
4
4j4I
f
j44jjj
01
44H
i i
f iI
hi H4404
a
4 3
717
tF i
i9
i 9*111
US I 4ff
it
I.:

A N
I! i I
Fig
C4
viscosity
 (Pas)
vs
shear
rate
for a
U1 11 4
I r,
9
Shoreham of range
e
7 6 5
11i +t j
iB4! 4rt: H_a_ T
l +Ai .. ..1
71
A
3
4 44 4 44
2
4H I
t f+ +:m
10
:g
m
it
>1 41 . r4 U) 0
ii
71
U
JI T fj'
F FMT P
j;R
4 t
4 ,
1 L
tp
"4
t Hii
R ill
. 4
42+1
14
Ili ;. Ii hP NI iiii 11
' fTj, 
HT ,
4 lT it
A i
1 1
I MI
N!
:Hi
iii
12
+4 4
1_1_
q 4 H1 ff 1R f qV , ."
Ti
S IN
%1
111
2
I I
I II TI + + 7
TI
0.1 1 9
S 7 I 5 4 3
iq ...... i iM1i.
4+, 4 0; +
4M 44 ilill
i.
M 0 ,IT _4
I MM
V, .
Vr
31 0 M 11 1 1 w i11 4 1 'q
I N 9 H'11
jo
T
ll
V t4
0.
OIL
ol
23456789
10
234567B9
lo
34567a9
I'd
Shear R'. Y'tle
LOB 1 ) e:d'
177
where
p=
viscosity
(kg/m
h)
C. 2.
Measurement
of
slurry
boundary
layer
thickness.
C. 2.1.
Experimental
procedure.
method
to
measure of
the kiln
range
surface of
drawing The
a range then
speeds.
affected
of the
could
ascertained, a rule.
Tracer Dye
dp
boundary
thickness
Slurry Surface
Fig.
C2.
C. 2.2.
Experimental
results.
Over and of
to
a range of
of
slurry
content to
from
3545,. it
%,
for 0.52.0
be
a range
velocities slurry
x
periphdral was
speeds found
RPM, the
at
layer
thickness
constant
3.175
103M.
178
APPENDIEK D
Table
Dl.
Gas properties
at
each
end
of
the
chain
zone.
% Gas Composition
C02 02
Species Emissivity
Gas Emissivity
N2 70.7
H20 (40.9)
C02 0.078
26.9
2.4
25.5 II 
2.5
72.0
(0.0) I II Weber 49
700
25.5 I
0.0 I
0.103
0.00
0.103
Raw Data
ex.
for
the
systedistaken
as 0.9
x Dl;
L=0.2743m
D. 1
Dl)
are for
from at
the the
drying
using
expressions
= 0.72
(B/end)
...
D. 2
PCO, 21,
+ PH20L
= 15.58
kN/m*
(B/end)
...
D. 3
Ac
0.005
from
thecharts
published
in
fA., Adams24,.
L 1PCO2
6.995
N/m
(Flame
end')
...
DA
180
D. l.
Calculation
of
the
absorption
coefficient.
Beer's
D1 Law for to
absorptivity gas
applied
L p. ek.
...
6*9 9S ekH.
D 5 .
D. 6 D. 7
2B
Hence
CgH
0.103 = 0.261
= 1. = 1_
1:gc
!1 1
kH H
0. 01546 kHPH
... 0.39
IL I
IT
kc
=0.0l936kc. p
...
C6aln banks 12 mD. 11 Fig'. ' Dl Zoning th6'oneUay system. length B, as 2m.
For described
this in
system, chapter.
t he characteristic 5, is 4.88E 
Thus
KHB = KcB = .
D. 12 D. 13
D. 2.
Evaluation
of
direct
exchange
'areas.
the the to
view
factors of
evaluated
by
linear
values
ErkkU48,.
maximum
a2 = maximum
distances
direction
of
the
element.
181
Table
D2.
Direct
exchange
areas.
Element b, al, a2 ill 112 113 121 122 123 131 132 133 211 212 213 221 222 223 231 232 233
IfSe (KCB)B 2.8903 1.5920 0.4880 1.5920 9.2370 3.4965 0.4880 3.4965 15.2768 0.8576 1.3357 0.8759 1.3357 3.6169 3.3509 0.8759 3.3509 5.9917
2
SeSe (KCB)B 6.366 2.9248 2.9248 14.3886 1.8332 6.7874 1.9163 2.0263 2.0263 5.2664 1.5435 5.0361 51.0367 0.4820 0.8241 0.5571 0.8241 2.1117 2.0392 0.5571 2.0392 3.4347
2
SWSW B2
b, 13 23 23 13
al
12.3603
60.1483
12.8692
8.5949
View Factor m2
SeSw' 3.189E2
GSe 8.380E3
GSw 7.116E3
SeSe3.321E2 2.219E2
The the
same procedure
is
followed
for
the
'hot'
erid
of
chain'zone:
182
0
>4
(D
IID 4
W W
PL4
R
pq
O U

Go
co KV .
0
E4 pq p 4 z
" PQ
E4 o W
%e
00
00
t
oo
CO
oo
t
(n
cq
Cf)
CD
00
m cq cq
co
cq t ce) C CC ce)
00
LO
M cq
to
cq pq 0 0) rq C
cq
CY)
pq 0 (D ri C
pq a) CD 4 r4 cq r4 C r
0 ce)
C) m m
cq m
m C;
0 r4 N
C "
r4
v lt: %" I
tLO ; a
LO to 114
%
to " Cl
v %., CO H, C*4
.  ,, Cl co pq 0 (n H C pq 0 oo C
_e cq0 ., o
m v 1: ce) t
tH C
0 mcr) C
cq to C14 C
cr) cr)
cq
43 C14 SA .. A
4H 0 rI 0
U) L
,v o, C11
C4 tC
m v It:
tLO
LO LI)
114 "
6
0
N o
_;
CY)
0 00 Cf) C
%.. o
> Cd
111' 0 pq I wI wI
.I N ce) C m oo r4 C
cq
C1 N
pq ;A
tr (D
I I I W
0 N M to CY) cq C C
4 .
Cf)
H %." C14
C14
CY)
C14
co C
Q)
Cd N
r4
cq
ca
r4
C14 ca
E4
pq
t; 
E4
9 C9:
183
D. 3.
Evaluation
*of
total'
'e'xchange
areas.
is
necessary for
at each
this
trge
to by
areas by the
surface, 'grey'
ambivalent emission
plane
47
and absorption.
D. 3.1.
Wall
properties.
For p is given
oxidised
steel, Since
C=0.7 the
24
and
for
raw
slurry, in
steel cycle
slurry
much of then
the
events, for
surfaces slurry
grey, be
typical
cw = cs = 0.75
...
D. 14
pw ps = 0.25
D. 15
Since,
for
a grey
surface,
c=1p.
'
D. 3.2.
Chain
properties.
In
the
case the
of
the
chain to
banks,
it
is
expedient of
to
approximate
surface area.
cha: ins
a series
oftubes
cgg
equivalent
d0 Ec
CD
CD4
c Ac
Plane
Ap
184
Now,
fraction
of
ccFpc
the
is
energy
directly
emitted
from
black
by
plane
the
Ap,
a
Of the'
intercepted
tubes.
remaining or reemitted
1
ccFpc,
cg,. Of this
it
towards ccFpc
radiation,
intercepted
by the
Hence
the
total
energy
absorbed
by
the
tubes
is
F PC  Cc . 2 CcFpC{l
+ cg(l
ccFpc))
... the
D. 16
where bank.
is E: c
the
equivalent
grey
plane
comprising
chain
The spacing
body total
factor c,
Fpc,
which equivalent
44.
is
a function diameter
of
the
tube black
and the
view
dE# is
for Cc may
the
factor
The
value
beassumed
to
be the taken
for
the
system, chain
and
Eg is
mean value
system.
diameter
of
a pipe is of
the
same surface
as a scale at
chain
hung
a distance a value
gives
Fpc
= 0.87
Cc = 0.617
and
PC = 0.383
is 'hot'
in
area system,
values the
the
the heat
since in
bulk
of
transfer
section.
185
Hence, becomes
the
transfer
matrix
described
in
section
7.297E2 0.383
3.617E2
3.389E2
3.617E2
07.297E2 0.383
3.389E2
3.389E2
3.389E2
2.532E2
9.729E2 0.25
the
value
of
which
is
1.2209E2.
The values
ofDij
are
as follows:
Using
equation ALci =. Pi
5.35 j Pj
Sisi
(Aj
Sii.
ci)
S3092
"'3
S3SI
m2 m2 m2 m2
186
From
equation
5.36*. itis
possible
to
evaluate
Gllgi since
( GiSj)n
'"' (W) Pi
gi
Wi
...
D. 17
GS1
GS3
4.236E3 GS2 = =
=6.327E3
m2
TableD4.
Summary of
total
exchange
areas.
2.620E3 dSi
7.813E3
since
DA.
total
exchange
areas
for
presence
of
For up by the
loading is
of
16.7%, the
the total
area wall
of
wall
taken Thus
area.
between 23.7%
slurry. total
charge
the total
exchange area.
76.37o of
exchange
187
Table
D5.
Areas chain
transfer
within
the
kiln
M2
/BAY
Al A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 Bl
Surface Exchange Exchange Surface Surface Surface Exchange Exchange Exchange Exchange
area area area area area area area area area area
chains chains: chains: gas: walls slurry: gas: gas: chains: slurry: gas: walls slurry walls walls walls slurry (CW) (NFC) (9W) (dS) (C) slurry gas (6C)
0.2808 0.0051 0.0042 0.0712 0.0261 0.0231 0.0051 0.0165 0.0051 0.0015
See
Table
3 for
nomenclature
used
in
Appendix
D.
188
APPENDIK E: f
189
Appendix
E.
Theoretical scaling
treatment factors.
of
chain
areas
and
weight,
E. 1.
Circular
chain
links.
Consider
the
chain
link's
represented
in
Fig.
Fi
dw
dL
The
surface
area
2 Ild w
per
link
= RdL#Rdw = 112
dL. dw 
Ild
E., 1
FigEl
Diagramatic The
representation
of "circular" small
link
quantity by the
11 dwII is gas
compared streams,
of
chain
and slurry
and can be
ignored
practical
considerations. E. 2
Hence
the
surface
area/link
11 2 = HdL, 4
2
=]T'dLdw
ji 22E. dLdw T.
...
The
link
volume
Hence
weight/link
...
EA
The equation
surface E. 5
area/weight
be expressed
by
AL WL
4 psdw
E. 5
It is
is
of
interest of the
to
note
that dL,
the
above
expression
independent
link'sizel
190
E. 2.
Rectangular
chain
T
dw
d2 L I4
Length
Surface
Weight
area
Rd 2x w
ndw
Length
x Length x ps
Hence
the
surface
area/weight
"rectangular"
E. 3.
Suspendedchains.
the surface of
two
it
has
been link of
shown is the
a chain
size
irrespective
when forces,
a'chain it is
is
suspended to
to
an effective
enable a given
number length.
can be seen
that
dL 2
T deff I The
deff
= dL of
's..
E. 7 of as
number ILCI
a chain
length
can
be expressed E. 8
nc = integer
Fig.
'E3
chain
links
T1
0
0 . r1
ca Ii
El
0 41 %2
erd
44 0 1.4 0
.= 0 A 41
a)
p4
auuo4 /
UIC) z0
4 oII
000a0
(7N
00
r
1.0
Ln
Vd jiq2iaM/v9aV
eoulanS
uiuiqo
192
The exchange
surface medium
area is thus
per ,
chain
presented
to
the
heat
AC
E. 9
and
the
weight
of
chain
22
per
suspended
...
E. 10
above'relationships simpler to
are
for
chains.
considered
represent
chains
by'equivalent
diameter
chains. dw
Hence
it
follows
that
for
M kg.
of
chain
in
a drying
zone ,
AZ =mx W Ae .. o E. 11
or
4M psdw
...
E. 12
AZ ol m 4E. Psdw
13
This is shown
expression, graphically
which in Fig.,
is E4
identical over
to a range
equation of chain
E. 5
stock
diameters.
It of
that
the the of
the area
a chain of
greater
length
irrespective
size
193
E. 4.
Enuivalent
pipe
diameter.
It length
is of
found chain
to This of
represent method is in
useful 1
radiation
For length
a heat IIdLII,
exchange the su
surface rface E. 14
of chain
area of
dL. dw 112 =
ic
The
surface
area
of ...
a pipethe E. 15
same
length
0
= RdedL
de
Fig.
E5
Representation
of
chain
links
by
equivalent
pipe.
By setting that
the
surface,
areas
equal
it
dw de =2 11 E. 7
E. 16
Since,,
from
equation
dw =
dL 2 def f
...
E. 7
deff
= dL 
2de 11 ...
E. 8
194
E. 5.
Projected
surface
area.
In to
the
of of
chain chain
surface
area,
it
is
necessary kiln
evaluate
as a projection shadow.
on the
crosssectional
i. e.
as the
As a simplification,
I dL I
circular area of
links two dw
2
are links
assumed:
Projected
E. 9 small it in comparison
the
term
dw is link
the
chain
circular
area,
links.
can be ignored
Simple
Hence
projected
area/link
+ 2 d* is e
dLdw
E. 10
If diameter length
diameter
defined
pipe unit
surface
as a chain,
E. 11
previously
defined
in
equation
E. 8
Hence
d*(dL e
+ 11 )dLdw 2
E. 12
and since
de =(2)
E. 13
E. 6.1.
Chain
weight.
density For
system,
a typical to of
chain
density
is
130
voidage hence
the
chained Vc Vk
density Mc P Vk
be equal
Since
1e=
..
4.12
it
follows
that
me Ps Vkj
real
oir
Vk the
C Vk
Hence, 9.49 kg of
for chains
volume
are
required.
E. 6.2.
Chain
area.
The e),
chained where
area
ratio
of
the
system
to
be modelled
is
eI real
Lc* Ak
II real
from
1 A*c Ak
model
*0* .
4.13
"ereal"
can be evaluated
equation
4.12
1e
I and I A*1.313 cz model
real
= 0.982
103M2
where
is A* c
the
projected
area
of
chain
across
the
kiln
c. s. a.
196
By expressing . diameterg de
Ac in
terms
of
the
chain
length
and equivalent
Ac = Lcde
... d* for e
E. 15
it Lc
is
possible kiln x 3
to
evaluate
the
chosen
chain
length
of
diameter
d*=6.463
103M2
In
Pquation 1+
E. 13 'it li
de =(2)
(HdL
2de)
of
for the
density
installed
kiln.
scale steel,
chosen link
from type
sizes
chain
was spaced to
x 102M over of
intervals approximately
a chain
area/bay
0.2808
M2.
197
Table
El.
Nomenclature
for
App'endix
E.
..... .....
Acz d
......
diameter
n ....... V .......
C......
...... ......
W...... cz, z
Density
kg/M3
198
APPENDIX F:
199
A pendix
F.
Instrument
flow
equations
and
corrections.
F. 1
Slurry
"mono"
pump.
The relationship
"Mono" of
was
found
to
fit
a simple
MB = 8.727
NR
...
F. 1
where
mass
flowrate
of of
slurry the
F. 2.
"Annubar"
pitot
rates.
The section
pitot
flow
in
the
gas
duct from
through
the
model for
can be calculated
tubes for low velocities
standard
equation
11
F. 2
h/PG
where
V= h=
gas
velocity
differential density
PG = gas
equation pressure
is is
valid less
for than
gas
flow
through
pipes
where
254mm. Wg.
For "Kf"
a differential unity,
pressure
device
with
a Kfacto,
otherthan
h=
hr/Kf
200
where
hr
= measured
differential
pressure
(mm. Wg)
"Annubar" of i. e. 1.7.
flow density
rates is
were taken
found
to
have of air
as that
PG 1.2928
k g/M3
Under from
flow
conditions pressure,
of
IC and h
mm Hg variation
atmospheric
PG = 1.2928(
1+T1
)(1 G/273
hG 273
F. 4
However., + hG/273)
over is not
the
pressure
range
studied,
the
term
significant.
Hence
equation
simplifies
to
PG  1.2928(
1+
1 TG1273
F. 5
For can
all
practical
purposes,
the
flow
equation
be written
GG = 1.22
104 VhrPG
F. 6
where
flow/unit
area
for
DP devices
with
In gas/hour
diameter by
0.3048
m, the
mass
flow
of
"MG" is
expressed
MG = 891.92>/hrpG
F. 7
The
theory
of
prediction
of
radiation
effects
to
201
using
unshielded computer
7 and the H.
202
APPENDIX G:
ANCILLARY BQLJIFMENr.
203Appendix G. Ancillary_equipment.
Gl.
Gasfired
recuperative
furnace.
flue
gas
to of
the
chain
model output
is
supplied
by Utilising
a a combustion
maximum burner
to
preheat
incoming
a refractory
cylinder
a maximum
of from apart
Flue
gas
up to since
there
no heat the
cooled
targets air.
combustion
chamber,
combustion
The of fluid
furnace
is
fully
for
the
measured
and pitot is
respectively. by solenoid
protected is air
Control
is
ratio enrichment
using Fig. is
a gas Gl
control of
fully
described
University
number
FTRII69.
204
LI,
co
:.
0 l I
oll
,IIII
rNN
I
5 1 tm jI I '
.n.
...
IhI
205
G. 2
Portable
pressure
and
flow
analyser.
_(P.
P. F. A. )
is
a sensitive pressure
an accuracy to 0.5%
any the
range. 5000
be read of
F. S. D., can
the
be coupled
recorder of or the
unit
maximum
The maximum
pressure
The micromanometer differential flow ranges is the ranges to pressure operate give
utilises transducer
btidge the
on the
lowest
pressure signal an
range.
square of
pressure output of
signal, a pitot
having tube.
effect
linearising
readings of
are 1.
given
for
air will
at
N. T. P., respond
'K'factor up to
switch flow
second readings.
constant
pressure
UNIT
Input
NUMBER FM 1351
voltage 240v AC
Flowranges
Manufacturers:
Furness
11
It
"06
G. 3
"Annubar"
pitotrakes.
are
k'Type size) I
insert
sensors, on both
mm pipe pipe.,
a support
of
steel
Manufacturer:
Dieterich Ellison
Corporation, Division
207
G. 4.
Electronic
equipment.
system
is
by gated in the
a clock and
derived to
from provide is 10
system.
clock 1 of update
the and
counter the
multiplexor to punch
the
logger
out
information
Addo
unit
is
controlled
by reset
of
increment start/stop
biased
to
power
conditions fed to
respectively. of gates
start/stop is to
a system pulses
selected, a decade
clock counter
are
passed to give
second
system to
a binary
. counter
number
two in
BCD code
a 7485.
comparator.
Apulse
channel
is
greater
2011
than system In
the
select
switcher, through is
which the
resets channels
the
a start equal)stops
a pulse on the
(when
the
indicated.
thermocouples (Ag
rotary
section
are
coupled fed to
routed thermo
to
the
data
indicator.
static
thermocouples a binary
are
selected is
converted to select
indication
on a digital
logging switch
indicated, inter
an external vals.
second
209
APPENDIKH:
MHMM
210
EVALUATION ROTATION.
OF CHAIN
TO WALL AREAS
WITH
KILN
211
C.....
10 AUG 76
REQUIRED INPUT: H, R, FHI, CCF,DIST, NCH WHEN DIMENSIONAFFAY0,73) PI, TAU,DELTA COMMON NTOTAL, ARRAY, 10 READ(5,*) H IF (H. LE. O. 0) GOTO60 R=0.1524 PHI=10.0 CCF=1.333333333333 DIST=O' '0254 NCH=100 WRITE(6,20) WRITE(6,30) H, R, FHI, CCF H=H*R/100 CL=CCF*R PI=4*ATAN(I. ) PHI=PHI*PI/180 DELTA=PI/18 C TAU:2*PI FROM TRIANGLE. HYPOT SPIRAL DIST: ..... P=2*R TAU=DIST*2*PI/((4*PI*PI*R*R+P*P)**0.5) C3 BAYS =I SPIRAL ROTATIONAS TRIPLE START BAYS=3*NCH*TAU/2/PI BAYS WRITE(6,40)DIST, NCH, /, 25X, 7HBY MICK, //) 20 FOFMAT(///, 20X, 18HCHAINCALCULATIONS, 30 FOEMAT(3X, 2HH=,F8.4,3X, 2HF=, F8.4,3X, 4HPHI=, F8.4,3X, 4HKCF=,F8.4) 40 I4,3X, 5HBAYS=, F8.4) FOFMAT(3X, 5HDIST=, F8.4,3X, 4HNCH=, C.....
CALL SETUP(H, E, FHI, C, S, X5, Y5, X6, Y6) PALL WOEKIT(S, C, X5, Y5, X6, Y6, R, CL, DELTA) CALL SUM3
50 60
c C ..... C .....
212
10
C..... C.....
C.....
20 30
40
XlYl=FIXED END OF CHAIN XlY2=FFEE END OF HYPOTHETICAL CHAIN XlY3=INTERCEPT OF VERTICAL CHAIN AND KILN SLURRY XlY4= DIMENSION ARFAY(3,73) COMMON ARFAY, NTOTAL, PI Izo THETA=O. CGAS=O. CWALL=O. CSLURY=O. YI=COS(THETA)*R Xl=SIN(THETA)*Ft Y2=YlCL Y3=SQRT(E*EXl*Xl) Y4=S*XI+C CALL GAS(Yl, Y2, Y3, Y4, CGAS) IF TRUE ALL IN GAS IF (CGAS. GE. CL) GOTO 30 IF TRUE NONE ON WALL IF (Y3. LE. Y4) GOTO 20 CALL'WALL(X5, Y5, x6, Y6, xl, Y3, F, CWALL) TEST=MAX POSS CHAIN LENGTH TEST=CLCGAS IF (CWALL. GT. TEST) CWALL=TEST CSLURY=CLCGASCWALL DEGFE=THETA*180/PI I=I+l AFFAYO , I)=CGAS ARRAY(2, I)=CWALL ARRAY(3, I)=C"LURY THETA=THETA+DELTA IF (THETA. GE. 6.283) GOTo 4o GOTO 10 NTOTAL=I RETURN END SUBROUTINE WALL(X5, Y5, X6, Y6, Xl, Y3, R, CWALL) THINK OF CIRCLE X=FSINE(O); Y=ECOS(O) PSII=ATAN((R**? Y3**2)**0.5/Y3) IF TRUE 180<PSI1<360 IF (Xl. LT. O. ) PSII=2. *3.14159265PSIl IF TRUE CHAIN OUT OF SLURRY IF (Xl. LT. X6) GOTO 10 PS12=ATAN((R**2Y5**2)**0.5/Y5) IF (X5. LT. 0) PS12=2*3.14159PSI2 CWALL=(PS12PSII)*R RETURN 5/Y6) PS12=ATAN((R**2Y6**2)**. IF (X6. LT. 0) PS12=2*3.14159PSI2 CWALL=(PSIIPSI2)*R RETURN END
10
213
C
C. . SUBROUTINE GAS(YI, Y2, y3, Y4, CGAS) FINDS MAX OF Y2 Y3 Y4 YMAX=Y2 IF (Y3. GT. YMAX) YMAX=Y3 IF (Y4. GT. YMAX) YMAX=Y4 CGAS=YlYMAX IF (CGAS. LT. 0) CGAS=O ]RETURN END
SUBROUTINE SUM3
C..... SUMMS FOR THREE CHAINS AROUND KILN DIMENSION AFRAY(3,73) COMMON ARRAY, NTOTAL, FI, TAU, DELTA THETA=O.
20
C C ..... SUBROUTINE SUMSEX(NCH, CL) SUMMS OVER A SECTION OF KILN DIMENSION ARFAY(3,73) WITH NCH CHAIN CURTAINS
20
.....
30
40
214
50 c C .....
COTO 50
.....
C ..... C..... C ..... C..... C .... C ..... P ..... C ..... c..... c ..... C..... C ..... C .....
SUBROUTINE PICKIT(THETA, IND, PI, DELTA) GIVES INDEX OF ARRAVIND) FOR THREE CHAINS AT THETA DUM=INT(THETA*3/2/PI) THETA=THETA(DUM*2*PI/3) NTHETA=THETA(MOD120) THETA NOW IN RANGE 0120. IND=INT(THETA/DELTA)+l RETURN END ARFAY FIRSTLY LENGTHS 1 CHAIN 360, THEN 3 CHAINS 120 DELTA INCREMENT IN RADIANS OF AFFAY(I) TO ARFAY(I+l) DIST DISTANCE BETWEENCHAIN ANCHORSALONG SPIRAL ETA INITIAL STARTING POSITION FOR SUMMOVER NCH CHAINS H BED HEIGHT AS KCF KILN CHAIN FACTOR NCH NUMBEROF CHAIN CURTAINS FOR SUMMATION PHI ANGLE OF SLURRY BED FROM HORIZONTAL ) PI PI (3.1415..... R RADIUS OF KILN TAU ANGLE BETWEENANCHORPOSITION OF TWO SETS OF CHAINS ALL OTHERS GENERAL CONSTANTS PROGRAMME W0FKS IN RADIANS, IN/OUT IS IN DEGREES
215
H. 2.
FLOW EQUATIONS.
216
ICO 110 120 130 140 1150 160 . 110 180 190 200 210 220 230 , 40 _2 250 260 270 28o 290 300 301 302 310 315 320 330 340 350 360
REM IRROPPOR1*00"I"PFOGFAM FLOWS" *****o F. ry, REM REM EDUCTOF 2 INCH PIPE, PITOT TUBE .................. 4 INCH PIPE, OFIFICE PLATE REM COMBUSTIONAIR ........ 4 INCH PIPE, PITOT TUBE REM DILUTIGN AIR ............. POTAMETERAND METER REM GAS SUPPLY .................. RE F EM N=l FEINT DATA SET", N FEINT GOSUB 380 GOSUB 460 GOSUB 540 GOSUB 620 REM REM PRINT PRINT "TOTAL FLOWFATE THROUGHMODEL=", Q+Ql+Q2+Q3, "KG/H" FEINT PRINT PRINT ll PRINT "DO YOU WANT TO CALCULATE ANNUBAF FLOWFATES? PRINT "(IF REQ."EFARATELY, TyrE ##FUN 720W11 INPUT A$ PRINT 11 11 IF A$z"YEI"THEN GGSUB 720 IF A$="YIITHEN GOSUB 120 GOTG200
370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 I500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600
REM REM SUB EDUCTOR INPUT DP, in WgIl FEINT IIEDUCTOR FLOWFATE ........ INPUT H Q=190.149*(H**. 5) Q, llKG/Hll EDUCTOR=ll, FEINT "AIR MASSFLOWTHROUGH PRINT FETUFN FEM REM SUB COMBUSTION AIF PRINT "COMBUSTION INPUT DP, WgIl AIR FLOWRATE mm ....... INPUT Hl Ql=3t. 54*(Hl**. r)) PRINT "COMBUSTION l, Ql, llKG/Hll AIR TO BUFNEF=, PRINT RETURN REM REMSUB DILUTION AIR PRINT "DILUTION AIR TO MODEL INPUT DP, in WgIl ...... INPUT H2 Q2=760.62*(H2**. 5) FEINT "DILUTION AIR TO MODEL=", Q2, llKG/Hll PRINT RETURN
217
610
620 630 640 650 660 6io 680 690
REM
REM GAS ROTAMETERSETTING PRINT "BOTAMETEE SETTING" INPUT X Y=2.733*X+7 Q3=Y*. 0424*60/2.2 PRINT "GAS MASS FLOWRATETO BURNER =", Q3, "KG/Hll PRINT N=N+l 100 RETURN 110 REM
740 750 760 770 780 790 800 810 820 830 840 850
PRINT"ANNUBAR FLOW FAKEll, I+l PRINT" " PRINT "DF, V24WG AND GAS TEMP, DEG C.... SEPARATED BY A COMMA" INPUT H4, T R=1.2923*2t3/(273+T) 5) Q4=891.9*((H4*F)**. PRINT"FLOW READ BY ANNUBARll, I+lq,, =, l, Q4, llKG/Hll IF I=1 THEN 840 I=l GOTO 740 RETURN REM
218
H. 3.
UNSHIELDED
THERMOCOUPLE
CORRECTIONS.
219
100 110 120 130 140 150 151 160 161 170 171 180 190 191
REM REM REM FEY. FEM REM THIS FFOGFAM IS DESIGNED TO EVALUATE THE CORRECTED REM TEMPERATURE BEADING REM FOE A PROBE OF DIA D1 METFES IN A DUCT MUCH LARGER REM THAN ITSELF REM IT THEN CAN EVALUATE THE GAS FLOWFATE THROUGHTHE REM DUCT USING STD. FLOW EQUATIONS. REM AN INITIAL GUESS FIRST HAS TO BE MADE AT THE GAS REM MASS FLOWFATESO THAT THE GASPBOBE HTC CAN BE REM ESTIMATED
195 REM
200 GOSUB 260 210 GOSUB 350 220 GOSUB 460 230 IF ABI(G3G2)>10 240 GOSUB 540
THEN 210
END
4)
410 11=0
IF ABS(T4Tl)>l THEN 370 N=l RETURN REM REM SUB FLOW ITERATE IF G3=0 THEN 480 PRINTlIG3=11,G3 Fl=1.2928/(l+T4/273) G3=12200*((H3*F1)**5) IF ABS(G3G2)>10 THEN 520 N=O RETURN REM
470 G2=G3
480 490. 500 510 520 525
220
530 540 550 56o 565 570 580 590 600 61o 620 630 640 650 66o 670 700
FEm SUB rRINT IT PDEGFEES C=", T4 PRINT "COFFECTED GAS TEM. G3 M2 KG/HF. PFINT "GAS FLOWEATE =", IRETUFN FEM REM TIGUESS TEMP REM V T2PFOBE TEMP REM a T3WALL TEMP REM r T4GAS TEMP REM i HlFAD HTC REM a H2CONVHTC REM b GlFLOW GUESS GAS FLOW REM 1 G2WOFKING REM e ClSP HEAT GAS REM 3 RlDENSITY OF GAS WITH TEMP REM NCOUNTER REM
221
H. 4.
PAPER
TAPE
READER
PROGRAMS.
222
/* GS /f L /*
TAPE
READS IN A FILE OF TAPE AND PEOCESESOUT THE INTEGER STRIN IT WILL TERMINATE WITH A CTFL+C THE EOF SYMBO
IN IT UP TO 32367.
2711.79
ANDY TATE
INITIAL
CODING
CH CHAE(l); (I, NO) FIXED BIN; VAL CHARM) VARYING; LINE CHAR(400) VARYING; (FILOUT, FILNAM) CHAF00) INFILE FILE INPUT; OUTFILE FILE OUTPUT;
ON ENDFILE(INFILE) BEGIN; PUT SKIP FILE(OUTFILE) LIST(2300); PUT SKIP LISTOEND OF FILE FOUND'); ENDFILE ON BlOCKI); PUT SKIP LIST(IIN STOP; END; PUT SKIP LISTOSTART OF TAPE PEOGEAMEI); PUT SKIP LISTOGIVE INPUT FILE'); GET LIST(FILNAM); PUT SKIP LISTOWILL PFOCESS AND FEINT NUMERICS FOR FILEI, PUT SKIP LISTOGIVE OUTFUT FILE'); GET LIST(FILOUT); STEEAM INPUT; OPEN FILE(INFILE) TITLE(FILNAM) STREAM OUTPUT; OPEN FILE(OUTFILE) TITLE(FILOUT) LOOP: INTO(LINE); READ FILE(INFILE) CALL PROCESS; GOTO LOOP;
FILNAM);
PROCESS: FFOCEDUPE; DO I=l TO LENGTH(LINE); CH=SUBSTR(LINE, I, l); /*FUT SKIP LIST(UNSPEC(CH), RANK(CH), CH, I); */ IF VERIFY(CH, 10123456789')=O THEN VAL=VALIICH; ELSE IF LENGTH(VALM THEN CALL OUTN; END; /*put */ skip list('******end of record******'); IF LENGTH(VAL)>O THEN CALL OUTN;
223
OUTN:PFOCEDUEE; DCL COUNT FIXED BIN STATIC INITIAL(O); NO=BINAPY(VAL); VALZII; IF NO>2000 THEN DO; NO=2300; PUT SKIP FILE(OUTFILE); COUNT=O; END; EDIT(NO, ', ') PUT FILE(OUTFILE) COUNT=COUNT+l; IF COUNT=10 THEN DO; PUT SKIP FILE(OUTFILE); COUNT=O; END; IF NO>2000 THEN DO; PUT SKIP FILE(OUTFILE); COUNT=O; END; END OUTN; END PFOCESS; END TAPE;
(F(5),
A);
224
SUBBOUTINE MAIN STACK HEADER 34 $INSERT SYSCOM>KEYS. F $INSERT SYSCOM>ERED. F EXTERNAL ERROR RUNNO INTEGER*4 11,12, I3, I4, EESU1, EESU2, COUNT,TCNUMB, 1, TCCON1,LINBUF(10) FUNIT, CODE,TYPE INTEGER JI, I, FBUF(34), NAMBUF(16), INNBUF(ii), 1, IMBUF3(32), IMBUF4(32), Ml, STATUI, STATU2, STATU3, LINLEN, TEON,TROFF,K 21, K2, I8, J5, j6, I9, I7, K3, ONNAME(3)
COMMON/Al/NAMBUF, FUNIT DATA FBUF/68H(I3, lH,, I3, lH,, I3, IH,, I3, lH,, I3, IH,, I3, IH,, I3, lH,, I3 I, lH,, I3, lH,, I3) /
DATA DATA CALL CALL NAMBUF/32HEUN. ONNAME/6HQUIT$ TNOU(I[VARIABLE FOEMAT TAPE READ rev 5, ERFOR) MKON$F(ONNAME, 150.711,37)
40 50 60
70
80
to auto. ')
225
90 100
110 120
130
140
150
160
170
FOF. the run') MAT(lType S to start WFITE(1,30) CALL TlIN(I8) IF(I8. EQ. 211) GOTO 110 IF(I8. EQ. 243) GOTO 110 GOTO 100 CONTINUE WFITE(1,120) TFON FOFMAT(A2) CALL TNOU(lYour tape reader is now onl, 26) J1=13 J5=LINLEN TCCON1=2300 TCNUMB=2300 FUNNO=000000 STATU1=0 CALL ATTDEV(6,8,9,0,80) I1=4 12zO 13=lT6 14=0 LINLEN=10 CONTINUE DO 140 Jlzl, LINLEN LINBUF(Jl)=O CONTINUE DO 220 I=1, LINLEN CALL BEINT(I3, I4, I2, RESU1, FESU2, COUNT) CALL FCFMAT(j6, FBUF, LINBUF, LINLEN) DO 160 12=1, Il 13=0 CALL VIVID 13=13/65536 IF(I3. GT185) CALL FEINT(I3, I4, I2, RESU1, FESU2, COUNT) IF(I3. LT. 176) CALL REINT(I3, I4, I2, FESUI, RESU2, COUNT) IF(STATUl. EQ. O) GOTO 150 IF(COUNT. GT. 20) GOTO 230 CONTINUE 13=I3176 14=(IlI2) FESU1=(13)*(10**I4) FESU2=FESU2+RESUl CONTINUE FESU2, STATU1, STATU2) CALL TCCON(TCNUMB, IF(STATU2. EQ. 1) GOTO 170 IF(STATU2. GT. 1) GOTO 210 TCNUMB=2300 LINBUF(I)=RESU2 STATU1=1 RESU2=00000 GOTO 220 CONTINUE J5=11 CALL FOFMAT(j6, FBUF, LINBUF, J5)
226
180 190
240
300
IF(J5. EQ.0) COTO 180 WHITE(I, FBUF)(LINBUF(I9), I9=1, J5) WEITE(1,190)TCCON1 FOFMAT(I4) IF(J5. EQ.0) COTO200 CALL FOEMAT(J6, FBUF,LINBUF, J5) WRITE(6, FBUF)(LINBUF(I9), I9=1, J5) WRITE(6,190)TCCONI I=LINLEN CONTINUE IF(STATU2. NE.O) COTO240 CONTINUE IF(COUNT.GE20) LINLEN=I1 IF(LINLEN. LT. 1) COTO240 CALL FORMAT(j6,FBUF,LINBUF, LINLEN) WRITE(1, FBUF)(LINBUF(I9), I9=1, LINLEN) WRITE(6, FBUF)(LINBUF(I9), I9=1, LINLEN) I=LINLEN CALL FORMAT(j6,FBUF,LINBUF, LINLEN) TCNUMB=TCCONl 12=Il IF(COUNT.GE20) COTO250 COTO 130 CONTINUE DO 260 K3=1,16 INNBUF(K3)=000000 CONTINUE WRITE(1,120)TROFF WPITE(1,270) FOFMAT(lDo you want another run') WFITE(1,280) FOFMAT(16HTypeY or N CALL TIIN(I7) IF(I7. EQ.206) COTO300 IF(If. EQ.217) COTO 10 COTO290 CONTINUE O, O, FUNIT, O, CODE) CALL SFCH$$(K$CLOS, CALL DUPLX$(:20000) CALL EXIT END EESU2,COUNT) SUBROUTINE REINT(I3, I4, I2, RESU1, INTEGER*4 13, I4, I2, FESU1,FESU2,COUNT IF(I3. EQ. 128) COUNT=COUNT+l IF(I3. NE. 128) COUNT=000000 13=176 14=000000 12=000000 RESU2=000000 FESU1=000000 RETURN END SUBROUTINE TCCON(TCNUt4B, FESU2,STATUI, STATU2) INTEGEF*4 TCNUMB, FESU2
227
10
20 30
40
10
10
INTEGER STATUI, STATU2 IF(RESU2. GE. 1900) STATU2=STATU2+1 IF(RESU2. LT1900) STATU2=000000 RETURN END SUBROUTINE FOPHAT(j6, FBUF, LINBUF, J5) INTEGER14 LINBUF(10) INTEGER FBUF(34), IMBUF1(68), IMBUF2(68), OFBUF(34), JI, J2 1, J3, J4, J5, j6, WRDLEN(10), K9, J DATA OFBUF/68H(I3, lH,, I3, lH,, I3, lH,, I3, IH,, I3, lH,, I3, lH,, I3, lH,, I3 1, lH,, 13, lH,, I3) DO 10 K9=1,34 FBUF(K9)r. OFBLT(K9) CONTINUE CALL UNFACK(OFBUF,IMBUFl, 34) CALL UNFACK(FBUF, IMBUF2,34) DO 30 J=1,10 DO 20 JI=1,9 J2=9Ji J3=LINBUF(J)/10**J2 IF(J3. GE. 10) GOTO 20 IF(J3. GE. 1) WFDLEN(J)=J2+1 EQ. 0) WEDLENOW IF(LINBUF(J). CONTINUE CONTINUE J6=1 DO 40 J4=1,68 NE. 119) GOTO 40 IF(IMBUF1(J4). IMBUF2(J4)=WRDLEN(j6)+176 J6=J6+1 IF(J6GT. J5) IMBUF2(J4+4)=160 CONTINUE CALL FACKIT(IMBUF2, FBUF, 34) RETURN END SUBBOUTINE UNFACK(INBUFF, IMBUF1, Nl) INTEGER INBUFF(34), IMBUF1(68), J, J2, J3, Nl DO 10 Jzl, Nl J2=2*J J3=J21 IMUFl(J3)=(INBUFF(J)/2561)*256 IMBUF1(J2)=(INBUFF(J)IMBUF1(J3)) IMBUF1(J3)=(IMBUF1(J3)/256)+256 CONTINUE RETURN END SUBROUTINE PACKIT(INBUFF, IMBUF1, Nl) INTEGER INBUFF(68), IMBUFI(34), J, J2, J3, Nl DO 10 J=1, Nl J2=2*J J3=J21 IMBUF1(J)=INBUFF(J3)*256 IMBUF1(J)=IMBUF1(J)+INBUFF(J2) CONTINUE
228
FETUFN END SUBPOUTINE EFPF(CODE) INTEGER CODE CALL EFFPR$(2, CODE,lWRONG AGAIN BRUCEI, 18, 'FADEI, 4) RETURN END SUBROUTINE EFROR(CP) INTEGER*4 CP E, TYPE INTEGER NAMBUF(16), FUNIT, K$CLOS, COD COn4ON/Al/NAMBUF, FUNIT CAL& SRCH$$(: 4,0,0, FUNIT, TYPE, CODE) CALL DUPLX$(: 20000) CALL TONL CALL TONL CALL TNOU('End of tape input. 1,18) CALL TONL CALL EXIT RETURN END
229
H. 5.
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10 FEM 20 FEM LIST OF MODIFICATIONSFROM16.06.80 KCAL/K 0.24+T/1000*0.028 NOW AIR HT. REM SPECIFIC 30 40 REM SLURRY VELOCITY IN STANTON NO. NOWHAS AXIAL THE FROM SIMPLIFIED IS VISCOSITY GAS AS FADIAL. REM WELL 50 NOW IN 60 REM EXPRESSION BASED ON INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS .... 70 REM TEMPERATUFE/MOISTUFECONTENT FORMULATION. 80 REM DRYING PATE ADDED 23.06.80 100 REM 110 REM SID TAKES DATA GENERATEDFROM THE HOT KILN CHAIN FOR GROUPS READY DIMENSIONLESS PRODUCES REM MODEL 120 MREG. FROGRAM SYSTEM BY CORRELATION REM 130 200 REM 6 AND 2,3,4,5 TO 1; WFITE 210 REM FILES: READ FROM 220 REM NAME" FILE INPUT PRINT "GIVE 230 240 INPUT F$ 250 DEFINE FILE #1=F$ 260 PRINT"GIVE OUTPUT FILE NAME" 270 INPUT G$ 280 DEFINE FILE #2=G$ FILE READ ONTO THE TYPED MANUALLY IS THIS DATA REM 290 (WT. MOIST. IN/MID/OUT REM X13 300 ) /HR. FLOWS(KG. SLURRY AND GAS 310 FEMG1,G2 ARE (DEG. C) TEMP. IN REM T IS GAS 320 330 REM Z IS RUN NO. () (RPM) SPEED REM Zl IS ROT. 340 STARTS HERE 350 REM PROGRAM 360 GOSUB 3200 370 REM GOSUB CONSTS. AND DIMENSIONS Zl N(2), N(3), N(l), X3, X2, Xl, T, T(24), * G2, #1, G1, READ Z, 380 390 PRINT Z, G1, G2, T, T(24), XI, X2, X3, N(l), N(2), N(3), Zl 400 GOSUB 3150 410 REM GOSUB INTERPOLATE GAS TEMPS BETWEENBAYS FROM 411 REM IN AND OUT VALUES 420 GOSUB 4040 430 REM SUB PFINT. IT 440 FOR I=l TO 13 450 E=O 460 Sl=o 470 P=O 480 GOSUB 2780 490 REM GOSUB READ PAW DATA, CHAIN (I<10), WALL (I>10) 500 NEXT I 510 REM GOSUB READ PAW DATA, GAS, EVEN NOS.ONLY 520 FOR I=l TO 10 530 GOSUB 3070 540 REM GOSUB WALL TEMP. ITERATE 550 GOSUB 930 560 REM EVALUATE GEN.TEMP.VALUES 570 GOSUB 1000 580 REM EVALUATE HT. TFANS. TO CHAIN 590 NEXT I 600 PRINT
233
610 WRITE #2,11 11 620 FOR I=11 TO 13 630 GOSUB 1900 640 REM GOSUB SETUP TEMP. VALUES 650 GOSUB 1450 660 REM GOSUB HT. TFANS. T0 WALL 670 NEXT I 680 GOSUB 2170 690 REM GOSUB INTERPOLATE MOIST. CONTENTS 700 FEINT 710 WFITE #2,11 11 714 FOE I= I TO 10 718 NEXT I 720 FOR I=l TO 9 730 GOSUB3070 740 REM GOSUB WALL TEMP. ITERATE 750 GOSUB 2700 760 FEM GOSUB CONTROLSUBROUTINE 770 NEXT I 771 REM WORKOUT DRYING FATES AND HTC BASED ON EVAPORATION 772 GOSUB 6000 780 REM 790 GOTO 4300 WET GAS TEMPERATURE 800 REM SUB MAXMIN .......... 810 IF I0P THEN 870 820 IF V>Ml THEN 840 830 Ml=V 840 IF V<=M2 THEN 860 850 M2=V 86o GOTO 890 870 Ml=V 880 M2=V 890 F(I)=M2 900 P=I 910 RETURN 920 REM SUB GEN TEMP VALUES 930 T2=N(I) 940 R2=T2+273 950 Tl=T(I+13) 960 Rl=Tl+273 970 R4=T4+273 980 RETURN 990 REM SUB CHAIN/GAS, CHAIN/SLURRY HTCS looc) H1=0 loic ) H2=0 ) L1=0 102C ) L2=0 103C ) Z2=0 104C ) Pl=l 105C ) FOR N=2 TO S(I) 106C ) T9=C(I, N)C(I, N1) 107C ) Q9=M3*C3*T9/S(I) 108C ) IF T9>0 THEN 1200 109C 1 loc) IF T9>0 AND Pl=l THEN 1200
234
1110 1120 1130 1140 1150 1160 1170 1180 1190 1200 1210 1220 1230 1240 1250 1260 1270 1280 1290 1300 1310 1320 1330 1340 1350 1360 1370 1380 1390 1400 1410 1420 1430 1440 1450 1460 1470 1480 1490 1500 1510 1520 1530 1540 1550 1560 1570 1580 1590 1600 1610 1620 1630 1640
T9=(C(I, N)+C(I, N1))/2 Z2=Z2+Q9 T9=T9T2 Pl=O Ll=Ll+l IF T9=0 THEN 1320 02=ABS(Q9/(08*T9)) H2=H2+02 GOTO 1320 R9=273+(C(I, N)+C(I, N1))/2 R9=F9**4 Pl=l L2=L2+1 Q3=S*A3*(R9Fl**4) Q8=S*A8*(E9F4**4) Q2=S*A2*(R9R2**4) Q9=Q9(Q3+Q8+Q2)/3600 T9=Tl(C(I, N)+C(I, N1))/2 IF T9=0 THEN 1320 01=Q9/(08*T9) Hl=Hl+ABS(Ol) NEXT N IF L2=0 THEN 1350 Hl=HI/L2*3600 IF Ll=O THEN 1390 H2=H2/Ll*3600 Z2=Z2*3600/Ll Q(I)=Z2 PRINT "Hl=", INT(Hl*100)/100, 'IH2=", INT(H2*100)/100 WRITE #2, "Hl=", HI, VIH2=", H2 H(I)=Hl H(I+10)=H2 RETURN REM SUB WALL/GAS, WALL/SLURRY HTCS H3=0 Z4=0 H4=0 Ll=O Pl=l L2=0 FOR N=2 TO S(I) T9=C(I, N)C(I, N1) Q9=M4*c3*T9/S(I) IF T9>0 THEN 1660 IF T9=0 AND Pl=l THEN 1660 T9=(C(I, N)+C(I, N1))/2 Q9=Q9+L*09/3600 Z4=Z4+Q9 T9=T9T2 IF T9=0 THEN 1640 04=ABS(Q9/(09*T9)) H4=H4+04 Pl=o Ll=Ll+l
235
1650 1660 1670 1680 1690 1700 1710 1720 1730 1740 1750 1760 1770 1780 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080 2090 2100 2110 2120 2130 2140 2150 2160 2170 2180
GOTO1780 F9=T9+273 R9=P9**4 Pl=l L2=L2+1 Q7=S*A7*(R9Rl**4) Q8=S*A8*(E9E6**4) Q5=S*A9"(R9R2**4) Q9=Q9(Q5+Q7+Q8L*09)/3600 T9=Tl(C(I, N)+C(I, N1))/2 IF T9=0 THEN 1780 03=Q9/(09*T9) H3=H3+ABS(03) NEXT N H3=H3/L2*3600 IF Ll=O THEN 1880 H4=H4/LI*3600 PRINT 'IH3=", INT(H3"100)/10091IH4=11, INT(H4*100)/100 H4 WRITE #2, 'IH3=", H3, 'IH4=11, H(I+10)=H3 H(I+13)=H4 Z4=Z4*3600/Ll Q(I)=Q(I)+Z4 RETURN REMSUB SETUPTEMPVALUES IF I=11 THEN 1970 IF I=12 THEN 2020 T2=N(9) Q(I)=Q(9) Tl=T(18) T6=T(9) GOTO2060, T2=N(3) Q(I)=Q(3) Tl=T(15) T6=T(3) GOTO2060 T2=N(6) Q(I)=Q(6) Tl=(T(16)+T(17))/2 T6=T(6) Rl=TI+213 E2=T2+273 T4=T(I) R4=T4+273 R6=T6+273 REMPREDICTED SHELL HEAT LOSSES L=((8813/(R4273)9.18)*(D**3)*1000000*(R4273)/2)**(1/3) L=L*0.13*(R4+72)*(R4293)/D/16670 lE3*(R4373))*(R4**4293**4) L=L+4.88*0. lE7*(0.965.2*0. RETURN CONTENTS REMSUB INTERPOLATE MOISTURE X(1)=Xl X(6)=X2
236
2190 2200 2210 2220 2230 2240 2250 2260 2270 2280 2290 2300 2310 2320 2330 2340 2350 2360 2370 2380 2390 2400 2410 2411 2420 2440 2450 2460 2470 2480 2490 2500 2510 2520 2530 2540 2550 2560 2570 2580 2590 2600 2610 2611 2620 2630 2640 2650 2660 2670 2680 26go 2700
X(11)=X3 FOE W=2 TO 5 X(W)=(X(6)X(1))/5 X(W)=X(W)*(W1)+X(l) NEXT W FOR W=7 TO 10 X(W)=(X(li)X(6))/5 X(W)=X(W)*(W6)+X(6) NEXT W RETURN REM SUB MOISTURE ADJUSTMENT THEN 2350 IF I01 M=G2*(X(10)X(l)) M=M/(X(10)100) Gl=Gl+M GOTO 2400 Ml=G2*(X(I+1)X(I)) Ml=Ml/(X(I+1)ioo) G1=G1M1 G2=G2Ml M=MM1 G=M/G1*100 Q3=M1*539.4 R(I)=MI/0.37366 RETURN REM SUB SETUP TEMP VALUES R9=N(I)+273 C9=(8.22+0.15E3*R9+0.134E5*(R9**2))/18 C2=0.26161*(lX(I+1)/100)+(C9*X(I)/100) Rl=T(I+13)+273 R4=T4+273 R6=T(I)+273 RETURN R9=(R9**4) REM SUB GAS/SLURFY HTC Ql=S*Bl*(R9Rl**4) Q2=S*A5*(R9R4**4) Q8=S*A2*(R9R6**4) Q9=G2*C2*(N(I+I)N(I)) Q9=Q9+Ql+Q2+Q8+Q3 Q9=Q9+Q(I) Q9=Q9+L/10*(10.388) Heat losses from shell REM 07.05.80... REM ADJUSTED ON THE ABOVE LINE T9=T(I+13)(N(I+I)+N(I))/2 IF T9=0 THEN 2690 H5=ABS(Q9/(. 02272*T9)) IF T9=0THEN 2690 PRINT IIH5=", INT(H5*100)/100 WRITE #2, 'IH5=", H5 H(I+26)=H5 RETURN REM SUB CONTROLOTHER SUBROUTINES
2430 W=I+13
in
slurry
are
237
2710 2711 2720 2730 2740 2750 2760 2770 2780 2790 2800 2810 2820 2830 2840 2850 2860 2870 2880 2890 2900 2910 2920 2930 2936 2940 2950 2960 2970 2980 2990 3000 3010 3020 3030 3040 3050 3060 3070 3080 3090 3100 3110 3120 3130 3140 3150 3160 3170 3180 3190 3200 3210 3220
SET UP TEMP VALUES REM ADJUST MOISTURE CONTENTS, REM EVALUATE GAS/SLURFY REM HTCS, EVALUATE PForS AND THEN DIMENSIONLESS NOS GOSUB 2300 GOSUB 2430 GOSUB 2520 GOSUB 3680 RETURN REM SUB READ IT ALL IN N=l IF E=O THEN 2820 GOTO 2840
239
3230 3240 3250 3260 3270 3280 3290 3300 3310 3320 3330 3340 3350 3360 3370 3380 3390 3400 3410 3420 3430 3440 3450 3460 3470 3480 3490 3500 3510 3520 3530 3540 3550 356o 3580 3590 3600 361o 3620 3630 3640
A2=0.512E2 A3=0.424E2 A4=0.7124E1 A5=0.2605E1 A6=2.808/10 A7=0.512E2 A8=0.1647E1 A9=0.512E2 F1=0388 H=36 Bl=0.2E2 B2=0.6499E1 B3=0.2919 C3=0.1222 DIM T(30), S(30), C(30,200) DIM X(11), J(20), H(40) DIM M(10), N(ll) DIM A(36), B(54), D(18) DIM W(10) DIM Q(13), F(20) D1=03048 M3=0.927 M4=9.4 S=0.488E7 G8=Gl D=03293 D4=. 0125 RETURN REM SUB PROPERTIES FOR RE, NU, PF NOS. ARE DYN. VISC. OF 02/N2/H2O/CO2 REM Ul/U/U9/U3 Ul=G/1O0*(00013*F8+032) 0685) 000li9*F8+. U9=(IOOG)/100*(. ul=ul+u9 S9=30159*Zl U2=24077*(F8**0.2321)/(S9**0.9024*(X(I)/100)**5.6378) C8=0.24+(F8+273)*0.28E1/1000 C9=(8.22+0.15E3*(F8+273)+0.134E5*((F8+273)**2))/18 Cl=C8*(IOOG)/IOO+C9*G/100 K8=i. 405*Ul*C8 K9=U9*C9*0.968 Kl=KB*(IOOG)/100+K9*G/100
3570 D3=100000/(X(I)+(100X(I))/265)
0082)**2+(3142*D*Zl*60)**2)**0.5)
239
3770 3780 3790 3800 3810 3820 3830 3840 3850 3860 3870 3880 3890 3900 3910 3920 3930 3940 3950 3960 3970 3980 3990 4000 4010 4020 4030 4040 4050 4060 4070 4080 4090 4100 4110 4120 4130 4140 4150 4160 4170 4180 4190 4200 4210 4220 4230 4240 4250 4260 4270 428o 4290 4300
F8=(T(I+13)+T4)/2 3510 GOSUB F3=0.2877*Gl/B2/Ul N3=H(I+20)*0.2877/Kl F8=(N(I)+T4)/2 GOSUB3510 R4=. 59847*D*Zl*D3/U2 0082)**2+(3142*D*ZI*60)**2)**0.5) S4=H(I+23)/(C2*D3*((G2/D3/. P4=C2*U2/K2 3510 GOSUB R5=0.2877*GI/B2/Ul N5=H(I+26)*1.1894/Kl A(I)=El A(I+9)=Nl A(I+18)=R3 A(I+27)=N3 B(I)=R2 B(I+9)=P2 B(I+18)=S2 B(I+27)=F4 B(I+36)=P4 B(I+45)=S4 D(I)=R5 D(I+9)=N5 RETURN GOSUB4300 GOTO4860 REMSUB WRITEIT Z, PRINT "RUN NUMBER=11, PRINT Zl, "RPM" Gl, "KG. /HF. " PRINT "GAS MASSFLOW=11, G2, llKG. /HR. " PRINT "SLURRYMASSFLOW=", KCAL/H. M2.DEG C" PRINT 11 NUMBER=11, Z, WRITE#2,11RUN WRITE #2, Zl, "RPM" Gl, llKG. /HR. " WRITE #2,11GASMASSFLOW=l', G2, "KG. /HR. " MASSFLOW=ll, WRITE #2,11SLURRY KCAL/H.M2.Cll WRITE #2,11 KCAL/H. M2. C VALUES REMSUB ITERATE SLURRYTEMP. N(6)=N(2) N(11)=N(3) FOR I=2 TO 5 N(I)=(N(6)N(l))/5 N(I)=N(I)*(I1)+N(l) NEXT I FOR I=7 TO 10 N(I)=(N(11)N(6))/5 N(I)=N(I)*(I6)+N(6) NEXT I 2160 GOSUB RETURN REMSUBROUTINE DIAGNOSTICPRINT. IT PRINT 1111 TEN BAYS" PRINT "GAS TEMPTHROUGH
240
4310 4320 4330 4340 4350 4360 4370 4380 4390 4400 4410 4420 4430 4440 4450 4460 4470 4480 4490 4500 4510 4520 4530 4540 4550 4560 4570 4580 4590 4600 4610 4620 4630 4640 4650 4660 4670 4680 4690 4700 47 10 4720 4730 4740 if
4750 4760 4770 4780 4790 4800 4810 4820 HM2.
FOR I=14 TO 23 PRINT T(I), NEXT I PRINT PRINT "SLURRY TEMP.THROUGHBAYS" FOR I=l TO 10 PRINT N(I), NEXT I PRINT PRINT "SLURRY MOISTURE THROUGHBAYS" FOP I=l TO 10 PRINT X(I), NEXT I REM SUB WRITE DIM GROUPSTO FILE FOR ANALYSIS NU(GAS: CHAIN)ll WRITE #2,11 PE(GAS: CHAIN) FOR I=l TO 9 WHITE #2, A(I), A(I+9) NEXT I NU(GAS: WALL)lf WRITE #2.11RE(GAS: WALL) FOR I=l TO 9 WRITE #2, A(I+18), A(I+27) NEXT I ST(SWCHAIN)'' WRITE #2, "RE(SL: CHAIN) PR(SL: CHAIN)
FOR I=l
TO 9
WRITE #2, B(I), B(I+9), B(I+18) NEXT I ST(SL: WALL)" WRITE #2, "RE(SL: WALL) PR(SL: WALL) FOR I=l TO 9 WRITE #2, B(I+27), B(I+36), B(I+45) NEXT I NU(GAS: SL)II WRITE #2, "FE(GAS: SL) FOR I=l TO 9 WRITE #2, D(I), D(I+9) NEXT I F8=(T+T(24))/2 GOSUB 3510 PRINT 11 11 WRITE #2,11 11 Q=GI*Cl*(TT(24)) TI=TN(I) T2=T(24)N(10) Tl=(TlT2)/(LOG(TI/T2)) H=Q/(Tl*3.7366) WFITE #2, "OVERALL HTC GAS TO SLURPY (GAS SIDE)=", H, "KCAL/H. M. DEG.C PRINT "OVERALL HTC GAS: SLURRY (gas side)=ll, H, llKCAL/H. M2. DEG. Cll PRINT 11 11 WRITE #2,11 11 FB=(N(1)+N(10))12 GOSUB 3510 Q=G2*C2*(N(10)N(l)) H=Q/(TI*3.7366) HINT "OVEFALL HTC GAS: SLUFRY (slurry IIKCAL/ side)=I', INT(H*100)/100, DEG.CII
241
C M2.DEG. HTC GAS:SLUFRY (SLURRYSIDE)=11,H, 11KCAL/H. 4830 WRITE #2,11OVERALL is HTC's are based on the total internal 4840 PRINT "The above overall surf ace area" HTC's are based on the total internal s 4850 WRITE #2, "The above overall urface area" 4860 Hl=H(I)+H(2)+H(3)+H(4)+H(5)+H(6)+H(7)+H(8)+H(9)+H(IO) 4870 H2=H(11)+H(12)+H(13)+H(14)+H(15)+H(16)+H(17)+H(18)+H(19)+H(20) 4880 H3=H(21)+H(22)+H(23) 4890 H4=H(24)+H(25)+H(26) 4900 H5=H(27)+H(28)+H(29)+H(30)+H(31)+H(32)+H(33)+H(34)+H(35) 4910 FOR I=2 TO 9 4920 A(I)=A(I)+A(I1) 4930 A(I+9)=A(I+9)+A(I+8) 4940 A(I+18)=A(I+18)+A(I+17) 4950 A(I+27)=A(I+27)+A(I+26) 4960 B(I)=B(I)+B(I1) 4970 B(I+9)=B(I+9)+B(I+8) 4980 B(I+18)=B(I+18)+B(I+17) 4990 B(I+27)=B(I+27)+B(I+26) 5000 B(I+36)=B(I+36)+B(I+35) 5010 B(I+45)=B(I+45)+B(I+44) 5020 D(I)=D(I)+D(I1) 5030 D(I+9)=D(I+9)+D(I+B) 5040 NEXT I 5050 J=O VALUES FIND AVERAGE 5060 REMTHE ABOVEARRAYSUMMATIONS 5070 K=O 5080 L=O 5090 M=O 5100 N=O 5110 FOR I=1 TO 35 5120 IF H(I)=O THEN 5260 5130 IFI>26 THEN 5250 5140 IF I>23 THEN 5230 5150 IF I>20 THEN 5210 516o IF I>10 THEN 5190 5110 J=J+l 5180 GOTO5260 5190 K=K+l 5200 GOTO5260 5210 L=L+l 5220 GOTO5260 5230 M=M+1 5240 GOTO5260 5250 N=N+l 5260 NEXT I 5270 U=J/Hl+K/H2+L/H3+WH4+N/H5 5280 PRINT "Average values of the individual are as follows coefficients 5290 PRINT Gas: Chain=", Hl/J, "HTC Slurry: Chain=", H2/K, "HTC Gas: Wall= 5300 PRINT 11HTC H3/L, "HTC Slurry: Wall=", H4/M, "HTC Gas: Slurryz", H5/N 11, HTC calculated from H1H5 is11, INT(1/U*100)/100,11KCA 5310 PRINT "Overall
242
L/H. F2. DEG.C11 are as follows" 5320 WRITE #2,11Average values of individual coefficients 5330 WRITE #2,11 11 HTC Gas: Wa 5340 WRITE #2, "HTC Gas: Chain=", H1/J, 11HTCSlurry: Chain=", H2/K, 11 H5/N ll=11, H3/L, 11HTCSlurry: Wall=", H4/M, "HTC Gas: Slurry=", from H1H5 is11,1/U, 11KCAL/HM2.DEGC HTC calculated 5350 WRITE #2, "Overall 5360 PRINT 11 11 5370 WRITE #2 , 11 11 5380 PRINT "Average values of dimensionless groups over the model length arell 5390 WRITE #2,11Average values of dimensionless groups over the model len gth are" TNT(A(9+9)*100/ "Nu(gas: chain)=II, 5400 PRINT "Re(gas: chain)=11 TNT(A(9)/9), 9)/100 11 Nu(gas: chain)= 11,TNT(A(9+9)* 1 5410 WRITE #2, "Re(gas: chain)= 11,INT(A(9)/9) 00/9)/100 11Nu(gas: wall)= 11,INT(A(9+27) * 10 5420 PRINT "Re(gas: wall)= 11,INT(A(9+18)/9) 0/9)/100 11Nu(gas: wall)=11, INT(A(9+27) INT(A(9+18)/9) 5430 WRITE #2, "Re(gas: wall)=", *100/9)/100 (slurry: VI 0000, "Pr * 10000/9 INT(B(9) cha 5440 WRITE #2, "Re (slurry: chain)=", TNT(B(q+18)*10000/q)/1O "St(slurry: INT(B(9+9)*100/9)/100, in)=", chain)='I 0 (slurry: / 10000, * "Pr 10000/9) 11 TNT(B(9) PRINT Re(sl 11 chain) 5450 urry: chain) = , INT(B(9+18)*10000/9)/10000 "St(slurry: INT(B(9+9)*100/9)/100, chain)=", =11, "Pr(slurry: 5460 PRINT "Re(slurry: wall wall)=11 TNT(B(9+27)*10000/9)/10000, INT(B(9+45)*10000/9)/1000 "St(slurry: )=", INT(B(9+36)*100/9)/100, wall)=", (slurry: 10000, "Pr * 10000/9)/ TNT(B(9+27) w 5470 WRITE #2, "Re(slurry: wallW', INT(B(9+45)*10000/9)/1 tfStslurry: TNT(B(9+36)*100/9)/100, 1) wall)=", al. 00 TNT (D(9+9)/9 "Nu(gas: slurry)=" INT(D(9)/9) 5480 PRINT "Re(gas: slurryW', 5481 N9=GI*Cl*(T(23)T(14))/(G2*C2*(N(10)N(l))+(X(10)X(l))/(X(10)100) *G2*539.4) 1/N9*100 5482 PRINT "Overall efficiency=", "Nu(gas: slurryW', INT(D(9)/9) 5490 WRITE #2, "Re(gas: slurry)=", /9) 5491 GOTO 7000 6000 REM SUBROUTINE DRYING RATE COEFFICIENT 6001 PRINT 11HTCbased on drying rate ......... rate calen/Drying ***Kg/hm2l' 6002 WRITE #2,11HTC based on drying rate ....... rate calen/Drying C**Kg/hm2l'
6040 6050 6060 FOR T= I TO 10 J(I)=T(I+13)F(I) NEXT 1
INT(D(9+9)
Kcal/m2C Kcal/hm2
FOR I=1 TO 9 J(I)=(J(I+1)J(I))/LOG(J(I+I)/J(I)) H9=R(! )*(59731T(I+13)/100*58.31)/J(I) PRINT H9, R(I) WRITE #2, H9, R(I) NEXT I RETURN
243
H. 6.
NUMERICAL
SOLUTION
244
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
90
REAL KI, K2, K8, K9, M3, M4, M9, L, N, INGAST COMMON//H3,Kl, T, D1, GI, UI, Al, INGAST, XSLRYT, T9, C3, M3, Q, Q1, H, C1, N, 1 T8, T7, M9, SLURYT, G9, D2, G2, Xl, G7, X, G8, C8, C9, U8, U9, K8, K9, R, 2 P, F2, F8 PEAD(5, *)MAXBAY, INGAST, SLURYT, WALLMT,G1, G2, U2, C3, K2 PEAD(5, *)H, N, F1, F2, AI, A2, A3, A4, A5 PEAD(5, *)A6, A7, A8, A9, BI, Dl, D2, M3, M4, NCHAIN G8=Gl G7=G2 Xl=0.0 XZ0.0 S=0.488E7 P=3.1415926535897 DO 530 NOBAY=I, MAXBAY L=N*Fl WEITE(1,10)NOBAY WRITE(1,20)NCHAIN WRITE(1,30)INGAST WRITE(1,40)SLUPYT WEITE(1,50)GI WRITE(1,60)G2 WEITE(1,70)N WRITE(1,80)L FORMAT(' BAY NO.1, I3) FOFMAT(l NUMBEROF CHAINS PER BAYI, T35,1 =', 13) FOFMAT(l GAS TEMPERATUEEI,T35,1 =', F7.2,1 C. 1) FORMAW SLURRY TEMPERATUREI,T35, ' =', F7.2,1 C. 1) FORMAW GAS FLOWRATEI,T35, ' =', F9.2,1 KG/HR/M2') FOFMAT(l SLURRY FLOWFATE1,T35, ' =', F9.2,1 KG/HR/M2') FORMAT(' TIME FOR ONE FEVOLUTIONI, T35, ' zl, F5.1,1 SECONDS') FORMAT(' CHAIN TIME IN GAS PER EEVI, T35,1 =', F5.1,1 SECONDS') OLDT=210.0 XSLRYT=210.0 Sl=1.0 Q8=0.0 S2=0.0 Q=0.0 Q9=0.0 CGASMT=0.O IMAX=INT(L) DO 100 J2=1, IMAX T9=(INGAST+XSLRYT)*0.5 CALL S224 Rl=INGAST+2"13.0 F2=SLUPYT+2"i3. O F4=XSLEYT+273.0 F3=WALLMT+273.0 Hl=(Kl*0.174*(Dl*GI/Ul)**0.618)/(DI*3600.0) Ql=Hl*Al*(INGASTXSLRYT) P44=F4*R4*R4*F4 Q2=A3*S*2*((El**4)R44)/(3600.0*H*Fl) Q3=A2*S*2*(R44(F2**4))/(3600.0*H*Fl) Q5=AB*S*2*(R44(E3**4))/(3600.0*H*Fl) Q4=Q2Q3Q5
245
QI=Ql+Q4 T9=Ql/(C3*M3) XSLEYT=XSLRYT+T9 Q=Q+Ql Qg=Qg+Q4 100 CGASMT=CGASMT+XSLRYT T9=Q*900.0*H/(Cl*Gl*N*P*Dl*Dl) T8=INGASTT9 E8=T8+2i3. O Q9=Q9*36oo.O/N CGASMT=CGASMT/(N*Fl) E6=CGASMT+273.0 Q=0.0 CALL S197 IMAX=INT(N*(lFIF2)) DO 110 J3=1, IMAX C2=0.2616*(lXl)+1.00763*xl 33)/(D2* H2=(0.35+0.56*(D2*G2/U2)**0.52)*K2*((C2*U2/K2)**O. 1 3600.0) Ql=H2*Al*(XSLFYTSLUFYT) T9=Ql/(C3*M3) XSLRYT=XSLRYTT9 110 Q=Q+Ql Q=Q*3600.0/N Y=XSLRYTOLDT IF(Y)120,130,120 120 IF(SIGN(l. 0, Y). EQ.S2)GOTO 140 130 IF(Y+S2. EQ.O. O)GOTO140 Sl=Sl*0.5 GOTO150 140 Sl=Sl*2.0 150 IF(ABS(Y). LE. 0.1)GOTO 180 XSLRYT=XSLRYT+Y*Sl OLDT=XSLFYT IF(Y)160,170,160 160 S2=SIGN(l. 0, Y) 170 S2=0.0 GOTO90 180 H4=3600.0*Hl H5=3600.0*H2 WRITE(1,190)H4 WRITE(1,200)H5 WRITE(1,210)XSLRYT WRITE(1,220)T7 WRITE(1,230)CGASMT QH=Q*H WRITE(1,240)QH WRITE(1,250)Q9 CALL S209 WRITE(1,260)T8 190 FOFMAT(l CONVECTIVE H. T. C. GASCHAINI, T40,1 =', FT3,1 KCAL/HR/M 12/C. 1) 200 FOFMAT(l CONVECTIVE H. T. C. SLURRYCHAINI, T40,1 =', F7.3,1 KCAL/H IR/M2/C. 1)
246
FORMAT(' CHAIN TEMPERATUREEX SLUEFYI, T40,1 =', F7.2,1 C. 1) FORMAT(! CHAIN TEMPERATUREPPE SLUFFYI, T40,1 zl, F7.2,1 C. 1) FORMAT(' MEAN CHAIN TEMPERATUREIN GASI, T40,1 =', F7.2,1 C. 1) FORMAT(' TOTAL HEAT TRANSFEREDBY CHAINSI, T40,1 =', F9.3,1 KCAL/ 1HPI) FORMAT(' HEAT TRANSFER BY RADIATION TO CHAINSI, T40,1 =', F6.3,1 IKCAL/HFI) FOFMAT(l GAS TEMPERATUREEX CHAINSI, T35, ' =', F7.2) OLDT=XSLRYT
C2=0.2616*(lXl)+1.00763*Xl
XSLRYT=Tt+50.0 Sl=1. O S2=0.0 Q=0.0 WALLMT=0.0
270
H3=(KI*0.58*(Dl*Gl/Ul)**0.686)/(Dl*3600.0)
Ql=H3*A4*(T8XSLRYT)/N Q2=A7*S*(E8**4R44)/(3600.0*N) Q3=A9*S*(R44R2**4)/(3600.0*N) Q4=A8*S*2*(F6**4R44)/(3600.0*N) Q8=((Dl**3)*(R4293.0)*((8813.4/(R42730))918)*500000.0 )**0.33
247
290
**0.33 Q8=Q8*(0.13*(F4+72.0)/(DI*16670.0))*(E42930) Q8=QB+S*(0.960.52E3*(R4373.0))*((R4**4)(293.0**4)) Q8=Q8*A5/(3600.0*N) QI=QlQ8 T9=Ql/(C3*M4) XSLEYT=XSLEYTTg Q=Q+Ql Q=Q*3600.0 Y=XSLRYTOLDT IF(Y)300,310,300 IF(SIGN(l. 0, Y). EQ.S2)GOTO320 IF((Y+S2). EQ.O. O)GOTO320 Sl=SI*0.5 GOTO330 SI=Sl*2.0 IF (ABS(Y). LE. O. I)GOTO 360 XSLEYT=XSLRYT+Y*Sl OLDT=XSLRYT IF(Y)340,350,340 S2=SIGN(I. 0, Y) S2=0.0 GOTO270 Q8=((Dl**3)*(R3293.0)*((8813.4/(E32730))918)*500000.0 )**0.33 Q8=Q8*(0.13*(R3+72.0)/(Dl*16670.0))*(R32930) Q8=Q8+S*(0.960.52E3*(E3373.0))*((F3**4)(293.0**4)) Q8=QB*DI*Dl*P*0.3333333333333 H8=H3*3600.0 H9=H4*3600.0 E24=F2*R2*R2*E2 P34=R3*R3*R3*R3 F64=R6*R6*R6*R6 Q"I=A2*S*2*(E64R24)+AB*S*2*(R34R64) Q"i=Q7+BI*S*(E8**4R24)+A9*S*(R34F24) T9=(T8+'MRYT)*0.5 CALL S224 H3=(Kl*0.58*(DI*Gl/Ul)**0.686)/(DI*3600.0) Q6=H3*A6*3600.0*(T8SLURYT) T9=(Q6+Q7+Q8)/(Cl*Gl*DI*Dl*P*0.25) T8=F9T9 H6=H3*3600.0 WRITE(1,370)H8 WEITE(1,380)Hg WRITE(1,390)H6 WRITE(1,400)XSLEYT WRITE(1,410)T7 WRITE(1,420)WALLMT WRITE(lp430)Q WRITE(1,440)Q9 WEITE(1,450)Q6 WRITE(1,460)Q7 CALL S209 WRITE(1,470)T8
248
370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530
WRITE(1,480)Q8 X6=Xl*loo. o WFITE(1,490)X6 WFITE0,500) WRITEO 510) WRITE(l 520) FORMAT(' CONVECTIVE H. T. C. GASWALL' T35,1 =1 F7.3,1 KCAL/HR/M2 i/C. 1) FORMATO  CONVECTIVE H. T. C. SLUERYWALLI, T35, ' =', F7.3,1 KCAL/HR
I/M2/C. 1) FORMAW CONVECTIVE H. T. C. GASSLURRYI, T35, ' =', F7.3, ' KCAL/HP/ IM2/C. 1) FORMAT(' WALL TEMPERATUREEX SLURRYI, T35,1 =', F7.2,1 C. 1) FORMAT(' WALL TEMPERATUREPRE SLURPY1, T35, ' =', F7.2,1 C. 1) FORMATO MEAN WALL TEMPERATUREIN GASI, T35, ' =', F7.2,1 C. 1) FORMAT(' TOTAL HEAT TRANSFEREDBY GASI, T40,1 =', F8.3,1 KCAL/HR' 1) FOFMAT(l HEAT TRANSFEREDBY RADIATION TO WALLt, T40,1 =', F8.3,1 1KCAL/HRI) FORMAT(' HEAT TPANSFERED GAS/SLURRY BY CONVI, T40,1 =', F8.3,1 K 1CAL/HRI) FORMAT(' HEAT TRANSFERED GAS/SLURRY BY RADI, T40,1 =', F8.3, ' KC 1AL/HRI) FORMATO GAS TEMPERATURE EX BAYI, T40,1 zl, F7.2,1 C. 1) FORMATO HEAT LOST TO ATMOSPHEREI, T40, ' =', F8.3,1 KCAL/HRI) FORMATO SLURRY MOISTURE CONTENTI, T40,1 =', F6.2,1 FORMAT(' FORMAT(' FORMAT(' CONTINUE CALL EXIT END SUBROUTINE S197
PEAL KI, K2, K8, K9, M3,M4,M9,L, N, INGAST COMMON//H3, Kl, T, D1, Gl, Ul, Al, INGAST, XSLRYT, T9, C3, m3,Q, Q1, H, C1, N, I T8, T7, M9,SLURYT, G9, D2, G2, Xl, G7, X, G8, C8, C9, U8, U9, K8, K9, R,
2 P, F2, P8 IMAX=INT(N*F2) DO lo j6=1, IMAX T9= (INGAST+XSLRYT) *0.5 CALL S224
10
249
REAL Kl, K2, KB, K9, M3,M4,M9,1.,N, INGAST COMMON//H3, Kl, T, D1, Gl, Ul, Al, INGAST,XSLEYT,T9, C3, M3,Q, Q1, H, C1, N, I T8, T7, M9,SLURYT, G9, D2, G2, Xl, G7, X, G8, C8, Cg, UB,U9, K8, K9, R,
2 P, F2, R8 T9=(T8+INGAST)*0.5 CALL S224 Q=Cl*Gl*(INGASTT8)*Dl*Dl*P*0.25 Q=QQ8
M9=Q/(539.0+(0.15E3*((SLURYT+T8)*0.5)+0.432)*(T8SLURYT)) G9=M9/(DI*Dl*P*0.25)
GI=Gl+G9 G9=M9/(D2*D2*P*0.25) G2=G2+Gg T9=M9*(0.15E3*((SLURYT+TB)*0.5)+0.432)*(T8SLURYT)/(CI*Gl*DI*DI*P 1*0.25) T8=T8T9 INGAST=T8 Xl=(G2G7)/G2 X=(GIG8)/Gi RETURN END SUBROUTINE S224 PEAL Kl, K2, K8, K9, M3, M4, M9, L, N, INGAST COMMON//H3,Kl, T, D1, Gl, Ul, Al, INGAST, XSLEYT, T9, c3, M3, Q, Q1, H, C1, N, 1 T8vT7, M9, SLURYT, G9, D2, G2, Xl, G7, X, G8, C8, C9, U8, U9, KB, K9, R,
2 PIF2, R8 C8=O.2E4*T9+0.236 C9=0.15E3*T9+0.432 Cl=CB*(lX)+c9*X U8=0.119E3*Tg+0.685E1 U9=0.13E3*T9+0.32E1 UI=U8*(lX)+U9*X K8=1.405*U8*C8 K9=U9*C9*0.968 KI=K8*(lX)+K9*X RETURN
10 END
250
APPENDIK I:
TABLES OF PESULTS.
251cu bn
rI 0 Cd U 4)
0 (D XP [.' = pq :4
CdCd .0 UW Cd CII
0 r4
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252TABLE (i) 1'. 2 Heat Summary transfer Value Slurry _ Mass T'lowrate 2o 58 104 18.6 13.8 8.4 6.1 Overall 23 16.4 8.5 5.2 Overall 23 4.5 4.1 3.4 2.3 (ii) Mass Transfer (Drying rate coefficients) Overall 3 6.8 5.2 4.3 3.1 400* 275 225 200 200 410 410 300 210 410 300 210 5260 4360 3360 2715 9600 9600 410 410 C) (kg/h) Gas Mass Flux (kg/hm 2715 2715 2715 2 9600 9600 9600 of heat and mass transfer coefficients
Coefficient
(kcal/hm Gas Gas Gas Slurry Slurry Overall : Chain : Wall : Slurry : Chain : Wall 13 110 220 80
9600 9600
(kg/hm
410 300 200 5260 400 4360 3360 2715 3 410 300 200 9600 9600
Overall
Average
4 Gas Te p 1 oc 95 98 101
1 2 3 4
From drying rate coefficient From (Q/AAT L11) Based on total internal predicted Based on empty kiln volume
surface
area
253
Table
1.3
Results of Determination of Nusselt for and (Gas: Walls) a SI]jrrvfree Gas to Chains Nusselt No. Gas Reynolds to
Chains)
Reynolds'No.
No.
Nusselt
No.
46000
20.6p39.1,16.3. 17. SP17.8,17.8 19.6,24.4p39.1 6.1,6.3,6.3,6.1 6.1? 5.8,11.9 6.1,6.3,6.3,6.6 6.8,7.1,7.3,8.0 8.4 3.3,3.3,3.2,3.2 3.103.3,3.4,3.5 3.7,3.7,3.8,4.0 4.1,4.3,4.5,4.7 0.6,0.6,0.6
45000
1500
32000
42000
590,618,652,681 70OP1350
25000
36000
17000
24000 19000
Kiln
254TABLE 1.4 Variation operties ro A veraged = 9600 kg/hm2 St. No. Slurry Wall 5 HTC Slurry Chain St. No. Slurry Chain Modified Reynolds Number () Slurry Wall 0.44 1.47 2.97 5.14 0.70 2.39 5.08 9.19 0.77 1.89 3.82 7.50 Modified Reynolds Number Slurry Chain 0.88 3.01 5.89 10.20 1.39 4.77 300 126.4 204.0 76.3 104.1 121.4 180.1 146 180 244 181 142 160 74.8 160.1 35.2 44.3 55.0 90.1 86 97 113 77 65 89 9.91 17.95 1.51 3.76 200 7.65 15.03 410 Slurry Flowrate of *slurry kiln with results) physical rotational and heat speed transfer
das
Mass Flowrate
(RPM)
()Xlo
kcal/ hm2oC
()xlo5
kg/h
0.5 1: 0 1: 5 2.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
255
TABLE
1.5.
Modified Reynolds Number Slurry to Chain () 1.635.72 2.32 6.49 10.00 17.21 1.28 1.51 4.94
M6dified Reynolds Number Slurry to () Wall 0.81 2.87 4.40 8.05 1.15 3.25 5.00 8.60
183 . 87 64 44 306 242 140 129 101 75 376 277 224 204 167 178 178 128 97 76 
160 75 52 38
200
0.53 0.68 2.27 2.49 4.67 8.35 0.42 1.10 1.36 2.29 2.77 3.55 3.56 4.78 6.45 8.39
0.66 0.76
250 216 127 111 91 78 343 206 197 171 148 143 142 116 105 68
0.5 0.5 1.0 1.5 1.5 2.0 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.2 2.0
300 5.01 9.31 16.68 0.85 2.20 2.73 4.58 410 5.54 7.12 7.12 9.55 12.87 16.74
4.50 4.48
256
for lines
slurry 'figures
wall 7.11
chair
Slurry Re
Slurry
Re
0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0
1218 919 676 574 503 457 4.18 1120 814 536 450 396 362 334 1031 688 475 343 285 270 244 200 300 410
1.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 1.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 1.0 2.0 4. o 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0
1072 627 405 311 287 239 209 986 555 322 240 211 189 167 908 469 285 186 152 141 122
257
TABLE 1.7 Elapsed Time (mins) 0 23. 32 40 50 60 70 107 Wet Bulb Air to
 Results .cement Moisture Content (Wt/%) 38.5 27.7 21.8 15.8 7.9 3,1 0.6 0.0 Temperature
of drying on kiln oven tests Shoreham slurry ex APCM Ltd. Drying Rate (kg/hm2 0 1.33 1.47 1.45 1.27 0.67 0.33 0.02
feed Works
Moisture Average Content over'drying Rate Interval (wt/%) 38.5 33.1 24.8 18.8 11.9 5.5 1.9 0.3
Slurry based
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