You are on page 1of 553

Full text of "Buddha and his dhamma"

hu^ka, 0,tu{ kit DkuPntoO,

Homage to the Blessed One, the Exalted One, and the Fully -Enlightened One! C E!"ED !#D $P%O!DED B&' ()DDH! "H! CH!B$*(+! Email' sidd,-./0yahoo12o1in htt3'445551am6ed*a71 5e6s12om 89''BE H!PF&l^ #o Co3y7ights, it:s made to sha7e 5ith e;e7yone1 (o <eel <7ee to sha7e this 6ook 5ith othe7s1

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

!$"HO

OF "HE BOO*' )("E -!"-%!+B

D71 Bhim7ao am?i !m6edka7 @A1!, PH1D, %%1D1, D1%)""1, D1 (2, B!

%et us 7emem6e7 the man +ho sho5ed us the 3ath o< eCuality !nd 5ho led us to the Destination o< 67othe7hood1 Aay the idea o<

Ba6asahe6 <o7e;e7 ins3i7es us

Bo7n' D. th !37il D-/D Dhammadeeksha' D. th O2to6e7 D/EF @!sok Gia?ayadashmi B Aaha3a7ini7;ana' F th De2em6e7 D/EF #O"E' "his 6ook is 6een 27eated 6y (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7 5hi2h is meant <o7 <7ee sha7ing <o7 Dhamma Online and doesn:t in2lude 2o3y7ight1 (o <eel <7ee to sha7e 5ith othe7s and s3ea7d Dhamma1

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> P EF!CE' )n 7es3onse to the 7eCuest 6y Buddhist he7e in )ndia and else5he7e in the Buddhist 2ount7ies o< the 5o7ld and also 6y some 3hiloso3he7s and 7eligious leade7s in othe7 2ount7ies, 5e a7e no5 67inging out a se2ond edition o< 8"he Buddha and His Dhamma81 +e had <i7st 3u6lished D71 !m6edka7:s 8"he Buddha and His Dhamma8 in D/EH almost 5ithin a yea7 o< his #i7;ana1 !s this ne5 and 2onsistent 2ommenta7y o< the Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 6e2ame almost the Bi6le o< the )ndian Buddhists, 5e late7 3u6lished a Hindi as 5ell as Aa7athi ;e7sion o< "he Dhamma1 "hese 3u6li2ations se7;ed a ;e7y use<ul 3u73ose to )ndian Buddhist 5ho t7eat this 6ook as the #e5 "estament <o7 studying "he Dhamma singly o7 in g7ou3s in thei7 lo2alities and <o7 de;oting some o< thei7 time e;e7y day to 7e<le2t on it1 )t is the 5ay o< the Buddha 5ithout 2om3a7ison that they <ind a su6stantial sou72e o< 7eligious ins3i7ation1 !<te7 attaining omnis2ient enlightenment on +ednesday the Gaishakha Pu7nima day in E-- B1C1, the Buddha taught the Dhamma <o7 .E yea7s 6y dis2ou7se on the t7uth o< su<<e7ings, the t7uth o< the o7igin o< su<<e7ings, the t7uth o< the 2essation o< su<<e7ings and the t7uth o< the 3ath leading to the 2essation o< su<<e7ings1 "he <i7st 2on;e7sion o< Buddhism 5as sta7ted 6y the Blessed One 5ith the <i;e Pa7i;7a?akas a<te7 the <i7st dis2ou7se @Dhamma Chakka Pa;attan (uttaB to them and then 5ith &esa and his E. 2om3anions at (a7nath in )si3atana 5ho all 6e2ame !7ahats and ended a<te7 .E yea7s on the Gaishakha Pu7nima at *usina7a 5ith the 2on;e7sion o< the Aalla P7in2es o< *usina7a and (u6hadda 5ho all 6e2ame !7ahats1 Du7ing the li<e o< the Buddha, Buddhism 5as 2on<ined only

to the ;alley o< Ianges1 !<te7 the <une7al, the 7eli2s o< the

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> Buddha 5e7e dist7i6uted among the kings o< #o7the7n and Cent7al )ndian and the (tu3as 5e7e 6uilt o;e7 them1 )n late7 2entu7ies the 7eli2s 5e7e to 6e o< g7eat im3o7tan2e in the ex3ansion o< Buddhism 5hi2h s37ead to othe7 3a7ts o< )ndia and Ceylon, Bu7ma and (outh East !sia and else5he7e late7 on1 Du7ing the 3e7iod 5hen the Buddha li;ed, the7e 5e7e th7ee 7eligious ;ie5s 37e;alent in this 2ount7y, they 5e7e' @DB di<<e7ent 2onditions o< li<e a7e due to good and e;il a2tions done in thei7 <o7me7 existen2e @3ast *a7maBJ @KB all the 27eations and 2onditions o< li<e a7e the 37odu2ts o< the 5ill o< Iod, 5ho ne;e7 diesJ @LB the7e is no 2ause <o7 2oming into existen2e and all the 6eings a7e o< s3ontaneous existen2e1 "he ;ie5s, as a 7esult o< the 2hanging 2on2e3t o< the 5o7d :7eligion:, 5e7e 3assing <7om one stage to the othe71 "he 5o7ld :7eligion:, a22o7ding to D71 !m6edka7, is an unidenti<ied 5o7d 5ith no <ixed meaning and this is 6e2ause :7eligion: has 3assed th7ough many stages1 "he 2on2e3t o< ea2h stage 5as 2alled 7eligious thought1 "he 2on2e3t at one stage has not had the same 2onnotation 5hi2h it had in the 37e2eding stage1 )ts meaning is likely to di<<e7 in the su22eeding stage1 "he 2on2e3t o< 7eligion 5as ne;e7 <ixed 6ut it has ;a7ied <7om time to time1 !s 37imiti;e man 2ould not ex3lain most o< the 3henomena su2h as lightning, 7ain and <loods, any 5ei7d 3e7<o7man2e done to 2ont7ol these 3henomena 5as 2alled magi2 and 7eligion the7e<o7e 2ame to 6e identi<ied 5ith magi21 "hen 2ame the se2ond stage in the e;olution o< 7eligion and in this stage, 7eligion 2ame to 6e identi<ied 5ith 6elie<s, 7ituals, 2e7emonies, 37aye7s and sa27i<i2es1 "he Gedas a7e a 2olle2tion o< Aant7as 5hi2h a7e in;o2ations to )nd7a,

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> Ga7una, !gni, (oma and othe7s1 "hey a7e 37aye7s 5ith 7ituals <o7 hel3 and gi<t and <o7 a22e3tan2e o< o<<e7ings1 (ome sages ha;e also s3e2ulated 3hiloso3hi2ally on the o7igin o< the 5o7ld and on the 6eing 5ho 27eated it 5ith 6elie< and <aith as a 3i;ot1 But this 2on2e3t o< 6elie< that the7e existed some 3o5e7 5hi2h 2aused this 3henomenon 5hi2h a 37imiti;e man did not kno5 and 2ould not unde7stand1 Aagi2 the7e<o7e lost its 3la2e at this stage and this 3o5e7 5hi2h 5as o7iginally male;olent 5as <elt to 6e

6ene;olent and this led to 6elie<s, 7ites, 2e7emonies and sa27i<i2es 5hi2h 6e2ame ne2essa7y 6oth to ;ene7ate a 6ene;olent 3o5e7 and also to 37o3itiate an ang7y 3o5e71 %ate7 that 3o5e7 5as 2alled Iod o7 C7eato71 "hen 2ame the thi7d stage, that it is this Iod 5ho 27eated this 5o7ld and also man1 "his 5as <ollo5ed 6y the 6elie< that man has a soul and the soul is ete7nal and is ans5e7a6le to Iod <o7 man:s a2tion in the 5o7ld1 "his in sho7t 5as the e;olution 2on2e3t o< 7eligion at the time 5hen Buddha 5as 6o7n1 "hus 5as it that 7eligion has 2ome to 6e, 2onnoted 6elie< in Iod, 6elie< in the soul, 5o7shi3 o< Iod, 2u7ing o< the e77ing soul, 37o3itiating Iod 6y P7aye7s, Ce7emonies, (a27i<i2es et21 "he Gedas and the othe7 s27i3tu7es the7e<o7e s3e2ulated on this 3hiloso3hy and those 5ho 57ote them at that time 5e7e a histo7i2al 37odu2t o< thei7 en;i7onment, in 5hi2h the a6o;e do2t7ines had <lou7ished du7ing 6e<o7e thei7 time1 +hat Buddha 2alled the Dhamma di<<e7ed <undamentally <7om 5hat 5as 2alled 7eligion at that time1 Buddha:s Dhamma 5as 6ased on do2t7ines 5hi2h a7e 7ationally 3ossi6le1 )n no othe7 7eligion at the ;alues o< kno5ledge and e;il o< igno7an2e so mu2h insisted u3on as they a7e in Buddhism, His 7eligion had the glo7y o< ha;ing 7ightly ?udge the int7insi2 g7eatness o< man:s 2a3a2ity o< 5o7k out

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> his sal;ation 5ithout any ext7aneous aid, and o< ha;ing 3e72ei;ed that <a7 mo7e o< the 5o7ld:s mise7y is 2aused 6y stu3idity and 6lind <aith 5ithout any st7ess on kno5ledge1 )< the 5o7th o< a t7uly g7eat man 2onsist in his 7aising the 5o7th o< all mankind, 5ho is 6ette7 entitled to 6e 2alled t7uly g7eate7 than the Blessed OneM "he Buddha instead o< deg7ading him 6y 3la2ing anothe7 6eing o;e7 him has exalted him to the highest 3inna2le o< 5isdom and lo;e1 D71 !m6edka7, 5hile 57iting this #ikaya o< Buddhism N 8"he Buddha and his Dhamma8 tested the dis2ou7ses 5ith the 7igid tests laid do5n 6y the Buddha1 "o see 5hethe7 the Buddhists 2anon is not adulte7ated 5ith B7ahminism, one has to test them and he tested them1 "he tests a7e' !s the Buddha 5as nothing i< not 7ational, i< not logi2al, anything, the7e<o7e, 5hi2h is 7ational o7 logi2al, othe7 things 6eing eCual may 6e taken to 6e the 5o7d o< Buddha1 "he se2ond test is that the Buddha ne;e7 2a7ed to ente7 into a dis2ussion 5hi2h 5as not 37o<ita6le <o7 man:s 5el<a7e1 "he7e<o7e anything att7i6uted to the Buddha 5hi2h did not 7elate to man:s 5el<a7e 2annot 6e a22e3ted to the 5o7d o< the Buddha1 "he7e is also a thi7d test1 "his is that the Buddha di;ided all matte7 into t5o 2lasses, ;iO1 a6out 5hi2h he 5as 2e7tain and a6out 5hi2h he 5as not 2e7tain1 On matte7s 5hi2h <ell into the <i7st 2atego7y he had stated his ;ie5s de<initely and 2on2lusi;ely and on matte7s

5hi2h <ell into the se2ond 2atego7y, he had ex37essed his ;ie5s that they a7e only tentati;e ;ie5s1 Bea7ing these test in mind 6e<o7e de2iding 5hat the ;ie5 o< the Buddha 5as, D71 !m6edka7 57ote this ;e7sion 8"he Buddha and his Dhamma81 Ho5 5as the Dhamma 37ese7;edM (a7i3utta and Auggallana, the senio7-most dis2i3les o< the Buddha 5e7e

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> no mo7e at the time o< the Aaha3a7ini7;ana o< the Buddha at *usina7a in .-L B1C1 "he <i7st 2oun2il o< Bhikkhu a<te7 the 3assing a5ay o< the Buddha had to 6e held at a?g7iha unde7 the 37esidentshi3 o< the most senio7 monk Aahakashya31 "he aim o< this 2oun2il 5as to 37ese7;e the tea2hings o< the Buddha in thei7 t7uth and the 3u7ity 5ithout 2hange o7 modi<i2ation and also to a2hie;e unity in that o7de7J the <i7st disad;antage 5as that the7e 5as no 57itten s27i3t at that time and the se2ond 7eason 5as that the7e 5as a tenden2y among some monks to 6e lax to5a7ds the ules o< the O7de71 "he7e<o7e the Ginaya, as gi;en out 6y $3ali and the Dhamma as 7e3eated 6y !nand in the 2oun2il 5e7e lea7nt u3 6yhea7t 6y the monks and thus 37ese7;ed o7ally1 "he se2ond 2oun2il 5as held at Gesali a<te7 a 3e7iod o< D00 yea7s again 6e2ause o< 2e7tain laxities 5hi2h 27e3t into the O7de71 "he Ga??i 2lan monks had modi<ied thei7 2ondu2t 6y adding D0 modi<i2ations to the Ginaya 7ules to the o7thodox1 "hey sta7ted 2a77ying salt in a ho7n, taking a se2ond meal in anothe7 ;illage and taking meals and 6utte7 milk e;en in the e;ening, d7inking un<e7mented 3alm 5ine, using 7ugs 5ithout <7inges, a22e3ting gold and sil;e7, holding <o7tnightly 2ong7egations in the same 3a7ish and taking de2isions in the a6sen2e o< some mem6e7s1 "hese 5e7e all 2ont7a7y to Ginaya1 "he <i7st Aonk, &esa, o< the o7thodox O7de7 2on;ened this 2oun2il 5hi2h 5as 37esided o;e7 6y (a66hakami1 "he7e 5e7e H00 monks gathe7ed 2atego7i2ally 7e?e2ted the D0 indulgen2es 37a2ti2ed 6y the Ga??i 2lan monks1 !s a 2ounte7 -6last to this 2on;ention o< the o7thodox O7de7 the li6e7al Ga??i 2lan monks, late7 2on;ened the Aahasangika 2oun2il 2onsisting o< D0 H 000 monks1 "his 5as, the7e<o7e, the <i7st un<o7tunate s3lit o;e7 the D0 indulgen2es 5ithout any do2t7inal di<<e7en2es1 $ltimately this s3lit led to the <o7mation o< othe7 se2ts and <inally to

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> Aahayana Buddhism1 &et a thi7d 2oun2il 5as 2on;ened 6y Aoggali3utta unde7 the 3at7onage o< the I7eat Buddhist Em3e7o7 !soka 6ut it 7est7i2ted itsel< to the o7thodox o7de7,

the "he7;ada se2t1 )t is a<te7 this 2on;ention 6y Em3e7o7 !soka that Buddhism s37ead not only all o;e7 )ndia 6ut also to Ceylon, Bu7ma and (outh-East !sian 2ount7ies1 "he !7ahata son o< Em3e7o7 !soka, Aahinda 5as sent along 5ith othe7 monks to Ceylon <o7 37o3agating Buddhism and that 5as the landma7k in the mig7ation o< "he7a;ada outside )ndia to Ceylon and (outh East !sia 5hi2h 7esulted in a 7i2h ha7;est late71 "he7e 5as yet a <ou7th 2oun2il in Ceylon o< the "he7;ada (2hool 5hi2h 6y that time 5as also 2alled Hinayana, in the yea7 D0F B1C1 By this time the7e 5as al7eady a s27i3t in ;ogue and the7e<o7e this 2oun2il 2ommitted the enti7e Pali 2anon and the 2ommenta7ies to 57iting on 3alm lea;es <o7 the <i7st time1 "he Buddhist:s 2anon 2onsist Ginaya Pitaka @7ules o< monasti2 li<eB (utta Pitaka @dis2ou7ses o< the BuddhaB and !6hidhamma Pitaka @3hiloso3hi2al 2ontents o< tea2hingsB 1 "he Ginaya 2onsist o< a la7ge num6e7 o< 7ules and (utta o< #ikayas1 "he !6hidhamma is in (e;en P7aka7anas1 Ea7ly Buddhism 37e;ailed <7om a6out .E0 B1C1 to D00 B1C1 6ut the Hinayana (2hool sta7ted getting mixed u3 5ith the li6e7al O7de7 and the li6e7al O7de7 Aahayana sta7ted g7o5ing only a<te7 D00 B1C1 on a22ount o< the <a2t that it also sta7ted in;enting ane2dotes in the g7a6 o< 3u7;anusm7itis to att7a2t the masses1 +hat is the histo7y o< Buddhism in )ndia and ho5 did it disa33ea7M On a22ount o< the ne5 7ational and sensiti;e tenets as 37o3ounded 6y the Buddha 5hi2h make man and not <aith and 6elie< as the 2ent7e o< the 3i2tu7e, a 2lash 6et5een B7ahminism and Buddhism 5as ine;ita6le1

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> B7ahminism 5as shaken to its <oundation 6y Buddhism and Buddhism th7i;ed and these 2ontinue till the end o< the <i7st 2entu7y !1D1 5hen B7ahminism again sta7ted 7e2o;e7ing the 3oise1 +ith the g7adual de2line o< Buddhism the7e 5e7e 3e7se2utions laun2hed 6y the B7ahmins against Buddhists1 Bhaska7 Ga7ma o< *am7u3 had th7eatened to dest7oy #alanda1 "he7e 5as also the mu7de7 o< !7yade;a, the dis2i3le o< #aga7?un, 6e2ause the B7ahmins 5e7e de<eated in a de6ate 5ith on 7eligion1 (asanka ex3elled all the monks <7om *ushinaga7 and u37ooted the Iaya Bodhi t7ee and 6u7nt the 7est o< it and 7e3la2ed it 6y (hi;a1 "he <inal <li2ke7 o< Buddhism 5as at Aagadha unde7 the Pala *ingsJ and the death -6lo5 <inally 2ame 5ith the Auslim 2onCuest in the D0 th Centu7y1 )t is du7ing the de2line o< Buddhism a<te7 !soka that no7th-5est )ndia <ell 6e<o7e the I7eek in;ade7s 6ut the I7eeks 5e7e intole7ant and an )ndoI7eek *ing Ailinda e;en 6e2ame a g7eat Buddhist a<te7 his <i7st de6ate 5ith monk #agasena1 "hen the7e 5as 2onCuest 6y the *ushans o< the I7eek *ingdom 6ut they 5e7e also a2Cuainted 5ith Buddhism e;en 6e<o7e they ente7ed )ndia

and a 2ou3le o< thei7 *ings had also em67a2ed Buddhism1 "he *ushan *ing *aniska @!1D H-B 5as the <i7st unsym3atheti2 to5a7ds Buddhism 6ut late7 6e2ame a Buddhist, though he also sho5ed s3e2ial <a;ou7s o< B7ahminism1 )t 5as he 5ho had 2alled a <7eat Coun2il o< the monks 5hi2h 5as 7e2ogniOed in )ndia as the . th Coun2il, 6ut 5hi2h the "he7;ada (2hool al5ays igno7ed1 "he Aahayanists ha;e ho5e;e7 7e2ogniOed the . th Coun2il although it 5as not o7ganiOed 6y the Aahasanghikas 6ut 5as done 6y the less o7thodox 67an2h o< the s2hool, the (a7;asti;ada 5ith its many se2ts1 )t 5as 6e2ause o< the indulgent attitude o< *aniska to5a7ds B7ahminism that du7ing this 3e7iod many ideas o< B7ahminism 5e7e mixed u3 5ith Buddhism es3e2ially in no7the7n )ndia1 "he main

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> task o< *anishka:s 2oun2il 5as the <a2t that the language o< the 2ommenta7ied 5as (ansk7it and not t7aditional Pali o< the "he7;ada (2hool1 )t is he7e that the Aahayana s2hool o< Buddhism 2ame into 6eing1 +ith the <all o< *aniska dynasty 6y a6out the thi7< 2entu7y !1D1, Busshism lost a line o< g7eat 3at7ons and the 7eign o< the )m3e7ial Iu3tas, 5ho 2ame to 3o5e7 in Aagadha in the <ou7th 2entu7y !1D1 and 5ho 2ont7olled late7 the 5hole o< the #o7th )ndia, ma7ked the t7ium3h o< Hindu 2ultu7e and Hindu thaught and ex2e3t <o7 o22asional s3u7ts, Buddhism in )ndia sta7ted <ading1 "he Chinese 3ilg7im Fahien t7a;elling in )ndia du7ing these 3e7iod <7om L// to .D. !1D1 <ound Buddhism 37os3e7ing at many 3la2es like *a3il;astu and Iaya, though on the 5hole, it 5as one de2line1 "hat is also the a22ount gi;en 6y Hieuntsang du7ing his t7a;el in FK/ to F.E !1D1 and he too <ound Cuite a <e5 monaste7ies desolate1 "he Huns 6y then 2ame do5n like <loods <7om the #o7th into Iandha7a at the end o< the <i<th 2entu7y and the Buddhist monaste7ies and the sa27ed edi<i2es o< #o7th-5est )ndia 5e7e the s3e2ial o6?e2t o< the7e <u7yJ monks, s2hola7s, manus27i3ts and 6uildings alike ;anished in <lame and 6lood and e;en the $ni;e7sity o< "axila <ell into silen2e 5ithout any ho3e o< its 7e;i;al1 "he sa27ed alms 6o5l disa33ea7ed <7om Iandha7a @*a6ulB and 3assed on to Pe7sia1 )n the mean5hile at a6out that time Buddhism 5as also engaged in an uneCual st7uggle 5ith B7ahminism in Bengal, in 5est -)ndia and in south -)ndia1 "he in;asion o< the Huns 67ought disaste7 and 2on<usion <o7 the Iu3ta Em3i7e and it s3lit into a se7ies o< 3etty kingdoms1 +ith the a33ea7an2e o< Ha7sha in F0E !1D1 the7e 5as again a 7es3ite and it 5as at this time that the Chinese 3ilg7im Hieungtsang met Ha7sha and 5as g7eatly D0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> im37ess 6y the em3e7o7:s 3at7onage o< BuddhismJ 6ut he too sho5ed s3e2ial <a;o7s to B7ahminism 5hi2h 6y that time had 6e2ome intole7ant o< Buddhism la7gely 6e2ause o< s2hool o< Hindu thought, 8Pau7anik Hinduism8 o7 8#eo Hinduism8 5hi2h had 6y them e;ol;ed itsel< and 5hi2h em3hasiOed mo7e on the 2aste system1 "he7e<o7e the ea7liest Pu7anas like !gni, Gishnu, Gayu and Aatsya mentioned the Buddha as one 5ho deluded 3eo3le to 7uin 6ut the late7 Pu7anas like Ia7uda 7e2on2iled themsel;es 5ith the <ading Buddhism a<te7 the F th Centu7y and in;oked the Buddha as an in2a7nation o< Gishnu 6e2ause 6y that time the ne5 theo7y o< in2a7nation 5as taking sha3e1 "he loss o< 7oyal 3at7onage, the intole7an2e 6y B7ahminism o< the Pau7anik age o< Buddhism, the <o7eign atta2ks on )ndia all 2ont7i6uted to the de2line o< Buddhism1 "hese 2ontinued till the D0 th Centu7y 5ith a small 7es3ite du7ing to 7eign o< the Pala *ings at Aagadha 6ut in a6out the yea7 D000, the Auslim 2onCue7o7s o< )ndia dealt a <inal death6lo5 to Buddhism in )ndia1 Au2h 5ate7 has <lo5ed do5n the Ianga sin2e D000 !1D1 "he ideal so2iety in the Hinduism still 2onsist o< Chatu7;a7na 5hi2h 2astes a la7ge ma?o7ity o< the 3eo3le into the a6yss o< mise7y and ineCuality1 "he thesis that the Gedas a7e not only sa27ed 6ut also in<alli6le, the thesis that sal;ation @AokshaB o< soul 2an 6e had only 6y due 3e7<o7man2e o< Gedi2 sa27i<ies and o6se7;an2e o< 7eligious 7ights and 2e7emonies and o<<e7ings o< gi<ts to B7ahmins, the existing 3atte7n o< the Chatu7;a7niya and its 7ules a7e to all 3u73osed 5hi2h a7e not 6ased on ?usti2e, li6e7ty, eCuality, <7ate7nity ha;e to 6e 7e-examined and 7e;ised1 "he Ga7nash7am Dha7ma has no5 6e2ome out o< date and many enlightened amongst all 2aste in2luding B7ahmins a7e in 7e;olt against it1 ii

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

!ll thought <ull Hindu:s 5ho a7e in 7e;olt a7e no5 o< the ;ie5 that they should outla5 the 2aste system1 "he Caste system 2annot 6e outla5ed unless the Ga7nash7am ideology is a6olished1 D71 !m6edka7 a<te7 5aiting long and a<te7 a sustain st7uggle 7e;olted against these system1 "he 3eo3le 5ho su<<e7ed most le<t the old <old and ha;e no5 7e;i;ed the Dhamma 6ut the intole7an2e o< B7ahminism is again 7aising its head1 )t is 3e7se2uting the hel3less Buddhist in

;illages and else5he7e1 )t is 3ain<ul to see ho5 mu2h 3hysi2al and so2ial ;iolen2e a22om3anies t7ansg7ession o< 2aste system in this 2ount7y1 )n 7e2ent yea7 5hile the 7elations 6et5een 2aste Hindu:s and Buddhists has 6een gene7ally 3ea2e<ul, the7e a7e many instan2es o< 67utal ;iolen2e 6e2ause o< 6elie< and 37a2ti2e o< untou2ha6ility1 "he 2ase o< 6u7ning o< a Ha7i?an 6oy <o7 stealing ;essels in an !ndh7a P7adesh ;illage and the 2aste Hindu 5omen not e;en 5illing to o3e7ated 6y a Ha7i?an su7geon a7e gla7ing instan2es1 (in2e the institution o< untou2ha6ility is 3o3ula7ly and integ7al 3a7t o< Hinduism and sin2e 2aste is a ma?o7 tenet o< the Hindu:s, 2on2e7ted measu7es should 6e taken to 67eakdo5n su2h 6a77ie7s1 Buddhism is an ideal <o7 this 3u73ose 6ut it should 7ea2h all the 2o7ne7s o< the 2ount7y1 $ntou2ha6ility, un<o7tunately is not me7ely an so2ial o7 an e2onomi2 37o6lem 6ut also a 7eligious 37o6lem1 "he othe7 5ay may 6e a ma?o7 ste3 in 67eaking do5n a 2aste 6a77ie7 and in 7e<o7ming Hinduism, 6y 7e57iting and modi<ying the 37e2e3ts in Hindu:s s27i3tu7es 6ased on an ideology o< ineCuality and in?usti2e1 )n a22o7dan2e 5ith the 5ishes o< 37esent gene7ation in inde3endent )ndia1 Caste system should go 6e2ause Ga7nash7am dha7ma lea;es no 7oom eithe7 <o7 de;elo3ment o< enthusiasm o7 <o7 a man:s indi;idual, s3i7itual and so2ial 37og7essJ enthusiasm is sine Cua non1 +ithout enthusiasm and s2o3e <o7 o33o7tunity, DK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> li<e 6e2omes d7udge7y and man is deg7aded to a le;el o< a 6east1 )n the ne5 thesis, the7e should 6e lo;e to 27eate an enthusiasm <o7 li<e among those 5ho a7e diso5ned o7 uno5ned and Dhamma to ele;ate those 5ho a7e su337essedJ it shall not only enno6le those 5ho a7e disinhe7ited and do5n -t7odden 6ut also g7ant eCuality, ?usti2e and li6e7ty to all1 "he 7e;ised thesis must 6e on the 6asis o< the 7ational tenets as 37ea2hed 6y the Buddha and must 6e su2h that it should ad;an2es the 5el<a7e o< all and not me7ely se7;e the inte7est o< sel<-styled su3e7-man1 "his 7e<o7mation o< Hinduism 5ill not 6e ne5 6e2ause su2h mo;ements ha;e taken on ea7lie7 o22asions1 !ll $3anishad a7e ag7eed in Cuestioning the di;ing o7igin o< the Gedas1 "he7e 5e7e in the 3ast as many as FK di<<e7ent s2hools o< 3hiloso3hy at one time 5hi2h 5e7e all o33osed to the B7ahmini2 3hiloso3hy1 (ome o< them a7e !k7iya Gada, #iyati Gada, $22heda Gada, !nyonaya Gada, Gikshe3a ;ada and Chatu7;a7nasham;a7 Gada1 (o i< Hinduism is 7e<o7med and the 37a2ti2e o< Chatu7;a7nash7am as 5ell as the ideology 6ased on 6elie< and <aith is 7ooted out and man is 7e2ogniOed as the 2ent7e o< e;e7ything, it 5ill 6e a ne5 s2hool 6ased on ?usti2e and eCuality1 Humanism 6ased on

the 6elie< that 8man is the measu7e o< all things8, is o< the ;e7y essen2e o< Buddhism and this should 6e 7e<o7med B7ahminism1 But the su337essed and o337essed ha;e no time to 5ait1 "hey ha;e 5aited and su<<e7ed <o7 2entu7ies1 "hey ha;e 2hosen Buddhism 5ith its demo27ati2 and egalita7ian ideal1 +ith the 2on;e7sion o< D71 !m6edka7 and his lakhs o< <ollo5e7s on the Gi?ayadashmi in D/EF, Buddhism has 6een again 7e;i;ed in )ndia and the %o7d has 7etu7n to his nati;e DL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> land1 "he name o< Buddha 5hi2h 5as 7elegated to the 6a2kg7ound in this 2ount7y is again shining in ea2h and e;e7y ;illage, es3e2ially o< Aaha7asht7a, "he Pun?a6, $tta7 P7adesh and else5he7e, 6e2ause D71 !m6edka7:s <ollo5e7s a7e a <o72e to 6e 7e2koned 5ithin these ;illages1 +e must all see that this g7eat 7eligion is 7e;i;ed in this 2ount7y to 67ing a6out ?usti2e, eCuality and so2ialism <o7 all the 3eo3le1 D71 !m6edka7 in his add7ess on the day o< 2on;e7sion in O2to6e7 D/EF, said, 8Hindu 7eligion o<<e7s no o33o7tunity <o7 the untou2ha6les to im37o;e the7e lot, <o7, it is 6ased on ineCuality1 On the othe7 hand Buddhism is 6ased on eCuality and ?usti2e1 1 1 ) 5ould like to see all )ndia 6e2ome Buddhist18 D71 !m6edka7 5hile 3aying t7i6ute to Buddha:s g7eatness in the E3ilogue o< this Book asked all the Buddhist to take a Go5 to s37ead the Dhamma to all1 %et us the7e<o7e, all make a solemn ;o5 to 2om37ehend the t7uth and to 3e72ei;e the 3ath led do5n 6y the Buddha 3e7<e2tly1 "he <ul<illment o< this desi7e o< D71 !m6edka7 to 67ing Buddhism in )ndia 5ith all its 6eauty, 2om3assion, g7eatness, gentleness to all his 3eo3le 5ould ha;e 6een a 2hallenging task to him, and D71 !m6edka7 5ith his g7eat a6ility and de;otion 2ould ha;e done it 6ut he did not li;e e;en to 6egin these 5onde7<ul task 6ut 3assed a5ay only K months a<te7 his 2on;e7sion on F th De2em6e7 D/EF1 !ll the Buddhist should take u3 this 2hallenging task and <ul<ill the no6le as3i7ation o< D71 !m6edka7 and 37ay like D71 a6ind7anath "ago7e' 8B7ing to these 2ount7y on2e again the Blessed name 5hi2h made the land o< thy 6i7th sa27ed to all distant lands18 KF th De2em6e7 D/HL1 Bom6ay, Pusti2e 1 1 Bhole,

Chai7man, Peo3le:s Edu2ation (o2iety D.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> FO E+O D )t is 5ith mixed <eelings o< ?oy and so77o5 that ) asso2iate mysel< 5it this memo7a6le 6ut 3osthumous 3u6li2ation 6u ou7 (o2iety o< 8"he Buddha and His Dhamma8 o< the late D71 !m6edka7, the <ounde7 Cha7iman o< the (o2iety1 "he 6ook is not only D71 !m6edka7:s monumen7al 5o7k 6ut also his memo7ial ensh7ining the no6lest <7uit o< his massi;e intelle2t1 "his 6ook has taken its sha3e a<te7 his mu2h a7duous study and 7esea72h1 "his is his 37e2ious o<<e7ing to (iddha7th1 "he 57iting o< this 5o7k 5as a ;e7ita6le la6ou7 o< lo;e to D71 !m6edka7 5ho 2ame unde7 the 2om3elling in<luen2e o< (iddha7th, the a3ostle o< 7eason1 "his 6ook the7e<o7e 2an 6e <ittingly 7ema7ked as the 2ulmination o< his la6ou7s on this ea7th1 D71 !m6edka7 5as 67ought u3 in an exem3la7y 7eligious atmos3he7e1 ! <ollo5e7 o< *a6i7, his <athe7 5as a meti2ulous o6se7;e7 o< the 3e72e3ts o< his Panth1 He insisted that his 2hild7en 7ead something e;e7y day 5hi2h ele;ated them D71 !m6edka7 and his elde7 67othe7 the7e<o7e had t7o 7ead aloud e;e7y day some 3o7tion o< Aaha6ha7ata and the amayan 6e<o7e goin to 6ed1 +hen asked 5hy the Aaha6ha7ata should 6e 7ead, he 5as told 6y his <athe7that he 6elie;ed that the ex3loits o< D7ona and *ama 5ould disa6use him o< an in<e7io7ity 2om3lex, 6e2ause they had thei7 hum6le o7igin to sta7t 5ith1 (imila7ly, he 5as 37ea2hed a6out Galmiki 5ho 57ote the amayana1 "he daily 7eading o< these 6ooks 6y the young !m6edka7 a2Cuainted him 7i2hly 5ith the Hindu mythology and im3a7ted a 7eligious sentiment in him1 On his getting th7ough the Aiddle (2hool Final Examination this young 6oy 5as int7odu2ed to Dada *eluska7 5ho 5as a <7iend o< his <athe71 Dada *eluska7 on2e 37esented to this young man his o5n 6ook on the li<e o< Buddha1 Au2h that DE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> he 7ead in this 6ook 2on<li2ted 5ith 5hat he had lea7n in the t5o Hindu mythologies1 He <o7tunately did not 2ome to this 6ook 5ith and em3ty mind1 He 2om3a7ed and 2ont7asted at e;e7y stage these 2on<li2s1 )ndeed, this 5as the o7igin o< !m6edka7:s int7est in the Buddha and his Dhamma1 Be<o7e 57iting this monumental 5o7k, !m6edka7 t7a;e7sed

nume7ous <ields o< thought and a2tion1 He digested ;a7ious 2on2e3ts o< di<<e7ent 7eligions o< the 5o7ld1 "he mo7e he digested di<<e7ent 2on;e3ts o< 7eligions, the mo7e 5as he 2on;in2ed that the 6asi2 and ideal <oundation o< ou7 37esent so2iety should 6e on the 6asis o< Buddha:s Dhamma1 "he <i7st s3a7k in 7es3e2t o< this 5o7k 2ame to him in D/ED 5hen the Aaha6odhi (o2iety o< Cal2utta 7eCuested him to 57ite an a7ti2le <o7 that Pou7nal:s Gaishakhi #um6e71 )n that a7ti2le he laid do5n that the only 7eligion a22e3ta6le to mode7n so2iety 5ould 6e Buddha:s 7eligion, and that, i< that is not done, then the so2iety 5ould 3e7ish1 !22o7ding to him, no othe7 2on2e3t o< 7eligion a33eals to the intelle2tual, s2ienti<i2 and mode7n mind mo7e than Dhamma o< Buddha1 )< Buddhism 5as meeting 5ith little 7es3onse in the mode7n 5o7ld, !m6edka7 6elie;ed that this 5as due to the <a2t that its lite7atu7e is too extensi;e and s2atte7ed, that it is the7e<o7e di<<i2ult to get a good idea o< that 7eligion1 +hat 5as needed the7e<o7e a22o7ding to him 5as a sim3le and a 2lea7 statement o< the 2o73us o< the <undamental Buddhist thoughts1 He un<olds his Dhamma 6y telling the li<e o< the (iddha7th is sim3le, 2lea7 and digni<ied language1 Du7ing his s3an o< li<e D71!m6edka7:s 57itings 2o;e7ed a ;a7iety o< to3i2s1 (ometimes they 5e7e 2ont7o;e7sialJ sometimes they 5e7e non-2ont7o;e7sial1 His 57itings DF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> in;a7ia6ly dis3layed his 7o6ust endea;ou7 o< unde7line so2ial ?usti2e, the good o< his 2ount7y and the sal;ation o< the lo5est and the 2ommon man he7e1 "he 37esent 3u6li2ation is uniCue1 Du7ing the last 3o7tion o< his 37e2ious 2a7ee7, he de;oted his uns3a7ing la6ou7 and enti7e de;otion to the 57iting o< this 6ook1 "he 2om3letion o< this 5o7k 5as a <ul<illment1 !s su2h it is a memo7a6le 6ook 5hi2h he 7ega7ded as his magnum o3us1 Ou7 late Chai7man had intended that this 5o7k should 6e the <i7st ;entu7e in 3u6li2ation 6y ou7 Peo3le:s Edu2ation (o2eity1 He <u7the7 intended that this <i7st ;entu7e in 3u6li2ation should 6e <ollo5ed 6y othe7 2ont7i6utions 6y eminent s2hola7s and tea2he7s in ;a7ious 2olleges 2ondu2ted 6y ou7 (o2iety1 +e do ho3e that, ins3i7ed 6y this g7eat 5o7k, othe7 5ill <ollo5 suit1 Finally it 7emains me to ex37ess ou7 thanks to all those 5ho took an int7est in the 3u6li2ation o< this 6ook, 3a7ti2ula7ly to A71 #anak Chand attu and A71 P7akash Chand, 5ho out o< shee7 de;otion to ou7 late Chai7man took g7eat 3ains in 37e3a7ing the 37ess -2o3y1

!hmednaga7, D/ th #o;em6e7 D/EH1 1 1 Bhole

Chai7man Peo3le:s Edu2ation (o2iety

DH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

)#" OD$C")O#

)ndi2ations o< a g7o5th in the ;olume o< inte7est in Buddhism a7e noti2ea6le in some se2tions o< the )ndian 3eo3le1 !long 5ith it the7e is natu7ally a g7o5ing demand <o7 a 2lea7 and 2onsistent statement o< the li<e and tea2hings o< the Buddha1 !nyone 5ho is not a Buddhist <inds it ext7emely di<<i2ult to 37esent the li<e and tea2hings o< the Buddha in a manne7 5hi2h 5ould make it a 2onsistent 5hole1 De3ending on the #ikayas, not only the 37esentation o< a 2onsistent sto7y o< the li<e o< the Buddha 6e2omes a di<<i2ult thing and the 37esentation o< some 3a7ts o< his tea2hings 6e2omes mu2h mo7e so1 )ndeed it 5ould not 6e an exagge7ation to say that o< all the <ounde7s o< 7eligions in the 5o7ld the 37esentation o< the li<e and tea2hings o< the <ounde7 o< Buddhism 37esents a 37o6lem 5hi2h is Cuite 3uOOling i< not 6a<<ling1 )s it not ne2essa7y that these 37o6lems should 6e sol;ed and the 3ath <o7 the unde7standing o< Buddhism 6e made 2lea7M )s it not time that those 5ho a7e Buddhists should take u3 these 37o6lems at least <o7 gene7al dis2ussion and th7o5 that light they 2an on these 37o6lems M +ith a ;ie5 to 7aise a dis2ussion on these 37o6lems ) 37o3ose to set them out he7e1 "he <i7st 37o6lem 7elates to the main e;ent in the li<e o< the Buddha, namely, Pa7i;7a?a1 +hy did the Buddha take Pa7i;7a?a M "he t7aditional ans5e7 is that he took Pa7i;7a?a 6e2ause he sa5 a dead 3e7son, a si2k 3e7son and an old 3e7son1 "his ans5e7 is a6su7d on the <a2e o< it1 "he Buddha took 3a7i;7a?a at the age o< K/1 )< he took Pa7i;7a?a as a 7esult o< these th7ee sights, ho5 is it he did not see these th7ee sights ea7lie7M "hese a7e 2ommon e;ents o22u77ing 6y hund7eds and the Buddha 2ould not ha;e <ailed to some a27oss them ea7lie71 )t is im3ossi6le to a22e3t the t7aditional ex3lanation that this

5as the <i7st time he sa5 them1 "he ex3lanation is not 3lausi6le and does not a33eal to 7eason1 But i< this is not the ans5e7 to the Cuestion, 5hat is the 7eal ans5e7M "he se2ond 37o6lem is 27eated 6y the <ou7 !7yan "7uths1 Do they <o7m 3a7t o< the o7iginal tea2hings o< the BuddhaM "his <o7mula 2uts at the 7oot o< Buddhism1 )< li<e is so77o5, death is so77o5 and 7e6i7th is so77o5, then the7e is an end o< e;e7ything1 #eithe7 7eligion no7 3hiloso3hy 2an hel3 a man to a2hie;e ha33iness in the 5o7ld1 )< D-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> the7e is no es2a3e <7om so77o5, then 5hat 2an 7eligion do, 5hat 2an Buddha do to 7elie;e man <7om su2h so77o5 5hi2h is e;e7 the7e in 6i7th itsel<M "he <ou7 !7yan "7uths a7e a g7eat stum6ling 6lo2k in the 5ay o< non-Buddhists a22e3ting the gos3el o< Buddhism1 Fo7 the <ou7 !7yan "7uths deny ho3e to man1 "he <ou7 !7yan "7uths make the gos3el o< the Buddha a gos3el o< 3essimism1 Do they <o7m 3a7t o< the o7iginal gos3el o7 a7e they a late7 a227etion 6y the monks M "he thi7d 37o6lem 7elates to the do2t7ines o< soul, o< ka7ma and 7e6i7th1 "he Buddha denied the existen2e o< the soul1 But he is also said to ha;e a<<i7med the do2t7ine o< ka7ma and 7e6i7th1 !t on2e a Cuestion a7ises1 )< the7e is no soul, ho5 2an the7e 6e ka7maM )< the7e is no soul, ho5 2an the7e 6e 7e6i7thM "hese a7e 6a<<ling Cuestions1 )n 5hat sense did the Buddha use the 5o7ds ka7ma and 7e6i7thM Did he use them in the same sense in 5hi2h the B7ahmins used themM )< so, is the7e not a te77i6le 2ont7adi2tion 6et5een the denial o< the soul and the a<<i7mation o< ka7ma and 7e6i7thM "his 2ont7adi2tion needs to 6e 7esol;ed1 "he <ou7th 37o6lem 7elates to the Bhikkhu1 +hat 5as the o6?e2t o< the Buddha in 27eating the BhikkhuM +as the o6?e2t to 27eate a 3e7<e2t manM O7 5as his o6?e2t to 27eate a so2ial se7;ant de;oting his li<e to se7;i2e o< the 3eo3le and 6eing thei7 <7iend, guide and hiloso3he7M "his is a ;e7y 7eal Cuestion1 On it de3ends the <utu7e o< Buddhism1 )< the Bhikkhu is only a 3e7<e2t man he is o< no use to the 37o3agation o< Buddhism 6e2ause though a 3e7<e2t man he is a sel<ish man1 )<, on the othe7 hand, he is a so2ial se7;ant he may 37o;e to 6e the ho3e o< Buddhism1 "he Cuestion must 6e de2ided not so mu2h in the inte7est o< do2t7inal 2onsisten2y 6ut in the inte7est o< the <utu7e o< Buddhism1 )< ) may say so, the 3ages o< the ?ou7nal o< the Aaha6odhi (o2iety make, to me at any 7ate, dull 7eading1 "his is not 6e2ause the mate7ial 37esented is not inte7esting and inst7u2ti;e1 "he dullness is due to the <a2t that it seems to <all u3on a 3assi;e set o< 7eade7s1 !<te7 7eading an a7ti2le, one likes to kno5 5hat the 7eade7 o< the ?ou7nal has to say a6out it1 But the 7eade7 ne;e7 gi;es out his 7ea2tion1 "his silen2e on the 3a7t o< the 7eade7 is a g7eat dis2ou7agement to the 57ite71 ) ho3e my Cuestion 5ill ex2ite the 7eade7s to 2ome and make thei7 2ont7i6ution to thei7 solution1

D/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> P O%OI$E 8 F7om time to time men <ind themsel;es <o72ed to 7e2onside7 2u77ent and inhe7ited 6elie<s and ideas, to gain some ha7mony 6et5een 37esent and 3ast ex3e7ien2e, and to 7ea2h a 3osition 5hi2h shall satis<y the demands o< <eeling and 7e<lexion and gi;e 2on<iden2e <o7 <a2ing the <utu7e1 )<, at the 37esent day, 7eligion, as a su6?e2t o< 27iti2al o7 s2ienti<i2 inCui7y, o< 6oth 37a2ti2al and theo7eti2al signi<i2an2e has att7a2ted in27easing attention, this 2an 6e as27i6ed to @aB the 7a3id 37og7ess o< s2ienti<i2 kno5ledge and thought J @6B the dee3e7 intelle2tual inte7est in the su6?e2t J @2B the 5ides37ead tenden2ies in all 3a7ts o< the 5o7ld to 7e<o7m o7 7e2onst7u2t 7eligion, o7 e;en to 7e3la2e it 6y some 6ody o< thought, mo7e : 7ational : and : s2ienti<i2 : o7 less : su3e7stitious : J and @dB the e<<e2t o< so2ial, 3oliti2al, and inte7national e;ents o< a so7t 5hi2h, in the 3ast, ha;e 6oth in<luen2ed and 6een in<luen2ed 6y 7eligion1 +hene;e7 the ethi2al o7 mo7al ;alue o< a2ti;ities o7 2onditions is Cuestioned, the ;alue o< 7eligion is in;ol;ed J and all dee3 -sti77ing ex3e7ien2es in;a7ia6ly 2om3el a 7e2onside7ation o< the most <undamental ideas, 5hethe7 they a7e ex3li2itly 7eligious o7 not1 $ltimately the7e a7ise 37o6lems o< ?usti2e, human destiny, Iod, and the uni;e7se J and these in tu7n in;ol;e 37o6lems o< the 7elation 6et5een : 7eligious : and othe7 ideas, the ;alidity o< o7dina7y kno5ledge, and 37a2ti2a6le 2on2e3tions o< :ex3e7ien2e: and :7eality1: -F7om 8 En2y2lo3aedia o< eligion and Ethi2s,8 Gol1 Q, 31 FF/1

K0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> 8)#DEQ8

BOO* O#E' ()DDH! "H I!$"!A! N HO+ ! BODH)(!""! BEC!AE "HE B$DDH! R Pa7t ) N F7om Bi7th to Pa7i;7a?a KL @R Pa7t )) N enun2iation <o7 E;e7 FL

@) Pa7t H)N )n (ea72h o< #e5 %ight .F S Pa7t )G N Enlightenment and the Gision o< a #e5 +ay 111 - E R Pa7t G N "he Buddha and His P7ede2esso7s /D @) Pa7t G) N "he Buddha and His Contem3o7a7ies D0L @R Pa7t G)) N Com3a7ison and Cont7ast D0F BOO* "+O' C!AP!)I# OF CO#GE ()O# @D Pa7t ) N Buddha and His Gishad &oga D0/ @R Pa7t )) N "he Con;e7sion o< the Pa7i;7a?akas DDL @) Pa7t H) N Con;e7sion o< the High and the Holy DKH @) Pa7t )G N Call <7om Home DE0 @R Pa7t G N Cam3aign <o7 Con;e7sion esumed DF.

@) Pa7t G) N Con;e7sion o< the %o5 and the %o5ly DF@T Pa7t G)) N Con;e7sion o< +omen DHL Pa7t G))) N Con;e7sion o< the Fallen and the C7iminals 1 D -0 BOO* "H EE' +H!" "HE B$DDH! "!$IH" @) Pa7t ) N His Pla2e in His Dhamma D-@T Pa7t )) N Di<<e7ent Gie5s o< the Buddha:s Dhamma D/F CR Pa7t H) N +hat is Dhamma D/S Pa7t )G N +hat is #ot Dhamma KDE @T Pa7t G N +hat is (addhamma K.E BOO* FO$ ' @R Pa7t ) N E%)I)O# !#D DH!AA! eligion and Dhamma KHK

@) Pa7t )) N Ho5 (imila7ities in "e7minlogy Con2eal Fundamental Di<<e7en2e K-. dU Pa7t ))) N "he Buddhist +ay o< %i<e L0E

S Pa7t )G N His (e7mons LKL

KD

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> BOO* HGE' "HE (!#IH R Pa7t ) N "he (angh LEH @) Pa7t )) N "he Bhikkhu' the Buddha:s Con2e3tion o< Him 1 L F. i Pa7t ))) N "he Duties o< the Bhikkhu LH. - Pa7t )G N "he Bhikkhu and the %aity L-L i Pa7t G N Ginaya <o7 the %aity L-BOO* ()Q' HE !#D H)( CO#"EAPO ! )E( VT Pa7t ) N His Bene<a2to7s L/H Pa7t )) N His Enemies .0F Pa7t ))) N C7iti2s o< His Do2t7ines .KD Pa7t )G N F7iends and !dmi7e7s .L0 BOO* (EGE#' "HE +!#DE E :( %!(" PO$ #E& Pa7t ) N "he Aeeting o< those #ea7 and Dea7 ..D Pa7t )) N %ea;ing Gaishali ..H Pa7t ))) N His End .ED BOO* E)IH"' "HE A!# +HO +!( ()DDH! "H! I!$"!A! @T Pa7t ) N His Pe7sonality .FF @) Pa7t )) N His Humanity .H0 Pa7t H) N His %ikes and Dislikes1 .-0 EP)%OI$E D1 "7i6utes to the Buddha:s I7eatness1 '' .--

<t

K1 ! Go5 to (37ead His Dhamma1 '' ./K

L1 ! P7aye7 <o7 His

etu7n to His #ati;e %and1 '' ./K

KK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> 8''BOO* )''8 ()DDH! "H I!$"!A!N HO+ ! BODH)(!""! BEC!AE "HE B$DDH! P! " ) ' F OA B) "H "O P! )G !"! '' l1His*ula'' tR '' K1 His !n2est7y '' CE ''L1 His Bi7th '' R ''.1 Gisit 6y !sita '' - ''E1 Death o< Aahamaya '' L ''F1 Childhood and Edu2ation '' @E '' H1 Ea7ly "7aits '' / '' -1 Aa77iage '' R '' /1 Fathe7:s Plans to (a;e His (on '' @D '' D01 "he Failu7e o< the +omen to +in @R the P7in2e '' d '' D D1 "he P7ime Ainiste7:s !dmonition L to the P7in2e '' UWB ''DK1 "he P7in2e:s U:/ Ainiste7 '' XB '' DL1 )nitiation into the (akya (angh '' e3ly to the P7ime

; ''D.1 Con<li2t 5ith the (angh '' ' L '' DE1 O<<e7 o< Exile'' R '' DF1 Pa7i;7a?a N the +ay Out '' )( ''DH1 Pa7ting +o7ds '' KL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> :Y:B ''D-1 %ea;ing His Home '' @E '' D/1 "he P7in2e and the (e7;ant '' ) '' K01 "he etu7n o< Channa ''

T K D 1 "he Family in Aou7ning '' D1 His*ula'' D1 Ioing 6a2k to the sixth 2entu7y B1C1, #o7the7n )ndia did not <o7m a single (o;e7eign (tate1 K1 "he 2ount7y 5as di;ided into many (tates, some la7ge, some small1 O< these some 5e7e mona72hi2al and some non-mona72hi2al1 L1 "he mona72hi2al (tates 5e7e altogethe7 sixteen in num6e71 "hey 5e7e kno5n 6y the name o< !nga, Aagadha, *asi, *osala, G7i?i, Aalla, Chedi, Gatsa, *u7u, Pan2hala, Aatsya, (au7sena, !smaka, !;anti, Iandha7a and *am6ho?a1 .1 "he non-mona72hi2al (tates 5e7e those o< the (akyas o< *a3il;atsu, the Aallas o< Pa;a and *ushina7a, the %i2hha;is o< Gaisali, the Gidehas o< Aithila, the *oliyas o< amagam, the Bulis o< !llaka3a, the *alingas o< esa3utta, the Aau7iyas o< Pi33hal;ana and the Bhaggas 5ith thei7 2a3ital on (umsuma7a Hill1 E1 "he mona72hi2al (tates 5e7e kno5n as Pana3ada and the nonmona72hi2al as (angh o7 Iana1 F1 #ot mu2h is kno5n a6out the natu7e o< the 3olity o< the (akyas o< *a3il;atsu, 5hethe7 it 5as 7e3u6li2an o7 oliga72hi21 H1 "his mu2h, ho5e;e7, is de<initely kno5n, that the7e 5e7e many 7uling <amilies in the e3u6li2 o< the (akyas and that they 7uled in tu7ns1 -1 "he head o< the 7uling <amily 5as kno5n as a?a1

/1 !t the time o< the 6i7th o< (iddha7th Iautama it 5as the tu7n o< (uddhodana to 6e the a?a1 D01 "he (akya (tate 5as situated in the no7theast 2o7ne7 o< )ndia1 )t 5as an inde3endent (tate1 But at a late7 stage the *ing o< *osala had su22eeded in esta6lishing his 3a7amount2y o;e7 it1 DD1 "he 7esult o< this 3a7amount2y 5as that the (akya (tate 2ould not exe72ise 2e7tain so;e7eign 3o5e7s 5ithout the san2tion o< the *ing o< *osala1 K.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DK1 O< the kingdoms then in existen2e, *osala 5as a 3o5e7<ul kingdom1 (o 5as the kingdom o< Aagadha1 Pasanedi, *ing o< *osala and Bim6isa7a, *ing o< Aagadha, 5e7e the 2ontem3o7a7ies o< (iddha7th Iautama1 '' K1 His !n2est7y ''

D 1 "he 2a3ital o< the (akyas 5as the 2ity 2alled *a3ila;atsu, 3e7ha3s a<te7 the name o< the g7eat ationalist *a3ila1 K1 "he7e li;ed in *a3ila;astu a (akya 6y name Paya (ena1 (inahu 5as his son1 (inahu 5as ma77ied to *a22ana1 (inahu had <i;e sons, (uddhodana, Dhotodana, (akkodana, (uklodana and !mitodana1 Besides <i;e sons, (inahu had t5o daughte7s, !mita and Pamita1 L1 "he Iot7a o< the-<amily 5as !ditya1 .1 (uddhodana 5as ma77ied to Aahamaya He7 <athe7:s name 5as !n?ana and mothe7:s (ulak-shana1 !n?ana 5as a *oliya and 5as 7esiding in the ;illage 2alled De;adaha1 E1 (uddhodana 5as a man o< g7eat milita7y 37o5ess1 +hen (uddhodana had sho5n his ma7tial 3o5e7s he 5as allo5ed to take a se2ond 5i<e and he 2hose Aaha37a?a3ati1 (he 5as the elde7 siste7 o< Aahamaya1 F1 (uddhodana 5as a 5ealthy 3e7son1 "he lands he held 5e7e ;e7y extensi;e and the 7etinue unde7 him 5as ;e7y la7ge1 He em3loyed, it is said, one thousand 3loughs to till the land he o5ned1 H1 He li;ed Cuite a luxu7ious li<e and had many 3ala2es1

''L1 His Bi7th ''

D 1 "o (uddhodana 5as 6o7n (iddha7th Iautama and this 5as the manne7 o< Iautama:s 6i7th1 K1 )t 5as a 2ustom among the (akyas to o6se7;e an annual midsumme7 <esti;al 5hi2h <ell in the month o< !shad1 )t 5as 2ele67ated 6y all the (akyas th7oughout the (tate and also 6y the mem6e7s o< the 7uling <amily1 L1 )t 5as the usual 37a2ti2e to 2ele67ate the <esti;al <o7 se;en days1

KE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> .1 On one o22asion Aahamaya de2ided to o6se7;e the <esti;al 5ith gaiety, 5ith s3lendou7, 5ith <lo5e7s, 5ith 3e7<ume, 6ut 5ithout d7inking intoxi2ants1 E1 On the se;enth day she 7ose ea7ly, 6athed in s2ented 5ate7, 6esto5ed a gi<t o< .,00,000 3ie2es o< money as alms, ado7ned he7sel< 5ith all 37e2ious o7naments, ate 2hoi2est <ood, took u3on he7sel< the <ast-day ;o5s, and ente7ed the s3lendidly ado7ned 7oyal 6ed2ham6e7 to slee31 F1 "hat night (uddhodana and Aahamaya 2ame togethe7 and Aahamaya 2on2ei;ed1 %ying on the 7oyal 6ed she <ell aslee31 +hile aslee3 she had a d7eam1 H1 )n he7 d7eams she sa5 that the <ou7 5o7ld-gua7dians 7aised he7 as she 5as slee3ing on he7 6ed and 2a77ied he7 to the ta6leland o< the Himalayas, 3la2ed he7 unde7 a g7eat sal t7ee and stood on one side1 -1 "he 5i;es o< the <ou7 5o7ld-gua7dians then a337oa2hed and took he7 to the lake Aansa7o;a71 /1 "hey 6athed he7, 7o6ed he7 in a d7ess, anointed he7 5ith 3e7<umes and de2ked he7 5ith <lo5e7s in a manne7 <it to meet some di;inity1

D01 "hen a Bodhisatta, 6y name (umedha, a33ea7ed 6e<o7e he7 saying, 8 ) ha;e de2ided to take my last and <inal 6i7th on this ea7th, 5ill you 2onsent to 6e my mothe7M8 (he said, 8&es, 5ith g7eat 3leasu7e18 !t this moment Aahamaya a5oke1 D D 1 #ext mo7ning Aahamaya told he7 d7eam to (uddhodana1 #ot kno5ing ho5 to inte737et the d7eam, (uddhodana summoned eight B7ahmins 5ho 5e7e most <amous in di;ination1 DK1 "hey 5e7e ama, Dhaga, %akkana, Aanti, &anna, (uyama, (u6hoga and (udatta and 37e3a7ed <o7 them a 6e<itting 7e2e3tion1 DL1 He 2aused the g7ound to 6e st7e5n 5ith <esti;e <lo5e7s and 37e3a7ed high seats <o7 them1 D.1 He <illed the 6o5ls o< the B7ahmins 5ith gold and sil;e7 and <ed them on 2ooked ghee, honey, suga7 and ex2ellent 7i2e and milk1 He also ga;e them othe7 gi<ts su2h as ne5 2lothes and ta5ny 2o5s1 DE1 +hen the B7ahmins 5e7e 37o3itiated, (ud-dhodana 7elated to them the d7eam Aahamaya had, and said, 8 "ell me 5hat it means18 DF1 "he B7ahmins said' 8 Be not anxious1 &ou 5ill ha;e a son, and i< he leads a householde7:s li<e he 5ill 6e2ome a uni;e7sal mona72h, and i< he lea;es his home and goes <o7th into a homeless state, and 6e2omes a sanyasi, he 5ill KF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> 6e2ome a Buddha, a dis3elle7 o< illusions in the 5o7ld18 DH1 Bea7ing the Bodhisatta in he7 5om6 like oil in a ;essel <o7 ten luna7 months, Aahamaya, as he7 time o< deli;e7y 5as 2oming nea7e7, desi7ed to go to he7 3a7ents: home <o7 deli;e7y1 !dd7essing he7 hus6and, she said ' 8 ) 5ish to go to De;adaha, the 2ity o< my <athe718 D-1 8"hou kno5est that thy 5ishes 5ill 6e done,8 7e3lied (uddhodana1 Ha;ing seated he7 in a golden 3alanCuin 6o7ne 6y 2ou7ie7s, he sent he7 <o7th 5ith a g7eat 7etinue to he7 <athe7:s house1 D/1 Aahamaya, on he7 5ay to De;adaha, had to 3ass th7ough a 3leasu7eg7o;e o< sal t7ees and othe7 t7ees, <lo5e7ing and non-<lo5e7ing1 )t 5as kno5n as the %um6ini I7o;e1

K01 !s the 3alanCuin 5as 3assing th7ough it, the 5hole %um6ini I7o;e seemed like the hea;enly Cittalata g7o;e o7 like a 6anCueting 3a;ilion ado7ned <o7 a mighty king1 KD1 F7om the 7oots to the ti3s o< the 67an2hes the t7ees 5e7e loaded 5ith <7uits, <lo5e7s and num6e7less 6ees o< the <ine 2olou7s, utte7ing 2u7ious sounds, and <lo2ks o< ;a7ious kinds o< 6i7ds, singing s5eet melodies1 KK1 +itnessing the s2ene, the7e a7ose a desi7e in the hea7t o< Aahamaya <o7 halting and s3o7ting the7ein <o7 a 5hile1 !22o7dingly she told the 2ou7ie7s to take he7 in the sal -g7o;e and 5ait the7e1 KL1 Aahamaya alighted <7om he7 3alanCuin and 5alked u3 to the <oot o< a 7oyal sal t7ee1 ! 3leasant 5ind, not too st7ong, 5as 6lo5ing and the 6oughs o< the t7ees 5e7e hea;ing u3 and do5n and Aahamaya <elt like 2at2hing one o< them1 K.1 %u2kily one o< the 6oughs hea;ed do5n su<<i2iently lo5 to ena6le he7 to 2at2h it1 (o she 7ose on he7 toes and 2aught the 6ough1 )mmediately she 5as li<ted u3 6y its u35a7d mo;ement and 6eing shaken, she <elt the 3angs o< 2hild6i7th1 +hile holding the 67an2h o< the sal t7ee she 5as deli;e7ed o< a son in a standing 3osition1 KE1 "he 2hild 5as 6o7n in the yea7 EFL 6121 on the Gaishakha Pau7nima day1 KF1 (uddhodana and Aahamaya 5e7e ma77ied <o7 a long time1 But they had no issue1 $ltimately 5hen a son 5as 6o7n to them his 6i7th 5as 2ele67ated 5ith g7eat 7e?oi2ing, 5ith g7eat 3om3 and 2e7emony 6y (uddhodana and his <amily and also 6y the (akyas1 KH1 !t the time o< the 6i7th o< the 2hild it 5as the tu7n o< (uddhodana to 6e

KH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> the 7ule7 o< *a3ila;atsu and as su2h 5as in the en?oyment o< the title o< a?a1 #atu7ally the 6oy 5as 2alled P7in2e1

''.1 Gisit 6y !sita '' D 1 !t the moment 5hen the 2hild 5as 6o7n the7e d5elt on the Himalayas a g7eat sage named !sita1 K1 !sita hea7d that the gods o;e7 the s3a2e o< the sky 5e7e shouting the 5o7d 8 Buddha 8 and making it 7esound1 He 6eheld them 5a;ing thei7 ga7ments and 2ou7sing hithe7 and thithe7 in delight1 He thought, 5hat i< ) 5e7e to go and <ind out the land in 5hi2h he 5as 6o7n M L1 (u7;eying 5ith his di;ine eyes the 5hole o< the Pam6ud;i3a, !sita sa5 that a 6oy 5as 6o7n in the house o< (uddhodana shining 5ith all 67illian2e and that it 5as o;e7 his 6i7th that the gods 5e7e ex2ited1 .1 (o the g7eat sage !sita 5ith his ne3he5 #a7datta 7ose u3 and 2ame to the a6ode o< a?a (uddhodana and stood at the doo7 o< his 3ala2e1 E1 #o5 !sita, the sage, sa5 that at the doo7 o< (uddhodana:s 3ala2e many hund7ed thousand 6eings had assem6led1 (o he a337oa2hed the doo7-kee3e7 and said, 8 Io, man, in<o7m the a?a that a sage is standing at the doo718 F1 "hen the doo7-kee3e7 a337oa2hed (uddhodana and 5ith 2las3ed hands said, 8*no5, a?a, that an aged sage, old and ad;an2ed in yea7s, stands at the doo7, and says that he desi7es to see you18 H1 "he king 37e3a7ed a seat <o7 !sita and said to the doo7-kee3e7, 8 %et the sage ente718 (o 2oming out o< the 3ala2e the doo7-kee3e7 said to !sita ' 8 Please go in18 -1 #o5 !sita a337oa2hed *ing (uddhodana and, standing in <7ont o< him, said, 8 Gi2to7y, Gi2to7y, a?a, may you li;e long, and 7ule thy kingdom 7ighteously18 /1 "hen (uddhodana in 7e;e7en2e to !sita <ell at his <eet and o<<e7ed him the seat J and seeing him seated in 2om<o7t, (uddhodana said, 8 ) do not 7emem6e7 to ha;e seen thee 6e<o7e this, (age! +ith 5hat 3u73ose has thou 2ome hithe7 M +hat is the 2auseM 8 D01 "he7eu3on !sita said to (uddhodana, 8! son is 6o7n to thee, Desi7ing to see him, ha;e ) 2ome18 a?a!

K-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D D 1 (uddhodana said, 8"he 6oy is aslee3, (age ) +ill you 5ait <o7 a 5hile M 8 "he sage said, 8 #ot long, *ing, do su2h g7eat 6eings slee3 (u2h good 6eings a7e 6y natu7e 5ake<ul18 DK1 "hen did the 2hild out o< 2om3assion <o7 !sita, the g7eat sage, make a sign o< a5aking1 DL1 (eeing that the 2hild had 6e2ome a5ake, (uddhodana took the 6oy <i7mly in 6oth hands and 67ought him into the 37esen2e o< the sage1 D.1 !sita o6se7;ing the 2hild, 6eheld that it 5as endo5ed 5ith the thi7tyt5o ma7ks o< a g7eat man and ado7ned 5ith the eighty mino7 ma7ks, his 6ody su73assing that o< (ak7a, B7ahma, and his au7a su73assing them a hund7ed thousand-<old, 67eathed <o7th this solemn utte7an2e, 8 Aa7;ellous, ;e7ily, is this 3e7son that has a33ea7ed in the 5o7ld,8 and 7ising <7om his seat 2las3ed his hands, <ell at his <eet, made a 7ight5ise 2i72uit 7ound and taking the 2hild in his o5n hand stood in 2ontem3lation1 D E1 !sita kne5 the old 5ell-kno5n 37o3he2y that anyone endo5ed 5ith the thi7ty-t5o ma7ks o< a g7eat man, as Iautama 5as, has t5o 2a7ee7s o3en to him, and no thi7d1 8 )< he 6e2omes a householde7, he 5ill 6e2ome a uni;e7sal mona72h1 But i< he goes <o7th <7om the home to a homeless li<e, he 5ill 6e2ome a <ully enlightened Buddha18 DF1 !sita 5as su7e that the 2hild 5ould not 7emain a householde71 D H1 !nd looking at the 2hild he 5e3t, and shedding tea7s, sighed dee3ly1 D-1 (uddhodana 6eheld !sita shedding tea7s, and sighing dee3ly1 D/1 Beholding him thus 5ee3ing, the hai7 o< his 6ody 7ose, and in dist7ess (uddhodana said to !sita, 8 +hy, O (age, dost thou 5ee3 and shed tea7s, and sigh so dee3ly M (u7ely, the7e is no mis<o7tune in sto7e <o7 the 2hild18 K01 !t this !sita said to the a?a, 8O *ing, ) 5ee3 not <o7 the sake o< the 2hild1 "he7e 5ill 6e no mis<o7tune <o7 him1 But ) 5ee3 <o7 mysel<18

K D 1 8!nd 5hyM8 asked (uddhodana1 !sita 7e3lied, 8 ) am old, aged, ad;an2ed in yea7s, and this 6oy 5ill 5ithout dou6t 6e2ome a Buddha and attain su37eme and 2om3lete enlightenment and ha;ing done so, 5ill tu7n the su37eme 5heel o< the Do2t7ine that has not 6een tu7ned 6e<o7e him 6y any othe7 6eing in the 5o7ld J <o7 the 5eal and ha33iness o< the 5o7ld 5ill he tea2h his Do2t7ine18 KK1 8"he 7eligious li<e, the Do2t7ine, that he 5ill 37o2laim 5ill 6e good in the 6eginning, good in the middle, good in the end, 2om3lete in the lette7 and the s3i7it, 5hole and 3u7e18 K/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KL1 8 Pust as an Oudum6a7a <lo5e7 at some time and 3la2e a7ises in the 5o7ld, e;en so at some time and 3la2e, a<te7 2ountless 2y2les, 7e;e7ed Buddhas a7ise in the 5o7ld1 (o also, O a?a! this 6oy 5ill 5ithout dou6t o6tain su37eme, 2om3lete enlightenment, and ha;ing done so 5ill take 2ountless 6eings a27oss the o2ean o< so77o5 and mise7y to a state o< ha33iness18 K.1 8 But ) shall not see that Buddha1 Hen2e, a?a, ) 5ee3 and in sadness ) sigh dee3ly, <o7 ) shall not 6e a6le to 7e;e7en2e him18 KE1 "he king the7ea<te7 o<<e7ed to the g7eat sage !sita and #a7datta, his ne3he5, suita6le <ood, and ha;ing gi;en him 7o6es made a 7ight5ise 2i72uit 7ound him1 KF1 "he7eu3on !sita said hea7, #a7datta, that the 2hild in his tea2hings1 "his shall 6e saying !sita took lea;e o< the ''E1 Death o< Aahamaya '' to #a7datta, his ne3he5, 8 +hen thou shalt has 6e2ome a Buddha, then go and take 7e<uge <o7 thy 5eal and 5el<a7e and ha33iness18 (o a?a and de3a7ted <o7 his he7mitage1

D1 On the <i<th day the 2e7emony o< name -gi;ing took 3la2e1 "he name 2hosen <o7 the 2hild 5as (iddha7th1 His 2lan name 5as Iautama1 Po3ula7ly, the7e<o7e, he 2ame to 6e 2alled (iddha7th Iautama1

K1 )n the midst o< 7e?oi2ing o;e7 the 6i7th and the naming o< the 2hild Aahamaya suddenly <ell ill and he7 illness 6e2ame ;e7y se7ious1 L1 ealising that he7 end 5as nea7 she 2alled (uddhodana and P7a?a3ati to he7 6edside and said ' 8 ) am su7e that the 37o3he2y made 6y !sita a6out my son 5ill 2ome t7ue1 Ay 7eg7et is that ) 5ill not li;e to see it <ul<illed18 .1 8 Ay 2hild 5ill soon 6e a mothe7less 2hild1 But ) am not 5o77ied in the least as to 5hethe7 a<te7 me my 2hild 5ill 6e 2a7e<ully nu7sed, 37o3e7ly looked a<te7 and 67ought u3 in a manne7 6e<itting his <utu7e18 E1 8"o you P7a?a3ati, ) ent7ust my 2hild, ) ha;e no dou6t that you 5ill 6e to him mo7e than his mothe718 F1 8 #o5 do not 6e so77y1 Pe7mit me to die1 Iod:s 2all has 2ome and His messenge7s a7e 5aiting to take me18 (o saying, Aahamaya 67eathed he7 last1 Both (uddhodana and P7a?a3ati 5e7e g7eatly g7ie;ed and 5e3t 6itte7ly1 H1 (iddha7th 5as only se;en days old 5hen his mothe7 died1 L0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> -1 (iddha7th had a younge7 67othe7 6y name #anda1 He 5as the son o< (uddhodana 6o7n to Aaha37a?a3ati1 /1 He had also se;e7al 2ousins, Aahanama and !nu7uddha, sons o< his un2le (uklodan, !nanda, son o< his un2le !mitodan, and De;adatta, son o< his aunt !mita1 Aahanama 5as olde7 than (iddha7th and !nanda 5as younge71 D01 (iddha7th g7e5 u3 in thei7 2om3any1

''F1 Childhood and Edu2ation ''

D1 +hen (iddha7th 5as a6le to 5alk and s3eak the elde7s o< the (akyas assem6led and asked (uddhodana that the 6oy should 6e taken to the tem3le o< the ;illage goddess !6hya1 K1 (uddhodana ag7eed and asked Aaha37a?a3ati to d7ess the 6oy1

L1 +hile she 5as doing so the 2hild (iddha7th, 5ith a most s5eet ;oi2e, asked his aunt 5he7e he 5as 6eing taken1 On lea7ning that he 5as 6eing taken to the tem3le he smiled1 But he 5ent, 2on<o7ming to the 2ustom o< the (akyas1 .1 !t the age o< eight (iddha7th sta7ted his edu2ation1 E1 "hose ;e7y eight B7ahmins 5hom (uddhodana had in;ited to inte737et Aahamaya:s d7eam and 5ho had 37edi2ted his <utu7e 5e7e his <i7st tea2he7s1 F1 !<te7 they had taught him 5hat they kne5 (uddhodana sent <o7 (a66amitta o< distinguished des2ent and o< high lineage in the land o< $ddikka, a 3hilologist and g7amma7ian, 5ell 7ead in the Gedas, Gedangas and $3anishads1 Ha;ing 3ou7ed out 5ate7 o< dedi2ation <7om a golden ;ase, (uddhodana handed o;e7 the 6oy to his 2ha7ge, to 6e taught1 He 5as his se2ond tea2he71 H1 $nde7 him Iautama maste7ed all the 3hiloso3hi2 systems 37e;alent in his day1 -1 Besides this he had lea7ned the s2ien2e o< 2on2ent7ation and meditation <7om one Bha7da5a?, a dis2i3le o< !la7 a *alam, 5ho had his ash7am at *a3ila;atsu1

LD

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> '' H1 Ea7ly "7aits '' D 1 +hene;e7 he 5ent to his <athe7:s <a7m and <ound no 5o7k he 7e3ai7ed to a Cuiet 3la2e, and 37a2tised meditation1 K1 +hile e;e7ything <o7 the 2ulti;ation o< the mind 5as 37o;ided, his edu2ation in the milita7y s2ien2e 6e<itting a *shat7iya 5as not negle2ted1 L1 Fo7 (uddhodana 5as anxious not to make the mistake o< ha;ing 2ulti;ated the mind o< his son at the 2ost o< his manliness1 .1 (iddha7th 5as o< kindly dis3osition1 He did not like ex3loitation o< man 6y man1

E1 On2e he 5ent to his <athe7:s <a7m 5ith some o< his <7iends and sa5 the la6ou7e7s 3loughing the land, 7aising 6unds, 2utting t7ees, et21, d7essed in s2anty 2lothes unde7 a hot 6u7ning sun1 F1 He 5as g7eatly mo;ed 6y the sight1 H1 He said to his <7iends, 2an it 6e 7ight that one man should ex3loit anothe7M Ho5 2an it 6e 7ight that the la6ou7e7 should toil and the maste7 should li;e on the <7uits o< his la6ou7M -1 His <7iends did not kno5 5hat to say1 Fo7 they 6elie;ed in the old 3hiloso3hy o< li<e that the 5o7ke7 5as 6o7n to se7;e and that in se7;ing his maste7 he 5as only <ul<illing his destiny1 /1 "he (akyas used to 2ele67ate a <esti;al 2alled Ga37amangal1 )t 5as a 7usti2 <esti;al 3e7<o7med on the day o< so5ing1 On this day 2ustom had made it o6ligato7y on e;e7y (akya to do 3loughing 3e7sonally1 D01 (iddha7th al5ays o6se7;ed the 2ustom and did engage himsel< in 3loughing1 D D 1 "hough a man o< lea7ning, he did not des3ise manual la6ou71 DK1 He 6elonged to a 5a77io7 2lass and had 6een taught a72he7y and the use o< 5ea3ons1 But he did not like 2ausing unne2essa7y in?u7y1 DL1 He 7e<used to ?oin hunting 3a7ties1 His <7iends used to say ' 8 !7e you a<7aid o< tige7s M 8 He used to 7eto7t 6y saying, 8 ) kno5 you a7e not going to kill tige7s, you a7e going to kill ha7mless animals su2h as dee7 and 7a66its18

LK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D.1 8)< not <o7 hunting, 2ome to 5itness ho5 a22u7ate is the aim o< you7 <7iends,8 they said1 E;en su2h in;itations (iddha7th 7e<used, saying J 8) do not like to see the killing o< inno2ent animals18 D E1 P7a?a3ati Iautami 5as dee3ly 5o77ied o;e7 this attitude o< (iddha7th1

D F1 (he used to a7gue 5ith him saying ' 8 &ou ha;e <o7gotten that you a7e a *shat7iya and <ighting is you7 duty1 "he a7t o< <ighting 2an 6e lea7ned only th7ough hunting <o7 only 6y hunting 2an you lea7n ho5 to aim a22u7ately1 Hunting is a t7aining g7ound <o7 the 5a77io7 2lass18 DH1 (iddha7th o<ten used to ask Iautami' 8 But, mothe7, 5hy should a *shat7iya <ight M !nd Iautami used to 7e3ly ' 8 Be2ause it is his duty18 D-1 (iddha7th 5as ne;e7 satis<ied 6y he7 ans5e71 He used to ask Iautami ' 8 "ell me, ho5 2an it 6e the duty o< man to kill man M 8 Iautami a7gued, 8 (u2h an attitude is good <o7 an as2eti21 But *sha-t7iyas must <ight1 )< they don:t, 5ho 5ill 37ote2t the kingdom M 8 D/1 8 But mothe7 ) )< all *shat7iyas lo;ed one anothe7, 5ould they not 6e a6le to 37ote2t thei7 kingdom 5ithout 7eso7t to killingM8 Iautami had to lea;e him to his o5n o3inion1 K01 He t7ied to indu2e his 2om3anions to ?oin him in 37a2tising meditation1 He taught them the 37o3e7 3ose1 He taught them to <ix thei7 mind on a su6?e2t1 He ad;ised them to sele2t su2h thoughts as 8 Aay ) 6e ha33y, may my 7elations 6e ha33y, may all li;ing animals 6e ha33y18 K D 1 But his <7iends did not take the matte7 se7iously1 "hey laughed at him1 KK1 On 2losing thei7 eyes they 2ould not 2on2ent7ate on thei7 su6?e2t o< meditation1 )nstead, some sa5 6e<o7e thei7 eyes dee7 <o7 shooting o7 s5eets <o7 eating1 KL1 His <athe7 and his mothe7 did not like his 3a7tiality <o7 meditation1 "hey thought it 5as so 2ont7a7y to the li<e o< a *shat7iya1 K.1 (iddha7th 6elie;ed that meditation on 7ight su6?e2ts led to de;elo3ment o< the s3i7it o< uni;e7sal lo;e1 He ?usti<ied himsel< 6y saying ' 8+hen 5e think o< li;ing things, 5e 6egin 5ith distin2tion and dis27imination1 +e se3a7ate <7iends <7om enemies, 5e se3a7ate animals 5e 7ea7 <7om human 6eings1 +e lo;e <7iends and domesti2ated animals and 5e hate enemies and 5ild animals18

LL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KE1 8"his di;iding line 5e must o;e72ome and this 5e 2an do 5hen 5e in ou7 2ontem3lation 7ise a6o;e the limitations o< 37a2ti2al li<e18 (u2h 5as his 7easoning1 KF1 His 2hildhood 5as ma7ked 6y the 37esen2e o< su37eme sense o< 2om3assion1 KH1 On2e he 5ent to his <athe7:s <a7m1 Du7ing 7e2ess he 5as 7esting unde7 a t7ee en?oying the 3ea2e and 6eauty o< natu7e1 +hile so seated a 6i7d <ell <7om the sky ?ust in <7ont o< him1 K-1 "he 6i7d had 6een shot at 6y an a77o5 5hi2h had 3ie72ed its 6ody and 5as <lutte7ing a6out in g7eat agony1 K/1 (iddha7th 7ushed to the hel3 o< the 6i7d1 He 7emo;ed the a77o5, d7essed its 5ound and ga;e it 5ate7 to d7ink1 He 3i2ked u3 the 6i7d, 2ame to the 3la2e 5he7e he 5as seated and 57a33ed u3 the 6i7d in his u33e7 ga7ment and held it next to his 2hest to gi;e it 5a7mth1 L01 (iddha7th 5as 5onde7ing 5ho 2ould ha;e shot this inno2ent 6i7d1 Be<o7e long the7e 2ame his 2ousin De;adatta a7med 5ith all the im3lements o< shooting1 He told (iddha7th that he had shot a 6i7d <lying in the sky, the 6i7d 5as 5ounded 6ut it <le5 some distan2e and <ell some5he7e the7e, and asked him i< he had seen it1 L D 1 (iddha7th 7e3lied in the a<<i7mati;e and sho5ed him the 6i7d 5hi2h had 6y that time 2om3letely 7e2o;e7ed1 LK1 De;adatta demanded that the 6i7d 6e handed o;e7 to him1 "his (iddha7th 7e<used to do1 ! sha73 a7gument ensued 6et5een the t5o1 LL1 De;adatta a7gued that he 5as the o5ne7 o< the 6i7d 6e2ause 6y the 7ules o< the game, he 5ho kills a game 6e2omes the o5ne7 o< the game1 L.1 (iddha7th denied the ;alidity o< the 7ule1 He a7gued that it is only he 5ho 37ote2ts that has the 7ight to 2laim o5ne7shi31 Ho5 2an he 5ho 5ants to kill 6e the o5ne7M

LE1 #eithe7 3a7ty 5ould yield1 "he matte7 5as 7e<e77ed to a76it7ation1 "he a76it7ato7 u3held the 3oint o< ;ie5 o< (iddha7th Iautama1

L.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> LF1 De;adatta 6e2ame his 3e7manent enemy1 But Iautama:s s3i7it o< 2om3assion 5as so g7eat that he 37e<e77ed to sa;e the li<e o< an inno2ent 6i7d to se2u7ing the good5ill o< his 2ousin1 LH1 (u2h 5e7e the t7aits o< 2ha7a2te7 <ound in the ea7ly li<e o< (iddha7th Iautama1

'' -1 Aa77iage ''

D1 "he7e 5as a (akya 6y name Danda3ani1 &eshodha7a 5as his daughte71 (he 5as 5ell kno5n <o7 he7 6eauty and <o7 he7 : sila18 K1 &eshodha7a had 7ea2hed he7 sixteenth yea7 and Danda3ani 5as thinking a6out he7 ma77iage1 L1 !22o7ding to 2ustom Danda3ani sent in;itations to young men o< all the neigh6ou7ing 2ount7ies <o7 the (5ayam;a7 o< his daughte71 .1 !n in;itation 5as also sent to (iddha7th Iautama1 E1 (iddha7th Iautama had 2om3leted his sixteenth yea71 His 3a7ents also 5e7e eCually anxious to get him ma77ied1 F1 "hey asked him to go to the (5ayam;a7 and o<<e7 his hand to &eshodha7a1 He ag7eed to <ollo5 his 3a7ents: 5ishes1 H1 F7om amongst the young men &eshodha7a:s 2hoi2e <ell on (iddha7th Iautama1 -1 Danda3ani 5as not ;e7y ha33y1 He <elt dou6t<ul a6out the su22ess o< the ma77iage1 /1 (iddha7th, he <elt, 5as addi2ted to the 2om3any o< saints and sages1 He

37e<e77ed loneliness1 Ho5 2ould he 6e a su22ess<ul householde7M D01 &eshodha7a, 5ho 5as dete7mined to ma77y none 6ut (iddha7th, asked he7 <athe7 5hethe7 to 6e in the 2om3any o< saints and sages 5as a 27ime1 (he did not think it 5as1

LE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D D 1 *no5ing he7 daughte7:s dete7mination to ma77y no one 6ut (iddha7th Iautama, the mothe7 o< &eshodha7a told Danda3ani that he must 2onsent1 Danda3ani did1 DK1 "he 7i;als o< Iautama 5e7e not only disa33ointed 6ut <elt that they 5e7e insulted1 DL1 "hey 5anted that in <ai7ness to them &eshodha7a should ha;e a33lied some test <o7 he7 sele2tion1 But she did not1 D.1 Fo7 the time 6eing they ke3t Cuiet, 6elie;ing that Danda3ani 5ould not allo5 &eshodha7a to 2hoose (iddha7th Iautama so that thei7 3u73ose 5ould 6e se7;ed1 DE1 But 5hen Danda3ani <ailed, they made 6old and demanded that a test o< skill in a72he7y 6e 37es27i6ed1 Danda3ani had to ag7ee1 DF1 !t <i7st (iddha7th 5as not 37e3a7ed <o7 this1 But Channa, his 2ha7iotee7, 3ointed out to him 5hat disg7a2e his 7e<usal 5ould 67ing u3on his <athe7, u3on his <amily and u3on &eshodha7a1 D H1 (iddha7th Iautama 5as g7eatly im37essed 6y this a7gument and ag7eed to take 3a7t in the 2ontest1 D-1 "he 2ontest 6egan1 Ea2h 2andidate sho5ed his skill in tu7n1 D/1 Iautama:s tu7n 2ame last1 But his 5as the highest ma7ksmanshi31 K01 "he7ea<te7 the ma77iage took 3la2e1 Both (uddhodana and Danda3ani 5e7e ha33y1 (o 5as &eshodha7a and Aaha37a?a3ati1 K D 1 !<te7 a long te7m o< ma77ied li<e &eshodha7a ga;e 6i7th to a son1 He 5as

named

ahula1

'' /1 Fathe7:s Plans to (a;e His (on ''

D 1 +hile the king 5as ha33y to see his son ma77ied and thus ente7 the li<e o< a householde7 the 37o3he2y o< the sage !sita 2ontinued to haunt him1

LF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K1 "o 37e;ent the 37o3he2y <7om 2oming t7ue, he thought o< getting him eng7ossed in the 3leasu7es and 2a7nal ?oys o< li<e1 L1 +ith this o6?e2t in ;ie5 (uddhodana 6uilt th7ee luxu7ious 3ala2es <o7 his son to li;e in, one <o7 summe7, one <o7 the 7ainy season and one <o7 5inte7, <u7nished 5ith all the 7eCui7ements and ex2itements <o7 a <ull amo7ous li<e1 .1 Ea2h 3ala2e 5as su77ounded 6y an extensi;e ga7den 6eauti<ully laid out 5ith all kinds o< t7ees and <lo5e7s1 E1 )n 2onsultation 5ith his <amily 37iest $dayin, he thought o< 37o;iding a ha7em <o7 the 37in2e 5ith ;e7y 6eauti<ul imnates1 F1 (uddhodana then told $dayin to ad;ise the gi7ls ho5 to go a6out the 6usiness o< 5inning o;e7 the 37in2e to the 3leasu7es o< li<e1 H1 Ha;ing 2olle2ted the inmates o< the ha7em, $dayin <i7st ad;ised them ho5 they should 5in o;e7 the 37in2e1 -1 !dd7essing them he said ' 8 &e a7e all skilled in all the g7a2e<ul a7ts, ye a7e 37o<i2ient in unde7standing the language o< amo7ous sentiments, ye a7e 3ossessed o< 6eauty and g7a2e<ulness, ye a7e tho7ough maste7s in you7 o5n styles1 /1 8 +ith these g7a2es o< you7s, ye a7e a6le to mo;e e;en sages 5ho ha;e lost all thei7 desi7es, and to ensna7e e;en the gods, 5ho a7e 2ha7med 6y hea;enly nym3hs1

D01 8 By you7 skill in ex37essing the hea7t:s <eelings, 6y you7 2oCuet7y, you7 g7a2e, and you7 3e7<e2t 6eauty ye a7e a6le to en7a3tu7e e;en 5omen, ho5 mu2h mo7e easily men1 D D 1 8"hus, skilled as ye a7e, ea2h set in you7 o5n 37o3e7 s3he7e, it should not 6e 6eyond you7 7ea2h to 2a3ti;ate and 2a3tu7e the 37in2e and hold him in you7 6ondage1 DK1 8 !ny timid a2tion on you7 3a7t 5ould 6e <it <o7 ne5 67ides 5hose eyes a7e 2losed th7ough shame1 DL1 8+hat though this he7o 6e, g7eat 6y his exalted glo7y, yet : g7eat is the might o< 5oman1: %et this 6e you7 <i7m 7esol;e1

LH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D.1 8 )n olden time a g7eat see7, ha7d to 6e 2onCue7ed e;en 6y gods, 5as s3u7ned 6y a ha7lot, the 6eauty o< *asi, 3lanting he7 <eet u3on him1 DE1 8!nd the g7eat see7 Gis;amit7a, though 3lunged in a 37o<ound 3enan2e, 5as 2a77ied 2a3ti;e <o7 ten yea7s in the <o7ests 6y the nym3h Ih7itaki1 DF1 8 Aany su2h see7s as these ha;e 5omen 67ought to naught, ho5 mu2h mo7e then a deli2ate 37in2e in the <i7st <lo5e7 o< his age M DH1 8 "his 6eing so, 6oldly 3ut <o7th you7 e<<o7ts that the 3oste7ity o< the king:s <amily may not 6e tu7ned a5ay <7om him1 D-1 8O7dina7y 5omen 2a3ti;ate sim3le menJ 6ut they a7e t7uly 5omen, 5ho su6due the natu7e o< high and ha7d18 '' D01 "he Failu7e o< the +omen to +in

the P7in2e ''

D 1 Ha;ing hea7d these 5o7ds o< $dayin, the 5omen st7ung to the hea7t, 7ose

e;en a6o;e themsel;es <o7 the 2onCuest o< the 37in2e1 K1 But e;en 5ith thei7 67o5s, thei7 glan2es, thei7 2oCuet7ies, thei7 smiles, thei7 deli2ate mo;ements, the gi7ls o< the ha7em did not <eel su7e o< themsel;es1 L1 But they soon 7egained thei7 2on<iden2e th7ough the 2ommand o< the <amily 37iest and the gentle tem3e7ament o< the 37in2e, and th7ough the 3o5e7 o< intoxi2ation and o< lo;e1 .1 "he 5omen then set u3on thei7 task and made the 37in2e 5ande7 in the 5oods like an ele3hant in the <o7ests o< Hima;at, a22om3anied 6y a he7d o< <emales1 E1 !ttended 6y 5omen, he shone in that 3leasant g7o;e, as the sun su77ounded 6y !3sa7as in his 7oyal ga7den1 F1 "he7e, some o< them u7ged 6y 3assion, 37essed him 5ith thei7 <ull, <i7m 6osoms in gentle 2ollisions1

L-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> H1 Othe7s ;iolently em67a2ed him a<te7 37etending to stum6le, then leaning on him 5ith thei7 shoulde7s d7oo3ing do5n, and 5ith thei7 gentle 27ee3e7like a7ms1 -1 Othe7s 5ith thei7 mouths smelling o< s3i7ituous liCuo7, thei7 lo5e7 li3s 7ed like 2o33e7, 5his3e7ed in 6is ea7, 8%et my se27et 6e hea7d18 /1 Othe7s, all 5et 5ith unguents, as i< gi;ing him a 2ommand, 2las3ed his hand eage7ly and said, 8Pe7<o7m thy 7ites o<1 ado7ation he7e18 D01 !nothe7 5ith he7 6lue ga7ments 2ontinually sli33ing do5n in 37etended intoxi2ation, stood 2ons3i2uous 5ith he7 tongue ;isi6le like the night 5ith its lightning lashing1 D D 1 Othe7s 5ith thei7 golden ones tinkling, 5ande7ed a6out he7e and the7e, sho5ing him thei7 6odies ;eiled 5ith thin 2loth1

DK1 Othe7s leaned, holding a mango 6ough in hand, dis3laying thei7 6osoms like golden ?a7s1 DL1 (ome, 2oming <7om a lotus 6ed, 2a77ying lotuses and 5ith eyes like lotuses, stood like the lotus goddess Padma, 6y the side o< that lotus -<a2ed 37in2e1 D.1 !nothe7 sang a s5eet song easily unde7stood and 5ith the 37o3e7 gesti2ulations, 7ousing him, sel<-su6dued though he 5as, 6y he7 glan2e, as saying, 8O ho5 thou a7t deluded ) 8 DE1 !nothe7, ha;ing a7med he7sel< 5ith he7 67ight <a2e, 5ith its 67o5 d7a5n to its <ull, imitated his a2tion, as 3laying the he7o1 D F1 !nothe7, 5ith 6eauti<ul, <ull 6osoms, and ha;ing he7 ea77ings 5a;ing in the 5ind, laughed loudly at him, as i< saying, 8 Cat2h me, si7, i< you 2an ) 8 D H1 (ome, as he 5as going a5ay, 6ound him 5ith st7ings o< ga7lands, othe7s 3unished him 5ith 5o7ds like an ele3hant-d7i;e7:s hook, gentle yet 7e37oa2h<ul1 D-1 !nothe7, 5ishing to a7gue 5ith him, seiOing a mango s37ay, asked, all 6e5ilde7ed 5ith 3assion, 8:"his <lo5e7, 5hose is itM8 D/1 !nothe7, assuming a gait and attitude like that o< a man, said to him, 8 &ou 5ho a7e 2onCue7ed, 6y a 5oman, go and 2onCue7 this ea7th! 8

L/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K01 "hen anothe7 5ith 7olling eyes, smelling a 6lue lotus, thus add7essed the 37in2e 5ith 5o7ds slightly indistin2t in he7 ex2itement ' KD1 8 (ee, my lo7d, this mango 2o;e7ed 5ith its honey-s2ented <lo5e7s, 5he7e the 6i7d kokila sings, as i< im37isoned in a golden 2age1 KK1 8Come and see this !soka t7ee, 5hi2h augments lo;e7s: so77o5s, 5he7e the 6ees make a noise as i< they 5e7e s2o72hed 6y <i7e1 KL1 8 Come and see this "ilaka t7ee, em67a2ed 6y a slende7 mango 67an2h,

like a man in a 5hite ga7ment 6y a 5oman de2ked 5ith yello5 ungents1 K.1 8 Behold the ku7u6aka in <lo5e7, 67ight like <7esh 7esin-?ui2e, 5hi2h 6ends do5n as i< it <elt 7e37oa2hed 6y the 2olou7 o< 5omen:s nails1 KE1 8 Come and see this young !soka, 2o;e7ed all o;e7 5ith ne5 shoots, 5hi2h stands as i< it 5e7e ashamed at the 6eauty o< ou7 hands1 KF1 8 (ee this lake su77ounded 6y the (indu;a7a sh7u6s g7o5ing on its 6anks, like a<ai7 5oman 7e2lining, 2lad in <ine 5hite 2loth1 KH1 8 (ee the im3e7ial 3o5e7 o< <emales, yonde7 uddygoose in the 5ate7, goes 6ehind, his mate <ollo5-, ing he7 like a sla;e1 K-1 8Come and listen to the notes o< the intoxi2ated Cu2koo as he sings, 5hile anothe7 2u2koo sings as i< 2onsenting 5holly 5ithout 2a7e1 K/1 8 +ould that thine 5as the intoxi2ation o< the 6i7ds 5hi2h the s37ing 37odu2es, and not the thought o< a thinking man, e;e7 3onde7ing ho5 5ise he is ) L01 "hus these young 5omen, thei7 souls 2a77ied a5ay 6y lo;e, assailed the 37in2e 5ith all kinds o< st7atagems1 L D 1 But although thus atta2ked, he, ha;ing his sense gua7ded 6y sel<2ont7olJ neithe7 7e?oi2ed no7 smiled1 LK1 Ha;ing seen them in thei7 7eal 2ondition, the P7in2e 3onde7ed 5ith an undistu76ed and stead<ast mind1 LL1 8 +hat is it that these 5omen la2k that they 3e72ei;e not that youth is <i2kleM Fo7 old age 5ill dest7oy 5hate;e7 6eauty has18 L.1 "his 7ound o< 6landishment 5ent on <o7 months and yea7s 5ith no 7esults1

.0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> '' D D1 "he P7ime Ainiste7:s !dmonition to the P7in2e ''

D 1 $dayin 7ealiOed that the gi7ls had <ailed and that the P7in2e had sho5n no inte7est in them1 K1 $dayin, 5ell skilled in the 7ules o< 3oli2y, thought o< talking to the 37in2e1 L1 Aeeting the 37in2e all alone, $dayin said ' 8 (in2e ) 5as a33ointed 6y the king as a <itting <7iend <o7 thee, the7e<o7e, ) 5ish to s3eak to thee in the <7iendliness o< my hea7t18 (o 6egan $dayin1 .1 8"o hinde7 <7om 5hat is disad;antageous, to u7ge to do 5hat is ad;antageous and not to <o7sake in mis<o7tune, these a7e the th7ee ma7ks o< a <7iend1 E1 8)< ), a<te7 ha;ing 37omised my <7iendshi3, 5e7e not to heed 5hen thou tu7nest a5ay <7om the g7eat end o< man, the7e 5ould 6e no <7iendshi3 in me1 F1 8)t is 7ight to 5oo a 5oman e;en 6y guile, this is use<ul 6oth <o7 getting 7id o< shame and <o7 one:s o5n en?oyment1 H1 8 e;e7ential 6eha;iou7 and 2om3lian2e 5ith he7 5ishes a7e 5hat 6ind a 5oman:s hea7tJ good Cualities t7uly a7e a 2ause o< lo;e, and 5omen lo;e 7es3e2t1 -1 8+ilt thou not then, O la7ge-eyed 37in2e, e;en i< thy hea7t is un5illing seek to 3lease them 5ith a 2ou7tesy 5o7thy o< this 6eauty o< thineM /1 8 Cou7tesy is the 6alm o< 5omen, 2ou7tesy is the 6est o7namentJ 6eauty 5ithout 2ou7tesy is like a g7o;e 5ithout <lo5e7s1 D01 8 But o< 5hat use is 2ou7tesy 6y itsel<M %et it 6e assisted 6y the hea7t:s <eelingsJ su7ely, 5hen 5o7ldly o6?e2ts so ha7d to attain a7e in the g7as3, thou 5ilt not des3ise them1 ))1 8*no5ing that 3leasu7e 5as the 6est o< o6?e2ts, e;en the god Pu7anda7a @)nd7aB 5ooed in olden times !halya, the 5i<e o< the saint Iautama1

.D

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DK1 8(o too !gastya 5ooed ohini, the 5i<e o< (omaJ and the7e<o7e, as (7uti saith, a like thing 6e<ell %o3amud7a1 DL1 8"he g7eat as2eti2 B7ihas3ati 6egot Bha7ad;a?a on Aamata the daughte7 o< the Aa7uta, the 5i<e o< !utathya1 D.1 8"he Aoon, the 6est o< o<<e7e7s, 6egat Buda o< di;ine natu7e on the s3ouse o< G7ihas3ati as she 5as o<<e7ing a li6ation1 DE1 8(o too in old times Pa7asa7a, o;e73o5e7ed 6y 3assion on the 6anks o< the &amuna, lay 5ith the maiden *ali 5ho 5as the daughte7 o< the son o< Ga7una1 DF1 8"he sage Gasishtha th7ough lust 6egot a son *a3inglada on !kshmala, a des3ised lo5-2aste 5oman1 D H1 8!nd the see7-king &ayat, e;en 5hen the ;igou7 o< his 37ime 5as gone, s3o7ted in the *ait7a7tha <o7est 5ith the !3sa7a Gis;aki1 D-1 8!nd the *au7a;a king Pandu, though he kne5 that inte72ou7se 5ith his 5i<e 5ould end in death, yet o;e72ome 6y the 6eauty and good Cualities o< Aad7i, yielded to the 3leasu7es o< lo;e1 D/1 8 I7eat he7oes su2h as these, 3u7sued e;en 2ontem3ti6le desi7es <o7 the sake o< 3leasu7e, ho5 mu2h mo7e so 5hen they a7e 37aise5o7thy o< thei7 kindM K01 8 !nd yet thou, a young man, 3ossessed o< st7ength and 6eauty, des3isest en?oyments 5hi2h 7ightly 6elong to thee and to 5hi2h the 5hole 5o7ld is de;oted18

DK1 "he P7in2e:s Ainiste7 ''

e3ly to the P7ime

D1 Ha;ing hea7d these s3e2ious 5o7ds o< his, 5ell -su33o7ted 6y sa27ed t7adition, the 37in2e made 7e3ly, in a ;oi2e like the thunde7ing o< a 2loud' K1 8"his s3ee2h mani<esting a<<e2tion is 5ell -6e<itting in theeJ 6ut ) 5ill 2on;in2e thee as to 5he7e thou 57ongly ?udgest me1

.K

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L1 8 ) do not des3ise 5o7ldly o6?e2tsJ ) kno5 that all mankind is 6ound u3 the7ein1 But 7emem6e7ing that the 5o7ld is t7ansito7y, my mind 2annot <ind 3leasu7e in them1 .1 8&et e;en though this 6eauty o< 5omen 5e7e to 7emain 3e73etual, still delight in the 3leasu7es o< desi7es 5ould not 6e 5o7thy o< the 5ise man1 E1 8!nd as <o7 5hat thou sayest as to e;en those g7eat men ha;ing 6e2ome ;i2tims to desi7e, do not 6e led a5ay 6y them J <o7 dest7u2tion 5as also thei7 lot1 F1 8 eal g7eatness is not to 6e <ound the7e, 5he7e the7e is dest7u2tion, o7 5he7e the7e is atta2hment to ea7thly o6?e2ts, o7 a 5ant o< sel<2ont7ol1 H1 8 !nd 5hen thou sayest, : %et one deal 5ith 5omen 6y guile,: ) kno5 a6out guile, e;en i< it 6e a22om3anied 5ith 2ou7tesy1 -1 8 "hat 2om3lian2e too 5ith a 5oman:s 5ishes 3leases me not, i< t7uth<ulness 6e not the7e J i< the7e 6e not a union 5ith one:s 5hole soul and natu7e, then : out u3on it : say )1 /1 8 ! soul o;e73o5e7ed 6y 3assion, 6elie;ing in <alsehood, 2a77ied a5ay 6y atta2hment and 6lind to the <aults o< its o6?e2ts, 5hat is the7e in it 5o7th 6eing de2ei;ed M D01 8 !nd i< the ;i2tims o< 3assion do de2ei;e one anothe7, a7e not men un<it <o7 5omen to look at and 5omen <o7 menM DD18 (in2e then these things a7e so, thou su7ely 5ouldst not lead me ast7ay into igno6le 3leasu7es18 DK1 $dayin <elt silen2ed 6y the <i7m and st7ong 7esol;e o< the 37in2e and 7e3o7ted the matte7 to his <athe71 DL1 (uddhodana, 5hen he hea7d ho5 his son:s mind tu7ned a5ay <7om all

o6?e2ts o< sense, 2ould not slee3 all that night1 %ike an ele3hant 5ith an a77o5 in his hea7t, he 5as <ull o< 3ain1 D.1 He and his ministe7s s3ent mu2h o< thei7 time in 2onsultation ho3ing to <ind some means to d7a5 (iddha7th to the 3leasu7es o< 2a7nal li<e and thus to dissuade him <7om the likely tu7n 5hi2h he may gi;e to his li<e1 But they <ound no othe7 means 6esides those they had t7ied1

.L

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DE1 !nd the se7aglio o< 5omen 5ea7ing thei7 ga7lands and o7naments in ;ain, 5ith thei7 g7a2e<ul a7ts and endea7ments all <7uitless, 2on2ealing thei7 lo;e dee3 in thei7 hea7ts, 5as dis6anded1 '' D L1 )nitiation into the (akya (angh '' D1 "he (akyas had thei7 (angh1 E;e7y (akya youth a6o;e t5enty had to 6e initiated into the (angh and 6e a mem6e7 o< the (angh1 K1 (iddha7th Iautama had 7ea2hed the age o< t5enty1 )t 5as time <o7 him to 6e initiated into the (angh and 6e2ome a mem6e7 the7eo<1 L1 "he (akyas had a meeting-house 5hi2h they 2alled (ansthaga71 )t 5as situated in *a3ila;atsu1 "he session o< the (angh 5as also held in the (ansthaga71 .1 +ith the o6?e2t o< getting (iddha7th initiated into the (angh, (uddhodana asked the Pu7ohit o< the (akyas to 2on;ene a meeting o< the (angh1 E1 !22o7dingly the (angh met at *a3ila;atsu in the (ansthaga7 o< the (akyas1 F1 !t the meeting o< the (angh, the Pu7ohit 37o3osed that (iddha7th 6e en7olled as a mem6e7 o< the (angh1 H1 "he (ena3ati o< the (akyas then 7ose in his seat and add7essed the (angh as <ollo5s ' 8 (iddha7th Iautama, 6o7n in the <amily o< (uddhodana o< the (akya 2lan, desi7es to 6e a mem6e7 o< the (angh1 He is t5enty yea7s o< age and is in e;e7y 5ay <it to 6e a mem6e7 o< the (angh1 ), the7e<o7e, mo;e that

he 6e made a mem6e7 o< the (akya (angh1 P7ay, those 5ho a7e against the motion s3eak18 -1 #o one s3oke against it1 8! se2ond time do ) ask those 5ho a7e against the motion to s3eak,8 said the (ena3ati1 /1 #o one 7ose to s3eak against the motion1 !gain the (ena3ati said ' 8! thi7d time do ) ask those 5ho a7e against the motion to s3eak18 D01 E;en <o7 the thi7d time no one s3oke against it1 D D 1 )t 5as the 7ule o< 37o2edu7e among the (akyas that the7e 2ould 6e no de6ate 5ithout a motion and no motion 2ould 6e de2la7ed 2a77ied unless it 5as 3assed th7ee times1 ..

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DK1 "he motion o< the (ena3ati ha;ing 6een 2a77ied th7ee times 5ithout o33osition, (iddha7th 5as de2la7ed to ha;e 6een duly admitted as a mem6e7 o< the (akya (angh1 DL1 "he7ea<te7 the Pu7ohit o< the (akyas stood u3 and asked (iddha7th to 7ise in his 3la2e1 D.1 !dd7essing (iddha7th, he said ' 8 Do you 7ealiOe that the (angh has honou7ed you 6y making you a mem6e7 o< it M 8 8) do, si7, 8 7e3lied (iddha7th1 DE1 8Do you kno5 the o6ligation o< mem6e7shi3 o< the (anghM8 8) am so77y, si7, ) do not1 But ) shall 6e ha33y to kno5 them, si7,8 said (iddha7th1 DF1 8) shall <i7st tell you 5hat you7 duties as a mem6e7 o< the (angh a7e 8 said the Pu7ohit and he then 7elated them one 6y one ' 8 @DB &ou must sa<egua7d the inte7ests o< the (akyas 6y you7 6ody, mind and money1 @KB &ou must not a6sent you7sel< <7om the meetings o< the (angh1 @LB &ou must 5ithout <ea7 o7 <a;ou7 ex3ose any <ault you may noti2e in the 2ondu2t o< a (akya1 @.B &ou must not 6e ang7y i< you a7e a22used o< an o<<en2e 6ut 2on<ess i< you a7e guilty o7 state i< you a7e inno2ent18 D H1 P7o2eeding, the Pu7ohit said ' 8 ) shall next tell you 5hat 5ill disCuali<y

you <o7 mem6e7shi3 o< the (an eh ' @DB &ou 2annot 7emain a mem6e7 o< the (angh i< you 2ommit 7a3e1 @KB &ou 2annot 7emain a mem6e7 o< the (angh i< you 2ommit mu7de71 @LB &ou 2annot 7emain a mem6e7 o< the (angh i< you 2ommit the<t1 @.B &ou 2annot 7emain a mem6e7 o< the (angh i< you a7e guilty o< gi;ing <alse e;iden2e18 D-1 8lam g7ate<ul to you, si7,8 said (iddha7th, 8 <o7 telling me the 7ules o< dis2i3line o< the (akya (angh1 ) assu7e you ) 5ill do my 6est to <ollo5 them in lette7 and in s3i7it18

'' D.1 Con<li2t 5ith the (angh ''

D1 Eight yea7s had 3assed 6y sin2e (iddha7th 5as made a mem6e7 o< the (akya (angh1 .E

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K1 He 5as a ;e7y de;oted and stead<ast mem6e7 o< the (angh1 He took the same inte7est in the a<<ai7s o< the (angh as he did in his o5n1 His 2ondu2t as a mem6e7 o< the (angh 5as exem3la7y and he had endea7ed himsel< to all1 L1 )n the eighth yea7 o< his mem6e7shi3, an e;ent o22u77ed 5hi2h 7esulted in a t7agedy <o7 the <amily o< (uddhodana and a 27isis in the li<e o< (iddha7th1 .1 "his is the o7igin o< the t7agedy1 E1 Bo7de7ing on the (tate o< the (akyas 5as the (tate o< the *oliyas1 "he t5o kingdoms 5e7e di;ided 6y the 7i;e7 ohini1 F1 "he 5ate7s o< the ohini 5e7e used 6y 6oth the (akyas and the *oliyas <o7 i77igating thei7 <ields1 E;e7y season the7e used to 6e dis3utes 6et5een them as to 5ho should take the 5ate7 o< the ohini <i7st and ho5 mu2h1 "hese dis3utes 7esulted in Cua77els and sometimes in a<<7ays1 H1 )n the yea7 5hen (iddha7th 5as t5enty-eight, the7e 5as a ma?o7 2lash o;e7 the 5ate7s 6et5een the se7;ants o< the (akyas and the se7;ants o< the *oliyas, Both sides su<<e7ed in?u7ies1

-1 Coming to kno5 o< this, the (akyas and the *oliyas <elt that the issue must 6e settled on2e <o7 all 6y 5a71 /1 "he (ena3ati o< the (akyas, the7e<o7e, 2alled a session o< the (akya (angh to 2onside7 the Cuestion o< de2la7ing 5a7 on the *oliyas1 D01 !dd7essing the mem6e7s o< the (angh, the (ena3ati said ' 8 Ou7 3eo3le ha;e 6een atta2ked 6y the *oliyas and they had to 7et7eat1 (u2h a2ts o< agg7ession 6y the *oliyas ha;e taken 3la2e mo7e than on2e1 +e ha;e tole7ated them so <a71 But this 2annot go on1 )t must 6e sto33ed and the only 5ay to sto3 it is to de2la7e 5a7 against the *oliyas1 ) 37o3ose that the (angh do de2la7e 5a7 on the *oliyas1 "hose 5ho 5ish to o33ose may s3eak18 D D 1 (iddha7th Iautama 7ose in his seat and said ' 8 ) o33ose this 7esolution1 +a7 does not sol;e any Cuestion1 +aging 5a7 5ill not se7;e ou7 3u73ose1 )t 5ill so5 the seeds o< anothe7 5a71 "he slaye7 gets a slaye7 in his tu7n J the 2onCue7o7 gets one 5ho 2onCue7s him J a man 5ho des3oils is des3oiled in his tu7n18 DK1 (iddha7th Iautama 2ontinued' 8 ) <eel that the (angh should not 6e in hase to de2la7e 5a7 on the *oliyas' Ca7e<ul in;estigation should 6e made to .F

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> as2e7tain 5ho is the guilty 3a7ty1 ) hea7 that ou7 men ha;e also 6een agg7esso7s1 )< this 6e t7ue, then it is o6;ious that 5e too a7e not <7ee <7om 6lame18 DL1 "he (ena3ati 7e3lied ' 8 &es, ou7 men 5e7e the agg7esso7s1 But it must not 6e <o7gotten that it 5as ou7 tu7n to take the 5ate7 <i7st18 D.1 (iddha7th Iautama said' 8 "his sho5s that 5e a7e not 2om3letely <7ee <7om 6lame1 ) the7e<o7e 37o3ose that 5e ele2t t5o men <7om us and the *oliyas should 6e asked to ele2t t5o <7om them and the <ou7 should ele2t a <i<th 3e7son and these should settle the dis3ute18

DE1 "he amendment mo;ed 6y (iddha7th Iautama 5as duly se2onded1 But the (ena3ati o33osed the amendment, saying ' 8 ) am su7e that this mena2e o< the *oliyas 5ill not end unless they a7e se;e7ely 3unished18 DF1 "he 7esolution and the amendment had the7e<o7e to 6e 3ut to ;ote1 "he amendment mo;ed 6y (iddha7th Iautama 5as 3ut <i7st1 )t 5as de2la7ed lost 6y an o;e75helming ma?o7ity1 DH1 "he (ena3ati next 3ut his o5n 7esolution to ;ote1 (iddha7th Iautama again stood u3 to o33ose it1 8 ) 6eg the (angh,8 he said, 8 not to a22e3t the 7esolution1 "he (akyas and the *oliyas a7e 2lose 7elations1 )t is un5ise that they should dest7oy ea2h othe718 D-1 "he (ena3ati en2ounte7ed the 3lea u7ged 6y (iddha7th Iautama1 He st7essed that in 5a7 the *shat7iyas 2annot make a distin2tion 6et5een 7elations and st7ange7s1 "hey must <ight e;en against 67othe7s <o7 the sake o< thei7 kingdom1 D/1 Pe7<o7ming sa27i<i2es is the duty o< the B7ahmins, <ighting is the duty o< the *shat7iyas, t7ading is the duty o< the Gaishas and se7;i2e is the duty o< the (hud7as1 "he7e is me7it in ea2h 2lass <o7ming its duty1 (u2h is the in?un2tion o< ou7 (has7as1 K01 (iddha7th 7e3lied ' 8 Dha7ma, as ) unde7stand it, 2onsists in 7e2ognising that enmity does not disa33ea7 6y enmity1 )t 2an 6e 2onCue7ed 6y lo;e only18 KD1 "he (ena3ati, getting im3atient, said ' 8)t is unne2essa7y to ente7 u3on this 3hiloso3hi2al disCuisition1 "he 3oint is that (iddha7th is o33osed to my 7esolution1 %et us as2e7tain 5hat the (angh has to say a6out it 6y 3utting it to ;ote18 .H

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KK1 !22o7dingly the (ena3ati 3ut his 7esolution to ;ote1 )t 5as de2la7ed 2a77ied 6y an o;e75helming ma?o7ity1 '' D E1 O<<e7 o< Exile ''

D 1 #ext day the (ena3ati 2alled anothe7 meeting o< the (akya (angh to ha;e his 3lan o< mo6ilisation 2onside7ed 6y the (angh1 K1 +hen the (angh met, he 37o3osed that he 6e 3e7mitted to 37o2laim an o7de7 2alling to a7ms <o7 the 5a7 against the *oliyas e;e7y (akya 6et5een the ages o< K0 and E01 L1 "he meeting 5as attended 6y 6oth sides N those 5ho at the 37e;ious meeting o< the (angh had ;oted in <a;ou7 o< a de2la7ation o< 5a7 as 5ell as those 5ho had ;oted against it1 .1 Fo7 those 5ho had ;oted in <a;ou7 the7e 5as no di<<i2ulty in a22e3ting the 37o3osal o< the (ena3ati1 )t 5as a natu7al 2onseCuen2e o< thei7 ea7lie7 de2ision1 E1 But the mino7ity 5ho had ;oted against it had a 37o6lem to <a2e1 "hei7 37o6lem 5as N to su6mit o7 not to su6mit to the de2ision o< the ma?o7ity1 F1 "he mino7ity 5as dete7mined not to su6mit to the ma?o7ity1 "hat is the 7eason 5hy they had de2ided to 6e 37esent at the meeting1 $n<o7tunately, none o< them had the 2ou7age to say so o3enly1 Pe7ha3s they kne5 the 2onseCuen2es o< o33osing the ma?o7ity1 H1 (eeing that his su33o7te7s 5e7e silent, (iddha7th stood u3, and add7essing the (angh, said' 8 F7iends ) &ou may do 5hat you like1 &ou ha;e a ma?o7ity on you7 side, 6ut ) am so77y to say ) shall o33ose you7 de2ision in <a;ou7 o< mo6ilisation1 ) shall not ?oin you7 a7my and ) shall not take 3a7t in the 5a718 -1 "he (ena3ati, 7e3lying to (iddha7th Iautama, said ' 8 Do 7emem6e7 the ;o5s you had taken 5hen you 5e7e admitted to the mem6e7shi3 o< the (angh1 )< you 67eak any o< them you 5ill ex3ose you7sel< to 3u6li2 shame18 /1 (iddha7th 7e3lied' 8 &es, ) ha;e 3ledged mysel< to sa<egua7d the 6est inte7ests o< the (akyas 6y my 6ody, mind and money1 But ) do not think that this 5a7 is in the 6est inte7ests o< the (akyas1 +hat is 3u6li2 shame to me 6e<o7e the 6est inte7ests o< the (akyas M 8 .-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D01 (iddha7th 37o2eeded to 2aution the (angh 6y 7eminding it o< ho5 the (akyas ha;e 6e2ome the ;assals o< the *ing o< *osala 6y 7eason o< thei7 Cua77els 5ith the *oliyas1 8)t is not di<<i2ult to imagine,8 he said, 8 that this 5a7 5ill gi;e him a g7eate7 handle to <u7the7 7edu2e the <7eedom o< the (akyas18 DD1 "he (ena3ati g7e5 ang7y and add7essing (iddha7th, said ' 8 &ou7 eloCuen2e 5ill not hel3 you1 &ou must o6ey the ma?o7ity de2ision o< the (angh1 &ou a7e 3e7ha3s 2ounting u3on the <a2t that the (angh has no 3o5e7 to o7de7 an o<<ende7 to 6e hanged o7 to exile him 5ithout the san2tion o< the king o< the *osalas and that the king o< the *osalas 5ill not gi;e 3e7mission i< eithe7 o< the t5o senten2es 5as 3assed against you 6y the (angh18 DK1 8 But 7emem6e7 the (angh has othe7 5ays o< 3unishing you1 "he (angh 2an de2la7e a so2ial 6oy2ott against you7 <amily and the (angh 2an 2on<is2ate you7 <amily lands1 Fo7 this the (angh does not ha;e to o6tain the 3e7mission o< the king o< the *osalas18 DL1 (iddha7th 7ealised the 2onseCuen2es that 5ould <ollo5 i< he 2ontinued his o33osition to the (angh in its 3lan o< 5a7 against the *oliyas1 He had th7ee alte7nati;es to 2onside7 N to ?oin the <o72es and 3a7ti2i3ate in the 5a7 J to 2onsent to 6eing hanged o7 exiled J and to allo5 the mem6e7s o< his <amily to 6e 2ondemned to a so2ial 6oy2ott and 2on<is2ation o< 37o3e7ty1 D.1 He 5as <i7m in not a22e3ting the <i7st1 !s to the thi7d he <elt it 5as unthinka6le1 $nde7 the 2i72umstan2es he <elt that the se2ond alte7nati;e 5as the 6est1 DE1 !22o7dingly, (iddha7th s3oke to the (angh1 8 Please do not 3unish my <amily1 Do not 3ut them in dist7ess 6y su6?e2ting them to a so2ial 6oy2ott1 Do not make them destitute 6y 2on<is2ating thei7 land 5hi2h is thei7 only means o< li;elihood1 "hey a7e inno2ent1 ) am the guilty 3e7son1 %et me alone su<<e7 <o7 my 57ong1 (enten2e me to death o7 exile, 5hi2he;e7 you like1 ) 5ill 5illingly a22e3t it and ) 37omise ) shall not a33eal to the king o< the *osalas18:

./

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> '' DF1 Pa7i;7a?a N the +ay Out ''

D1 "he (ena3ati said ' 8 )t is di<<i2ult to a22e3t you7 suggestion1 Fo7 e;en i< you ;olunta7ily ag7eed to unde7go the senten2e o< death o7 exile, the matte7 is su7e to 6e2ome kno5n to the king o< the *osalas and he is su7e to 2on2lude that it is the (angh 5hi2h has in<li2ted this 3unishment and take a2tion against the (angh18 K1 8 )< this is the di<<i2ulty ) 2an easily suggest a 5ay out,8 said (iddha7th Iautama1 8 ) 2an 6e2ome a Pa7i;7a?aka and lea;e this 2ount7y1 )t is a kind o< an exile18 L1 "he (ena3ati thought this 5as a good solution1 But he had still some dou6t a6out (iddha7th 6eing a6le to gi;e e<<e2t to it1 .1 (o the (ena3ati asked (iddha7th ' 8 Ho5 2an you 6e2ome a Pa7i;7a?aka unless you o6tain the 2onsent o< you7 3a7ents and you7 5i<e M 8 E1 (iddha7th assu7ed him that he 5ould do his 6est to o6tain thei7 3e7mission1 8 ) 37omise,8 he said, 8 to lea;e this 2ount7y immediately 5hethe7 ) o6tain thei7 2onsent o7 not18 F1 "he (angh <elt that the 37o3osal made 6y (iddha7th 5as the 6est 5ay out and they ag7eed to it1 H1 !<te7 <inishing the 6usiness 6e<o7e the meeting, the (angh 5as a6out to 7ise 5hen a young (akya got u3 in his 3la2e and said ' 8 Ii;e me a hea7ing, ) ha;e something im3o7tant to say18 -1 Being g7anted 3e7mission to s3eak, he said ' 8 ) ha;e no dou6t that (iddha7th Iautama 5ill kee3 his 37omise and lea;e the 2ount7y immediately1 "he7e is, ho5e;e7, one Cuestion o;e7 5hi2h ) do not <eel ;e7y ha33y1 /1 8#o5 that (iddha7th 5ill soon 6e out o< sight, does the (angh 37o3ose to gi;e immediate e<<e2t to its de2la7ation o< 5a7 against the *oliyas M

D01 8) 5ant the (angh to gi;e <u7the7 2onside7ation to this Cuestion1 )n any e;ent, the king o< the *osalas is 6ound to 2ome to kno5 o< the exile o< (iddha7th Iautama1 )< the (akyas de2la7e a 5a7 against the *oliyas immediately, the king o< *osalas 5ill unde7stand that (iddha7th le<t only E0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> 6e2ause he 5as o33osed to 5a7 against the *oliyas1 "his 5ill not go 5ell 5ith us1 DD1 8), the7e<o7e, 37o3ose that 5e should also allo5 an inte7;al to 3ass 6et5een the exile o< (iddha7th Iautama and the a2tual 2ommen2ement o< hostilities so as not to allo5 the *ing o< *osala to esta6lish any 2onne2tion 6et5een the t5o18 DK1 "he (angh 7ealised that this 5as a ;e7y im3o7tant 37o3osal1 !nd as a matte7 o< ex3edien2y, the (angh ag7eed to a22e3t it1 DL1 "hus ended the t7agi2 session o< the (akya (angh and the mino7ity 5hi2h 5as o33osed to the 5a7 6ut 5ho had not the 2ou7age to say so, hea;ed a sigh o< 7elie< that it 5as a6le to o;e72ome a situation <ull o< 2alamitous 2onseCuen2es1 '' D H1 Pa7ting +o7ds ''

D1 "he ne5s o< 5hat ha33ened at the meeting o< the (akya (angh had t7a;elled to the a?a:s 3ala2e long 6e<o7e the 7etu7n o< (iddha7th Iautama1 K1 Fo7 on 7ea2hing home he <ound his 3a7ents 5ee3ing and 3lunged in g7eat g7ie<1 L1 (uddhodana said ' 8 +e 5e7e talking a6out the e;ils o< 5a71 But ) ne;e7 thought that you 5ould go to su2h lengths18 .1 (iddha7th 7e3lied, 8 ) too did not think things 5ould take su2h a tu7n1 ) 5as ho3ing that ) 5ould 6e a6le to 5in o;e7 the (akyas to the 2ause o< 3ea2e 6y my a7gument1

E1 8 $n<o7tunately, ou7 milita7y o<<i2e7s had so 5o7ked u3 the <eelings o< the men that my a7gument <ailed to ha;e any e<<e2t on them1 F1 8 But ) ho3e you 7ealise ho5 ) ha;e sa;ed the situation <7om 6e2oming 5o7se1 ) ha;e not gi;en u3 the 2ause o< t7uth and ?usti2e and 5hate;e7 the 3unishment <o7 my standing <o7 t7uth and ?usti2e, ) ha;e su22eeded in making its in<li2tion 3e7sonal to me18 H1 (uddhodana 5as not satis<ied 5ith this1 8&ou ha;e not 2onside7ed 5hat is to ha33en to us18 8 But that is the 7eason 5hy ) unde7took to 6e2ome a Pa7i;ED

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> 7a?aka,8 7e3lied (iddha7th1 8 Conside7 the 2onseCuen2es i< the (akyas had o7de7ed the 2on<is2ation o< you7 lands18 -1 8 But 5ithout you 5hat is the use o< these lands to us M 8 27ied (uddhodana1 +hy should not the 5hole <amily lea;e the 2ount7y o< the (akyas and go into exile along 5ith you M 8 /1 P7a?a3ati Iautami, 5ho 5as 5ee3ing, ?oined (uddhodana in a7gument, saying J 8 ) ag7ee1 Ho5 2an you go alone lea;ing us he7e like this M 8 D01 (iddha7th said ' 8 Aothe7, ha;e you not al5ays 2laimed to 6e the mothe7 o< a *shat7iya M )s that not so M &ou must then 6e 67a;e1 "his g7ie< is un6e2oming o< you1 +hat 5ould you ha;e done i< ) had gone to the 6attle<ield and diedM +ould you ha;e g7ie;ed like this M 8 D D 1 8#o,8 7e3lied Iautami1 8"hat 5ould ha;e 6een 6e<itting a *shat7iya1 But you a7e no5 going into the ?ungle <a7 a5ay <7om 3eo3le, li;ing in the 2om3any o< 5ild 6easts1 Ho5 2an 5e stay he7e in 3ea2e M ) say you should take us along 5ith you18 DK1 8 Ho5 2an ) take you all 5ith me M #anda is only a 2hild1 ahul my son is ?ust 6o7n1 Can you 2ome lea;ing them he7e M 8 He asked Iautami1 DL1 Iautami 5as not satis<ied1 (he u7ged ' 8 )t is 3ossi6le <o7 us all to lea;e the 2ount7y o< the (akyas and go to the 2ount7y o< the *osalas unde7 the

37ote2tion o< thei7 king18 D.1 8 But mothe7! +hat 5ould the (akyas say M 8 asked (iddha7th1 8 +ould they not 7ega7d it as t7eason M Besides, ) 3ledged that ) 5ill do nothing eithe7 6y 5o7d o7 6y deed to let the king o< the *osalas kno5 the t7ue 2ause o< my Pa7i;7a?a1 D E1 8)t is t7ue that ) may ha;e to li;e alone in the ?ungle1 But 5hi2h is 6ette7M "o li;e in the ?ungle o7 to 6e a 3a7ty to the killing o< the *oliyas )8 DF1 8But 5hy this im3atien2eM8 asked (ud-dhodana1 8 "he (akyas (angh has de2ided to 3ost3one the date o< the hostilities <o7 some time1 D H1 8 Pe7ha3s the hostilities may not 6e sta7ted at all1 +hy not 3ost3one you7 Pa7i;7a?a M Aay 6e, it 5ould 6e 3ossi6le to o6tain the 3e7mission o< the (angh <o7 you to stay among the (akyas18

EK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D-1 "his idea 5as 7e3ellent to (iddha7th1 8)t is 6e2ause ) 37omised to take Pa7i;7a?a that the (angh de2ided to 3ost3one the 2ommen2ement o< hostilities against the *oliyas1 D/1 8)t is 3ossi6le that a<te7 ) take Pa7i;7a?a the (angh may 6e 3e7suaded to 5ithd7a5 thei7 de2la7ation o< 5a71 !ll this de3ends u3on my <i7st taking Pa7i;7a?a1 K01 8 ) ha;e made a 37omise and ) must 2a77y it out1 "he 2onseCuen2es o< any 67ea2h o< 37omise may 6e ;e7y g7a;e 6oth to us and to the 2ause o< 3ea2e1 KD1 8Aothe7, do not no5 stand in my 5ay1 Ii;e me you7 3e7mission and you7 6lessings1 +hat is ha33ening is <o7 the 6est18 KK1 Iautami and (uddhodana ke3t silent1 KL1 "hen (iddha7th 5ent to the a3a7tment o< &eshodha7a1 (eeing he7, he stood silent, not kno5ing 5hat to say and ho5 to say it1 (he 67oke the

silen2e 6y saying ' 8 ) ha;e hea7d all that has ha33ened at the meeting o< the (angh at *a3ila;atsu18 K.1 He asked he7' N 8 &eshodha7a, tell me 5hat you think o< my de2ision to take Pa7i;7a?a M 8 KE1 He ex3e2ted she 5ould 2olla3se1 #othing o< the kind ha33ened1 KF1 +ith <ull 2ont7ol o;e7 he7 emotions, she 7e3lied ' 8 +hat else 2ould ) ha;e done i< ) 5e7e in you7 3ositionM ) 2e7tainly 5ould not ha;e 6een a 3a7ty to a 5a7 on the *oliyas1 KH1 8&ou7 de2ision is the 7ight de2ision1 &ou ha;e my 2onsent and my su33o7t1 ) too 5ould ha;e taken Pa7i;7a?a 5ith you1 )< ) do not, it is only 6e2ause ) ha;e ahula to look a<te71 K-1 8 ) 5ish it had not 2ome to this1 But 5e must 6e 6old and 67a;e and <a2e the situation1 Do not 6e anxious a6out you7 3a7ents and you7 son1 ) 5ill look a<te7 them till the7e is li<e in me1 K/1 8 !ll ) 5ish is that no5 that you a7e 6e2oming a Pa7i;7a?aka lea;ing 6ehind all 5ho a7e nea7 and dea7 to you, you 5ill <ind a ne5 5ay o< li<e 5hi2h 5ould 7esult in the ha33iness o< mankind18

EL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L01 (iddha7th Iautama 5as g7eatly im37essed1 He 7ealised as ne;e7 6e<o7e 5hat a 67a;e, 2ou7ageous and no6le-minded 5oman &eshodha7a 5as, and ho5 <o7tunate he 5as in ha;ing he7 as his 5i<e and ho5 <ate had 3ut them asunde71 He asked he7 to 67ing ahula1 He 2ast his <athe7ly look on him and le<t1 ''D-1 %ea;ing His Home ''

D1 (iddha7th thought o< taking Pa7i;7a?a at the hands o< Bha7ad5a?a 5ho had his !sh7am at *a3ila-;atsu1 !22o7dingly he 7ose the next day and

sta7ted <o7 the !sh7am on his <a;ou7ite ho7se *anthaka 5ith his se7;ant Channa 5alking along1 K1 !s he 2ame nea7 the !sh7am, men and 5omen 2ame out and th7onged the gates to meet him as a ne5ly a77i;ed 67ideg7oom1 L1 !nd 5hen they 2ame u3 to him, thei7 eyes 5ide o3en in 5onde7, they 3e7<o7med thei7 due homage 5ith hands <olded like a lotus 2alyx1 .1 "hen they stood su77ounding him, thei7 minds o;e73o5e7ed 6y 3assion, as i< they 5e7e d7inking him in 5ith thei7 eyes motionless and 6lossoming 5ide 5ith lo;e1 E1 (ome o< the 5omen ;e7ily thought that he 5as *ama in2a7nate, de2o7ated as he 5as 5ith his 67illiant signs as 5ith 2onnate o7naments1 F1 Othe7s thought <7om his gentleness and his ma?esty that it 5as the moon 5ith its am67osial 6eams as it 5e7e ;isi6ly 2ome do5n to the ea7th1 H1 Othe7s, smitten 6y his 6eauty, ya5ned as i< to s5allo5 him, and <ixing thei7 eyes on ea2h othe7, so<tly sighed1 -1 "hus the 5omen only looked u3on him, sim3ly gaOing 5ith thei7 eyes1 "hey s3oke not, no7 did they smile1 "hey su77ounded him and stood aghas thinking o< his de2ision to take Pa7i;7a?a1 /1 +ith g7eat di<<i2ulty he ext7i2ated himsel< <7om the 27o5d and ente7ed the gates o< the !sh7am1 D01 (iddha7th did not like (uddhodana and P7a?a3ati Iautami to 6e 37esent to 5itness his Pa7i;-7a?a1 Fo7 he kne5 that they 5ould 67eak do5n unde7 E.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> the 5eight o< g7ie<1 But they had al7eady 7ea2hed the !sh7am 5ithout letting him kno51 DD1 !s he ente7ed the 2om3ound o< the !sh7am he sa5 in the 27o5d his <athe7 and mothe71 DK1 (eeing his 3a7ents he <i7st 5ent to them and asked <o7 thei7 6lessing1 "hey 5e7e so 2hoked 5ith emotion that they 2ould ha7dly say a 5o7d1 "hey 5e3t and 5e3t, held him <ast and 6athed him 5ith thei7 tea7s1

DL1 Channa had tied *anthaka to a t7ee in the !sh7am and 5as standing1 (eeing (uddhodana and P7a?a3ati in tea7s he too 5as o;e72ome 5ith emotion and 5as 5ee3ing1 D.1 (e3a7ating himsel< 5ith g7eat di<<i2ulty <7om his 3a7ents, (iddha7th 5ent to the 3la2e 5he7e Channa 5as standing1 He ga;e him his d7ess and his o7naments to take 6a2k home1 DE1 "hen he had his head sha;ed, as 5as 7eCui7ed <o7 a Pa7i;7a?aka1 His 2ousin Aahanama had 67ought the 2lothes a337o37iate <o7 a Pa7i;7a?aka and a 6egging 6o5l1 (iddha7th 5o7e them1 DF1 Ha;ing thus 37e3a7ed himsel< to ente7 the li<e o< a Pa7i;7a?aka, (iddha7th a337oa2hed Bha7ad-5a?a to 2on<e7 on him Pa7i;7a?a1 DH1 Bha7ad5a?a 5ith the hel3 o< his dis2i3les 3e7<o7med the ne2essa7y 2e7emonies and de2la7ed (iddha7th Iautama to ha;e 6e2ome a Pa7i;7a?aka1 D-1 emem6e7ing that he had gi;en a dou6le 3ledge to the (akya (angh to take Pa7i;7a?a and to lea;e the (akya kingdom 5ithout undue delay, (iddha7th Iautama immediately on the 2om3letion o< the Pa7i;7a?a 2e7emony sta7ted on his ?ou7ney1 D/1 "he 27o5d 5hi2h had 2olle2ted in the !sh7am 5as unusually la7ge1 "hat 5as 6e2ause the 2i72umstan2es leading to Iautama:s Pa7i;7a?a 5e7e so ext7ao7dina7y1 !s the 37in2e ste33ed out o< the !sh7am the 27o5d also <ollo5ed him1 K01 He le<t *a3ila;atsu and 37o2eeded in the di7e2tion o< the 7i;e7 !noma1 %ooking 6a2k he sa5 the 27o5d still <ollo5ing him1 KD1 He sto33ed and add7essed them, saying' 8 B7othe7s and siste7s, the7e is no use you7 <ollo5ing me1 ) ha;e <ailed to settle the dis3ute 6et5een the EE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> (akyas a7id the *oliyas1 But i< you 27eate 3u6li2 o3inion in <a;ou7 o< settlement you might su22eed1 Be, the7e<o7e, so good as to 7etu7n18 Hea7ing his a33eal, the 27o5d sta7ted going 6a2k1 KK1 (uddhodana and Iautami also 7etu7ned to the 3ala2e1 KL1 Iautami 5as una6le to 6ea7 the sight o< the 7o6es and the o7naments dis2a7ded 6y (iddha7th1 (he had them th7o5n into a lotus 3ool1 K.1 (iddha7th Iautama 5as only t5enty-nine 5hen he unde75ent Pa7i;7a?a

@ enun2iationB1 KE1 Peo3le admi7ed him and sighed <o7 himJ saying ' 8 He7e 5as a (akya 6lessed 5ith high lineage, no6le 3a7entage, 3ossessed o< 2onside7a6le 7i2hes, in the 6loom o< youth<ul ;igou7, a22om3lished in mind and 6ody, 67ought u3 in luxu7y, 5ho <ought his kinsmen <o7 the sake o< maintaining 3ea2e on ea7th and good5ill to5a7ds men1 KF1 8 He7e 5as a (akya youth 5ho 5hen out;oted 6y his kinsmen 7e<used to su6mit 6ut 37e<e77ed to unde7go ;olunta7y 3unishment 5hi2h in;ol;ed the ex2hange o< 7i2hes <o7 3o;e7ty, 2om<o7t <o7 alms, home <o7 homelessness1 !nd so he goes 5ith none in the 5o7ld to 2a7e <o7 him and 5ith nothing in the 5o7ld 5hi2h he 2ould 2laim as his o5n1 KH1 8 His 5as an a2t o< su37eme sa27i<i2e 5illingly made1 His is a 67a;e and a 2ou7ageous a2t1 "he7e is no 3a7allel to it in the histo7y o< the 5o7ld1 He dese7;es to 6e 2alled a (akya Auni o7 (akya (inha18 K-1 Ho5 t7ue 5e7e the 5o7ds o< *isa Iotami, a (akya maiden1 +hen 7e<e77ing to (iddha7th Iautama, she said ' 8 Blessed indeed is the mothe7, 6lessed indeed is the <athe7, 5ho has su2h a son1 Blessed indeed is the 5i<e 5ho has su2h a hus6and18 '' D/1 "he P7in2e and the (e7;ant ''

D 1 Channa too should ha;e gone 6a2k home 5ith *anthaka1 But he 7e<used to go1 He insisted on1 seeing the P7in2e o<< 5ith *anthaka at least to the 6anks o< the 7i;e7 !noma and so insistent 5as Channa that the Iautama had to yield to his 5ishes1 K1 !t last they 7ea2hed the 6anks o< the 7i;e7 !noma1

EF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L1 "hen tu7ning to Channa he said ' 8 Iood <7iend, thy de;otion to me has 6een 37o;ed 6y thy thus <ollo5ing me1 ) am 5holly 5on in hea7t 6y thee, ye 5ho ha;e su2h a lo;e <o7 you7 maste71

.1 8 ) am 3leased 5ith you7 no6le <eelings to5a7ds me, e;en though ) am 3o5e7less o< 2on<e77ing any 7e5a7d1 E1 8 +ho 5ould not 6e <a;ou7a6ly dis3osed to one 5ho stands to him as 67inging him 7e5a7d M But e;en one:s o5n 3eo3le 2ommonly 6e2ome me7e st7ange7s in a 7e;e7se o< <o7tune1 F1 8 ! son is 67ought u3 <o7 the sake o< the <amily, the <athe7 is honou7ed 6y the son <o7 the sake o< his o5n <utu7e su33o7t J the 5o7ld sho5s kindness <o7 the sake o< ho3e J the7e is no su2h thing as unsel<ishness 5ithout a moti;e1 H1 8"hou a7t the only ex2e3tion1 "ake no5 this ho7se and 7etu7n1 -1 8 "he king, 5ith his lo;ing 2on<iden2e, still unshaken, must 6e en?oined to stay his g7ie<1 /1 8 "ell him, ) ha;e le<t him N 5ith no thi7st <o7 hea;en, 5ith no la2k o< lo;e, no7 <eeling o< ange71 D01 8He should not think o< mou7ning <o7 me 5ho am thus gone <o7th <7om my homeJ union, ho5e;e7 long it may last, in time 5ill 2ome to an end1 DD18 (in2e se3a7ation is 2e7tain, ho5 shall the7e not 6e 7e3eated se;e7ings <7om one:s kind7edM DK1 8 !t a man:s death the7e a7e dou6tless hei7s to his 5ealth 6ut hei7s to his me7it a7e ha7d to <ind on the ea7th o7 exist not at all1 DL1 8 "he king, my <athe7, 7eCui7es to 6e looked a<te71 "he king may say, : He is gone at a 57ong time1: But the7e is no 57ong time <o7 duty1 D.1 8Do thou add7ess the king, <7iend, 5ith these and su2hlike 5o7ds J and do thou use thy e<<o7ts so that he may not e;en 7emem6e7 me1 D E1 8&es, do thou 7e3eat to my mothe7 my utte7 un 5o7thiness to dese7;e he7 a<<e2tion1 (he is a no6le 3e7son, too no6le <o7 5o7ds18 DF1 Ha;ing hea7d these 5o7ds, Channa, o;e75helmed 5ith g7ie<, made 7e3ly 5ith <olded hands, his ;oi2e 2hoked 6y emotion '

EH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DH1 8 (eeing that ye a7e 2ausing a<<li2tion to thy kind7ed, my mind, my %o7d, sinks do5n like an ele3hant in a 7i;e7 o< mud1 D-1 8"o 5hom 5ould not su2h a dete7mination as this o< thine, 2ause tea7s, e;en i< his hea7t 5e7e o< i7on N ho5 mu2h mo7e i< it 5e7e th7o66ing 5ith lo;e M D/1 8 +he7e is gone this deli2a2y o< lim6, <it to lie only in a 3ala2e, and 5he7e is the g7ound o< the as2eti2 <o7est, 2o;e7ed 5ith the shoots o< 7ough *usa g7assM K01 8 Ho5 2ould D, P7in2e, 6y mine o5n 5ill, N kno5ing this thy de2ision, N 2a77y 6a2k the ho7se to the so77o5 o< *a3ila;atsu M KD18 (u7ely thou 5ill not a6andon that <ond old king, so de;oted to his son, as a he7eti2 might the t7ue 7eligion M 1 KK1 8!nd he7, thy se2ond mothe7, 5o7n 5ith the 2a7e o< 67inging thee u3, N thou 5ill not su7ely <o7get he7, as an ing7ate does a 6ene<it M KL1 8"hou 5ilt not su7ely a6andon thy 5i<e endo5ed 5ith all ;i7tues, illust7ious <o7 he7 <amily, de;oted to he7 hus6and and 5ith a young son1 K.1 8 "hou 5ilt not a6andon the young son o< &eshodha7a, 5o7thy o< all 37aise, thou the 6est o< the 2he7ishe7s o< 7eligion and <ame, as a dissolute s3endth7i<t his 2hoi2est glo7y M KE1 8 O7 e;en i< thy mind 6e 7esol;ed to a6andon thy kind7ed and thy kingdom, thou 5ill not, Aaste7, a6andon me, N thy <eet a7e my only 7e<uge1 KF1 8) 2annot go to the 2ity 5ith my soul thus 6u7ning, lea;ing thee 6ehind in the <o7est1 KH1 8+hat 5ill the king say to me, 7etu7ning to the 2ity 5ithout thee, o7 5hat shall ) say to thy 5i<e 6y 5ay o< telling them good ne5s M K-1 8 !s <o7 5hat thou sayest, : thou must 7e3eat my un 5o7thiness to the king : 5ho 2ould think o7 6elie;e itM8 2ontinued Channa1 8E;en i< ) ;entu7ed to s3eak it 5ith a hea7t ashamed and a tongue 2lea;ing to my mouth, he may not a337e2iate it1 K/1 8 Him 5ho is al5ays 2om3assionate and 5ho ne;e7 <ails to <eel 3ity, it ill

6e<its to a6andon one 5ho lo;esJ tu7n 6a2k and ha;e me72y on me18

E-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L01 Ha;ing hea7d these 5o7ds o< Channa o;e72ome 5ith so77o5, (iddha7th Iautama 5ith the utmost gentleness ans5e7ed' LD1 8!6andon this dist7ess Channa, 7ega7ding thy se3a7ation <7om me, N 2ha7ge is ine;ita6le in 2o73o7eal 6eings 5ho a7e su6?e2t to di<<e7ent 6i7ths1 LK1 8 E;en, i< ) th7ough a<<e2tion 5e7e not to a6andon my kind7ed, death 5ould still make us hel3lessly a6andon one anothe71 LL1 8 (he, my mothe7, 6y 5hom ) 5as 6o7n in the 5om6 5ith g7eat thi7st and 3ains, N 5he7e am ) no5 5ith 7ega7d to he7, and 5he7e is she 5ith 7ega7d to meM L.1 8!s 6i7ds go to thei7 7oosting-t7ee and then de3a7t, so the meeting o< 6eings ine;ita6ly ends in se3a7ation1 LE1 8!s 2louds, ha;ing 2ome togethe7, de3a7t asunde7 again, su2h ) 2onside7 the meeting and 3a7ting o< li;ing things1 LF1 8 !nd sin2e this 5o7ld goes a5ay, ea2h one de2ei;ing the othe7, N it is not 7ight to think anything thine o5n in a time o< union 5hi2h is a d7ead1 LH1 8 "he7e<o7e, sin2e it is so, g7ie;e not, my good <7iend, 6ut go J o7 i< thy lo;e linge7s, then go and a<te75a7ds 7etu7n1 L-1 8 (ay 5ithout 7e37oa2hing me, to the 3eo3le o< *a3ila;atsu, : %et you7 lo;e <o7 him 6e gi;en u3, and hea7 his 7esol;e1: 8 L/1 Ha;ing hea7d this 2on;e7sation 6et5een the maste7 and the se7;ant, *anthaka, the no6lest steed, li2ked his <eet 5ith his tongue and d7o33ed hot tea7s1 .01 +ith his hand 5hose <inge7s 5e7e untied 5ith a mem67ane and 5hi2h 5as ma7ked 5ith the aus3i2ious s;astika, and 5ith its middle 3a7t 2u7;ed, Iautama st7oked him and add7essed him like a <7iend'

.D1 8(hed not tea7s, *anthaka, 6ea7 5ith it, thy la6ou7s 5ill soon ha;e its <7uit18 .K1 "hen Channa, kno5ing that the time <o7 the 3a7ting o< the 5ays had 2ome, <o7th5ith 3aid honou7 to the syl;an d7ess o< Iautama1 .L1 "hen Iautama, ha;ing 6idden good-6ye to *anthaka and Channa, 5ent on his 5ay1 E/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> ..1 +hile his maste7, thus 7ega7dless o< his kingdom, 5as going to the as2eti2-5ood in mean ga7ments, the g7oom, tossing u3 his a7ms, 5ailed 6itte7ly and <ell on the g7ound1 .E1 Ha;ing looked 6a2k again he 5e3t aloud, and em67a2ed the ho7se *anthaka 5ith his a7ms' and then, ho3eless and 7e3eatedly lamenting, sta7ted on his 7etu7n ?ou7ney1 .F1 On the 5ay, sometimes he 3onde7ed, sometimes he lamented, sometimes he stum6led and sometimes he <ell, and so going along, 57et2hed th7ough his de;oted atta2hment, he 3e7<o7med all kinds o< a2tions on the 7oad kno5ing not 5hat he 5as doing1

'' K01 "he

etu7n o< Channa ''

D 1 "hen Channa in dee3 dist7ess, 5hen his maste7 thus 5ent into the <o7est, made e;e7y e<<o7t on the 7oad to dissol;e his load o< so77o51 K1 His hea7t 5as so hea;y that the 7oad 5hi2h he used to t7a;e7se in one night 5ith *anthaka, that same 7oad he no5 took eight days to t7a;el, 3onde7ing o;e7 his lo7d:s a6sen2e1 L1 "he ho7se *anthaka, though he still 5ent on 67a;ely, <agged and had lost all s3i7it J and de2ked though he 5as 5ith o7naments, he in the a6sen2e o< his maste7 seemed to ha;e lost all his 6eauty1 .1 !nd tu7ning 7ound to5a7ds the di7e2tion in 5hi2h his maste7 5ent, he neighed 7e3eatedly 5ith a mou7n<ul soundJ and though 37essed 5ith hunge7, he 5el2omed not, no7 tasted any g7ass o7 5ate7 on the 7oad, as 6e<o7e1 E1 (lo5ly the t5o at long last 7ea2hed *a3ila-;atsu 5hi2h seemed em3ty 5hen dese7ted 6y Iautama1 "hey 7ea2hed the 2ity in 6ody 6ut not in soul1

F1 B7ight as it 5as 5ith lotus-2o;e7ed 5ate7s, ado7ned 5ith t7ees <ull o< <lo5e7s, the 2itiOens had lost all thei7 gladness1 H1 +hen the t5o, thei7 67ightness gone and thei7 eyes dim 5ith tea7s, slo5ly ente7ed the 2ity, it seemed all 6athed in gloom1

F0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> -1 Ha;ing hea7d that they had 7etu7ned 5ith thei7 lim6s all 7elaxed, 2oming 6a2k 5ithout the 37ide o< the (akya 7a2e, the men o< the 2ity shed tea7s1 /1 Full o< 57ath, the 3eo3le <ollo5ed Channa in the 7oad, 27ying 6ehind him 5ith tea7s, 8 +he7e is the king:s son, the glo7y o< his 7a2e and his kingdom M ii D01 8 "his 2ity 6e7e<t o< him is a <o7est, and that <o7est 5hi2h 3ossesses him is a 2ity J the 2ity 5ithout him has no 2ha7ms <o7 us18 DD1 #ext the 5omen 27o5ded to the 7o5s o< 5indo5s, 27ying to one anothe7, 8"he 37in2e has 7etu7ned 8J 6ut ha;ing seen that his ho7se had an em3ty 6a2k, they 2losed the 5indo5s again and 5ailed aloud1 '' KD1 "he Family in Aou7ning ''

D 1 "he mem6e7s o< the <amily o< (uddhodana 5e7e anxiously a5aiting the 7etu7n o< Channa in the ho3e that he might 3e7suade Iautama to 7etu7n home1 K1 On ente7ing the 7oyal sta6le, *anthaka utte7ed a loud sound, utte7ing his 5oe to the 3ala2e 3eo3le1 L1 "hen the 3eo3le, 5ho 5e7e in the neigh6ou7hood o< the king:s inne7 a3a7tments, thought in thei7 hea7ts, 8 (in2e the ho7se *anthaka neighs, it must 6e that the 37in2e has 2ome18 .1 !nd the 5omen, 5ho 5e7e <ainting 5ith so77o5, no5 in 5ild ?oy, 5ith

thei7 eyes 7olling to see the 37in2e, 7ushed out o< the 3ala2e <ull o< ho3e1 But they 5e7e disa33ointed1 "he7e 5as *anthaka 5ithout the 37in2e1 E1 Iautami, a6andoning all sel<-2ont7ol, 27ied aloud N she <ainted, and 5ith a 5ee3ing <a2e ex2laimed' F1 8 +ith his long a7ms and lion gait, his 6ulllike eye, and his 6eauty, 67ight like gold, his 67oad 2hest, and his ;oi2e dee3 as a d7um o7 a 2loud, N should, su2h a he7o as this d5ell in a he7mitage M H1 8"his ea7th is indeed un5o7thy as 7ega7ds that 3ee7less doe7 o< no6le a2tions, <o7 su2h a ;i7tuous he7o has gone a5ay <7om us1 FD

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> -1 8"hose t5o <eet o< his, tende7 5ith thei7 6eauti<ul 5e6 s37ead 6et5een the toes, 5ith thei7 ankles, 2on2ealed and so<t like a 6lue lotus, N ho5 2an they, 6ea7ing a 5heel ma7k in the middle, 5alk on the ha7d g7ound o< the ski7ts o< the <o7est M /1 8"hat 6ody, 5hi2h dese7;es to sit o7 lie on the 7oo< o< a 3ala2e, honou7ed 5ith 2ostly ga7ments, aloes, and sandal5ood, ho5 5ill that manly 6ody li;e in the 5oods, ex3osed to the atta2ks o< the 2old, the heat, and the 7ainM D01 8 He 5ho 5as 37oud o< his <amily, goodness, st7ength, ene7gy, sa27ed lea7ning, 6eauty, and youth, 5ho 5as e;e7 7eady to gi;e, not ask, ho5 5ill he go a6out 6egging alms <7om othe7s M D D 1 8He 5ho, lying on a s3otless golden 6ed, 5as a5akened du7ing the night 6y the 2on2e7t o< musi2al inst7uments, ho5 alas! 5ill he, my as2eti2, slee3 today on the 6a7e g7ound 5ith only one 7ag o< 2loth inte73osed M 8 DK1 Ha;ing hea7d this 3iteous lamentation, the 5omen, em67a2ing one anothe7 5ith thei7 a7ms, 7ained tea7s <7om thei7 eyes, as the shaken 27ee3e7s d7o3 honey <7om thei7 <lo5e7s1

DL1 "hen &eshodha7a, <o7getting that she had 3e7mitted him to go, <ell u3on the g7ound in utte7 6e5ilde7ment1 D.1 8 Ho5 has he a6andoned me his la5<ul 5i<eM He has le<t me 5ido5ed1 He 2ould ha;e allo5ed his la5<ul 5i<e to sha7e his ne5 li<e 5ith him1 DE1 8) ha;e no longing <o7 the hea;en, my one desi7e 5as that my 6elo;ed may ne;e7 lea;e me eithe7 in this 5o7ld o7 the next1 DF1 8 E;en i< ) am un5o7thy to look on my hus6and:s <a2e 5ith its long eyes and 67ight smile, still is this 3oo7 ahula ne;e7 to 7oll a6out in his <athe7:s la3M DH18 !las ) the mind o< that 5ise he7o is te77i6ly ste7n, gentle as his 6eauty seems, it is 3itilessly 27uel1 +ho 2an dese7t o< his o5n a22o7d su2h an in<ant son 5ith his ina7ti2ulate talk, one 5ho 5ould 2ha7m e;en an enemy M D-1 8 Ay hea7t too is 2e7tainly most ste7n, yea, <ashioned e;en o< i7on, 5hi2h does not 67eak 5hen its lo7d dese7ted 6y his 7oyal glo7y like an o73han, N he ha33iness1 But 5hat 2an ) do M Ay g7ie< is too hea;y <o7 me <ainting in FK made o< 7o2k o7 is gone to the <o7est, so 5ell 5o7thy o< to 6ea718 D/1 (o

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> he7 5oe, &eshodha7a 5e3t and 5e3t aloud N sel<-3ossessed though she 5as 6y natu7e, yet in he7 dist7ess she had lost he7 <o7titude1 K01 (eeing &eshodha7a thus 6e5ilde7ed 5ith he7 5ild utte7an2es o< g7ie< and <allen on the g7ound, all the 5omen 27ied out, 5ith thei7 <a2es st7eaming 5ith tea7s like la7ge lotuses 6eaten 6y the 7ain1 K D 1 Ha;ing hea7d o< the a77i;al o< 6oth Channa and *anthaka, and ha;ing lea7ned o< the <ixed 7esol;e o< his son, (uddhodana <ell st7u2k do5n 6y so77o51 KK1 Dist7a2ted 6y his g7ie< <o7 his son, 6eing held u3 <o7 a moment 6y his attendants, (uddhodana gaOed on the ho7se 5ith his eyes <illed 5ith tea7s, and then <alling on the g7ound 5ailed aloud1 KL1 "hen (uddhodana got u3 and ente7ed his tem3le, o<<e7ed 37aye7s,

3e7<o7med aus3i2ious 7ites and ;o5ed 2e7tain sa27i<i2es <o7 the sa<e 7etu7n o< his son1 K.1 (o (uddhodana, Iautami and &eshodha7a 3assed thei7 days asking ' 8 Ho5 long, Iod, ho5 long, 6e<o7e, shall 5e see him again M 8

FU

IU

P! " )) '

E#$#C)!")O# FO

EGE

D1 F7om *a3ila;atsu to

a?ag7aha1

K1 *ing Bim6isa7a and His !d;i2e1

L1 Iautama ans5e7s Bim6isa7a1

.1

e3ly 6y Iautama @2on2ludedB,

E1 #e5s o< Pea2e1

F1 "he 37o6lem in a #e5 Pe7s3e2ti;e1

'' D1 F7om *a3ila;atsu to

a?ag7aha1 ''

D1 %ea;ing *a3ila;atsu, (iddha7th Iautama thought o< going to a?ag7aha, the 2a3ital o< the kingdom o< Aagadha1 K1 "he 7eigning king 5as Bim6isa7a1 )t 5as a 3la2e 5hi2h g7eat 3hiloso3he7s and leade7s o< thought had made thei7 headCua7te7s1

FL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L1 +ith this thought in mind he 27ossed the Ianges, <ea7ing not he7 7a3id <lo51 .1 On his 5ay he halted at the he7mitage o< a B7ahmin 5oman (aki, then at the he7mitage o< anothe7 B7ahmin 5oman 6y name Padma and then at the he7mitage o< the B7ahmin sage ai;ata1 !ll o< them ente7tained him1 E1 Ha;ing seen his 3e7sonality and dignity and his s3lendid 6eauty, su73assing all othe7 men, the 3eo3le o< that 7egion 5e7e all astonished at him 5ea7ing the 2lothes o< a sanyasi1 F1 On seeing him, he 5ho 5as going else5he7e stood still, and he 5ho 5as standing the7e <ollo5ed him on the 5ay J he 5ho 5as 5alking gently and g7a;ely 7an Cui2kly, and he 5ho 5as sitting at on2e s37ang u31 H1 (ome 3eo3le 7e;e7en2ed him 5ith thei7 hands: othe7s in 5o7shi3 saluted him 5ith thei7 heads, some add7essed him 5ith a<<e2tionate 5o7ds J not one 5ent on 5ithout 3aying him homage1 -1 "hose 5ho 5e7e 5ea7ing gay-2olou7ed d7esses 5e7e ashamed 5hen they sa5 him, those 5ho 5e7e talking on 7andom su6?e2ts <ell to silen2e J no one indulged in an im37o3e7 thought1 /1 His eye67o5s, his <o7ehead, his mouth, N his 6ody, his hand, his <eet, o7 his gait, N 5hate;e7 3a7t o< him anyone 6eheld, that at on2e 7i;etted his gaOe1 D01 !<te7 a long and a7duous ?ou7ney Iautama 7ea2hed a?ag7aha su77ounded 6y <i;e hills, 5ell gua7ded and ado7ned 5ith mountains, and su33o7ted and hallo5ed 6y aus3i2ious and sa27ed 3la2es1 ))1 On 7ea2hing a?ag7aha he sele2ted a s3ot at the <oot o< the Panda;a hill and 3ut u3 a small hut made o< the lea;es o< t7ees <o7 his so?ou7n1 DK1 *a3ila;atsu 6y <oot is nea7ly .00 miles distant <7om DL1 "his long ?ou7ney (iddha7th Iautama did all on <oot1 '' K1 *ing Bim6isa7a and His !d;i2e1 '' a?ag7aha1

D1 #ext day he got u3 and sta7ted to go into the 2ity 5ith a 6egging 6o5l asking <o7 alms1 ! ;ast 27o5d gathe7ed 7ound him1 F.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K1 "hen (7eniya Bim6isa7a, the lo7d o< the kingdom o< the Aagadhas, 6eheld <7om the outside o< his 3ala2e the immense 2on2ou7se o< 3eo3le, and asked the 7eason o< it J and thus did a 2ou7tie7 7e2ount it to him ' L1 8 He 5ho 5as thus <o7etold 6y the B7ahmins, :He 5ill eithe7 attain su37eme 5isdom o7 6e the em3e7o7 o< the ea7th : N it is he, the son o< the king o< the (akyas, 5ho is no5 an as2eti21 )t is he at 5hom the 3eo3le a7e gaOing at18 .1 "he king, ha;ing hea7d this and 3e72ei;ing its meaning in his mind, thus at on2e s3oke to that 2ou7tie7 ' 8 %et it 6e kno5n 5hithe7 he is going 8 J and the 2ou7tie7, 7e2ei;ing the 2ommand, <ollo5ed the 37in2e1 E1 +ith <ixed eyes, seeing only a yoke:s length 6e<o7e him, 5ith his ;oi2e hushed, and his 5alk slo5 and measu7ed, he, the no6lest o< mendi2ants, 5ent 6egging <o7 alms, kee3ing his lim6s and his 5ande7ing thoughts unde7 2ont7ol1 F1 Ha;ing 7e2ei;ed su2h alms as 5e7e o<<e7ed, he 7eti7ed to a lonely 2o7ne7 o< the mountain J and ha;ing eaten it the7e, he as2ended the Panda;a hill1 H1 )n that 5ood, thi2kly <illed 5ith lodh7a t7ees, ha;ing its thi2kness 7esonant 5ith the notes o< the 3ea2o2ks, he, the sun o< mankind, shone, 5ea7ing his 7ed d7ess, like the mo7ning sun a6o;e the easte7n mountains1 -1 "hat 7oyal 2ou7tie7 ha;ing thus 5at2hed him the7e, 7elated it all to the king ' and the king 5hen he hea7d it, in his dee3 ;ene7ation, sta7ted himsel< to go thithe7 5ith a modest 7etinue1 /1 %ike a mountain in statu7e, the king as2ended the hill1 D01 "he7e he 6eheld Iautama, 7es3lendent as he sat on his hams, 5ith

su6dued senses, as i< the mountain 5as mo;ing, and he himsel< 5as a 3eak the7eo<1 D D 1 Him, distinguished 6y his 6eauty o< <o7m and 3e7<e2t t7anCuillity, <illed 5ith astonishment and a<<e2tionate 7ega7d, the king o< men a337oa2hed1 DK1 Bim6isa7a ha;ing 2ou7teously d7a5n nigh to him, inCui7ed as to the 2ondition o< his 6odily humou7s J and Iautama 5ith eCual gentleness assu7ed the king o< his health o< mind and <7eedom <7om all ailments1

FE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DL1 "hen the king sat do5n on the 2lean su7<a2e o< the 7o2k, and 6eing seated, he thus s3oke, desi7ing to 2on;ey his state o< mind ' D.1 8 ) ha;e a st7ong <7iendshi3 5ith thy <amily, 2ome do5n 6y inhe7itan2e and 5ell 37o;ed J sin2e <7om this, a desi7e to s3eak to thee, my son, has a7isen in me, the7e<o7e, listen to my 5o7ds o< a<<e2tion, D E1 8+hen ) 2onside7 thy 7a2e, 6eginning 5ith the sun, thy <7esh youth, and thy 2ons3i2uous 6eauty, ) 5onde7 5hen2e 2omes this 7esol;e o< thine, so out o< all ha7mony 5ith the 7est, set 5holly on a mendi2ant:s li<e, not on a kingdomM DF1 8 "hy lim6s a7e 5o7thy o< 7ed sandal5ood 3e7<umes, N they do not dese7;e the 7ough 2onta2t o< 7ed 2loth, this hand o< thine is <it to 37ote2t su6?e2ts, it dese7;es not to hold <ood gi;en 6y anothe7 D H1 8)<, the7e<o7e, gentle youth, thou desi7est not thy 3ate7nal kingdom, then in thy gene7osity, a22e3t <o7th5ith one hal< o< my kingdom, D-1 8)< thou a2test thus, the7e 5ill 6e no so77o5 2aused to thine o5n 3eo3le, and 6y the me7e la3se o< time im3e7ial 3o5e7 at last <lies <o7 7e<uge to the t7anCuil mind , the7e<o7e, 6e 3leased to do me this kindness1 "he 37os3e7ity o< the good 6e2omes ;e7y 3o5e7<ul, 5hen aided 6y the good1 D/1 8 But i< <7om thy 37ide o< 7a2e thou dost not no5 <eel 2on<iden2e in me,

then 3lunge 5ith thy a77o5s into 2ountless a7mies, and 5ith me as thy ally seek to 2onCue7 thy <oes1 K01 8 Choose thou, the7e<o7e, one o< these ends1 Pu7sue a22o7ding to the 7ules o< 7eligious me7it, 5ealth, and 3leasu7eJ 3u7sue lo;e and the 7est, in 7e;e7se o7de71 "hese a7e the th7ee o6?e2ts in li<e J 5hen men die they 3ass into dissolution as <a7 as 7ega7ds this 5o7ld1 KD1 8 Do thou, the7e<o7e, 6y 3u7suing the th7ee o6?e2ts o< li<e, 2ause this 3e7sonality o< thine to 6ea7 its <7uit J they say that 5hen the attainment o< 7eligion, 5ealth and 3leasu7e is 2om3lete in all its 3a7ts, then the end o< man is 2om3lete1 KK1 8Do not thou let these t5o 67a5ny a7ms lie useless 5hi2h a7e 5o7thy to d7a5 the 6o5J they a7e 5ell <itted to 2onCue7 the th7ee 5o7lds, mu2h mo7e the ea7th1

FF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KL1 8) s3eak this to you out o< a<<e2tion, N not th7ough lo;e o< dominion o7 th7ough a77ogan2e 6eholding this mendi2ant-d7ess o< thine, ) am <illed 5ith 2om3assion and ) shed tea7s1 K.1 8 O, thou 5ho desi7est the mendi2ant:s stage o< li<e, en?oy 3leasu7es no5, in due time N e7e old age 2omes on and o;e72omes this thy 6eauty, 5ell 5o7thy o< thy illust7ious 7a2e1 KE1 8 "he old man 2an o6tain me7it 6y 7eligion J old age is hel3less, <o7 the en?oyment o< 3leasu7es J the7e<o7e, they say that 3leasu7es 6elong to the young man, 5ealth to the middle-aged, and 7eligion to the old1 KF1 8 &outh in this 37esent 5o7ld is the enemy o< 7eligion and 5ealth N sin2e 3leasu7es, ho5e;e7 mu2h 5e gua7d against them, a7e ha7d to hold, the7e<o7e, 5he7e;e7 3leasu7es a7e to 6e <ound, the7e thy youth seiOe them1

KH1 8 Old age is 37one to 7e<le2tion, it is g7a;e and intent on 7emaining Cuiet J it attains unim3assionedness 5ith 6ut little e<<o7t, una;oida6ly, and <o7 ;e7y shame1 K-1 8 "he7e<o7e, ha;ing 3assed th7ough the de2e3ti;e 3e7iod o< youth, <i2kle, intent on exte7nal o6?e2ts, heedless, im3atient, not looking at the distan2e, N they take 67eath like men 5ho ha;e es2a3ed sa<e th7ough a <o7est1 K/1 8 %et, the7e<o7e, this <i2kle time o< youth <i7st 3ass 6y, 7e2kless and giddy, N ou7 ea7ly yea7s a7e ea7ma7ked <o7 3leasu7e, they 2annot 6e ke3t <7om the 3o5e7 o< the senses1: L01 8 O7, i< 7eligion is 7eally thy one aim, then o<<e7 sa27i<i2es, N this is thy <amily:s immemo7ial 2ustom, 2lim6ing to highest hea;en 6y sa27i<i2es1 LD1 8 +ith thei7 a7ms 37essed 6y golden 67a2elets, and thei7 ;a7iegated diadems 7es3lendent 5ith the light o< gems, 7oyal sages ha;e 7ea2hed the same goal 6y sa27i<i2e 5hi2h g7eat sages 7ea2hed 6y sel<mo7ti<i2ation18 '' L1 Iautama ans5e7s Bim6isa7a1 ''

D 1 "hus s3oke the mona72h o< the Aagadhas, 5ho s3oke 5ell and st7ongly like )nd7a J 6ut ha;ing hea7d it, the 37in2e did not <alte71 He 5as <i7m like a mountain1 FH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K1 Being thus add7essed 6y the mona72h o< the Aagadhas, Iautama, in a st7ong s3ee2h 5ith <7iendly <a2e, N sel<-3ossessed, un2hanged, thus made ans5e7 ' L1 8 +hat you ha;e said is not to 6e 2alled a st7ange thing <o7 thee1 *ing! 6o7n as thou a7t in the g7eat <amily 5hose ensign is the lion, and lo;e7 as thou a7t o< thy <7iends, that ye should ado3t this line o< a337oa2h to5a7ds him 5ho stands as one o< thy <7iends is only natu7al1

.1 8!mongst the e;il-minded, a <7iendshi3 5o7thy o< thei7 <amily, 2eases to 2ontinue and <adesJ it is only the good 5ho kee3 in27easing the old <7iendshi3 o< thei7 an2esto7s 6y a ne5 su22ession o< <7iendly a2ts1 E1 8 But those men 5ho a2t un2hangingly to5a7ds thei7 <7iends in 7e;e7ses o< <o7tune, ) esteem in my hea7t as t7ue <7iends1 +ho is not the <7iend o< the 37os3e7ous man, in his times o< a6undan2eM F1 8 (o those 5ho, ha;ing o6tained 7i2hes in the 5o7ld, em3loy them <o7 the sake o< thei7 <7iends and 7eligions, N thei7 5ealth has 7eal solidity, and 5hen it 3e7ishes it 37odu2es no 3ain at the end1 H1 8 "his thy suggestion 2on2e7ning me, *ing, is 37om3ted 6y 3u7e gene7osity and <7iendshi3J ) 5ill meet thee 2ou7teously 5ith sim3le <7iendshi3, ) 5ould not utte7 aught else in my 7e3ly1 -1 8 ) am not so a<7aid e;en o< se73ents no7 o< thunde76olts <alling <7om, hea;en, no7 o< <lames 6lo5n togethe7 6y the 5ind, as ) am a<7aid o< these 5o7ldly o6?e2ts1 /1 8 "hese t7ansient 3leasu7es, N the 7o66e7s o< ou7 ha33iness and ou7 5ealth, and 5hi2h <loat em3ty and like illusions th7ough the 5o7ld, N in<atuate man:s minds e;en 5hen they a7e only ho3ed <o7, N still mo7e 5hen they take u3 thei7 a6ode in the soul1 D01 8 "he ;i2tims o< 3leasu7e attain not to ha33iness e;en in the hea;en o< the gods, still less in the 5o7ld o< mo7talsJ he 5ho is athi7st is ne;e7 satis<ied 5ith 3leasu7es, as the <i7e, the <7iend o< the 5ind, 5ith <uel1 DD18 "he7e is no 2alamity in the 5o7ld like 3leasu7es, 3eo3le a7e de;oted to them th7ough delusionJ 5hen he on2e kno5s the t7uth and so <ea7s e;il, 5hat 5ise man 5ould o< his o5n 2hoi2e desi7e e;il M

F-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DK1 8 +hen they ha;e o6tained all the ea7th gi7dled 6y the sea, kings 5ish to

2onCue7 the othe7 side o< the g7eat o2ean J mankind is1 ne;e7 satiated 5ith 3leasu7es, as the o2ean 5ith the 5ate7s that <all into it1 DL,8 +hen it had 7ained a golden sho5e7 <7om hea;en, and 5hen he had 2onCue7ed the 2ontinents and had e;en o6tained the hal< o< (ak7a:s th7one, Aandhat7i 5as still <ull o< 27a;ing <o7 5o7ldly o6?e2ts1 D.1 8 "hough he en?oyed the kingdom o< the gods in hea;en, 5hen )nd7a had 2on2ealed himsel< th7ough <ea7 o< G7it7a, and though in his 37ide he had made the g7eat ishis 6ea7 his litte7, #ahusha 5as not satis<ied1 DE1 8+ho 5ould seek these enemies 6ea7ing the name 5hom e;en those sages ha;e 6een o;e72ome, 5ho 5e7e 3u7suits, 5hose only 2lothes 5e7e 7ags, 5hose <ood 5ate7 and 5ho 5ea7 thei7 t5isted lo2ks as long as snakes o< 3leasu7es, 6y de;oted to othe7 7oots, <7uits, and M

DF1 8 +hen they hea7 o< the mise7ies o< those 5ho a7e intent on 3leasu7e and a7e de;oted to 5o7ldly 3u7suits it 5ell 6e<its the sel<-2ont7olled to <ling it a5ay1 DH18 (u22ess in 3leasu7e is to 6e 2onside7ed a mise7y in the man o< 3leasu7e, <o7 he 6e2omes intoxi2ated 5hen the 3leasu7es o< his desi7e a7e attainedJ th7ough intoxi2ation he does 5hat should not 6e done, not 5hat should 6e done J and 6eing 5ounded the7e6y he <alls into a mise7a6le end1 D-1 8 "hese 3leasu7es 5hi2h a7e gained and ke3t 6y toil, 5hi2h a<te7 de2ei;ing lea;e you and 7etu7n 5hen2e they 2ame, N these 3leasu7es 5hi2h a7e 6ut 6o77o5ed <o7 a time, N 5hat man o< sel<-2ont7ol, i< he is 5ise, 5ould delight in themM D/1 8 +hat man o< sel<-2ont7ol 2ould <ind satis<a2tion in these 3leasu7es 5hi2h a7e like a to72h o< hay, N 5hi2h ex2ite thi7st 5hen you seek them and 5hen you g7as3 them M K01 8 +hat man o< sel<-2ont7ol 2ould <ind satis<a2tion in these 3leasu7es 5hi2h a7e like <lesh that has 6een, <lung a5ay, and 5hi2h 37odu2es mise7y 6y thei7 6eing held in 2ommon 5ith kings M KD1 8 +hat man o< sel<-2ont7ol 2ould <ind satis<a2tion in these 3leasu7es, 5hi2h, like the senses, a7e dest7u2ti;e, 5hi2h 67ing 2alamity on e;e7y hand

to those 5ho a6ide in them M F/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KK1 8 "hose men o< sel<-2ont7ol 5ho a7e 6itten 6y them in thei7 hea7ts, <all into 7uin and attain not 6liss N 5hat man o< sel<-2ont7ol 2ould <ind satis<a2tion in these 3leasu7es, 5hi2h a7e like an ang7y, 27uel se73ent M KL1 8 E;en i< they en?oy them men a7e not satis<ied, N like dogs <amishing 5ith hunge7 o;e7 a 6one 5hat man o< sel< 2ont7ol 2ould <ind satis<a2tion in these 3leasu7es, 5hi2h a7e like a skeleton 2om3osed o< d7y 6ones M K.1 8 He 5hose intelle2t is 6linded 5ith 3leasu7es, the 57et2h, 5ho is the mise7a6le sla;e o< ho3e <o7 the sake o< 3leasu7es, 5ell dese7;es the 3ain o< death e;en in the 5o7ld o< li;ing1 KE1 8 Dee7 a7e lu7ed to thei7 dest7u2tion 6y songs, inse2ts <o7 the sake o< the 67ightness <ly into the <i7e, the <ish g7eedy <o7 the <lesh s5allo5s the i7on hook, N the7e<o7e, 5o7ldly 3leasu7es 37odu2e mise7y as thei7 end1 KF1 8 !s <o7 the 2ommon o3inion, : 3leasu7es a7e en?oyment,: none o< them 5hen examined a7e 5o7thy o< 6eing en?oyedJ <ine ga7ments and the 7est a7e only the a22esso7ies o< things, N they a7e to 6e 7ega7ded as me7ely the 7emedies <o7 3ain1 KH1 8+ate7 is desi7ed <o7 allaying thi7stJ <ood in the same 5ay <o7 7emo;ing hunge7J a house <o7 kee3ing o<< the 5ind, the heat o< the sun, and the 7ainJ and d7ess <o7 kee3ing o<< the 2old and to 2o;e7 one:s nakedness:1 K-1 8 (o too a 6ed is <o7 7emo;ing d7o5sinessJ a 2a77iage <o7 7emedying the <atigue o< a ?ou7neyJ a seat <o7 alle;iating the 3ain o< standingJ so 6athing as a means <o7 5ashing, health, and st7ength1 K/1 8 Exte7nal o6?e2ts the7e<o7e a7e to human 6eings means <o7 7emedying 3ain N not in themsel;es sou72es o< en?oyment J 5hat 5ise man 5ould allo5 that he en?oys those delights 5hi2h a7e only used as 7emedial M

L01 8 He 5ho, 5hen 6u7ned 5ith the heat o< 6ilious <e;e7, maintains that 2old a33lian2es a7e an en?oyment, 5hen he is only engaged in alle;iating 3ain, N he indeed might gi;e the name o< en?oyment to 3leasu7es1 LD18 (in2e ;a7ia6leness is <ound in all 3leasu7es, ) 2annot a33ly to them the name o< en?oymentJ the ;e7y 2onditions 5hi2h ma7k 3leasu7e, 67ing also in thei7 tu7n 3ain1

H0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> LK1 8 Hea;y ga7ments and <7ag7ant aloe-5ood a7e 3leasant in the 2old 6ut an annoyan2e in the heatJ and the moon6eams and sandal5ood a7e 3leasant in the heat, 6ut a 3ain in the 2old1 LL1 the a7e no man 8 (in2e the 5ell-kno5n o33osite 3ai7s, su2h as gain and loss and 7est, inse3a7a6ly 2onne2ted 5ith e;e7ything in this 5o7ld, N the7e<o7e, is in;a7ia6ly ha33y on the ea7th no7 in;a7ia6ly 57et2hed1

L.1 8 +hen ) see ho5 the natu7e o< 3leasu7e and 3ain a7e mixed, ) 2onside7 7oyalty and sla;e7y as the sameJ a king does not al5ays smile, no7 is a sla;e al5ays in 3ain1 LE1 8 (in2e to 6e a king in;ol;es a 5ide7 7ange o< 7es3onsi6ility, the7e<o7e, the so77o5s o< a king a7e g7eatJ <o7 a king is like a 3eg, N he endu7es t7ou6le <o7 the sake o< the 5o7ld1 LF1 8! king is un<o7tunate, i< he 3la2es his t7ust in his 7oyalty 5hi2h is a3t to dese7t and lo;es 27ooked tu7nsJ and, on the othe7 hand, i< he does not t7ust in it, then 5hat 2an 6e the ha33iness o< a timid king M LH1 8 !nd sin2e a<te7 e;en 2onCue7ing the 5hole ea7th, one 2ity only 2an se7;e as a d5elling 3la2e and e;en the7e only one house 2an 6e inha6ited, is not 7oyalty me7e la6ou7 <o7 othe7s M

L-1 8 !nd e;en in 7oyalty nothing mo7e than one 3ai7 o< ga7ments is all he needs, and ?ust enough <ood to kee3 o<< hunge7 J so only one 6ed, and only one seat is all that a king needsJ othe7 distin2tions a7e only <o7 37ide1 L/1 8 !nd i< all these <7uits a7e desi7ed <o7 the sake o< satis<a2tion, ) 2an 6e satis<ied 5ithout a kingdom J and i< a man is on2e satis<ied in this 5o7ld, a7e not all distin2tions unne2essa7yM .01 8 He then 5ho has attained the aus3i2ious 7oad to ha33iness is not to 6e de2ei;ed in 7ega7d to 3leasu7es1 emem6e7ing thy 37o<essed <7iendshi3, ) ask, tell me again and again, a7e the 3leasu7es 5o7th anything M .D1 8) ha;e not le<t home th7ough ange7, no7 6e2ause my diadem has 6een dashed do5n 6y an enemy:s a77o5 J no7 ha;e ) set my desi7es on lo<tie7 o6?e2ts, that ) thus 7e<use thy 37o3osal1 .K1 8 Only he 5ho, ha;ing on2e let go a malignant in2ensed se73ent, o7 a 6laOing hay-to72h all on <i7e, 5ould st7i;e again to seiOe it, 5ould e;e7 seek 3leasu7es again a<te7 ha;ing on2e a6andoned them1 HD

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> .L1 8 Only he 5ho, though seeing 5ould en;y the 6lind, though <7ee, the 6ound, though 5ealthy, the destitute, though sound in his 7eason, the mania2 N only he, ) say, 5ould en;y one 5ho is de;oted to 5o7dly o6?e2ts1 ..1 8 He 5ho li;es on alms, my good <7iend, 1is not to 6e 3itied1 He has he7e the 6est ha33iness, 3e7<e2t 2alm, and he7ea<te7 all so77o5s a7e <o7 him a6olished1 .E1 8 But he is to 6e 3itied 5ho is o;e73o5e7ed 6y 27a;ing though in the midst o< g7eat 5ealth, N 5ho attains not the ha33iness o< 2alm he7e, 5hile 3ain has to 6e ex3e7ien2ed he7ea<te71 .F1 8 +hat thou has s3oken to me is 5ell 5o7thy o< thy 2ha7a2te7, thy mode o< li<e, and thy <amilyJ and to 2a77y out my 7esol;e is also 6e<itting my 2ha7a2te7, my mode o< li<e, and my <amily18

'' .1

e3ly 6y Iautama @2on2ludedB1 ''

D1 8) ha;e 6een 5ounded 6y the st7i<e o< the 5o7ld, and ) ha;e 2ome out longing to o6tain 3ea2eJ ) 5ould not a22e3t any em3i7e in the thi7d hea;en, <o7 sa;ing me <7om all the ills o< the ea7th ho5 mu2h less amongst men M K1 8 But as <o7 5hat thou has said to me, O *ing, that the uni;e7sal 3u7suit o< the th7ee o6?e2ts is the su37eme end1 o< man, N and thou saidst that 5hat ) 7ega7d as the desi7a6le is mise7y, N thy th7ee o6?e2ts a7e 3e7isha6le and also unsatis<ying1 L1 8 !nd as <o7 5hat thou saidst, : 5ait till old age 2omes, <o7 youth is e;e7 su6?e2t to 2hange:J N this 5ant o< de2ision is itsel< un2e7tainJ <o7 age too 2an 6e i77esolute and youth 2an 6e <i7m1 .1 8 But sin2e Fate is so 5ell skilled in its a7t as to d7a5 the 5o7ld in all its ;a7ious ages into its 3o5e7, N ho5 shall the 5ise man, 5ho desi7es t7anCuillity, 5ait <o7 old age, 5hen he kno5s not 5hen the time o< death 5ill 6e M E1 8 +hen death stands 7eady like a hunte7, 5ith old age as his 5ea3on, and diseases s2atte7ed a6out as his a77o5s, smiting do5n li;ing 27eatu7es 5ho <ly like dee7 to the <o7est o< destiny, 5hat desi7e 2an the7e 6e in anyone <o7 length o< li<e M HK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> F1 8)t 5ell 6e<its the youth<ul son o7 the old man o7 the 2hild so to a2t 5ith all 37om3titude that they may 2hoose the 3ath o< the 7eligious man 5hose soul is all me72y1 H1 8 !nd as <o7 5hat thou saidst, 6e diligent in sa27i<i2es <o7 7eligion, su2h as a7e 5o7thy o< thy 7a2e and 67ing a glo7ious <7uit, : N honou7 to su2h sa27i<i2es D D desi7e not that <7uit 5hi2h is sought 6y 2ausing 3ain to othe7s!

-1 8"o kill a hel3less ;i2tim th7ough a 5ish <o7 <utu7e 7e5a7d, N it 5ould 6e unseemly a2tion <o7 a me72i<ul, good-hea7ted man, e;en i< the 7e5a7d o< the sa27i<i2e 5e7e ete7nal1 /1 8 !nd e;en i< t7ue 7eligion did not 2onsist in Cuite anothe7 7ule o< 2ondu2t, 6y sel<-7est7aint, mo7al 37a2ti2e and a total a6sen2e o< 3assion, N still it 5ould not 6e seemly to <ollo5 the 7ule o< sa27i<i2e, 5he7e the highest 7e5a7d is des27i6ed as attained only 6y slaughte71 D01 8 E;en that ha33iness 5hi2h 2omes to a man, 5hile he stays in this 5o7ld, th7ough the in?u7y o< anothe7, is hate<ul to the 5ise 2om3assionate hea7tJ ho5 mu2h mo7e i< it 6e something 6eyond ou7 sight in anothe7 li<e M D D 1 8 ) am not to 6e lu7ed into a 2ou7se o< a2tion <o7 <utu7e 7e5a7d, N my mind does not delight, *ing, in <utu7e 6i7thsJ these a2tions a7e un2e7tain and 5a;e7ing in thei7 di7e2tion, like 3lants 6eaten 6y the 7ain <7om a 2loud18 DK1 "he king himsel<, <olding his hands, 7e3lied, 8"hou a7t o6taining thy desi7e 5ithout hind7an2eJ 5hen thou has at last a22om3lished all that thou has to do, thou shall sho5 he7ea<te7 thy <a;ou7 to5a7ds me18 DL1 Ha;ing 7e2ei;ed a <i7m 37omise <7om Iautama to ;isit him again, the mona72h, taking his 2ou7tie7s 5ith him, 7etu7ned to the 3ala2e1 '' E1 #e5s o< Pea2e1 ''

D1 +hile Iautama 5as staying in a?ag7aha the7e 2ame <i;e othe7 Pa7i;7a?akas 5ho also 3ut u3 a hut 6y the side o< the hut 5hi2h Iautama had e7e2ted <o7 himsel<1 K1 "hese <i;e Pa7i;7a?akas 5e7e *aundinya, !sh;a?it, *asya3a, Aahanam and Bhaduka1 HL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L1 "hey too 5e7e st7u2k 6y Iautama:s a33ea7an2e and 5onde7ed 5hat 2ould ha;e led him to take Pa7i;7a?a1

.1 "hey Cuestioned him o;e7 the issue in the same 5ay as did *ing Bim6isa7a1 E1 +hen he ex3lained to them the 2i72umstan2es 5hi2h led him to take Pa7i;7a?a, they said, 8 +e ha;e hea7d o< it1 But do you kno5 5hat has ha33ened sin2e you le<t M 8 they asked1 F1 (iddha7th said, 8 #o1 8 "hen they told him that a<te7 he le<t *a3ila;atsu the7e 5as a g7eat agitation among the (akyas against going to 5a7 5ith the *oliyas1 H1 "he7e 5e7e demonst7ations and 37o2essions 6y men and 5omen, 6oys and gi7ls, 2a77ying <lags 5ith su2h slogans as, 8 *oliyas a7e ou7 67othe7s,8 8 )t is 57ong <o7 a 67othe7 to <ight against 67othe71 8"hink o< the exile o< (iddha7th Iautama,8 et21 -1 "he 7esult o< the agitation 5as that the (akya (angh had to 2all a meeting and 7e2onside7 the Cuestion1 "his time the ma?o7ity 5as <o7 2om37omise 5ith the *oliyas1 /1 "he (angh de2ided to sele2t <i;e (akyas to a2t as thei7 en;oys and negotiate 3ea2e 5ith the *oliyas1 D01 +hen the *oliyas hea7d o< this they 5e7e ;e7y glad1 "hey too sele2ted <i;e *oliyas deal 5ith the en;oys o< the (akyas1 DD1 "he en;oys on the t5o sides met and ag7eed to a33oint a 3e7manent Coun2il o< !76it7ation 5ith autho7ity to settle e;e7y dis3ute 7ega7ding the sha7ing o< the 5ate7s o< the 7i;e7 ohini and 6oth sides to a6ide 6y its de2ision1 "hus the th7eatened 5a7 had ended in 3ea2e1 DK1 !<te7 in<o7ming Iautama o< 5hat had ha33ened at *a3ila;atsu, the Pa7i;7a?akas said, 8"he7e is no5 no need <o7 you to 2ontinue to 6e a Pa7i;7a?aka1 +hy don:t you go home and ?oin you7 <amilyM8 DL1 (iddha7th said ' 8) am ha33y to ha;e this good ne5s1 )t is a t7ium3h <o7 me1 But ) 5ill not go 6a2k to my home1 ) must not1 ) must 2ontinue to 6e a Pa7i;7a?aka18

H.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

D.1 Iautama asked the <i;e Pa7i;7a?akas, 5hat thei7 37og7amme 5as1 "hey 7e3lied, 8+e ha;e de2ided to do ta3asya1 +hy don:t you ?oin usM8 (iddha7th said, 8 By and 6y J ) must examine othe7 5ays <i7st18 D E1 "he <i;e Pa7i;7a?akas then le<t1 '' F1 "he 37o6lem in a #e5 Pe7s3e2ti;e1 ''

D1 "he ne5s 67ought 6y the <i;e Pa7i;7a?akas that the *oliyas and (akyas had made 3ea2e, made Iautama ;e7y uneasy1 K1 %e<t alone, he 6egan to 7e<le2t on his o5n 3osition and to make su7e i< any 7eason 5as le<t <o7 him to 2ontinue his Pa7i;7a?a1 L1 He had le<t his 3eo3le <o7 5hat M, he asked himsel<1 .1 He had le<t his home 6e2ause he 5as o33osed to 5a71 8 #o5 that the 5a7 is o;e7 is the7e any 37o6lem le<t to me M Does my 37o6lem end 6e2ause 5a7 has ended M 8 E1 On a dee3 7e<le2tion he thought not1 F1 8 "he 37o6lem o< 5a7 is essentially a 37o6lem o< 2on<li2t1 )t is only a 3a7t o< a la7ge7 37o6lem1 H1 8 "his 2on<li2t is going on not only 6et5een kings and nations 6ut 6et5een no6les and B7ahmins, 6et5een householde7s, 6et5een mothe7 and son, 6et5een son and mothe7, 6et5een <athe7 and son, 6et5een siste7 and 67othe7, 6et5een 2om3anion and 2om3anion1 -1 8"he 2on<li2t 6et5een nations is o22asional1 But the 2on<li2t 6et5een 2lasses is 2onstant and 3e73etual1 )t is this 5hi2h is the 7oot o< all so77o5 and su<<e7ing in the 5o7ld1 /1 8 "7ue, ) le<t home on a22ount o< 5a71 But ) 2annot go 6a2k home although the 5a7 6et5een the (akyas and *3liyas has ended1 ) see no5 that my 37o6lem has 6e2ome 5ide71 ) ha;e to <ind a solution <o7 this 37o6lem o< so2ial 2on<li2t1 D01 8Ho5 <a7 do the old-esta6lished 3hiloso3hies o<<e7 a solution o< this 37o6lemM8

HE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D D 1 Can he a22e3t any one o< the so2ial 3hiloso3hies M DK1 He 5as dete7mined to examine e;e7ything <o7 himsel<1

@T tt Z

Fa7t ))) N )n (ea72h o< #e5 %ight D1 Halt at B7ighu:s !sh7am1 ''

K1 (tudy o< (ankhya1

L1 "7aining in (amadhi Aa7ga1

.1 "7ial o< !s2eti2ism1

E1 !6andonment o< !s2eti2ism1

'' D1 Halt at B7ighu:s !sh7am1 '' D1 +ith the desi7e to 3u7sue othe7 5ays, Iautama le<t !7ada *alam1 a?ag7aha to meet

K1 On his 5ay he 6eheld the he7mitage o< B7ighu and ente7ed it out o< 2u7iosity1 L1 "he B7ahmin inmates o< the !sh7am 5ho had gone outside <o7 the sake o< <uel, ha;ing ?ust 2ome 6a2k 5ith thei7 hands <ull o< <uel, <lo5e7s, and kusa g7ass, 37e-eminent as they 5e7e in 3enan2es, and 37o<i2ient in 5isdom, 5ent ?ust to see him, and 5ent not to thei7 2ells1

.1 "hen he 6eing duly honou7ed 6y those d5elle7s o< the he7mitage 3aid his homage to the Elde7s o< the !sh7am1 E1 He, the 5ise one, longing <o7 li6e7ation, t7a;e7sed that he7mitage, <illed 5ith the holy 2om3any desi7ous o< hea;en, N gaOing at thei7 st7ange 3enan2es1 F1 He, the gentle one, sa5 <o7 the <i7st time the di<<e7ent kinds o< 3enan2es 37a2tised 6y the as2eti2s in that sa27ed g7o;e1 H1 "hen the B7ahmin B7ighu, 5ell-;e7sed in the te2hniCue o< 3enan2e, told Iautama all the ;a7ious kinds o< 3enan2es and the <7uits the7eo<1 -1 8 $n2ooked <ood, g7o5ing out o< 5ate7, and 7oots and <7uits, N this is the <a7e o< the saints a22o7ding to the sa27ed texts J 6ut the di<<e7ent alte7nati;es o< 3enan2e ;a7y1 HF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> /1 8 (ome li;e like the 6i7ds on gleaned 2o7n, othe7s g7aOe on g7ass like the dee7, othe7s li;e on ai7 like the snakes, as i< tu7ned into ant-hills1 D01 8 Othe7s 5in thei7 nou7ishment 5ith g7eat e<<o7t <7om stones, othe7s eat 2o7n g7ound 5ith thei7 o5n teeth J some, ha;ing 6oiled <o7 othe7s, kee3 <o7 themsel;es 5hat may 2han2e to 6e le<t1 DD1 8 Othe7s, 5ith thei7 tu<ts o< matted hai7 2ontinually 5et 5ith 5ate7, t5i2e o<<e7 o6lations to !gni 5ith hymnsJ othe7s, 3lunging like <ishes into the 5ate7, d5ell the7e 5ith thei7 6odies s27at2hed 6y to7toises1 DK1 8By su2h 3enan2es endu7ed <o7 a time, N 6y the highe7 they attain hea;en, 6y the lo5e7 the 5o7ld o< men, 6y the 3ath o< 3ain they e;entually d5ell in ha33iness, N 3ain, they say, is the 7oot o< me7it18 DL1 On hea7ing this Iautama said ' 8"oday ) is my <i7st sight o< su2h a he7mitage and ) do not unde7stand this 7ule o< 3enan2e1 D.1 8"his is all ) 5ould say at the moment1 "his de;otion o< you7s is <o7 the

sake o< hea;en N 5hile my desi7e is that the ills o< li<e on ea7th 6e 37o6ed and a solution <ound1 +ill you allo5 me to take you7 lea;e1 ) 5ish to lea7n the (ankhya Philoso3hy and t7ain mysel< in the (amadhi ma7ga, and see 5hat hel3 it 2an gi;e me <o7 the solution o< my 37o6lem1 DE18 "he7e is so77o5 to me 5hen ) 7e<le2t that ) shall ha;e to de3a7t, lea;ing you 5ho a7e thus engaged, you 5ho a7e su2h a 7e<uge and 5ho ha;e sho5n su2h ex2essi;e kindness to me, N ?ust as the7e 5as 5hen ) had to lea;e my kind7ed 6ehind1 DF1 8)t is not, the7e<o7e, any dislike on my 3a7t o7 the 57ong 2ondu2t o< anothe7, 5hi2h makes me go a5ay <7om this 5ood J <o7 ye a7e like g7eat sages, standing <ast in the 7eligious duties 5hi2h a7e in a22o7dan2e 5ith <o7me7 sages1 DH1 8) 5ish to go to Auni !7ada *alam 5ho is kno5n to 6e the maste7 o< the su6?e2t18 D-1 (eeing his 7esol;e B7ighu, the 2hie< o< the he7mitage, said ' 8 P7in2e, 67a;e indeed is thy 3u73ose, 5ho, young as thou a7t, ha;ing 3onde7ed tho7oughly 6et5een hea;en and li6e7ation ha;e made u3 you7 mind <o7 li6e7ation, ye a7e indeed 67a;e!

HH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D/1 8)< 5hat you ha;e said is thy settled 3u73ose go Cui2kly to Gindhyakoshtha J the Auni !7ada li;es the7e 5ho has gained an insight into a6solute 6liss1 K01 8 F7om him thou 5ilt lea7n the 3ath 6ut as ) <o7esee, this 3u73ose o< thine 5ill go <u7the7, a<te7 ha;ing studied his theo7y18 KD1 Iautama thanked him, and ha;ing saluted the 2om3any o< sages he de3a7ted J the he7mits also, ha;ing duly 3e7<o7med to him all the 7ites o< 2ou7tesy, ente7ed again into the as2eti2 g7o;e1 '' K1 (tudy o< (ankhya1 '' D1 +ith the desi7e to 3u7sue othe7 5ays, Iautama le<t a?ag7aha to meet

!7ada *alam1 K1 On his 5ay he 6eheld the he7mitage o< B7ighu and ente7ed it out o< 2u7iosity1 L1 "he B7ahmin inmates o< the !sh7am 5ho had gone outside <o7 the sake o< <uel, ha;ing ?ust 2ome 6a2k 5ith thei7 hands <ull o< <uel, <lo5e7s, and kusa g7ass, 37e-eminent as they 5e7e in 3enan2es, and 37o<i2ient in 5isdom, 5ent ?ust to see him, and 5ent not to thei7 2ells1 .1 "hen he 6eing duly honou7ed 6y those d5elle7s o< the he7mitage 3aid his homage to the Elde7s o< the !sh7am1 E1 He, the 5ise one, longing <o7 li6e7ation, t7a;e7sed that he7mitage, <illed 5ith the holy 2om3any desi7ous o< hea;en, N gaOing at thei7 st7ange 3enan2es1 F1 He, the gentle one, sa5 <o7 the <i7st time the di<<e7ent kinds o< 3enan2es 37a2tised 6y the as2eti2s in that sa27ed g7o;e1 H1 "hen the B7ahmin B7ighu, 5ell-;e7sed in the te2hniCue o< 3enan2e, told Iautama all the ;a7ious kinds o< 3enan2es and the <7uits the7eo<1 -1 8 $n2ooked <ood, g7o5ing out o< 5ate7, and 7oots and <7uits, N this is the <a7e o< the saints a22o7ding to the sa27ed texts J 6ut the di<<e7ent alte7nati;es o< 3enan2e ;a7y1 /1 8 (ome li;e like the 6i7ds on gleaned 2o7n, othe7s g7aOe on g7ass like the dee7, othe7s li;e on ai7 like the snakes, as i< tu7ned into ant-hills1 H-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D01 8 Othe7s 5in thei7 nou7ishment 5ith g7eat e<<o7t <7om stones, othe7s eat 2o7n g7ound 5ith thei7 o5n teeth J some, ha;ing 6oiled <o7 othe7s, kee3 <o7 themsel;es 5hat may 2han2e to 6e le<t1 DD1 8 Othe7s, 5ith thei7 tu<ts o< matted hai7 2ontinually 5et 5ith 5ate7, t5i2e o<<e7 o6lations to !gni 5ith hymnsJ othe7s, 3lunging like <ishes into the 5ate7, d5ell the7e 5ith thei7 6odies s27at2hed 6y to7toises1

DK1 8By su2h 3enan2es endu7ed <o7 a time, N 6y the highe7 they attain hea;en, 6y the lo5e7 the 5o7ld o< men, 6y the 3ath o< 3ain they e;entually d5ell in ha33iness, N 3ain, they say, is the 7oot o< me7it18 DL1 On hea7ing this Iautama said ' 8"oday ) is my <i7st sight o< su2h a he7mitage and ) do not unde7stand this 7ule o< 3enan2e1 D.1 8"his is all ) 5ould say at the moment1 "his de;otion o< you7s is <o7 the sake o< hea;en N 5hile my desi7e is that the ills o< li<e on ea7th 6e 37o6ed and a solution <ound1 +ill you allo5 me to take you7 lea;e1 ) 5ish to lea7n the (ankhya Philoso3hy and t7ain mysel< in the (amadhi ma7ga, and see 5hat hel3 it 2an gi;e me <o7 the solution o< my 37o6lem1 DE18 "he7e is so77o5 to me 5hen ) 7e<le2t that ) shall ha;e to de3a7t, lea;ing you 5ho a7e thus engaged, you 5ho a7e su2h a 7e<uge and 5ho ha;e sho5n su2h ex2essi;e kindness to me, N ?ust as the7e 5as 5hen ) had to lea;e my kind7ed 6ehind1 DF1 8)t is not, the7e<o7e, any dislike on my 3a7t o7 the 57ong 2ondu2t o< anothe7, 5hi2h makes me go a5ay <7om this 5ood J <o7 ye a7e like g7eat sages, standing <ast in the 7eligious duties 5hi2h a7e in a22o7dan2e 5ith <o7me7 sages1 DH1 8) 5ish to go to Auni !7ada *alam 5ho is kno5n to 6e the maste7 o< the su6?e2t18 D-1 (eeing his 7esol;e B7ighu, the 2hie< o< the he7mitage, said ' 8 P7in2e, 67a;e indeed is thy 3u73ose, 5ho, young as thou a7t, ha;ing 3onde7ed tho7oughly 6et5een hea;en and li6e7ation ha;e made u3 you7 mind <o7 li6e7ation, ye a7e indeed 67a;e! D/1 8)< 5hat you ha;e said is thy settled 3u73ose go Cui2kly to Gindhyakoshtha J the Auni !7ada li;es the7e 5ho has gained an insight into a6solute 6liss1 H/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K01 8 F7om him thou 5ilt lea7n the 3ath 6ut as ) <o7esee, this 3u73ose o< thine 5ill go <u7the7, a<te7 ha;ing studied his theo7y18

KD1 Iautama thanked him, and ha;ing saluted the 2om3any o< sages he de3a7ted J the he7mits also, ha;ing duly 3e7<o7med to him all the 7ites o< 2ou7tesy, ente7ed again into the as2eti2 g7o;e1

'' L1 "7aining in (amadhi Aa7ga1 '' D 1 !t the time 5hen Iautama 5as examining the ;a7ious 5ays o< <inding a solution to his 37o6lem he thought o< getting himsel< a2Cuainted 5ith the Dhyana Aa7ga @Con2ent7ation o< the AindB 1 K1 "he7e 5e7e th7ee s2hools o< the Dhyana Aa7ga1 L1 !ll o< them had one thing in 2ommon, namely, that 2ont7ol o< 67eathing 5as the means o< a2hie;ing Dhyana1 .1 One s2hool <ollo5ed a 5ay o< 2ont7olling 67eathing 5hi2h is 2alled !na3anasati1 E1 !nothe7 s2hool <ollo5ed the 5ay o< 2ont7ol o< 67eathing kno5n as P7anayama1 )t di;ided the 67eathing 37o2ess into th7ee 3a7ts ' @DB B7eathing in @Pu7akaB J @KB holding the 67eath @*um6hakaB J and @LB 67eathing out @ e2hakB 1 "he thi7d s2hool 5as kno5n as (amadhi (2hool1 F1 !7ada *alam 5as 5ell kno5n as the maste7 o< Dhyana Aa7ga1 Iautama <elt that it might 6e 5ell <o7 him i< he 2ould get some t7aining in the Dhyana Aa7ga unde7 !7ada *alam1 H1 (o he s3oke to !7ada *alam and asked him i< he 5ould 6e so good as to gi;e t7aining in the Dhyana Aa7ga1 -1 !7ada *alam 7e3lied, 8+ith g7eat 3leasu7e18 /1 !7ada *alam taught him his te2hniCue o< the Dhyana Aa7ga1 )t 2onsisted o< se;en stages1 D01 Iautama 37a2tised the te2hniCue e;e7y day1

-0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

D D 1 !<te7 a2Cui7ing 2om3lete maste7y o;e7 it Iautama asked !7ada *alam i< the7e 5as anything <u7the7 to 6e lea7ned1 DK1 !7ada *alam 7e3lied ' 8 #o <7iend, that is all that ) ha;e to tea2h18 +ith this Iautama took lea;e o< !7ada *alam1 DL1 Iautama had hea7d o< anothe7 yogi, 6y name $ddaka ama3utta, 5ho 5as 7e3uted to ha;e de;ised a te2hniCue 5hi2h ena6led a Dhyani to go one stage highe7 than that de;ised 6y !7ada *alam1 D.1 Iautama thought o< lea7ning his te2hniCue and ex3e7ien2ing the highest stage o< (amadhi1 !22o7dingly he 5ent to the !sh7am o< $ddaka ama3utta and 3la2ed himsel< unde7 his t7aining1 DE1 +ithin a sho7t time did Iautama maste7 the te2hniCue o< $ddaka:s eighth stage1 !<te7 ha;ing 3e7<e2ted himsel< in the te2hniCue o< $ddaka ama-3utta, Iautama asked him the same Cuestion 5hi2h he had asked !7ada *alam ' 8)s the7e anything <u7the7 to 6e lea7ned M 8 DF1 !nd $ddaka ama3utta ga;e the same 7e3ly1 8#o <7iend, the7e is nothing mo7e that ) 2an tea2h you18 D H1 !7ada *alam and $ddaka ama3utta 5e7e <amous <o7 thei7 maste7y o< Dhyana Aa7ga in the 2ount7y o< the *osalas1 But Iautama had hea7d that the7e 5e7e simila7 maste7s o< Dhyana Aa7ga in the 2ount7y o< the Aagadhas1 He thought he should ha;e a t7aining in thei7 system also1 D-1 Iautama a22o7dingly 5ent to Aagadha1 D/1 He <ound that thei7 te2hniCue o< Dhyana Aa7ga, though 6ased on 2ont7ol o< 67eathing, 5as di<<e7ent <7om 5hat 5as in ;ogue in the *osala 2ount7y1 K01 "he te2hniCue 5as not to 67eathe 6ut to 7ea2h 2on2ent7ation 6y sto33ing 67eathing1 KD1 Iautama lea7ned this te2hniCue1 +hen he t7ied 2on2ent7ation 6y sto33ing 67eathing he <ound that 3ie72ing sounds used to 2ome out o< his ea7s, and his head a33ea7ed to him to 6e 3ie72ed as though 6y a sha73 3ointed kni<e1 KK1 )t 5as a 3ain<ul 37o2ess1 But Iautama did not <ail to maste7 it1 KL1 (u2h 5as his t7aining in the (amadhi Aa7ga1 -D

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

'' .1 "7ial o< !s2eti2ism1 ''

D 1 Iautama had gi;en a t7ial to the(ankhya and (amadhi Aa7ga1 But he had le<t the !sh7am o< the B7ighus 5ithout gi;ing a t7ial to !s2eti2ism1 K1 He <elt he should gi;e it a t7ial and gain ex3e7ien2e <o7 himsel< so that he 2ould s3eak autho7itati;ely a6out it1 L1 !22o7dingly Iautama 5ent to the to5n o< Iaya1 F7om the7e he 7e2onnoit7ed the su77ounding 2ount7y and <ixed his ha6itation at $7u;ela in the he7mitage o< #ega7i, the oyal (ee7 o< Iaya, <o7 37a2tising as2eti2ism1 )t 5as a lonely and solita7y 3la2e on the 6anks o< the 7i;e7 #ai7an?ana <o7 37a2tising as2eti2ism1 .1 !t $7u;ela he <ound the <i;e Pa7i;7a?akas 5hom he had met at a?ag7aha and 5ho had 67ought ne5s o< 3ea2e1 "hey too 5e7e 37a2tising as2eti2ism1 E1 "he mendi2ants sa5 him the7e and a337oa2hed him to take them 5ith him1 Iautama ag7eed1 F1 "he7eon they se7;ed him 7e;e7ently, a6iding as 3u3ils unde7 his o7de7s, and 5e7e hum6le and 2om3liant1 H1 "he auste7ities and sel<-mo7ti<i2ation 37a2tised 6y Iautama 5e7e o< the se;e7est so7t1 -1 (ometimes he ;isited t5o 6ut not mo7e than se;en houses a day and took at ea2h only t5o 6ut not mo7e than se;en mo7sels1 /1 He li;ed on a single sau2e7 o< <ood a day, 6ut not mo7e than se;en sau2e7s1 D01 (ometimes he had 6ut one meal a day, o7 one e;e7y t5o days, and so on, u3to on2e e;e7y se;en days, o7 only on2e a <o7tnight, on a 7igid s2ale o< 7ationing1 DD1 !s he ad;an2ed in the 37a2ti2e o< as2eti2ism his sole diet 5as he76s

gathe7ed g7een, o7 the g7ain o< 5ild millets and 3addy, o7 sni33ets hide, o7 5ate7-3lants, o7 the 7ed 3o5de7 7ound 7i2e-g7ains 5ithin the husk o7 the dis2a7ded s2um o< 7i2e on the 6oil, o7 the <lou7 o< oilseeds1 -K

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DK1 He li;ed on 5ild 7oots and <7uit, o7 on 5ind<alls only1 DL1 His 7aiment 5as o< hem3 o7 hem3en mixtu7e o< 2e7ements o< 7ags <7om the dust-hea3, o< 6a7k, o< the 6la2k antelo3e:s 3elt eithe7 5hole o7 s3lit do5n the middle, o< g7ass, o< st7i3s o< 6a7k o7 5ood, hai7 o< men o7 animals 5o;en into a 6lanket, o7 o< o5l:s 5ings1 D.1 He 3lu2ked out the hai7 o< his head and the hai7 o< his 6ea7d, ne;e7 Cuitted the u37ight <o7 the sitting 3ostu7e, sCuatted and ne;e7 7ose u3, mo;ing only sCuatting1 D E1 !<te7 this 5ise, in di;e7se <ashions, 6e li;ed to to7ment and to to7tu7e his 6ody N to su2h a length in as2eti2ism did he go1 DF1 "o su2h a length in loathliness did he go that the7e 6e2ame a22umulated on his 6ody the di7t and <ilth <o7 yea7s till it d7o33ed o<< 6y itsel<1 DH1 He took u3 his a6ode in the a5esome de3ths o< the <o7est, de3ths so a5esome that it 5as 7e3uted that none 6ut the senseless 2ould ;entu7e 5ithout his hai7 standing on end1 D-1 +hen the 2old season 67ought 2hill 5int7y nights, then it 5as that in the da7k hal< o< the months he d5elt 6y night in the o3en ai7 and in the da7k thi2ket 6y day1 D/1 But 5hen the7e 2ame the last 67oiling month o< summe7 6e<o7e the 7ains, he made his d5elling unde7 the 6aking sun 6y day and in the sti<ling thi2ket 6ynight1 K01 )n a 2ha7nel g7ound did he lay do5n 5ith 2ha77ed 6ones <o7 3illo51 K D 1 "he7ea<te7 Iautama li;ed on a single 6ean a day N on a single sesamum seed a day N o7 a single g7ain o< 7i2e a day1

KK1 +hen he 5as li;ing on a single <7uit a day, his 6ody g7e5 ema2iated in the ext7eme1 KL1 )< he sought to <eel his 6elly, it 5as his 6a2k6one 5hi2h he <ound in his g7as3 J i< he sought to <eel his 6a2k6one he <ound himsel< g7as3ing his 6elly, so 2losely did his 6elly 2lea;e to his 6a2k6one and all 6e2ause he ate so little1

-L

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> '' E1 !6andonment o< !s2eti2ism1 ''

D1 "he auste7ities and mo7ti<i2ation 37a2tised 6y Iautama 5e7e o< the se;e7est so7t1 "hey lasted <o7 a long 3e7iod o< six yea7s1 K1 !t the end o< six yea7s his 6ody had 6e2ome so 5eak that he 5as Cuite una6le to mo;e1 L1 &et he had seen no ne5 light and 5as no nea7e7 to the solution to the 37o6lem o< mise7y in the 5o7ld on 5hi2h his mind 5as 2ent7ed1 .1 He 7e<le2ted to himsel< ' 8 "his is not the 5ay, e;en to 3assionlessness, no7 to 3e7<e2t kno5ledge, no7 to li6e7ation1 E1 8 (ome unde7go mise7y <o7 the sake o< this 5o7ld, othe7s meet toil <o7 the sake o< hea;en J all li;ing 6eings 57et2hed th7ough ho3e and al5ays missing thei7 aim, <all 2e7tainly <o7 the sake o< ha33iness into mise7y1 F1 8 Has not something like this ha33ened to me M H1 8)t is not the e<<o7t itsel< 5hi2h ) 6lame, N 5hi2h <linging aside the 6ase 3u7sues a high 3ath o< its o5n1 -1 8 +hat ) ask is, : Can the mo7ti<i2ation o< the 6ody 6e 2alled 7eligion M : /1 8 (in2e it is only 6y the mind:s autho7ity that the 6ody eithe7 a2ts o7 2eases

to a2t, the7e<o7e, to 2ont7ol the thought is alone 6e<itting N 5ithout thought the 6ody is like a dog1 D01 8 )< the7e 5as only the 6ody to 6e 2onside7ed, me7it may 6e gained 6y 3u7ity o< <ood, 6ut then the7e is me7it also in the doe71 But o< 5hat good is it H DD18 #e5 light 2annot 6e attained 6y him 5ho has lost his st7ength and is 5ea7ied 5ith hunge7, thi7st and <atigue 5ith his mind no longe7 sel<3ossessed th7ough <atigue1 DK1 8 Ho5 2ould he 5ho is not a6solutely 2alm, 7ea2h the end 5hi2h is to 6e attained 6y his mind M DL1 8"7ue 2alm and the sel<-3ossession o< the mind is 37o3e7ly o6tained 6y the 2onstant satis<a2tion o< the 6ody:s 5ants18 -.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D.1 !t this time the7e li;ed at $7u;ela a house-holde7 6y name (enani1 (u?ata 5as his daughte71 DE1 (u?ata had utte7ed a 5ish to a Banyan "7ee, and ;o5ed a yea7ly o<<e7ing to it i< she should ha;e a son1 DF1 "he 5ish ha;ing 6een <ul<illed, she sent he7 maid Punna to 37e3a7e the 3la2e <o7 the o<<e7ing1 D H1 Punna <inding Iautama sitting 6eneath the Banyan "7ee, thought he 5as the god o< the t7ee 5ho had 2ome do5n1 D-1 (u?ata 2ame and o<<e7ed Iautama the <ood 37e3a7ed 6y he7 in a golden 6o5l1 D/1 He took the 6o5l to the 7i;e7 6ank, 6athed at a <o7d o7 a 6athing 3la2e 2alled (u33atitthita and ate the <ood1 K01 "hus ended his t7ial o< as2eti2ism1 KD1 "he <i;e as2eti2s 5ho 5e7e 5ith Iautama 6e2ame ang7y 5ith him <o7

ha;ing gi;en u3 the li<e o< auste7ity and sel< -mo7ti<i2ation and in disgust le<t him1

P! " )G- -Enlightenment and the Gision o< the #e5 +ay D1 Aeditation <o7 #e5 %ight1 ''

K1 Enlightenment1

L1 "he Dis2o;e7y o< a #e5 Dhamma1

.1 Iautama 5ho 5as a Bodhisatta a<te7 (amma6odhi

6e2omes a Buddha1

'' D1 Aeditation <o7 #e5 %ight1 ''

D1 Ha;ing 7e<7eshed himsel< 5ith <ood Iautama sat thinking o;e7 his 3ast ex3e7ien2es1 He 7ealised that all 3aths had <ailed1 K1 "he <ailu7e 5as so 2om3lete that it 2ould ha;e led anyone into a state o< <7ust7ation1 He 5as, o< 2ou7se, so77y1 But <7ust7ation as su2h did not tou2h him1 -E

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L1 He 5as al5ays ho3e<ul o< <inding a 5ay1 (o mu2h so that on the night o< the day on 5hi2h he 3a7took o< the <ood sent 6y (u?ata, Iautama had <i;e d7eams and 5hen he a5oke he inte737eted his d7eams to mean that he 5as su7e to attain enlightenment1

.1 He had also t7ied to <o7e2ast his <utu7e1 "his he did 6y th7o5ing the 6o5l o< <ood, (u?ata:s maid 67ought, into the 7i;e7 #ai7an?a, saying ' 8)< ) am to ha;e enlightenment let the 6o5l as2end the st7eamJ i< not let it go do5n18 "he ;essel, indeed, 6egan to <loat against the 2u77ent and at last sank nea7 the a6ode o< *ala, a #aga king1 E1 Fo7ti<ied 5ith ho3e and dete7mination he le<t $7u;ela and to5a7ds e;ening 5ent along the 5ide 7oad to Iaya1 "he7e he sa5 a Banyan "7ee1 He thought o< sitting unde7 it in meditation in the ho3e o< a ne5 light da5ning u3on him and ena6ling him to <ind a 5ay 5hi2h 5ould sol;e his 37o6lem1 F1 !<te7 t7ying ea2h o< the <ou7 di7e2tions he 2hose the East 5hi2h is al5ays 2hosen 6y all the g7eat sages <o7 the 7emo;al o< all de<ilements1 H1 Iautama sat do5n 27oss-legged and u37ight unde7 the Banyan "7ee1 Dete7mined to a2hie;e enlightenment, he said to himsel<, 8 (kin, sine5 and 6one may d7y u3 as they 5ill, my <lesh and 6lood may d7y in my 6ody, 6ut 5ithout attaining 2om3lete enlightenment ) 5ill not lea;e this seat18 -1 "hen *ala, the king o< the #agas, 5hose ma?esty 5as like the lo7d o< ele3hants, and his 5i<e (u;a7na37a6hasa, ha;ing 6een a5akened 6y the ;ision o< Iautama sitting unde7 the Banyan "7ee, utte7ed this in 37aise o< him 6eing su7e that he 5as destined to attain 3e7<e2t kno5ledge1 /1 8 )nasmu2h as the ea7th, 37essed do5n 6y thy <eet, (age, 7esounds 7e3eatedly, and inasmu2h as thy s3lendou7 shines <o7th like the sun, thou shalt assu7edly 7ea3 the desi7ed <7uit1 D01 8 )nasmu2h as <lo2ks o< 6i7ds <lutte7ing in the sky o<<e7 thee 7e;e7ential salutation, O %otus -eyed One J and inasmu2h as gentle 67eeOes 6lo5 in the sky, thou shalt 2e7tainly attain thy o6?e2t18 DD1 !s he sat do5n <o7 meditation a 27o5d o< e;il thoughts and e;il 3assions N mythologi2ally 2alled the 2hild7en o< Aa7a @*amaB, 5hi2h is anothe7 name <o7 e;il 3assions, ente7ed his mind1

-F

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

DK1 Iautama 5as g7eatly <7ightened lest they should o;e73o5e7 him and de<eat his 3u73ose1 DL1 He kne5 that in this 6attle 5ith e;il 3assions many B7ahmins had su22um6ed1 ishis and

D.1 (o he summoned all the 2ou7age he had and said to Aa7a, 8 Faith is <ound in me, and he7oism and 5isdom1 Ho5 2an ye e;il 3assions de<eat me M 8"he st7eams e;en o< 7i;e7s may this 5ind d7y u31 &e 5ould 6e una6le to d7y u3 my 7esolutions, 5hen ) am so intent18 Bette7 to me is death in 6attle than that ) should 6e de<eated inli<e1 DE1 "he e;il 3assions ente7ed the mind o< Iautama as a 27o5 goes a<te7 astone that looks like a hum3 o< <at, thinking su7ely, 8 he7e ) shall <ind a tende7 mo7sel, he7e 3e72han2e is something s5eet18 DF1 !nd <inding no s5eetness the7e, the 27o5 de3a7ts then2e1 (o like a 27o5 atta2king a 7o2k, the e;il 3assions le<t Iautama in disgust1

'' K1 Enlightenment1 ''

D11 "o <eed himsel< du7ing the 3e7iod o< meditation Iautama had 2olle2ted enough <ood to last him <o7 <o7ty days1 K1 Ha;ing 7outed the e;il thoughts that distu76ed his mind Iautama 7e<7eshed himsel< 5ith <ood and gained st7ength1 He thus 37e3a7ed himsel< <o7 medita-tion 5ith the aim o< o6taining enlightenment1 L1 )t took Iautama <ou7 5eeks o< meditation to o6tain enlightenment1 He 7ea2hed <inal enlightenment in <ou7 stages1 .1 )n the <i7st stage he 2alled <o7th 7eason and in;estigation1 His se2lusion hel3ed him to attain it easily1 E1 )n the se2ond stage he added 2on2ent7ation1 F1 )n the thi7d stage he 67ought to his aid eCuanimity and mind<ulness1 H1 )n the <ou7th and <inal stage he added 3u7ity to eCuanimity and eCuanimity to mind<ulness1 -H

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> -1 "hus 5ith mind 2on2ent7ated, 3u7i<ied, s3otless, 5ith de<ilement gone, su33le, dexte7ous, <i7m, im3assionate, not <o7getting 5hat he is a<te7, Iautama 2on2ent7ated himsel< on the 37o6lem o< <inding an ans5e7 to the Cuestion 5hi2h had t7ou6led him1 /1 On the night o< the last day o< the <ou7th 5eek light da5ned u3on him1 He 7ealised that the7e 5e7e t5o 37o6lems1 "he <i7st 37o6lem 5as that the7e 5as su<<e7ing in the 5o7ld and the se2ond 37o6lem 5as ho5 to 7emo;e this su<<e7ing and make mankind ha33y1 D01 (o in the end, a<te7 meditation <o7 <ou7 5eeks, da7kness 5as dis3elled, light a7ose, igno7an2e 5as dis3elled and kno5ledge a7ose1 He sa5 a ne5 5ay1

'' L1 "he Dis2o;e7y o< a #e5 Dhamma1''

D 1 Iautama 5hen he sat in meditation <o7 getting ne5 light 5as g7eatly in the g7i3 o< the (ankhya Philoso3hy1 K1 "hat su<<e7ing and unha33iness in the 5o7ld he thought 5as an in2ont7o;e7ti6le <a2t1 L1 Iautama 5as, ho5e;e7, inte7ested in kno5ing ho5 to do a5ay 5ith su<<e7ing1 "his 37o6lem the (ankhya Philoso3hy did not deal 5ith1 .1 )t is, the7e<o7e, on this 37o6lem N ho5 to 7emo;e su<<e7ing and unha33iness N that he 2on2ent7ated his mind1 E1 #atu7ally, the <i7st Cuestion he asked himsel< 5as N 8 +hat a7e the 2auses o< su<<e7ing and unha33iness 5hi2h an indi;idual unde7goesM8 F1 His se2ond Cuestion 5as N 8 Ho5 to 7emo;e unha33iness M 8 H1 "o 6oth these Cuestions he got a 7ight ans5e7 5hi2h is 2alled :(amma Bodhi: @ ight EnlightenmentB1 -1 )t is 6e2ause o< this that the Banyan "7ee has 2ome to 6e kno5n as the Bodhi "7ee1

--

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> .1 Iautama 5ho 5as a Bodhisatta a<te7 (amma6odhi 6e2omes a Buddha1''

D 1 Be<o7e enlightenment Iautama 5as only a Bodhisatta1 )t is a<te7 7ea2hing enlightenment that he 6e2ame a Buddha1 K1 +ho and 5hat is a BodhisattaM L1 ! Bodhisatta is a 3e7son 5ho is seeking to 6e a Buddha1 .1 Ho5 does a Bodhisatta 6e2ome a Buddha M E1 ! Bodhisatta must 6e a Bodhisatta <o7 ten li;es in su22ession1 +hat must a Bodhisatta do in o7de7 to Cuali<y himsel< to 6e2ome a Buddha M F1 )n his <i7st li<e he a2Cui7es Audita @?oyB- "he Bodhisatta ha;ing 6lo5n o<< his im3u7ities, as the smith 6lo5s the d7oss <7om sil;e7, 7e<le2ts that man 5ho has 6een 7e2kless and 6e2omes so6e7 67ightens u3 the 5o7ld like the moon <7eed <7om 2louds1 Poy s37ings u3 in him 7ealising this, and he is <e7;ent in his desi7e to 6ene<it all 6eings1 H1 )n his se2ond li<e he a2Cui7es Gimala @Pu7ityB1 "he Bodhisatta has no5 7emo;ed all thoughts o< lust J he is kind J he is kind to all J he neithe7 <latte7s the ;i2es o< men no7 dis3a7ages thei7 ;i7tues1 -1 )n his thi7d li<e he a2Cui7es P7a6haka7i @B7ightnessB1 "he intelle2t o< the Bodhisatta no5 6e2omes as 67ight as a mi77o71 He <ully kno5s and g7as3s the t7uths o< !natta and !ni22a1 His only 5ish is <o7 the highest 5isdom, and <o7 this he is 7eady to sa27i<i2e anything1 /1 )n his <ou7th li<e he a2Cui7es !72ishmati @)ntelligen2e o< Fi7eB1 "he Bodhisatta in this li<e <ixes his mind on the Eight old Path, the Fou7 Contem3la- tions, the Fou7<old Contest, the Fou7<old +ill Po5e7, the Fi;e<old Ao7ality1 D01 )n his <i<th li<e he a2Cui7es (udu7?aya @Di<<i2ult to ConCue7B1 He <ully unde7stands the 2onne2tion o< the 7elati;e and the a6solute1

D D 1 )n his sixth li<e he 6e2omes !6himukhi1 )n this stage the Bodhisatta is no5 37e3a7ed <ully to g7as3 the e;olution o< things, its 2ause, the "5el;e

-/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> #idanasJ and this kno5ledge, 2alled !6himukhi, a5akens the most 37o<ound 2om3assion in his hea7t <o7 all 6eings 6linded 6y !;idya1 DK1 )n his se;enth li<e the Bodhisatta 6e2omes a Du7angama @going <a7 o<<B1 "he Bodhisatta is no5 6eyond time and s3a2e J he is one 5ith )n<inity, 6ut he still 7etains nama-7u3a out o< his g7eat 2om3assion <o7 all 6eings1 He is se2luded <7om othe7s, in that the lusts o< the 5o7ld no mo7e 2ling to him than 5ate7 to a lotus lea<1 He Cuen2hes desi7es in his <ello5 6eings, 37a2ti2es 2ha7ity, 3atien2e, ta2t<ulness, ene7gy, 2almness, intelligen2e and the highest 5isdom1 DL1 +hile in this li<e he kno5s the Dha7ma, 6ut 37esents it in 5ays unde7stood 6y the 3eo3le, he kno5s he must 6e ta2t<ul and 3atient1 +hate;e7 men do to him he 6ea7s 5ith eCuanimity, <o7 he kno5s that it is th7ough igno7an2e they misunde7stand his moti;es1 !t the same time he ne;e7 sla2kens his ene7gy to 6ene<it all 6eings, no7 does he 5ithd7a5 his mind <7om 5isdom, the7e<o7e mis<o7tune 2an ne;e7 tu7n him <7om the 7ighteous 3ath1 D.1 )n his eighth li<e he 6e2omes !2ala1 )n the stage o< !2ala, o7 : immo;a6le,: all st7i;ings on the 3a7t o< the Bodhisatta 2ease1 He <ollo5s good s3ontaneously J 5hate;e7 he 5ill do he 5ill su22eed in1 DE1 )n his ninth li<e he 6e2omes (adhumati1 "his is the stage o7 2ondition o< one 5ho has ;anCuished and 3enet7ated all dha7mas o7 systems, all Cua7te7s, and does not ente7 time1 DF1 )n his tenth li<e he 6e2omes Dha7mamegha1 "he Bodhisatta attains the in<inite di;ine eye o< a Buddha1

D H1 "he Bodhisatta a2Cui7es these ten 3o5e7s 5hi2h a7e ne2essa7y <o7 him 5hen he 6e2omes a Buddha1 D-1 "he Bodhisatta must not only a2Cui7e these ten 3o5e7s as he e;ol;es <7om stage to stage 6ut he must also 37a2ti2e to 3e7<e2tion the ten Pa7amitas1 D/1 One Pa7amita is to 6e the end o< one li<e1 (3e2ialisation in the Pa7amitas must go stage 6y stage1 One Pa7amita in one li<e and not a little o< one and a little o< the othe71

/0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K01 )t is only 5hen he is dou6ly eCui33ed that a Bodhisatta 6e2omes Cuali<ied <o7 6e2oming a Buddha1 "he Buddha is a 2ulminating 3oint in the li<e o< a Bodhisatta1 KD1 "he theo7y o< the Patakas o7 the 6i7th stages o< a Bodhisatta a33ea7s analogous to the B7ahmani2 theo7y o< !;ata7as, i1e1, the theo7y o< in2a7nations o< Iod1 KK1 "he Pataka theo7y is 6ased u3on the Buddha ha;ing the highest deg7ee o< 3u7ity as the essen2e o< his 6eing1 KL1 "he !;ata7 theo7y does not 7eCui7e that the Iod should 6e 3u7e in his making1 !ll that the B7ahmani2 theo7y o< !;ata7 says is that Iod sa;es his <ollo5e7s 6y taking di<<e7ent <o7ms although the Iod may 6e ;e7y im3u7e and immo7al in his 2ondu2t1 K.1 "he theo7y that to 6e a Bodhisatta <o7 ten li;es as a 2ondition 37e2edent <o7 6e2oming a Buddha has no 3a7allel any5he7e1 #o othe7 7eligion 2alls u3on its <ounde7 to ans5e7 su2h a test1

Pa7t G N "he Buddha and His P7ede2esso7s

D1 "he Buddha and the Gedi2

ishis1 ''

K1 *a3ila N "he Philoso3he71

L1 "he B7amhanas1

.1 "he $3anishads and thei7 "ea2hings1 '' '' D1 "he Buddha and the Gedi2 ishis1 ''

D1 "he Gedas a7e a 2olle2tion o< Aant7as, i1e1, hymns o7 2hants1 "he 7e2ite7s o< these hymns a7e 2alled ishis1 K1 "he Aant7as a7e me7e in;o2ations to deities su2h as )nd7a, Ga7una, !gni, (oma, )sana, P7a?a3ati, B7am6a, Aahiddhi, &ama and othe7s1 L1 "he in;o2ations a7e me7e 37aye7s <o7 hel3 against enemies, <o7 gi<t o< 5ealth, <o7 a22e3ting the o<<e7ings o< <ood, <lesh and 5ine <7om the de;otee1 .1 "he7e is not mu2h 3hiloso3hy in the Gedas1 But the7e 5e7e some Gedi2 sages 5ho had ente7ed into s3e2ulations o< a 3hiloso3hi2al natu7e1 /D

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> E1 "hese Gedi2 sages 5e7e' @DB !ghama7sanaJ @KB P7a?a3ati Pa7mesthinJ @LB B7ahmanas3ati, othe75ise kno5n as B7ihas3atiJ @.B !nilaJ @EB Di7ghatamasJ @FB #a7ayanJ @HB Hi7anyaga76haJ and @-B Gis;aka7-man1

F1 "he main 37o6lems o< these Gedi2 3hiloso3he7s 5e7e' Ho5 did the 5o7ld o7iginateM )n 5hat manne7 5e7e indi;idual things 27eated M +hy ha;e they thei7 unity and existen2e M +ho 27eated, and 5ho o7dained M F7om 5hat did the 5o7ld s37ing u3 and to 5hat again 5ill it 7etu7n M H1 !ghama7sana said that the 5o7ld 5as 27eated out o< "a3as @heatB1 "a3as 5as the 27eati;e 37in2i3le <7om 5hi2h ete7nal la5 and t7uth 5e7e 6o7n1 F7om these 5e7e 37odu2ed the night @tamasB1 "amas 37odu2ed 5ate7 and <7om 5ate7 o7iginated time1 "ime ga;e 6i7th to the sun and the moon, the hea;en and the ea7th, the <i7mament and light and o7dained the days and nights1 -1 B7ahmanas3ati 3ostulated the genesis o< 6eing <7om non-6eing1 By the te7m non-existen2e, he denoted a33a7ently the in<inite1 "he existent o7iginally s37ang u3 <7om the non-existent1 "he non-existent @asat, nonensB 5as the 3e7manent <oundation o< all that is existent @sat, ensB and o< all that is 3ossi6le and yet non-existent @asatB1 /1 P7a?a3ati Pa7mesthin sta7ted 5ith the 37o6lem' 8 Did 6eing 2ome out o< non-6eing M8 His ;ie5 5as that this 5as an i77ele;ant Cuestion1 Fo7 him 5ate7 5as the o7iginal su6stan2e o< that 5hi2h exists1 Fo7 him the o7iginal matte7 N 5ate7 N 2ame neithe7 unde7 the de<inition o< 6eing no7 unde7 that o< non-6eing1

/K

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D01 Pa7amesthin did not d7a5 any distin2tion 6et5een matte7 and moti;e 3o5e71 !22o7ding to him 5ate7 t7ans<o7med itsel< into 3a7ti2ula7 things 6y some inhe7ent 37in2i3le to 5hi2h he ga;e the name *ama, Cosmi2 Desi7e1 D D 1 !nila 5as anothe7 Gedi2 Philoso3he71 "o him the 37in2i3al element 5as ai7 @;ayuB1 )t 3ossesses the inhe7ent 2a3a2ity <o7 mo;ement1 )t is endo5ed 5ith the gene7ating 37in2i3le1 DK1 Di7ghtamas maintained that all li;ing 6eings 7est and de3end ultimately on the sun1 "he sun held u3 and 37o3elled 6y its inhe7ent <o72e 5ent

6a2k5a7d and <o75a7d1 DL1 "he sun is 2om3osed o< a g7ey 2olou7ed su6stan2e and so a7e lightning and <i7e1 D.1 "he sun, lightning and <i7e <o7med the ge7m o< 5ate71 +ate7 <o7ms the ge7m o< 3lants1 (u2h 5e7e the ;ie5s o< Di7ghatamas1 DE1 !22o7ding to #a7ayana, Pu7usha @IodB is the <i7st 2ause o< the uni;e7se1 )t is <7om Pu7usha that the sun, the moon, the ea7th, 5ate7, <i7e, ai7, mid-ai7, the sky, the 7egions, the seasons, the 27eatu7es o< the ai7, all animals, all 2lasses o< men, and all human institutions, had o7iginated1 DF1 Hi7anyaga76ha1 F7om do2t7inal 3oint o< ;ie5 he stood mid5ay 6et5een Pa7meshthin and #a7ayan1 Hi7anyaga76ha means the golden ge7m1 )t 5as the g7eat 3o5e7 o< the uni;e7se, <7om 5hi2h all othe7 3o5e7s and existen2es, di;ine and ea7thly, 5e7e de7i;ed1 DH1 Hi7anyaga76ha means <i7e1 )t is <i7e that 2onstituted the sola7 essen2e, the gene7ating 37in2i3le o< the uni;e7se1 D-1 F7om the 3oint o< ;ie5 o< Gish;aka7man it 5as Cuite inadeCuate and unsatis<a2to7y to hold that 5ate7 5as the 37imiti;e su6stan2e o< all that is and then to de7i;e <7om it this 5o7ld as a 5hole 6y gi;ing it an inhe7ent 3o5e7 o< mo;ement1 )< 5ate7 6e the 37imiti;e su6stan2e 5hi2h is endo5ed 5ith the inhe7ent 37in2i3le o< 2hange, 5e ha;e yet to a22ount <o7 that <7om 5hi2h 5ate7 de7i;ed its 6eing, and de7i;ed the moti;e 3o5e7, the gene7ating 37in2i3le, the elemental <o72es, the la5s and all the 7est1 D/1 Gish;aka7man held the ;ie5 that it 5as Iod 5hi2h 5as the moti;e 3o5e71 Iod is <i7st and Iod is last1 He is ea7lie7 than the ;isi6le uni;e7se J he had existed 6e<o7e all 2osmi2 <o72es 2ame into 6eing1 He is the sole Iod 5ho /L

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> 27eated and o7dained this uni;e7se1 Iod is one, and the only one1 He is the un6o7n one @a?aB in 5hom all the existing things a6ide1 He is the one 5ho is

mighty in mind and su37eme in 3o5e71 He is the make7 N the dis3ose71 !s <athe7 he gene7ated us, and as dis3ose7 he kno5s the <ate o< all that is1 K01 "he Buddha did not 7ega7d all the Gedi2 (ages as 5o7thy o< 7e;e7en2e1 He 7ega7ded ?ust ten Gedi2 ishis as the most an2ient and as the 7eal autho7s o< the Aant7as1 K D 1 But in the Aant7as he sa5 nothing that 5as mo7ally ele;ating1 KK1 )n his ;ie5 the Gedas 5e7e as 5o7thless as a dese7t1 KL1 "he Buddha, the7e<o7e, dis2a7ded the Aant7as as a sou72e <7om 5hi2h to lea7n o7 to 6o77o51 K.1 (imila7ly, the Buddha did not <ind anything in the 3hiloso3hy o< the Gedi2 ishis1 "hey 5e7e g7o3ing to 7ea2h the t7uth1 But they had not 7ea2hed it1 KE1 "hei7 theo7ies 5e7e me7e s3e2ulations not 6ased on logi2 no7 on <a2ts1 "hei7 2ont7i6utions to 3hiloso3hy 27eated no so2ial ;alues1 KF1 He the7e<o7e 7e?e2ted the 3hiloso3hy o< the Gedi2 useless1 ishis as

'' K1 *a3ila N "he Philoso3he71 ''

D1 !mong the an2ient 3hiloso3he7s o< )ndia the most 37e-eminent 5as *a3ila1 K1 His 3hiloso3hi2al a337oa2h 5as uniCue, and as 3hiloso3he7 he stood in a 2lass 6y himsel<1 His 3hiloso3hy 5as kno5n as the (ankhya Philo-so3hy1 L1 "he tenets o< his 3hiloso3hy 5e7e o< a sta7tling natu7e1 .1 "7uth must 6e su33o7ted 6y 37oo<1 "his is the <i7st tenet o< the (ankhya system1 "he7e is no t7uth 5ithout 37oo<1 E1 Fo7 3u73oses o< 37o;ing the t7uth *a3ila allo5ed only t5o means o< 37oo< N @DB 3e72e3tion and @KB in<e7en2e1 /.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> F1 By 3e72e3tion is meant mental a337ehension o< a 37esent o6?e2t1 H1 )n<e7en2e is th7ee<old' @DB <7om 2ause to e<<e2t, as <7om the 37esen2e o< 2louds to 7ain J @KB <7om e<<e2t to 2ause, as <7om the s5elling o< the st7eams in the ;alleys to 7ain in the hills, and @LB 6y analogy, as 5hen 5e in<e7 <7om the <a2t that a man alte7s his 3la2e 5hen he mo;es that the sta7s must also mo;e, sin2e they a33ea7 in di<<e7ent 3la2es1 -1 His next tenet 7elated to 2ausality N 27eation and its 2ause1 /1 *a3ila denied the theo7y that the7e 5as a 6eing 5ho 27eated the uni;e7se1 )n his ;ie5 a 27eated thing 7eally exists 6e<o7ehand in its 2ause ?ust as the 2lay se7;es to <o7m a 3ot, o7 the th7eads go to <o7m a 3ie2e o< 2loth1 D01 "his is the <i7st g7ound on 5hi2h *a3ila 7e?e2ted the theo7y that the uni;e7se 5as 27eated 6y a 6eing1 D D 1 But the7e a7e othe7 g7ounds 5hi2h he ad;an2ed in su33o7t o< his 3oint o< ;ie51 DK1 "he non-existent 2annot 6e the su6?e2t o< an a2ti;ity ' "he7e is no ne5 27eation1 "he 37odu2t is 7eally nothing else than the mate7ial o<, 5hi2h it is 2om3osed ' the 37odu2t exists 6e<o7e its 2oming into 6eing in the sha3e o< its mate7ial o< 5hi2h it is 2om3osed1 Only a de<inite 37odu2t 2an 6e 37odu2ed <7om su2h mate7ial J and only a s3e2i<i2 mate7ial 2an yield a s3e2i<i2 7esult1 D L1 +hat then is the sou72e o< the em3i7i2al uni;e7se M D.1 *a3ila said the em3i7i2al uni;e7se 2onsists o< things e;ol;ed @GyaktaB and things that a7e not e;ol;ed @!;yaktaB 1 DE1 )ndi;idual things @Gyakta GastuB 2annot 6e the sou72e o< une;ol;ed things @!;yakta GastuB 1 DF1 )ndi;idual things a7e all limited in magnitude and this is in2om3ati6le 5ith the natu7e o< the sou72e o< the uni;e7se1 DH1 !ll indi;idual things a7e analogous, one to anothe7 and, the7e<o7e, no

one 2an 6e 7ega7ded as the <inal sou72e o< the othe71 Ao7eo;e7, as they all 2ome into 6eing <7om a sou72e, they 2annot 2onstitute that sou72e1

/E

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D-1 Fu7the7, a7gued *a3ila, an e<<e2t must di<<e7 <7om its 2ause, though it must 2onsist o< the 2ause1 "hat 6eing so, the uni;e7se 2annot itsel< 6e the <inal 2ause1 )t must 6e the 37odu2t o< some ultimate 2ause1 D/1 +hen asked 5hy the une;ol;ed 2annot 6e 3e72ei;ed, 5hy does it not sho5 mo;ement 5hi2h 5ould make it 3e72ei;a6le, *a3ila 7e3lied ' K01 8 )t may 6e due to ;a7ious 2auses1 )t may 6e that its <ine natu7e makes, it im3e72e3ti6le, ?ust as othe7 things o< 5hose existen2e the7e is no dou6t, 2annot 6e 3e72ei;ed J o7 6e2ause o< thei7 too g7eat a distan2e o7 37oximity J o7 th7ough the inte7;ention o< a thi7d o6?e2t, o7 th7ough admixtu7e 5ith simila7 matte7 J o7 th7ough the 37esen2e o< some mo7e 3o5e7<ul sensation, o7 the 6lindness o7 othe7 de<e2t o< the senses o7 the mind o< the o6se7;e718 K D 1 +hen asked ' 8+hat then is the sou72e o< the uni;e7se M +hat makes the di<<e7en2e 6et5een the e;ol;ed and une;ol;ed 3a7t o< the uni;e7se M KK1 *a3ila:s 7e3ly 5as' :"hings that ha;e e;ol;ed ha;e a 2ause and the things that ha;e not e;ol;ed ha;e also a 2ause1 But the sou72e o< 6oth is un2aused and inde3endent1: KL1 8 "he things that ha;e e;ol;ed a7e many in num6e7 and limited in s3a2e and name1 "he sou72e is one, ete7nal and all-3e7;asi;e1 "he things e;ol;ed ha;e a2ti;ities and 3a7ts ' the sou72e is imminent in all, 6ut has neithe7 a2ti;ities no7 3a7ts18 K.1 *a3ila a7gued that the 37o2ess o< de;elo3-ment o< the une;ol;ed is th7ough the a2ti;ities o< th7ee 2onstituents o< 5hi2h it is made u3, (att;a, a?as and "amas1 "hese a7e 2alled th7ee Iunas1

KE1 "he <i7st o< the 2onstituents, o7 <a2to7s, 2o77es3onds to 5hat 5e 2all as light in natu7e, 5hi2h 7e;eals, 5hi2h 2auses 3leasu7e to men J the se2ond is that im3els and mo;es, 5hat 37odu2es a2ti;ity J the thi7d is 5hat is hea;y and 3uts unde7 7est7aint, 5hat 37odu2es the state o< indi<<e7en2e o7 ina2ti;ity1 KF1 "he th7ee 2onstituents a2t essentially in 2lose 7elation, they o;e73o5e7 and su33o7t one anothe7 and inte7mingle 5ith one anothe71 "hey a7e like the 2onstituents o< a lam3, the <lame, the oil and 5i2k1 KH1 +hen the th7ee Iunas a7e in 3e7<e2t 6alan2e, none o;e73o5e7ing the othe7, the uni;e7se a33ea7s stati2 @!2hetanB and 2eases to e;ol;e1 /F

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K-1 +hen the th7ee Iunas a7e not in 6alan2e, one o;e73o5e7s the othe7, the uni;e7se 6e2omes dynami2 @sa2hetanB and e;olution 6egins1 K/1 !sked 5hy the Iunas 6e2ome un6alan2ed, the ans5e7 5hi2h *a3ila ga;e 5as this distu76an2e in the 6alan2e o< the th7ee Iunas 5as due to the 37esen2e o< Dukha @su<<e7ingB 1 L01 (u2h 5e7e the tenets o< *a3ila:s 3hiloso3hy1 LD1 O< all the 3hiloso3he7s the Buddha 5as g7eatly im37essed 6y the do2t7ines o< *a3ila1 LK1 He 5as the only 3hiloso3he7 5hose tea2hings a33ea7ed to the Buddha to 6e 6ased on logi2 and <a2ts1 LL1 But he did not a22e3t e;e7ything 5hi2h *a3ila taught1 Only th7ee things did the Buddha a22e3t <7om *a3ila1 L.1 He a22e3ted that 7eality must 7est on 37oo<1 "hinking must 6e 6ased on 7ationalism1 LE1 He a22e3ted that the7e 5as no logi2al o7 <a2tual 6asis <o7 the 37esum3tion that Iod exists o7 that he 27eated the uni;e7se1 LF1 He a22e3ted that the7e 5as Dukha @su<<e7ingB in the 5o7ld1 LH1 "he 7est o< *a3ila:s tea2hings he ?ust 6y3assed as 6eing i77ele;ant <o7 his

3u73ose1

'' L1 "he B7amhanas1 '' D 1 #ext to the Gedas a7e the 7eligious 6ooks kno5n as the B7amhanas1 Both 5e7e held as sa27ed 6ooks1 )ndeed the B7amhanas a7e a 3a7t o< the Gedas1 "he t5o 5ent togethe7 and 5e7e 2alled 6y a 2ommon name (7uti1 K1 "he7e 5e7e <ou7 theses on 5hi2h the B7amhani2 Philoso3hy 7ested1 L1 "he <i7st thesis 5as that the Gedas a7e not only sa27ed 6ut that they a7e in<alli6le and they a7e not to 6e Cuestioned1 .1 "he se2ond thesis o< the B7amhani2 Philoso3hy 5as that sal;ation o< the soul N that is es2a3e <7om t7ansmig7ation N 2an 6e had only 6y the due /H

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> 3e7<o7man2e o< Gedi2 sa27i<i2es and o6se7;an2es o< 7eligious 7ites and 2e7emonies and the o<<e7ing o< gi<ts to B7ahmins1 E1 "he B7ahmins had not only a theo7y o< an ideal 7eligion as 2ontained in the Gedas 6ut they also had a theo7y <o7 an ideal so2iety1 F1 "he 3atte7n o< this ideal so2iety they named Chatu7;a7na1 )t is im6edded in the Gedas and as the Gedas a7e in<alli6le and as thei7 autho7ity 2annot 6e Cuestioned so also Chatu7;a7na as a 3atte7n o< so2iety 5as 6inding and unCuestiona6le1 H1 "his 3atte7n o< so2iety 5as 6ased u3on 2e7tain 7ules1 -1 "he <i7st 7ule 5as that so2iety should 6e di;ided into <ou7 2lasses' @DB B7ahminsJ @KB *shat7iyasJ @LB GaishyasJ and @.B (hud7as1 /1 "he se2ond 7ule 5as that the7e 2annot 6e so2ial eCuality among these <ou7 2lasses1 "hey must 6e 6ound togethe7 6y the 7ule o< g7aded ineCuality1 D01 "he B7ahmins to 6e at the to3, the *shat7iyas to 6e ke3t 6elo5 the B7ahmins 6ut a6o;e the Gaishyas, the Gaishyas to 6e 6elo5 the *shat7iyas 6ut a6o;e the (hud7as and the (hud7as to 6e the lo5est o< all1

D D 1 "hese <ou7 2lasses 5e7e not to 6e eCual to one anothe7 in the matte7 o< 7ights and 37i;ileges1 "he 7ule o< g7aded ineCuality go;e7ned the Cuestion o< 7ights and 37i;ileges1 DK1 "he B7ahmin had all the 7ights and 37i;ileges 5hi2h he 5ished to 2laim1 But a *shat7iya 2ould not 2laim the 7ights and 37i;ileges 5hi2h a B7ahmin 2ould1 He had mo7e 7ights and 37i;ileges than a Gaishya 2ould 2laim1 "he Gaishya had mo7e 7ights and 37i;ileges than a (hud7a1 But he 2ould not 2laim the 7ights and 37i;ileges 5hi2h a *shat7iya 2ould1 !nd the (hud7a 5as not entitled to any 7ight, mu2h less any 37i;ilege1 His 37i;ilege 5as to su6sist 5ithout o<<ending the th7ee su3e7io7 2lasses1 DL1 "he thi7d 7ule o< Chatu7;a7na 7elated to the di;ision o< o22u3ations1 "he o22u3ation o< the B7ahmin 5as lea7ning and tea2hing and the 3e7<o7man2e o< 7eligious o6se7;an2es1 "he o22u3ations o< the *shat7iya 5as <ighting1 "7ade 5as assigned to the Gaishyas1 "he o22u3ations o< the (hud7as 5as se7;i2e o< the th7ee su3e7io7 2lasses1 "hese o22u3ations assigned to di<<e7ent 2lasses 5e7e ex2lusi;e1 One 2lass 2ould not t7es3ass u3on the o22u3ation o< the othe71 /-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D.1 "he <ou7th 7ule o< Chatu7;a7na 7elated to the 7ight to edu2ation1 "he 3atte7n o< Chatu7;a7na ga;e the 7ight to edu2ation to the <i7st th7ee 2lasses, the B7ahmins, *shat7iyas and Gaishyas1 "he (hud7as 5e7e denied the 7ight to edu2ation1 "his 7ule o< Chatu7;a7na did not deny the 7ight to edu2ation to the (hud7as only1 )t denied the 7ight to edu2ation to all 5omen in2luding those 6elonging to the 2lass o< B7ahmins, *shat7iyas and Gaishyas1 DE1 "he7e 5as a <i<th 7ule1 !22o7ding to it, man:s li<e 5as di;ided into <ou7 stages1 "he <i7st stage 5as 2alled B7amha2ha7ya J the se2ond stage 5as 2alled I7ahasash7amJ the thi7d stage 5as 2alled Gana37asta and the <ou7th stage

5as 2alled (annyasa1 DF1 "he o6?e2t o< the <i7st stage 5as study and edu2ation1 "he o6?e2t o< the se2ond stage 5as to li;e a ma77ied li<e1 "he o6?e2t o< the thi7d stage 5as to <amilia7ise a man 5ith the li<e o< a he7mit, i1e1, se;e7ing <amily ties, 6ut 5ithout dese7ting his home1 "he o6?e2t o< the <ou7th stage 5as to ena6le a man to go in sea72h o< Iod and seek union 5ith him1 D H1 "he 6ene<its o< these stages 5e7e o3en only to the male mem6e7s o< the th7ee su3e7io7 2lasses1 "he <i7st stage 5as not o3en to the (hud7as and 5omen1 ECually the last stage 5as not o3en to the (hud7as and 5omen1 D -1 (u2h 5as the di;ine 3atte7n o< an ideal so2iety 2alled Chatu7;a7na1 "he B7ahmins had idealised the 7ule and had 7ealised the ideal 5ithout lea;ing any 27a2ks o7 loo3holes1 D/1 "he <ou7th thesis o< B7ahmani2 Philoso3hy 5as the do2t7ine o< *a7ma1 )t 5as 3a7t o< the thesis o< t7ansmig7ation o< the soul1 "he *a7ma o< the B7ahmins 5as an ans5e7 to the Cuestion' 8+he7e did the soul land on t7ansmig7ation 5ith his ne5 6ody on ne5 6i7th M 8 "he ans5e7 o< the B7ahmani2 Philoso3hy 5as that it de3ended on a man:s deeds in his 3ast li<e1 )n othe7 5o7ds, it de3ended on his *a7ma1 K01 "he Buddha 5as st7ongly o33osed to the <i7st tenet o< B7ahmanism1 He 7e3udiated thei7 thesis that the Gedas a7e in<alli6le and thei7 autho7ity 2ould ne;e7 6e Cuestioned1 KD1 )n his o3inion, nothing 5as in<alli6le and nothing 2ould 6e <inal1 E;e7ything must 6e o3en to 7e -examination and 7e2onside7ation 5hene;e7 g7ounds <o7 7e-examination and 7e2onside7ation a7ise1

//

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KK1 Aan must kno5 the t7uth and 7eal t7uth1 "o him <7eedom o< thought 5as the most essential thing1 !nd he 5as su7e that <7eedom o< thought 5as the only 5ay to the dis2o;e7y o< t7uth1

KL1 )n<alli6ility o< the Gedas meant 2om3lete denial o< <7eedom o< thought1 K.1 Fo7 these 7easons this thesis o< the B7ahmani2 Philoso3hy 5as most o6noxious to him1 KE1 He 5as eCually an o33onent o< the se2ond thesis o< the B7ahmani2 Philoso3hy1 "he Buddha did admit that the7e 5as any ;i7tue in a sa27i<i2e1 But he made a distin2tion 6et5een t7ue sa27i<i2e and <alse sa27i<i2e1 KF1 (a27i<i2e in the sense o< sel<-denial <o7 the good o< othe7s he 2alled t7ue sa27i<i2e1 (a27i<i2e in the sense o< killing an animal as an o<<e7ing to Iod <o7 3e7sonal 6ene<it he 7ega7ded as a <alse sa27i<i2e1 KH1 "he B7ahmani2 sa27i<i2es 5e7e mostly sa27i<i2es o< animals to 3lease thei7 gods1 He 2ondemned them as <alse sa27i<i2es1 He 5ould not allo5 them e;en though they 6e 3e7<o7med 5ith the o6?e2t o< getting sal;ation <o7 the soul1 K-1 "he o33onents o< sa27i<i2es used to 7idi2ule the B7ahmins 6y saying ' 8 )< one 2an go to hea;en 6y sa27i<i2ing an animal 5hy should not one sa27i<i2e one:s o5n <athe71 "hat 5ould 6e a Cui2ke7 5ay o< going to hea;en18 K/1 "he Buddha 5holehea7tedly ag7eed 5ith this ;ie51 L01 "he theo7y o< Chatu7;a7na 5as as 7e3ugnant to the Buddha as the theo7y o< sa27i<i2es 5as 7e3ulsi;e to him1 LD1 "he o7ganiOation o< so2iety set u3 6y B7ahmanism in the name o< Chatu7;a7na did not a33ea7 to him a natu7al o7ganiOation1 )ts 2lass 2om3osition 5as 2om3ulso7y and a76it7a7y1 )t 5as a so2iety made to o7de71 He 37e<e77ed an o3en so2iety and a <7ee so2iety1 LK1 "he Chatu7;a7na o< the B7ahmins 5as a <ixed o7de7 ne;e7 to 6e 2hanged1 On2e a B7ahmin al5ays a B7ahmin1 On2e a *shat7iya al5ays a *shat7iya, on2e a Gaishya al5ays a Gaishya and on2e a (hud7a al5ays a (hud7a1 (o2iety 5as 6ased on status 2on<e77ed u3on an indi;idual 6y the a22ident o< his 6i7th1 Gi2e, ho5e;e7 heinous, 5as no g7ound <o7 deg7ading a man <7om his status, and ;i7tue, ho5e;e7 g7eat, had no ;alue to 7aise him a6o;e it1 "he7e 5as no 7oom <o7 5o7th no7 <o7 g7o5th1 D00

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> LL1 )neCuality exists in e;e7y so2iety1 But it 5as di<<e7ent 5ith B7ahmanism1 "he ineCuality 37ea2hed 6y B7ahmins 5as its o<<i2ial do2t7ine1 )t 5as not a me7e g7o5th1 B7ahmanism did not 6elie;e in eCuality1 )n <a2t, it 5as o33osed to eCuality1 L.1 B7ahmanism 5as not 2ontent 5ith ineCuality1 "he soul o< B7ahmanism lay in g7aded ineCuality1 LE1 Fa7 <7om 37odu2ing ha7mony, g7aded ineCuality, the Buddha thought, might 37odu2e in so2iety an as2ending s2ale o< hat7ed and a des2ending s2ale o< 2ontem3t, and might 6e a sou72e o< 3e73etual 2on<li2t1 LF1 "he o22u3ations o< the <ou7 2lasses 5e7e also <ixed1 "he7e 5as no <7eedom o< 2hoi2e1 Besides, they 5e7e <ixed not in a22o7dan2e 5ith skill 6ut in a22o7dan2e 5ith 6i7th1 LH1 On a 2a7e<ul 7e;ie5 o< the 7ules o< Chatu7-;a7na the Buddha had no di<<i2ulty in 2oming to the 2on2lusion that the 3hiloso3hi2 <oundations on 5hi2h the so2ial o7de7 5as 7ea7ed 6y B7ahmanism 5e7e 57ong i< not sel<ish1 L-1 )t 5as 2lea7 to him that it did not se7;e the inte7ests o< all, mu2h less did it ad;an2e the 5el<a7e o< all1 )ndeed, it 5as deli6e7ately designed to make many se7;e the inte7ests o< the <e51 )n it man 5as made to se7;e a 2lass o< sel<-styled su3e7men1 L/1 )t 5as 2al2ulated to su337ess and ex3loit the 5eak and to kee3 them in a state o< 2om3lete su6?ugation1 .01 "he la5 o< *a7ma as <o7mulated 6y the B7ahmins, thought the Buddha, 5as 2al2ulated to sa3 the s3i7it o< 7e;olt 2om3letely1 #o one 5as 7es3onsi6le <o7 the su<<e7ing o< man ex2e3t he himsel<1 e;olt 2ould not alte7 the state o< su<<e7ing J <o7 su<<e7ing 5as <ixed 6y his 3ast *a7ma as his lot in this li<e1 .D1 "he (hud7as and 5omen N the t5o 2lasses 5hose humanity 5as most mutilated 6y B7ahmanism, had no 3o5e7 to 7e6el against the system1 .K1 "hey 5e7e denied the 7ight to kno5ledge 5ith the 7esult that 6y 7eason o< thei7 en<o72ed igno7an2e they 2ould not 7ealiOe 5hat had made thei7 2ondition so deg7aded1 "hey 2ould not kno5 that B7ahmanism had 7o66ed them 2om3letely o< the signi<i2an2e o< thei7 li<e1 )nstead o< 7e6elling against

B7ahmanism they had 6e2ome the de;otees and u3holde7s o< B7ahmanism1

D0D

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> .L1 "he 7ight to 6ea7 a7ms is the ultimate means o< a2hie;ing <7eedom 5hi2h a human 6eing has1 But the (hud7as 5e7e denied the 7ight to 6ea7 a7ms1 ..1 $nde7 B7ahmanism the (hud7as 5e7e le<t as hel3less ;i2tims o< a 2ons3i7a2y o< sel<ish B7ahmanism, 3o5e7<ul and deadly *shat7iyas and 5ealthy Gaishyas1 .E1 Could it 6e amendedM *no5ing that it 5as a di;inely o7dained so2ial o7de7, he kne5 that it 2ould not 6e1 )t 2ould only 6e ended1 .F1 Fo7 these 7easons the Buddha 7e?e2ted B7ahmanism as 6eing o33osed to the t7ue 5ay o< li<e1

'' .1 "he $3anishads and thei7 "ea2hings1 ''

D 1 "he $3anishads 2onstituted anothe7 3ie2e o< lite7atu7e1 )t is not 3a7t o< the Gedas1 )t is une2onomi2al1 K1 !ll the same they did <o7m a 3a7t o< 7eligious lite7atu7e1 L1 "he num6e7 o< the $3anishads is Cuite la7ge1 (ome im3o7tant, some Cuite unim3o7tant1 .1 (ome o< them 5e7e 7anged against the Gedi2 theologians, the B7ahmin 37iests1 E1 !ll o< them ag7eed in ;ie5ing Gedi2 study as a study o< nes2ien2e o7 igno7an2e @a;idyaB1 F1 "hey 5e7e all ag7eed in thei7 estimate o< the <ou7 Gedas and the Gedi2 s2ien2e as the lo5e7 kno5ledge1 H1 "hey 5e7e all ag7eed in Cuestioning the di;ine o7igin o< the Gedas1 -1 "hey 5e7e all ag7eed in denying the e<<i2a2y att7i6uted to sa27i<i2es, to the

<une7al o6lations, and the gi<ts to the 37iests 5hi2h a7e the <undamentals o< the B7ahmani2 3hiloso3hy1 /1 "his, ho5e;e7, 5as not the main to3i2 5ith 5hi2h the $3anishads 5e7e 2on2e7ned1 "hei7 dis2ussions 2ent7ed 7ound B7ahman and !tman1 D0K

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D01 B7ahman 5as the all-3e7;ading 37in2i3le 5hi2h 6inds the uni;e7se and that sal;ation lay in the !tman 7ealiOing that it is B7ahman1 ))1 "he main thesis o< the $3anishads 5as that B7ahmana 5as a 7eality and that !tmana 5as the same as B7ahmana1 "he !tmana did not 7ealiOe that it 5as B7ahman 6e2ause o< the $3adhis in 5hi2h it 5as entangled1 DK1 "he Cuestion 5as' )s B7ahmana a 7eality M "he a22e3tan2e o< the $3anishadi2 thesis de3ended u3on the ans5e7 to this Cuestion1 DL1 "he Buddha 2ould <ind no 37oo< in su33o7t o< the thesis that B7ahmana 5as a 7eality1 He, the7e<o7e, 7e?e2ted the thesis o< th1e $3anishads1 D.1 )t is not that Cuestions on this issue 5e7e not 3ut to the autho7s o< the $3anishads1 "hey 5e7e ' DE1 (u2h Cuestions 5e7e 3ut to no less a 3e7son than &a?na;alkya, a g7eat see7 5ho 3lays so im3o7tant a 3a7t in the B7ahada7nyka $3anishad1 DF1 He 5as asked' 8+hat is B7ahmanaM +hat is !tmana M 8 !ll that &a?na;alkya 2ould say ' 8 #eti ) #eti D D kno5 not D D kno5 not ) 8 D H1 8Ho5 2an anything 6e a 7eality a6out 5hi2h no one kno5s anything,8 asked the Buddha1 He had, the7e<o7e, no di<<i2ulty in 7e?e2ting the $3anishadi2 thesis as 6eing 6ased on 3u7e imagination1

Pa7t G) N "he Buddha and His Contem3o7a7ies '' D1 His Contem3o7a7ies1 '' '' K1 His attitude to His Contem3o7a7ies1 ''

'' D1 His Contem3o7a7ies1 ''

D1 !t the time 5hen Iautama took Pa7i;7a?a the7e 5as a g7eat intelle2tual <e7ment in the 2ount7y1 Besides the B7ahmani2 Philoso3hy the7e 5e7e as many as sixty-t5o di<<e7ent s2hools o< 3hiloso3hy, all o33osed to the B7ahmani2 Philoso3hy1 O< them at least six 5e7e 5o7thy o< attention1 K1 O< these s2hools o< 3hiloso3hy the7e 5as one headed 6y Pu7ana *assa33a1 His do2t7ine 5as kno5n as !k7iya;ada1 He maintained that the soul 5as not a<<e2ted in any 5ay 6y *a7ma1 One may do, o7 one may get things done1 D0L

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> One may do in?u7y o7 one may get someone to kill1 One may 2ommit the<t o7 da2oity o7 one may get the<t o7 da2oity 2ommitted, one may 2ommit adulte7y o7 one may get adulte7y 2ommitted, one may tell a lie o7 one may get a lie told1 #othing a<<e2ts the soul1 !n a2t, ho5e;e7 li2entious, does not a<<e2t the soul 5ith sin1 !n a2t, ho5e;e7 good, does not 67ing me7it to the soul1 #othing has any *7iya @7esultB on the soul1 +hen a 3e7son dies, all the elements o< 5hi2h he is made ?oin in thei7 o7iginals1 #othing su7;i;es a<te7 death, neithe7 6ody no7 soul1 L1 !nothe7 s2hool o< thought 5as kno5n as #iyati;ada1 )ts 2hie< 37o3ounde7 5as Aakhali Ihosal1 His do2t7ine 5as a kind o< <atalism o7 dete7minism1 He taught that no one 2an do anything o7 undo anything1 "hings ha33en1 #o one 2an make them ha33en1 #o one 2an 7emo;e unha33iness, in27ease it o7 diminish it1 One must unde7go one:s sha7e o< the ex3e7ien2es o< the 5o7ld1 .1 "he thi7d s2hool 5as kno5n as $22heda;ada1 )ts 2hie< 37o3ounde7 5as !?it *esakam6al His do2t7ine 5as a kind o< !nnihilism1 He taught that the7e 5as nothing in &a?na, HaomJ the7e is no su2h thing as the <7uits o7 e<<e2ts o< deeds to 6e en?oyed o7 su<<e7ed 6y the soul1 "he7e is neithe7 hea;en no7 hell1 Aan is made u3 o< 2e7tain elements o< unha33iness in the 5o7ld1 "he soul 2annot es2a3e it1 +hate;e7 so77o5 o7 unha33iness the7e 5as in the 5o7ld the soul 2annot es2a3e1 "his so77o5 o7 unha33iness 5ill 2ome to an end

automati2ally1 "he soul must unde7go 7e6i7th du7ing eighty-<ou7 lakhs o< 2y2les o< Aahakal3as1 "hen only the so77o5 and unha33iness o< the soul 5ill end, not 6e<o7e no7 6y any othe7 means1 E1 "he <ou7th s2hool 5as kno5n as !nnyonya;ad1 "he head o< this s2hool 5as Pakudha *a22hyana1 He 37ea2hed that the7e a7e se;en elements 5hi2h go to make u3 a 6eing, namely, P7ath;i, !3a, "e?, Gayu, (ukha, Dukha and the (oul1 Ea2h is inde3endent o< the othe7 J one does not a<<e2t the othe71 "hey a7e sel<-existent and they a7e ete7nal1 #othing 2an dest7oy them1 )< any one 2ho3s o<< the head o< man he does not kill him1 !ll that ha33ens is that the 5ea3on has ente7ed the se;en elements1 F1 (an?aya Bela3utta had his o5n s2hool o< 3hiloso3hy1 )t 5as kno5n as Gikshe3a;ada, a kind o< s2e3ti2ism1 He a7gued, 8 i< anyone asked me is the7e hea;en, i< ) <eel the7e 5as ) 5ould say yes1 But i< ) <eel the7e 5as no hea;en ) 5ould say no1 )< ) am asked 5hethe7 human 6eings a7e 27eated, 5hethe7 man has to su<<e7 the <7uits o< his a2tion 5hethe7 good o7 6ad, and 5hethe7

D0.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> the soul li;es a<te7 death, ) say nay to all these 6e2ause ) don:t think they exist1 "his is ho5 (an?aya Bela3utta summed u3 his do2t7ine1 H1 "he sixth s2hool o< 3hiloso3hy 5as kno5n as Chatu7yamsam;a7;ad1 "he head o< this s2hool 5ho 5as ali;e at the time 5hen Iautama 5as sea72hing <o7 light 5as Aaha;i7, 5ho 5as also 2alled #igantha #atha3utta1 Aaha;i7 taught that the soul had to unde7go 7e6i7th 6e2ause o< the 6ad ka7mas done in the 3ast li<e and in the 37esent li<e1 One must the7e<o7e get o;e7 the 6ad, he suggested, 6y ta3as2ha7ya1 Fo7 37e;enting the doing o< 6ad ka7mas in this li<e Aaha;i7a 37es27i6ed the o6se7;an2e o< 2hatu7yama dha7ma, i1e1, o6se7;an2e o< <ou7 7ules ' @DB not to kill J @KB not to steal J @LB not to tell a lie J and @.B not to ha;e 37o3e7ty and to o6se7;e 2eli6a2y1 '' K1 His attitude to His Contem3o7a7ies1 ''

D 1 "he Buddha did not a22e3t the tea2hings o< the ne5 3hiloso3he7s1 K1 His 7e?e2tion o< thei7 tea2hing 5as not 5ithout 7easons1 He said that ' L1 )< the do2t7ines o< Pu7ana *assya33a o7 Pakudha *a22hyana 5e7e t7ue then one 2an do any e;il o7 any ha7m J one may e;en go to the length o< killing anothe7 5ithout in;ol;ing any so2ial 7es3onsi6ility o7 so2ial 2onseCuen2es1 .1 )< the do2t7ine o< Aakhali Ihosalis t7ue then man 6e2omes the sla;e o< destiny1 He 2annot li6e7ate himsel<1 E1 )< the do2t7ine o< !?it *esakam6al is t7ue then all that man has to do is to eat, d7ink and make me77y1 F1 )< the do2t7ine o< (an?aya Beta3utta 5as t7ue then man must <loat a6out and li;e 5ithout a 3ositi;e 3hiloso3hy o< li<e1 H1 )< the do2t7ine o< #igantha #atha3utta 5as t7ue then man:s li<e must 6e su6?e2ted to !s2eti2ism and "a3as2ha7ya, a 2om3lete su6?ugation and u37ooting o< man:s instin2ts and desi7es1 -1 "hus, none o< the 3aths o< li<e suggested 6y the 3hiloso3he7s a33ealed to the Buddha1 He thought they 5e7e the thoughts o< men 5ho had 6e2ome ho3eless, hel3less and 7e2kless1 He the7e<o7e de2ided to seek light else5he7e1 D0E

@!B -

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

Pa7t G)) N Com3a7ison and Cont7ast D1 +hat HE e?e2ted1 ''

K1 +hat HE Aodi<ied1

L1 +hat HE !22e3ted1

'' D1 +hat HE

e?e2ted1 ''

D1 "his su7;ey o< the 3hiloso3hi2al and 7eligious thought sho5s that at the time 5hen the Buddha <o7mulated his (asana, 2e7tain ideas had a <i7m g7i3 on the mind o< the 3eo3le1 "hey 5e7e ' @iB Belie< in the in<alli6ility o< the Gedas J @iiB Belie< in Aoksha o7 (al;ation o< the soul, i1e1, its 2easing to 6e 6o7n again XU @iiiB Belie< in the e<<i2a2y o< 7ites, 2e7emonies and sa27i<i2es as means o< o6taining mokshaJ @i;B Belie< in Chatu7;a7na as the ideal <o7 so2ial o7ganiOationJ @;B Belie< in )s5a7a as the 27eato7 o< and in B7ahmana as the 37in2i3le unde7lying the uni;e7se, @;iB Belie< in !tmana, o7 the soul1 @;iiB Belie< in (ama7a, @5ande7ing togethe7B, i1e1, t7ansmig7ation o< the soul1 @;iiiB Belie< in *a7ma, i1e1, the dete7mination o< man:s 3osition in 37esent li<e 6y deeds done 6y him in his 3ast li<e1 K1 )n <o7mulating the 37in2i3les o< his (asana the Buddha dealt 5ith this old sto2k o< ideas in his o5n 5ay1 L1 "he <ollo5ing a7e the ideas 5hi2h he 7e?e2ted ' @iB He 2ondemned indulging in s3e2ulation as to the 5hen2e, 5hithe7 and 5hat am )M @iiB He dis2a7ded he7esies a6out the soul and 7e<7ained <7om identi<ying it 5ith eithe7 the 6ody, sensations, ;olitions and 2ons2iousness1 @iiiB He dis2a7ded all the #ihilisti2 ;ie5s 5hi2h 5e7e 37omulgated 6y 2e7tain 7eligious tea2he7s1

@i;B He 2ondemned su2h ;ie5s as 5e7e held 6y he7eti2s1 D0F

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> @;B He dis2a7ded the theo7y that the 2osmi2 37og7ess had a kno5n 6eginning1 @;iB He 7e3udiated the theo7y that a Iod 27eated man o7 that he 2ame out o< the 6ody o< some B7amha1 @;iiB "he existen2e o< the soul he eithe7 igno7ed o7 denied1 '' K1 +hat HE Aodi<ied1 ''

@iB He a22e3ted the g7eat g7and la5 o< 2ause and e<<e2t 5ith its 2o7olla7ies1 @iiB He 7e3udiated the <atalisti2 ;ie5 o< li<e and othe7 eCually <oolish ;ie5 that a Iod 37edestined as to 5hat should ha33en <o7 man and the 5o7ld, @iiiB He dis2a7ded the theo7y that all deeds 2ommitted in some <o7me7 6i7th ha;e the 3oten2y to 37odu2e su<<e7ing, making 37esent a2ti;ity im3otent1 He denied the <atalisti2 ;ie5 o< *a7ma1 He 7e3la2ed the ;ie5 o< *a7ma 6y a mu2h mo7e s2ienti<i2 ;ie5 o< *a7ma1 He 3ut ne5 5ine in old 6ottle, @i;B "7ansmig7ation @sansa7aB 5as 7e3la2ed 6y the do2t7ine o< 7e -6i7th, @;B He 7e3la2ed the do2t7ine o< moksha o7 sal;ation o< the soul 6y the do2t7ine o< #i66ana1 .1 "he Buddha (asana is thus an o7iginal 3ie2e1 "he little in it 5hi2h is old is eithe7 modi<ied o7 7estated1

'' L1 +hat HE !22e3ted1 ''

D 1 "he <i7st distinguishing <eatu7e o< his tea2hings lay in the 7e2ognition o< the mind as the 2ent7e o< e;e7ything1 K1 Aind 37e2edes things, dominates them, 27eates them1 )< mind is 2om37ehended all things a7e 2om37ehended1 L1 Aind is the leade7 o< all its <a2ulties1 Aind is the 2hie< o< all its <a2ulties1

"he ;e7y mind is made u3 o< those <a2ulties1 .1 "he <i7st thing to attend to is the 2ultu7e o< the mind1

D0H

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> E1 "he se2ond distinguishing <eatu7e o< his tea2hings is that mind is the <ount o< all the good and e;il that a7ises 5ithin and 6e<alls us <7om 5ithout1 F1 +hatsoe;e7 the7e is o< e;il, 2onne2ted 5ith e;il, 6elonging to e;il N that issues <7om the mind1 +hatsoe;e7 the7e is o< good, 2onne2ted 5ith good, 6elonging to good N all issues <7om mind1 H1 )< one s3eaks o7 a2ts 5ith a 3ounded mind then a<<li2tion <ollo5s him as the 5heels o< the 2a7t <ollo5 the <eet o< the 6ullo2ks 5ho 3ull the 2a7t1 "he 2leaning o< the mind is, the7e<o7e, the essen2e o< 7eligion D -1 "he thi7d distinguishing <eatu7e o< his tea2hings is the a;oidan2e o< all sin<ul a2ts1 /1 "he <ou7th distinguishing <eatu7e o< his tea2hing is that 7eal 7eligion lies not in the 6ooks o< 7eligion 6ut in the o6se7;an2e o< the tenets o< the 7eligion1 D01 Can anyone say that the Buddha:s 7eligion 5as not his o5n 27eationM

D0-

@!B

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

8''BOO* ))''8 C!AP!)I# OF CO#GE ()O#

Pa7t ) N Buddha and His Gishad &oga1 D1 "o 37ea2h o7 not to 37ea2h1 ''

K1 P7o2lamation o< good ne5s 6y B7amha (aham3ati1

L1 "5o ty3es o< 2on;e7sion1

'' D1 "o 37ea2h o7 not to 37ea2h1 ''

D 1 !<te7 ha;ing attamed enlightenment and a<te7 ha;ing <o7mulated his 5ay, dou6t a7ose in the mind o< the Buddha1 (hould he go <o7th and 37ea2h his do2t7ine o7 should he 2ontinue to de;ote himsel< to his o5n 3e7sonal 3e7<e2tion1 K1 He said to himsel<' 8"7ue, ) ha;e gained a ne5 do2t7ine1 But it is too di<<i2ult <o7 the 2ommon man to a22e3t it and <ollo5 it1 )t is too su6tle e;en <o7 the 5ise1 L1 8)t is ha7d <o7 mankind to li6e7ate itsel< <7om the entanglement o< Iod and (oul1 )t is ha7d <o7 mankind to gi;e u3 its 6elie< in 7ites and 2e7emonies1 )t is ha7d <o7 mankind to gi;e u3 its 6elie< in *a7ma1 .1 8)t is ha7d <o7 mankind to gi;e u3 its 6elie< in the immo7tality o< the (oul and a22e3t my do2t7ine that the (oul as an inde3endent entity does not exist and does not su7;i;e a<te7 death1 E1 8 Aankind is intent on its sel<ishness and takes delight and 3leasu7e in it1 )t is ha7d <o7 mankind to a22e3t my do2t7ine o< 7ighteousness o;e77iding sel<ishness1 F1 8 )< ) 5e7e to tea2h my do2t7ine, and othe7s did not unde7stand it o7 unde7standing it did not a22e3t o7 a22e3ting it did not <ollo5 it, it 5ould 6e 5ea7iness to othe7s and a ;exation to me1 H1 8 +hy not 7emain a sanyasi a5ay <7om the 5o7ld and use my gos3el to

3e7<e2t my o5n sel< M 8 He asked himsel<1 8 !t least ) 2an do good to mysel<18

D0/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> -1 "hus as he 7e<le2ted, his mind tu7ned to ina2tion, not to tea2hing o< the gos3el1 /1 "hen B7ahma (aham3ati kno5ing 5hat 5as 3assing in the mind o< the Buddha thought, 8 Ge7ily the 5o7ld is 6eing dest7oyed, ;e7ily the 5o7ld is going to dest7u2tion, i< the "athagata, the <ully enlightened, tu7ns to ina2tion and not to tea2hing his do2t7ine18 D01 Filled 5ith anxiety B7ahma (aham3ati le<tthe B7ahma 5o7ld and a33ea7ed 6e<o7e the Buddha1 !nd a77anging his u33e7 7o6e on one shoulde7 he 6ent do5n and 5ith 2las3ed hands said' 8 "hou a7t no longe7 (iddha7th Iautama, "hou a7t Buddha1 "hou a7t the Blessed One 5ho is 6lessed 5ith the <ullest enlightenment1 "hou a7t the "athagatha1 Ho5 2an thou 7e<use to enlighten the 5o7ld M Ho5 2an thou 7e<use to sa;e e77ing humanityM DD18 "he7e a7e 6eings <ull o< im3u7ity that a7e <alling a5ay th7ough not hea7ing the do2t7ine1 DK1 8!s the %o7d kno5s,8 37o2eeded B7ahma (aham3ati, 8 !mong the Aagadhas a7ose in an2ient times, do2t7ine im3u7e, 5ith many 6lemishes de;ised1 DL18 +ill not the %o7d o3en <o7 them the doo7 o< his immo7tal do2t7ine M D.1 8 !s one u3on a 7o2ky mountain standing, 6eholdeth all the 3eo3le 7ound a6out him e;en thus, thou, 5ith 5isdom distilled, as2ending all, 6ehold, look do5n, thou g7ie<less one, u3on those 3lunged in thei7 g7ie<s1 D E1 8 ise u3, he7o, ;i2to7 in 6attle, 2a7a;an-leade7, <7ee <7om the de6t o< 6i7th, go to the 5o7ld and not tu7n a5ay <7om it1 DF1 8 Aay the %o7d in his 2om3assion design to tea2h his gos3el to men and to gods8 DH1 80 B7ahma, Eminent and Ex2ellent among men, i< ) did not gi;e 3u6li2

utte7an2e to my gos3el, it is 6e2ause ) 3e72ei;ed ;exation,8 5as the 7e3ly o< the Buddha1 D-1 *no5ing that the7e 5as so mu2h unha33iness in the 5o7ld the Buddha 7ealised that it 5as 57ong <o7 him to sit as a sanyasi 5ith <olded a7ms and allo5 things to 7emain as they 5e7e1 D/1 !s2eti2ism he <ound to 6e useless1 )t 5as ;ain to attem3t to es2a3e <7om the 5o7ld1 "he7e is no es2a3e <7om the 5o7ld e;en <o7 an as2eti21 He 7ealised no

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> that 5hat is ne2essa7y is not es2a3e <7om the 5o7ld1 +hat is ne2essa7y is to 2hange the 5o7ld and to make it 6ette71 K01 He 7ealised that 6e le<t the 5o7ld 6e2ause the7e 5as so mu2h 2on<li2t 7esulting in mise7y and unha33iness and <o7 5hi2h he kne5 no 7emedy1 )< he 2an 6anish mise7y and unha33iness <7om the 5o7ld 6y the 37o3agation o< his do2t7ine, it 5as his duty to 7etu7n to the 5o7ld and se7;e it and not sit silent as the 3e7soni<i2ation o< ina2ti;e im3assi;ity K D 1 "he Buddha the7e<o7e ag7eed to the 7eCuest o< B7ahma (aham3ati and de2ided to 37ea2h his do2t7ine to the 5o7ld1 '' K1 P7o2lamation o< good ne5s 6y B7amha (aham3ati1 ''

D1 "hen, B7ahma (aham3ati, thinking, 8) ha;e 6een inst7umental in 3e7suading the Buddha to ag7ee to 37ea2h his do2t7ine to the masses,8 <elt ext7emely ha33y1 He saluted the Buddha, 5ent 7ound him 3assing to the 7ight, took a look and de3a7ted1 K1 On his 5ay 6a2k he ke3t on 37o2laiming to the 5o7ld' 8 e?oi2e at the glad tidings1 "he Buddha, ou7 %o7d, has <ound the 7oot o< all e;il and unha33iness in the 5o7ld1 He kno5s the 5ay out1 L1 8 "he Buddha 5ill 67ing 2om<o7t to the 5ea7y and so77o5-laden1 He 5ill gi;e 3ea2e to those st7i2ken 6y 5a71 He 5ill gi;e 2ou7age to those 5ho a7e

67oken in hea7t1 He 5ill gi;e to those 5ho a7e su337essed and o337essed, <aith and ho3e1 .1 8&e that su<<e7 <7om the t7i6ulations o< li<e, ye that ha;e to st7uggle and endu7e, ye that yea7n <o7 ?usti2e, 7e?oi2e at the glad tidings1 E1 8Heal you7 5ounds, ye that a7e 5ounded1 Eat you7 <ill, ye that a7e hung7y1 est, ye that a7e 5ea7y, and Cuen2h you7 thi7st, ye that a7e thi7sty1 (eek the light, ye that a7e in da7kness1 Be o< good 2hee7, ye that a7e <o7lo7n1 F1 8)n his do2t7ine the7e is lo;e to 27eate a longing to o5n those 5ho a7e diso5ned o7 uno5ned' to the deg7aded the7e is the enno6lement e;e7 37esent to 7aise them' to the disinhe7ited and the do5nt7odden the7e is eCuality 6laOing <o7th thei7 3ath to ad;an2ement1

in

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> H1 8 His do2t7ine is the do2t7ine o< 7ighteousness and his aim is to esta6lish the kingdom o< 7ighteousness on ea7th1 -1 8 His do2t7ine is the t7uth, the 5hole t7uth, and nothing 6ut the t7uth1 /1 8 Blessed is the Buddha <o7 his is the 3ath o< 7eason and his is the 5ay o< eman2i3ation <7om su3e7stition1 Blessed is the Buddha 5ho tea2hes the middle 5ay1 Blessed is the Buddha 5ho tea2hes the la5 o< 7ighteousness1 Blessed is the Buddha 5ho tea2hes the 3ea2e o< #i66ana1 Blessed is the Buddha 5ho 37ea2hes lo;e, kindness and <ello5shi3 to hel3 <ello5 6eings to o6tain sal;ation18 '' L1 "5o ty3es o< 2on;e7sion1 '' D 1 )n the Buddha:s s2heme o< things 2on;e7sion has t5o meanings1 K1 Con;e7sion to the O7de7 o< Bhikkus 2alled (angh1 L1 (e2ondly, it means 2on;e7sion o< a householde7 as an $3asaka o7 lay <ollo5e7 o< the Buddha:s Dhamma1 .1 Ex2e3t on <ou7 3oints the7e is no di<<e7en2e in the 5ay o< li<e o< the Bhikku and the $3asaka1

E1 !n $3asaka 7emains a householde71 ! Bhikku 6e2omes a homeless 5ande7e71 F1 Both the $3asakas and the Bhikkus must o6se7;e in thei7 li<e 2e7tain 7ules1 H1 He7e again to the Bhikku they a7e ;o5s the 67ea2h o< 5hi2h ends in 3unishment1 "o the $3asaka they a7e 37e2e3ts1 "hey must 6e o6se7;ed to the 6est o< his a6ility1 -1 !n $3asaka 2an ha;e 37o3e7ty1 ! Bhikku 2annot ha;e1 /1 "o 6e2ome an $3asaka the7e is no 2e7emony1 D01 "o 6e2ome a Bhikku he must unde7go a 2e7emony 2alled $3asam3ada1 D D 1"he Buddha 2on;e7ted those 5ho 2ame to him a22o7ding to thei7 5ish eithe7 as Bhikku o7 as $3asaka1 DDK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DK1 !n $3asaka 2ould 6e2ome a Bhikku 5hene;e7 he <elt like it1 DL1 !nd a Bhikku had to 2ease to 6e a Bhikku 5hen he 2ommitted a 67ea2h o< the ma?o7 ;o5s o7 5hene;e7 he 5ished to gi;e u3 his mem6e7shi3 o< the O7de71 D.1 )t must not 6e unde7stood that the Buddha 2on;e7ted only those 5hose names o22u7 in the <ollo5ing 3ages1 DE1 "he instan2es a7e 2hosen only to sho5 that he did not o6se7;e any distin2tion as to 2aste o7 sex in admitting 3e7sons to his (angh o7 37ea2hing his Dhamma1 Pa7t )) N "he Con;e7sion o< the Pa7i;7a?akas1 D1 !77i;al at (a7nath1 ''

K1 "he Buddha:s Fi7st (e7mon1

R '' L1 "he Buddha:s Fi7st (e7mon @2ontinuedB 1"he Path o< Pu7ity'' XY '' .1 "he Buddha:s Fi7st (e7mon @2ontinuedB 1!shtanga Aa7ga o7 the Path o< ighteousness ''

'' E1 "he Buddha:s Fi7st (e7mon @2ontinuedB1 "he Path o< Gi7tue'' \ '' F1 "he Buddha:s Fi7st (e7mon @2on2ludedB1 '' '' H1 "he es3onse o< the Pa7i;7a?akas1 '' '' D1 !77i;al at (a7nath1 ''

D1 Ha;ing de2ided to 37ea2h his do2t7ine the Buddha asked himsel< 8 to 5hom shall ) <i7st tea2h the do2t7ine M 8 "he thought o< !la7a *alam 5hom the Buddha ado7ed as the lea7ned, 5ise, intelligent and o< little im3u7ity J 8 +hat i< ) <i7st tea2h him the do2t7ine M 8 But he 5as told that !la7a *alam 5as dead1 K1 "hen thought he o< 37ea2hing it to $ddaka dead1 am3utta1 But he too 5as

L1 "hen he thought o< the <i;e old 2om3anions o< his 5ho 5e7e 5ith him at #i7an?ana 5hen he 5as 37a2tising auste7ities and 5ho had le<t him in ange7 on his a6andonment o< auste7ities1 DDL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> .1 8"hey did mu2h <o7 me, attended me and looked a<te7 me, 5hat i< ) <i7st tea2h the do2t7ine to them M 8 said he to himsel<1 E1 8He asked <o7 thei7 5he7ea6outs1 Ha;ing lea7nt that they 5e7e d5elling at (a7nath in the dee7 3a7k o< )si3atana, he le<t in sea72h o< them1 F1 "he <i;e, seeing him 2oming, de2ided among themsel;es not to 5el2ome him1 (aid one o< them, 8"his, <7iends, is the as2eti2 Iautama 2oming, 5ho has a6andoned auste7ities and has tu7ned to li<e o< a6undan2e and luxu7y1 He has 2ommitted a sin1 +e must not the7e<o7e g7eet him, no7 7ise in 7es3e2t, no7 take his 6o5l and 7o6e1 +e 5ill only set a3a7t a seat <o7 him1 )< he 5ishes, he may sit do5n18 !nd they all ag7eed1

H1 But 5hen the Buddha a337oa2hed, the <i;e Pa7i;7a?akas 5e7e not a6le to a6ide 6y thei7 de2ision, so g7eatly im37essed 5e7e they 6y his 3e7sonality that they all 7ose in thei7 seats1 One took his 6o5l, one took his 7o6e, and one 37e3a7ed a seat, and one 67ought 5ate7 to 5ash his <eet1 -1 )t 5as 7eally a g7eat 5el2ome to an un5el2ome guest1 /1 "hus those 5ho intended to s2o<< 7emained to 37ay1

'' K1 "he Buddha:s Fi7st (e7mon1 ''

D1 !<te7 ex2hange o< g7eetings the <i;e Pa7i;-7a?akas asked the Buddha 5hethe7 he still 6elie;ed in as2eti2ism1 "he Buddha 7e3lied in the negati;e1 K1 He said the7e 5e7e t5o ext7emes, a li<e o< 3leasu7e and a li<e o< sel<mo7ti<i2ation1 L1 One says let us eat and d7ink, <o7 tomo77o5 5e die1 "he othe7 says, kill all ;asanas @desi7esB 6e2ause they 67ing 7e6i7th1 He 7e?e2ted 6oth as un6e2oming to man1 .1 He 5as a 6elie;e7 in the Aadhyama Aa7ga @Aa??hima Pati3adaB, the middle 3ath, 5hi2h is neithe7 the 3ath o< 3leasu7e no7 the 3ath o< sel<mo7ti<i2ation1

DD.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> E1 8 !ns5e7 me this,8 he said to the Pa7i;7a?akas, 8 (o long as you7 sel< 7emains a2ti;e and 2ontinues to lust a<te7 eithe7 5o7ldly o7 hea;enly 3leasu7es, is not all mo7ti<i2ation ;ainM8 !nd they ans5e7ed, 8 )t is as thou sayest18 F1 8 Ho5 2an ye 6e <7ee <7om sel< 6y leading a 57et2hed li<e o< sel<mo7ti<i2ation i< ye do not the7e6y su22eed in Cuen2hing the <i7es o< lust M 8 !nd they 7e3lied, 8 )t is as thou sayest18

H1 8 Only 5hen the sel< in ye has 6een 2onCue7ed that ye a7e <7ee <7om lust J ye 5ill then not desi7e 5o7ldly 3leasu7es, and the satis<a2tion o< you7 natu7al 5ants 5ill not de<ile ye1 %et ye eat and d7ink a22o7ding to the needs o< you7 6ody1 -1 8(ensuality o< all kinds is ene7;ating1 "he sensual man is a sla;e o< his 3assion1 !ll 3leasu7e -seeking is deg7ading and ;ulga71 But ) say unto you that to satis<y the needs o< li<e is not an e;il ' to kee3 the 6ody in good health is a duty, o7 othe75ise you shall not 6e a6le to kee3 you7 mind st7ong and 2lea7 and ha;e the lam3 o< 5isdom 6u7ning1 /1 8 *no5 ye, Pa7i;7a?akas, that the7e a7e these t5o ext7emes 5hi2h man ought not to <ollo5 N the ha6itual indulgen2e on the one hand, o< those things 5hose att7a2tion de3ends u3on the 3assions, and es3e2ially o< sensuality N a lo5 and 3agan 5ay o< seeking satis<a2tion, un5o7thy, un37o<ita6le and the ha6itual 37a2ti2e the7eo<, and on the othe7 hand, o< as2eti2ism o7 sel<-mo7ti<i2ation, 5hi2h is 3ain<ul, un5o7thy and un37o<ita6le1 D01 8 "he7e is a middle 3ath 5hi2h a;oids 6oth these ext7emes1 *no5 ye, that, this is the 3ath 5hi2h ) 37ea2h18 DD1 "he <i;e Pa7i;7a?akas listened to him 5ith attention1 #ot kno5ing 5hat to say in 7e3ly to the Buddha:s middle 3ath, they asked him 5hat he 5as doing a<te7 they had le<t him1 "hen the Buddha told them ho5 he le<t <o7 Iaya, ho5 he sat in 2ontem3lation unde7 the Banyan "7ee and ho5 a<te7 <ou7 5eeks o< 2ontem3lation he o6tained enlightenment as a 7esult o< 5hi2h he 5as a6le to dis2o;e7 a ne5 3ath o< li<e1 DK1 On hea7ing this, the Pa7i;7a?akas 6e2ame ext7emely im3atient to kno5 5hat the 3ath 5as and 7eCuested the Buddha to ex3ound it to them1 DL1 "he Buddha ag7eed1 DDE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D.1 He 6egan 6y saying that his 3ath 5hi2h is his Dhamma @7eligionB had nothing to do 5ith Iod and (oul1 His Dhamma had nothing to do 5ith li<e

a<te7 death1 #o7 has his Dhamma any 2on2e7n 5ith 7ituals and 2e7emonies1 D E1 "he 2ent7e o< his Dhamma is man and the 7elation o< man to man in his li<e on ea7th1 DF1 "his he said 5as his <i7st 3ostulate1 D H1 His se2ond 3ostulate 5as that men a7e li;ing in so77o5, in mise7y and 3o;e7ty1 "he 5o7ld is <ull o< su<<e7ing and that ho5 to 7emo;e this su<<e7ing <7om the 5o7ld is the only 3u73ose o< Dhamma1 #othing else is Dhamma1 D-1 "he 7e2ognition o< the existen2e o< su<<e7ing and to sho5 the 5ay to 7emo;e su<<e7ing is the <oundation and 6asis o< his Dhamma1 D/1 "his 2an 6e the only <oundation and ?usti<i2ation <o7 Dhamma1 ! 7eligion 5hi2h <ails to 7e2ognise this is no 7eligion at all1 K01 8 Ge7ily, Pa7i;7a?akas" 5hatsoe;e7 7e2luses o7 B7ahmins @i1e1, 37ea2he7s o< 7eligionB unde7stand not, as it 7eally is, that the mise7y in the 5o7ld and the es2a3e the7e<7om, is the main 37o6lem o< Dhamma, su2h 7e2luses and B7ahmins in my o3inion a7e not to 6e 7ega7ded as 7e2luses and B7ahmins J no7 ha;e those 5o7thies 2ome to kno5 <ully o< themsel;es 5hat in this ;e7y li<e is the 7eal meaning o< Dhamma18 KD1 "he Pa7i;7a?akas then asked him ' 8)< the <oundation o< you7 Dhamma is the 7e2ognition o< the existen2e o< su<<e7ing and the 7emo;al o< su<<e7ing, tell us ho5 does you7 Dhamma 7emo;e su<<e7ing )8 KK1 "he Buddha then told them that a22o7ding to his Dhamma i< e;e7y 3e7son <ollo5ed @DB the Path o< Pu7ity J @KB the Path o< ighteousness J and @LB the Path o< Gi7tue, it 5ould 67ing a6out the end o< all su<<e7ing1 KL1 !nd he added that he had dis2o;e7ed su2h a Dhamma1

L1 "he Buddha:s Fi7st (e7mon @2ontinuedB1 "he Path o< Pu7ity1'

D1 "he Pa7i;7a?akas then asked the Buddha to ex3lain to them his Dhamma1 DDF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K1 !nd the Buddha 5as 3leased to do so1 L1 He add7essed them <i7st on the Path o< Pu7ity1 .1 8 "he Path o< Pu7ity,8 he told the Pa7i;7a?akas, 8 tea2hes that a 3e7son 5ho 5ishes to 6e good must 7e2ognise some 37in2i3les as 37in2i3les o< li<e1 E1 8 !22o7ding to my Path o< Pu7ity the 37in2i3les o< li<e 7e2ognised 6y it a7e ' #ot to in?u7e o7 kill ' #ot to steal o7 a337o37iate to onesel< anything 5hi2h 6elongs to anothe7 ' #ot to s3eak unt7uth ' #ot to indulge in lust ' #ot to indulge in intoxi2ating d7inks1 F1 8 "he 7e2ognition o< these 37in2i3les, ) say, is most essential <o7 e;e7y man1 Fo7 e;e7y man must ha;e a standa7d 6y 5hi2h to ?udge 5hate;e7 he does1 !nd these 37in2i3les a22o7ding to my tea2hings 2onstitute the standa7d1 H1 8 "he7e a7e e;e7y5he7e 3eo3le 5ho a7e 3atit @<allenB1 But the7e a7e t5o 2lasses o< the 3atit ' the 3atit 5ho has a standa7d and a 3atit 5ho has no standa7d1 -1 8 "he 3ath 5ho has no standa7d does not kno5 that he has <allen1 ConseCuently he al5ays 7emains <allen1 On the othe7 hand a 3atit 5ho has a standa7d t7ies to 7ise <7om his <allen state1 +hyM "he ans5e7 is 6e2ause he kno5s that he has <allen /1 8"his is the di<<e7en2e 6et5een ha;ing a standa7d and ha;ing no standa7d <o7 7egulating a man:s li<e1 +hat matte7s is not so mu2h the <all o< the man 6ut the a6sen2e o< any standa7d1 D01 8 &ou may ask, ye Pa7i;7a?akas ) +hy a7e these 37in2i3les 5o7thy o< 7e2ognition as a standa7d o< li<e1 D D 1 8"he ans5e7 to this Cuestion you 5ill <ind <o7 you7sel;es, i< you ask ' 8!7e these 37in2i3les good <o7 the indi;idual M 8 also i< you ask ' 8 Do they 37omote so2ial good M 8 DK1 8)< you7 ans5e7s to these Cuestions a7e in the a<<i7mati;e then it <ollo5s

that the 37in2i3les o< my Path o< Pu7ity a7e 5o7thy o< 7e2ognition as <o7ming a t7ue standa7d o< li<e18

DDH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> .1 "he Buddha:s Fi7st (e7mon @2ontinuedB 1!shtanga Aa7ga o7 the Path o< ighteousness ''

D1 "he Buddha next add7essed the Pa7i;7a?akas on the !shtangama7ga1 He said that the7e a7e eight 2onstituents in the !shtangama7ga1 K1 He 6egan his dis2ou7se 5ith the ex3osition o< (amma Ditti @ ight Gie5sB, the <i7st and <o7emost element in the !shtangma7ga, L1 8 "o 7ealise the im3o7tan2e o< (amma Ditti, 8 the Buddha said to the a7i;7a?akas' .1 8 O, ye, Pa7i;7a?akas, you must 7ealise that the 5o7ld is a dungeon and man is a 37isone7 in the dungeon1 E1 8 "his dungeon is <ull o< da7kness1 (o da7k is it that s2a72e anything at all 2an 7ightly 6e seen 6y the 37isone71 "he 37isone7 2annot see that he is a 37isone71 F1 8)ndeed, man has not only 6e2ome 6lind 6y li;ing too long in the da7kness, 6ut he ;e7y mu2h dou6ts i< any su2h st7ange thing as light is said to 6e, 2an e;e7 exist at all1 H1 8 Aind is the only inst7ument th7ough 5hi2h light 2an 2ome to man1 -1 8 But the mind o< these dungeon-d5elle7s is 6y no means a 3e7<e2t inst7ument <o7 the 3u73ose1 /1 8)t lets th7ough only a little light, ?ust enough to sho5 to those 5ith sight that the7e is su2h a thing as da7kness1 D01 8 "hus de<e2ti;e in its natu7e, su2h unde7standing as this is1 DD18 But kno5, ye, Pa7i;7a?akas! the 2ase o< the 37isone7 is not as ho3eless as it a33ea7s1

DK1 8 Fo7 the7e is in man a thing 2alled 5ill1 +hen the a337o37iate moti;es a7ise the 5ill 2an 6e a5akened and set in motion1 DL1 8+ith the 2oming o< ?ust enough light to see in 5hat di7e2tions to guide the motions o< the 5ill, man may so guide them that they shall lead to li6e7ty1 DD-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D.1 8 "hus though man is 6ound, yet he may 6e <7ee J he may at any moment 6egin to take the <i7st ste3s that 5ill ultimately 67ing him to <7eedom1 DE1 8"his is 6e2ause it is 3ossi6le to t7ain the mind in 5hate;e7 di7e2tions one 2hooses1 )t is mind that makes us to 6e 37isone7s in the house o< li<e, and it is mind that kee3s us so1 DF1 8 But 5hat mind has done, that mind 2an undo1 )< it has 67ought man to th7aldom, it 2an also, 5hen 7ightly di7e2ted, 67ing him to li6e7ty1 DH1 8"his is 5hat (amma Ditti 2an do18 D-1 8 +hat is the end o< (amma Dittil 8 asked the Pa7i;7a?akas1 8 "he end o< (amma Ditti,8 7e3lied the Buddha, 8 is the dest7u2tion o< !;i??a @#es2ien2eB1 )t is o33osed to Ai22ha Ditti1 D/1 8 !nd !;i??a means the <ailu7e to unde7stand the no6le t7uths, o< the existen2e o< su<<e7ing and the 7emo;al o< su<<e7ing1 K01 8 (amma Ditti 7eCui7es gi;ing u3 o< 6elie< in the e<<i2a2y o< 7ites and 2e7emonies, to ha;e dis6elie< in the san2tity o< the (has7as1 KD1 8 (amma Ditti 7eCui7es the a6andonment o< su3e7stition and su3e7natu7alism1 KK1 8 (amma Ditti 7eCui7es the a6andonment o< all do2t7ines 5hi2h a7e me7e s3e2ulations 5ithout any 6asis in <a2t o7 ex3e7ien2e KL1 8 (amma Ditti 7eCui7es <7ee mind and <7ee thought1

K.1 8 E;e7y man has aims, as3i7ations and am6itions1 (amma (anka33o tea2hes that su2h aims, as3i7ations and am6itions shall 6e no6le and 37aise5o7thy and not igno6le and un5o7thy1 KE1 8 (amma Ga22a @ ight (3ee2hB tea2hes' @DB that one should s3eak only that 5hi2h is t7ueJ @KB that one should not s3eak 5hat is <alse J @LB that one should not s3eak e;il o< othe7s J @.B that one should 7e<7ain <7om slande7 J @EB that one should not use ang7y and a6usi;e language to5a7ds any <ello5 manJ @FB that one should s3eak kindly and 2ou7teously to all J DD/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> @HB that one should not indulge in 3ointless, <oolish talk, 6ut let his s3ee2h 6e sensi6le and to the 3u73ose1 KF1 8 "he o6se7;an2e o< ight (3ee2h, as ) ha;e ex3lained, is not to 6e the 7esult o< <ea7 o7 <a;ou71 )t is not to ha;e the slightest 7e<e7en2e to 5hat any su3e7io7 6eing may think o< his a2tion o7 to any loss 5hi2h ight (3ee2h may in;ol;e1 KH1 8 "he no7m <o7 ight (3ee2h is not the o7de7 o< the su3e7io7 o7 the 3e7sonal 6ene<it to the indi;idual1 K-1 8 (amma *amanto tea2hes 7ight 6eha;iou71 )t tea2hes that e;e7y a2tion should 6e <ounded on 7es3e2t <o7 the <eelings and 7ights o< othe7s1 K/1 8 +hat is the no7m <o7 (amma *amanto 4:"he no7m is that 2ou7se o< 2ondu2t 5hi2h is most in ha7mony 5ith the <undamental la5s o< existen2e1 L01 8 +hen his a2tions a7e in ha7mony 5ith these la5s they may 6e taken to 6e in a22o7d 5ith (amma *amanto1 LD1 8 E;e7y indi;idual has to ea7n his li;elihood1 But the7e a7e 5ays and 5ays o< ea7ning one:s li;elihood1 (ome a7e 6ad J some a7e good1 Bad 5ays

a7e those 5hi2h 2ause in?u7y o7 in?usti2e to othe7s1 Iood 5ays a7e those 6y 5hi2h the indi;idual ea7ns his li;elihood 5ithout 2ausing in?u7y o7 in?usti2e to othe7s1 "his is (amma !?i;o1 LK1 8 (amma Gyayamo @ ight Endea;ou7B is 37ima7y endea;ou7 to 7emo;e !;i??a J to 7ea2h the doo7 that leads out o< this 3ain<ul 37ison house, to s5ing it o3en1 LL1 8 ight endea;ou7 has <ou7 3u73oses1

L.1 8 One is to 37e;ent states o< mind 5hi2h a7e in 2on<li2t 5ith the !shtangama7ga1 LE1 8 (e2ond is to su337ess su2h states o< mind 5hi2h may al7eady ha;e a7isen1 LF1 8"hi7d is to 67ing into existen2e states o< mind 5hi2h 5ill hel3 a man to <ul<il the 7eCui7ements o< the !shtangama7ga1 LH1 8 Fou7th is to 37omote the <u7the7 g7o5th and in27ease o< su2h states o< mind as al7eady may ha;e a7isen1 DK0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L-1 8 (amma (atti 2alls <o7 mind<ulness and thought<ulness1 )t means 2onstant 5ake<ulness o< the mind1 +at2h and 5a7d 6y the mind o;e7 the e;il 3assions is anothe7 name <o7 (amma (atti1 L/1 8 "he7e a7e, ye Pa7i;7a?akas, <i;e <ette7s o7 hind7an2es 5hi2h 2ome in the 5ay o< a 3e7son t7ying to a2hie;e (amma Ditti, (amma (anka33o, (amma Ga22a, (amma *amanto, (amma !?ee;o, (amma Gyayamo and (amma (atti1 .01 8"hese <i;e hind7an2es a7e 2o;etousness, ill-5ill, sloth and to73o7, dou6t and inde2ision1 )t is, the7e<o7e, ne2essa7y to o;e72ome these hind7an2es 5hi2h a7e 7eally <ette7s and the means to o;e72ome them is th7ough (amadhi1 But kno5 ye Pa7i;7a?akas, (amma (amadhi is not the same as (amadhi, )t is Cuite di<<e7ent1 .D18 (amadhi is me7e 2on2ent7ation1 #o dou6t it leads to Dhyani2 states 5hi2h a7e sel<-indu2ed, holding the <i;e hind7an2es in sus3ense1 .K1 8But these Dhyana states a7e tem3o7a7y1 ConseCuently the sus3ension o<

the hind7an2es is also tem3o7a7y1 +hat is ne2essa7y is a 3e7manent tu7n to the mind1 (u2h a 3e7manent tu7n 2an 6e a2hie;ed only 6y (amma (amadhi1 .L1 8 Ae7e (amadhi is negati;e inasmu2h as it leads to tem3o7a7y sus3ension o< the hind7an2es1 )n it the7e is no t7aining to the mind1 (amma (amadhi is 3ositi;e1 )t t7ains the mind to 2on2ent7ate and to think o< some *usala *amma @Iood Deeds and "houghtsB du7ing 2on2ent7ation and the7e6y eliminate the tenden2y o< the mind to 6e d7a5n to5a7ds !kusala *amma @Bad Deeds and Bad "houghtsB a7ising <7om the hind7an2es1 ..1 8 (amma (amadhi gi;es a ha6it to the mind to think o< good and al5ays to think o< good1 (amma (amadhi gi;es the mind the ne2essa7y moti;e 3o5e7 to do good18 '' E1 "he Buddha:s Fi7st (e7mon @2ontinuedB1 "he Path o< Gi7tue'1

D1 "he Buddha then ex3lained to the Pa7i;-7a?akas the Path o< Gi7tue1 K1 He told them that the 3ath o< ;i7tue meant the o6se7;an2e o< the ;i7tues 2alled ' @DB (ilaJ @KB DanaJ m

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> @LB $33ekhaJ @.B #ekkhamaJ @EB Gi7yaJ @FB *hantiJ @HB (u22aJ @-B !dhithana J @/B *a7una J and @+BAaith L1 "he Pa7i;7a?akas asked the Buddha to tell them 5hat these ;i7tues meant1

.1 "he Buddha then 37o2eeded to satis<y thei7 desi7e1 E1 8 (ila is mo7al tem3e7ament, the dis3osition not to do e;il and the dis3osition to do good J to 6e ashamed o< doing 57ong1 "o a;oid to do e;il <o7 <ea7 o< 3unishment is (ila, (ila means <ea7 o< doing 57ong1 F1 8 #ekkhama is 7enun2iation o< the 3leasu7es o< the 5o7ld1 H1 8 Dana means the gi;ing o< one:s 3ossessions, 6lood and lim6s and e;en one:s li<e, <o7 the good o< othe7s 5ithout ex3e2ting anything in 7etu7n1 -1 8 Gi7ya is 7ight endea;ou71 )t is doing 5ith all you7 might 5hate;e7 you ha;e unde7taken to do 5ith ne;e7 a thought o< tu7ning 6a2k, 5hate;e7 you ha;e unde7taken to do1 /1 8 *hanti is <o76ea7an2e1 #ot to meet hat7ed 6y hat7ed is the essen2e o< it1 Fo7 hat7ed is not a33eased 6y hat7ed1 )t is a33eased only 6y <o76ea7an2e1 D01 8 (u22a is t7uth1 ! 3e7son must ne;e7 tell a lie1 His s3ee2h must 6e t7uth and nothing 6ut t7uth1 DD18 !dhithana is 7esolute dete7mination to 7ea2h the goal1 DK1 8 *a7una is lo;ing kindness to human 6eings1 DL18 Aait7i is extending <ello5 <eeling to all 6eings, not only to one 5ho is a <7iend 6ut also to one 5ho is a <oe ' not only to man 6ut to all li;ing 6eings1 D.1 8 $3ekka is deta2hment as distinguished <7om indi<<e7en2e1 )t is a state o< mind 5he7e the7e is neithe7 like no7 dislike1 emaining unmo;ed 6y the 7esult and yet engaged in the 3u7suit o< it1

DKK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D E1 8"hese ;i7tues one must 37a2ti2e to his utmost 2a3a2ity1 "hat is 5hy they a7e 2alled Pa7amitas @(tates o< Pe7<e2tionB 1

'' F1 "he Buddha:s Fi7st (e7mon @2on2ludedB1 ''

D1 Ha;ing ex3lained His Dhamma and 5hat it in;ol;ed, the Buddha then asked the Pa7i;7a?akas' K1 8)s not 3e7sonal 3u7ity the <oundation o< good in the 5o7ldM8 !nd they ans5e7ed, 8)t is as thou sayest18 L1 !nd he 2ontinued ' 8 )s not 3e7sonal 3u7ity unde7mined 6y 2o;etousness, 3assion, igno7an2e, the dest7u2tion o< li<e, the<t, adulte7y and lyingM )s it not ne2essa7y <o7 3e7sonal 3u7ity to 6uild u3 su<<i2ient st7ength o< 2ha7a2te7 so that these e;ils should 6e ke3t unde7 2ont7ol M Ho5 2an a man 6e the inst7ument o< good i< he has no 3e7sonal 3u7ity in him M 8 !nd they 7e3lied, 8 )t is as thou sayest18 .1 8 !gain 5hy do men not mind ensla;ing o7 dominating othe7s M +hy do men not mind making the li;es o< othe7s unha33y M )s it not 6e2ause men a7e not 7ighteous in thei7 2ondu2t to5a7ds one anothe7M8 !nd they ans5e7ed in the a<<i7mati;e1 E1 8 +ill not the 37a2ti2e o< the !shtanga Aa7ga, the 3ath o< 7ight ;ie5s, 7ight aims, 7ight s3ee2h, 7ight li;elihood, 7ight means, 7ight mind<ulness, 7ight 3e7se;e7an2e, and 7ight 2ontem3lation, in sho7t, the Path o< ighteousness, i< <ollo5ed 6y e;e7y one, 7emo;e all in?usti2e and inhumanity that man does to manM8 !nd they said, 8&es18 F1 "u7ning to the 3ath o< ;i7tue, he asked, 8)s not Dana ne2essa7y to 7emo;e the su<<e7ing o< the needy and the 3oo7 and to 37omote gene7al goodM )s not *a7una ne2essa7y to 6e d7a5n to the 7elie< o< 3o;e7ty and su<<e7ing 5he7e;e7 it existsM )s not #ekkamma ne2essa7y to sel<less 5o7kM )s not $33ekka ne2essa7y <o7 sustained endea;ou7 e;en though the7e is no 3e7sonal gainM H1 8)s not lo;e <o7 man ne2essa7yM8 !nd they said 8 &es18

DKL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

-1 8) go <u7the7 and say, 8%o;e is not enough J 5hat is 7eCui7ed is Aait7i18 )t is 5ide7 than lo;e1 )t means <ello5shi3 not me7ely 5ith human 6eings 6ut 5ith all li;ing 6eings1 )t is not 2on<ined to human 6eings1 )s not su2h Aait7i ne2essa7yM +hat else 2an gi;e to all li;ing 6eings the same ha33iness 5hi2h one seeks <o7 one:s o5n sel<, to kee3 the mind im3a7tial, o3en to all, 5ith a<<e2tion <o7 e;e7y one and hat7ed <o7 none M 8 /1 "hey all said 8&es18 D01 8 "he 37a2ti2e o< these ;i7tues must, ho5e;e7, 6e a22om3anied 6y P7a?na, i1e1, intelligen2e1 DD1 8)s not P7a?na ne2essa7yM8 "he Pa7i;-7a?akas ga;e no ans5e71 "o <o72e them to ans5e7 his Cuestion the Buddha 5ent on to say that the Cualities o< a good man a7e ' 8do no e;il, think nothing that is e;il, get his li;elihood in no e;il 5ay and say nothing, that is e;il o7 is likely to hu7t anyone18 !nd they said, 8 &es, so it is18 DK1 8But is doing good deeds 6lindly to 6e 5el2omedM8 asked the Buddha 8) say, :no1: "his is not enough,8 said the Buddha to the Pa7i;- 7a?akas1 8 )< it 5as enough,8 said the Buddha to the Pa7i;7a?akas, 8 then a tiny 6a6e 2ould 6e 37o2laimed to 6e al5ays doing good1 Fo7 as yet, the 6a6e does not kno5 5hat a 6ody means, mu2h less 5ill it do e;il 5ith its 6ody 6eyond ki2king a6out ' it does not kno5 5hat s3ee2h is, mu2h less 5ill it say anything e;il 6eyond 27ying J it does not kno5 5hat thought is, 6eyond 27ying 5ith delight J it does not kno5 5hat li;elihood is, mu2h less 5ill it get its li;ing in an e;il 5ay, 6eyond su2king its mothe71 DL1 8 "he Path o< Gi7tue must, the7e<o7e, 6e su6?e2t to test o< P7a?na 5hi2h is anothe7 name <o7 unde7standing and intelligen2e1 D.1 8"he7e is also anothe7 7eason 5hy P7a?na-3a7amita is so im3o7tant and so ne2essa7y1 "he7e must 6e Dana1 But 5ithout P7a?na, Dana may ha;e a demo7aliOing e<<e2t1 "he7e must 6e *a7una1 But 5ithout P7a?na, *a7una may end in su33o7ting e;il1 E;e7y a2t o< Pa7amita must 6e tested 6y P7a?na Pa7amita 5hi2h is anothe7 name <o7 5isdom1 DE1 8 ) 37emise that the7e must 6e kno5ledge and 2ons2iousness o< 5hat

57ong 2ondu2t is, ho5 it a7ises J simila7ly, the7e must also 6e kno5ledge and 2ons2iousness o< 5hat is 7ight 2ondu2t and 57ong 2ondu2t1 +ithout

DK.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> su2h kno5ledge the7e 2annot 6e 7eal goodness though the a2t may 6e good1 "hat is 5hy ) say P7a?na is a ne2essa7y ;i7tue18 DF1 "he Buddha then 2on2luded his se7mon 6y add7essing the <ollo5ing admonition to the Pa7i;7a?akas1 DH1 8 &ou a7e likely to 2all my Dhamma 3essimisti2 6e2ause it 2alls the attention o< mankind to the existen2e o< su<<e7ing1 ) tell you su2h a ;ie5 o< my Dhamma 5ould 6e 57ong1 D-1 8 #o dou6t my Dhamma 7e2ognises the existen2e o< su<<e7ing 6ut <o7get not that it also lays eCual st7ess on the 7emo;al o< su<<e7ing1 D/1 8 Ay Dhamma has in it 6oth ho3e and 3u73ose1 K01 8 )ts 3u73ose is to 7emo;e !;i??a, 6y 5hi2h ) mean igno7an2e o< the existen2e o< su<<e7ing1 KD1 8"he7e is ho3e in it 6e2ause it sho5s the 5ay to 3ut an end to human su<<e7ing1 KK1 8 Do you ag7ee 5ith this o7 not M 8 !nd the Pa7i;7a?akas said , 8&es, 5e do18

'' H1 "he

es3onse o< the Pa7i;7a?akas1 ''

D1 "he <i;e Pa7i;7a?akas at on2e 7ealised that this 5as 7eally a ne5 Dhamma1 "hey 5e7e so st7u2k 6y this ne5 a337oa2h to the 37o6lems o< li<e that they 5e7e unanimous in saying ' 8 #e;e7 in the histo7y o< the 5o7ld has any <ounde7 o< 7eligion taught that the 7e2ognition o< human su<<e7ing 5as the 7eal 6asis o< 7eligion1

K1 8 #e;e7 in the histo7y o< the 5o7ld has any <ounde7 o< 7eligion taught that the 7emo;al o< this mise7y is the 7eal 3u73ose o< it ) L1 8 #e;e7 in the histo7y o< the 5o7ld had a s2heme o< sal;ation 6een 3ut <o7th, so sim3le in its natu7e, so <7ee <7om su3e7natu7al and su3e7human agen2y, so inde3endent o<, e;en so antagonisti2 to, the 6elie< in a soul, to the 6elie< in Iod and to the 6elie< in li<e a<te7 death!

DKE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> .1 8 #e;e7 in the histo7y o< the 5o7ld had a s2heme o< 7eligion 6een 3ut <o7th 5hi2h had nothing to do 5ith 7e;elation and 5hose 2ommands a7e 6o7n o< the examination o< the so2ial needs o< man and 5hi2h a7e not the o7de7s o< a Iod! E1 8#e;e7 in the histo7y o< the 5o7ld has sal;ation 6een 2on2ei;ed as the 6lessing o< ha33iness to 6e attained 6y man in this li<e and on this ea7th 6y 7ighteousness 6o7n out o< his o5n e<<o7ts ) 8 F1 "hese 5e7e the sentiments 5hi2h the Pa7i;-7a?akas utte7ed a<te7 they ad hea7d the Buddha:s (e7mon on his ne5 Dhamma1 H1 "hey <elt that in him they had <ound a 7e<o7me7, <ull o< the most ea7nest mo7al 3u73ose and t7ained in all the intelle2tual 2ultu7e o< his time, 5ho had the o7iginality and the 2ou7age to 3ut <o7th deli6e7ately and 5ith a kno5ledge o< o33osing ;ie5s, the do2t7ine o< a sal;ation to 6e <ound he7e, in this li<e, in in5a7d 2hange o< hea7t to 6e 67ought a6out 6y the 37a2ti2e o< sel<-2ultu7e and sel<-2ont7ol1 -1 "hei7 7e;e7en2e <o7 him 6e2ame so un6ounded that they at on2e su77ende7ed to him and 7eCuested him to a22e3t them as his dis2i3les1 /1 "he Buddha admitted them into his o7de7 6y utte7ing the <o7mula 8 Ehi Bhikka;e 8 @2ome in BhikkusB1 "hey 5e7e kno5n as the Pan2ha;a7giya Bhikkus1

DKF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

@/ @/

Fa7t ))) N Con;e7sion o< the High and the Holy1

D 1 Con;e7sion o< &ashas1

K1 Con;e7sion o< the *assya3as1

L1 Con;e7sion o< (a7i3utta and Aoggallana1

.1 Con;e7sion o< Bim6isa7a1

E1 Con;e7sion o< !natha3indika1

F1 Con;e7sion o< Pasen?it1

H1 Con;e7sion o< "ee;aka1

-1 Con;e7sion o<

attha3ala1

'' D1 Con;e7sion o< &ashas1 ''

D1 "he7e li;ed in the to5n o< Bena7es a no6leman:s son 2alled &ashas1 He 5as young in yea7s and ;e7y att7a2ti;e in a33ea7an2e1 He 5as 6elo;ed o< his 3a7ents1 He li;ed in a6ounding 5ealth1 He had a 6ig 7etinue and a la7ge ha7em and 3assed his time in nothing 6ut dan2ing, d7inking and 2a7nal 3leasu7es1 K1 !s time 3ast, a <eeling o< disgust 2ame o;e7 him1 Ho5 2ould he es2a3e <7om this o7gyM +as the7e any 6ette7 5ay o< li<e than the 5ay he 5as leading M #ot kno5ing 5hat to do, he de2ided to lea;e his <athe7:s house1 L1 One night he le<t his <athe7:s house and 5as 5ande7ing a6outJ He ha33ened to 5end his 5ay to5a7ds )si3athana1 .1 Feeling ti7ed he sat do5n and as he 5as seated he said to himsel< in loud tones' : +he7e am ), 5hat is the 5ay M !las! +hat dist7essJ alasl +hat dange7! : E1 "his ha33ened on the night o< the same day on 5hi2h the Blessed One 37ea2hed his <i7st se7mon to the Pan2ha;a7giya Bhikkus at )si3athana1 Pust 5hen &ashas 5as a337oa2hing )si3athana, the Blessed One 5ho 5as staying at )si3athana, ha;ing a7isen at da5n, 5as 5alking u3 and do5n in the o3en, ai71 !nd the Blessed One sa5 &ashas, the no6le youth 2oming <7om a<te7 gi;ing utte7an2e to his <eelings1

DKH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> F1 !nd the Blessed One ha;ing hea7d his 27y o< dist7ess, said' 8 "he7e is no dist7ess, the7e is no dange71 Come, ) 5ill sho5 you the 5ay, 8 and the Blessed %o7d 37ea2hed his gos3el to &ashas1 H1 !nd &ashas, 5hen he hea7d it, 6e2ame glad and ?oy<ulJ and he 3ut o<< his gilt sli33e7s, and 5ent and sat do5n nea7 the Blessed One and 7es3e2tedly saluted him1 -1 &ashas hea7ing the Buddha:s 5o7ds, 7eCuested the Blessed One to take him as his dis2i3le1 /1 "hen he 6ade him 2ome and asked him to 6e a Bhikku to 5hi2h &ashas

ag7eed1 D01 "he 3a7ents o< &ashas 5e7e in g7eat dist7ess on <inding that thei7 son had disa33ea7ed1 "he <athe7 sta7ted in sea72h1 &ashas:s <athe7 3assed 6y the same s3ot 5he7e the %o7d and &ashas in the Bhikku:s ga76 5e7e seated, and in 3assing, he asked the Blessed One' 8 P7ay, ha;e you seen &ashas, my son M 8 DD1 "he %o7d 7e3lied ' 8 Come in1 (i7, you 5ill <ind you7 son18 He 5ent in and sat nea7 his son 6ut he kne5 him not1 DK1 "he %o7d ex3lained to him ho5 &ashas met him and ho5 on hea7ing him he 6e2ame a Bhikku1 "he <athe7 then 7e2ognised his son and 5as ha33y his son had 2hosen the 7ight 3ath1 DL1 8 Ay son, &ashas,8 said the <athe7, 8 you7 mothe7 is a6so76ed in lamentations and g7ie<1 etu7n home and 7esto7e you7 mothe7 to li<e18 D.1 "hen &ashas looked at the Blessed One, and the Blessed One said to &ashas:s <athe7, 8)s that you7 5ish that &ashas should 7etu7n to the 5o7ld and en?oy the 3leasu7es o< a 5o7ldly li<e as he did 6e<o7e M 8 DE1 !nd &asha:s <athe7 7e3lied ' 8 )< &ashas, my son, <inds it a gain to stay 5ith you, let him stay18 &ashas 37e<e77ed to 7emain a Bhikku1 DF1 Be<o7e de3a7ting &ashas:s <athe7 said' 8 Aay the Blessed One, %o7d, 2onsent to take his meal at my home 5ith the mem6e7s o< my <amily18 D H1 "he Blessed One, ha;ing donned his 7o6es, took his alms 6o5l and 5ent 5ith &ashas to the house o< his <athe71

DK-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D-1 +hen they a77i;ed the7e, they met the mothe7 and also the <o7me7 5i<e o< &ashas1 !<te7 the meal the Blessed One 37ea2hed to the mem6e7s o< the <amily his do2t7ine1 "hey 6e2ame ;e7y ha33y and 37omised to take 7e<uge in it1

D/1 #o5 the7e 5e7e <ou7 <7iends o< &ashas 6elonging to the 5ealthy <amily o< Bena7es1 "hei7 names 5e7e Gimala, (u6ahu, Punya?it and Ia;am3ati1 K01 +hen &ashas:s <7iends lea7ned that &ashas had taken 7e<uge in the Buddha and his Dhamma they <elt that 5hat is good <o7 &ashas must 6e good <o7 them1 K D 1 (o they 5ent to &ashas and asked him to a337oa2h the Buddha on thei7 6ehal< to 7e2ei;e them as his dis2i3les1 KK1 &ashas ag7eed and he 5ent to the Buddha, saying' 8 Aay the Blessed One 37ea2h the Dhamma to these <ou7 <7iends o< mine18 "he %o7d ag7eed and &ashas:s <7iends took 7e<uge in the Dhamma1 '' K1 Con;e7sion o< the *assya3as1 ''

D 1 "he7e li;ed in Bena7as a <amily kno5n as the *assya3a <amily1 "he7e 5e7e th7ee sons in the <amily1 "hey 5e7e ;e7y highly edu2ated and 2a77ied on a 7igo7ous 7eligious li<e1 K1 !<te7 some time the eldest son thought o< taking u3 (annyasa1 !22o7dingly he le<t his home, took (annyasa and 5ent in the di7e2tion o< $7u;ella 5he7e he esta6lished his !sh7am1 L1 His t5o younge7 67othe7s <ollo5ed him and they too 6e2ame (annyasis1 .1 "hey 5e7e all !gnihot7is o7 5o7shi33e7s o< <i7e1 "hey 5e7e 2alled Patilas 6e2ause they ke3t long hai71 E1 "he th7ee 67othe7s 5e7e kno5n as $7u;ella *assya3a, #adi *assya3a @*assya3a o< the i;e7, i1e1, the #i7an?anaB, and Iaya *assya3a @o< the ;illage IayaB 1 F1 O< these the $7u;ella *assya3a had a <ollo5ing o< <i;e hund7ed Patilas J #adi *assya3a had th7ee hund7ed Patilas as his dis2i3les and Iaya *assya3a had t5o hund7ed Patilas1 O< these the 2hie< 5as $7u;ella *assya3a1

DK/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> H1 "he <ame o< $7u;ella *assya3a had s37ead <a7 and 5ide1 He 5as kno5n

to ha;e o6tained Aukti @(al;ationB 5hile ali;e1 Peo3le <7om <a7-a5ay 3la2es 2ame to his !sh7am 5hi2h 5as lo2ated on the 6anks o< the 7i;e7 Falgu1 -1 "he Blessed %o7d ha;ing 2ome to kno5 o< the name and <ame o< $7u;ella *assya3a, thought o< 37ea2hing his gos3el to him and i< 3ossi6le to 2on;e7t him to his Dhamma1 /1 Ha;ing 2ome to kno5 o< his 5he7ea6outs the Blessed %o7d 5ent to $7u;ella1 D01 "he Blessed One met him and 5anting to ha;e an o33o7tunity to inst7u2t him and 2on;e7t him, said' 8)< it is not disag7eea6le to you, *assya3a, let me d5ell one night in you7 !sh7am18 DD1 8) am not ag7eea6le to this,8 said *assya3a1 8"he7e is a sa;age #aga king 2alled Au2halinda 5ho 7ules o;e7 this 3la2e1 He is 3ossessed o< d7ead<ul 3o5e7s1 He is the deadly enemy o< all as2eti2s 3e7<o7ming <i7e 5o7shi31 He 3ays no2tu7nal ;isits to thei7 !sh7ams and does them g7eat ha7m1 ) <ea7 he may do you the same ha7m as he does to me18 DK1 *assya3a did not kno5 that the #agas had 6e2ome the <7iends and <ollo5e7s o< the Blessed One1 But the Blessed One kne5 it1 DL1 (o the Blessed One 37essed <o7 his 7eCuest, saying ' 8 He is not likely to do any ha7m to me ' 37ay, *assya3a, allo5 me a 3la2e in you7 <i7e 7oom, <o7 one night18 D.1 *assya3a 2ontinued to 7aise many di<<i2ulties and the Blessed One 2ontinued to 37ess his 7eCuest1 D E1 "hen *assya3a said ' 8 Ay mind desi7es no 2ont7o;e7sy, only ) ha;e my <ea7s and a337ehensions, 6ut <ollo5 you7 o5n good 3leasu7e18 DF1 "he Blessed %o7d <o7th5ith ste33ed into the <i7e g7o;e and took his seat1 DH1 "he #aga king Au2halinda 2ame into the 7oom at his usual time1 But instead o< <inding *assya3a he <ound the Blessed One seated in his 3la2e1 D-1 Au2halinda, seeing the %o7d seated, his <a2e glo5ing 5ith 3ea2e and se7enity, <elt as though he 5as in the 37esen2e o< a g7eat di;inity, and 6ending his head, 6egan to 5o7shi31

DL0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D/1 "hat night *assya3a:s slee3 5as ;e7y mu2h distu76ed 6y the thought o< 5hat might ha;e ha33ened to his guest1 (o he got u3 5ith g7eat misgi;ings <ea7ing that his guest might ha;e 6een 6u7nt u31 K01 "hen *assya3a and his <ollo5e7s at mo7ning light 2ame one and all to ha;e a look1 Fa7 <7om the %o7d in?u7ed 6y Au2halinda, they <ound Au2halinda 5o7shi33ing the %o7d1 KD1 Beholding the s2ene, *assya3a <elt that he 5as 5itnessing a g7eat mi7a2le1 KK1 (t7u2k 6y this mi7a2le *assya3a 7eCuested the Blessed %o7d to stay nea7 him and make an !sh7am, and,37omised to look a<te7 him1 KL1 "he Blessed %o7d ag7eed to stay on1 K.1 "he t5o, ho5e;e7, had di<<e7ent moti;es1 *assya3a:s moti;e 5as to o6tain 37ote2tion against Au2halinda #aga1 "he Blessed %o7d thought that one day *assya3a 5ill gi;e him o33o7tunity to 37o3ound his gos3el1 KE1 But *assya3a sho5ed no su2h in2lination1 He thought that the Blessed %o7d 5as only a mi7a2le make7 and nothing mo7e1 KF1 One day the Blessed %o7d thought o< himsel< taking the initiati;e and asked *assya3a, 8!7e you an !7hantM KH1 8 )< you a7e not an !7hant, 5hat good is this !gnihot7a going to do to you M 8 K-1 *assya3a said' 8) do not kno5 5hat is to 6e an !7hant M +ill you ex3lain it to me M 8 K/1 "he %o7d then told *assya3a, 8 !n !7hant is one 5ho has 2onCue7ed all the 3assions 5hi2h distu76 a man <7om 3u7suing the eight -<old Path1 !gnihot7a 2annot 2leanse a man o< his sins18 L01 *assya3a 5as a 37oud 3e7son1 But he did <eel the <o72e o< the Blessed %o7d:s a7gument1 Aaking his mind 3liant and yielding, until at length

37e3a7ed to 6e a ;ehi2le o< the t7ue la5, he 2on<essed that his 3oo7 5isdom 2ould not 2om3a7e 5ith the 5isdom o< the 5o7ld-honou7ed One1 LD1 !nd so, 2on;in2ed at last, hum6ly su6mitting, $7u;ella *assya3a a22e3ted the do2t7ine o< the %o7d and 6e2ame his <ollo5e71 DLD

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> LK1 Follo5ing thei7 maste7, the <ollo5e7s o< *assya3a, ;i7tuously su6missi;e, in tu7n 7e2ei;ed the tea2hing o< the la51 *assya3a and all his <ollo5e7s 5e7e thus enti7ely 2on;e7ted1 LL1 $7u;ella *assya3a, then, li<ting his goods and all his sa27i<i2ial ;essels, th7e5 them togethe7 into the 7i;e7, 5hi2h <loated do5n u3on the su7<a2e o< the 2u77ent1 L.1 #adi and Iaya, 5ho d5elt do5n the st7eam, seeing these a7ti2les o< 2lothing @and the 7estB <loating along the st7eam diso7de7ly, said, 8"hese a7e the 6elongings o< ou7 67othe7 J 5hy has he th7o5n them a5ay M (ome g7eat 2hange has ha33ened,8 and 5e7e dee3ly 3ained and 7estless1 "he t5o, ea2h 5ith <i;e hund7ed <ollo5e7s, 5ent u3 the st7eam to seek thei7 67othe71 LE1 On seeing him and all his <ollo5e7s no5 d7essed as he7mits, st7ange thoughts engaged thei7 minds and they inCui7ed into the 7easons1 $7u;ella *assya3a told them the sto7y o< his 2on;e7sion to the Buddha:s Dhamma1 LF1 8 Ou7 67othe7 ha;ing su6mitted thus, 5e too should also <ollo5 him,8 they said1 LH1 "hey 2on;eyed thei7 5ishes to thei7 eldest 67othe71 "hen the t5o 67othe7s, 5ith all thei7 6and o< <ollo5e7s, 5e7e 67ought to hea7 the %o7d:s dis2ou7se on the 2om3a7ison o< a <i7e sa27i<i2e 5ith his o5n gos3el1 L-1 )n his dis2ou7se to the t5o 67othe7s the Blessed %o7d said ' 8 "he da7k smoke o< igno7an2e a7ises, 5hilst 2on<used thoughts, like 5ood d7illed into 5ood, 27eate the <i7e1 L/1 8 %ust, ange7, delusion, these a7e as <i7e 37odu2ed, and these en<lame and 6u7n all othe7 things 5hi2h 2ause g7ie< and so77o5 in the 5o7ld1

.01 8 )< on2e this 5ay is <ound and lust, ange7 and delusion 2onsumed, then 5ith it is 6o7n sight, kno5ledge and 3u7e 2ondu2t1 .D1 8(o 5hen the hea7t o< a man has on2e 2on2ei;ed distaste <o7 sin, this distaste 7emo;es 2o;etous desi7e, 2o;etous desi7e extinguished, the7e is 7e2luse18 .K1 "he g7eat ishis listening to him, lost all 7ega7d <o7 <i7e 5o7shi3 and 5ished to 6e the dis2i3les o< the Buddha1 .L1 "he 2on;e7sion o< the *assya3as 5as a g7eat t7ium3h <o7 the Blessed %o7d1 Fo7 they had a ;e7y st7ong hold on the imagination o< the 3eo3le1 DLK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L1 Con;e7sion o< (a7i3utta and Aoggallana1 ''

D1 +hile the Blessed %o7d 5as in a?ag7aha the7e 7esided a 5ell-kno5n 3e7son 6y name (an?aya 5ith a g7eat 7etinue o< Pa7i;7a?akas num6e7ing a6out t5o hund7ed and <i<ty as his dis2i3les1 K1 !mong his dis2i3les 5e7e (a7i3utta and Aoggallana N t5o young B7ahmins1 L1 (a7i3utta and Aoggallana 5e7e not satis<ied 5ith the tea2hings o< (an?aya and 5e7e in sea72h o< something 6ette71 .1 #o5 one day the ;ene7a6le !ssa?i, one o< the Pan2h;a7giya Bhikkus, in the <o7enoon, ha;ing 3ut on his unde7-7o6es, and ha;ing taken his alms 6o5l and oute7 7o6e, ente7ed the 2ity o< a?ag7aha <o7 alms1 E1 (a7i3utta 5as o6se7;ing the digni<ied de3o7tment o< !ssa?i and 5as st7u2k 6y it1 On seeing the ;ene7a6le !ssa?i, (a7i3utta thought, 8)ndeed this 3e7son is one o< those monks 5ho a7e the 5o7thy ones in the 5o7ld1 +hat i< ) 5e7e to a337oa2h this monk and to ask him ' :)n 5hose name, <7iend, ha;e you 7eti7ed <7om the 5o7ldM +ho is you7 tea2he7M +hose Dhamma do you 37o<ess M: 8 F1 #o5 (a7i3utta thought ' 8 "his is not the time to ask this monk J he has

ente7ed the inne7 ya7d o< a house <o7 alms1 +hat i< ) 5e7e to <ollo5 this monk ste3 6y ste3, a22o7ding to the 2ou7se 7e2ognised 6y those 5ho 5ant something M 8 H1 !nd the ;ene7a6le !ssa?i, ha;ing <inished his alms 3ilg7image th7ough a?ag7aha, 5ent 6a2k 5ith the <ood he had 7e2ei;ed1 "hen (a7i3utta 5ent to the 3la2e 5he7e the ;ene7a6le !ssa?i 5as J ha;ing a337oa2hed him, he ex2hanged g7eetings and 5ith 2om3laisant 5o7ds, he stood at his side1 -1 (tanding at his side the 5ande7ing as2eti2 (a7i3utta said to the ;ene7a6le !ssa?i' 8 &ou7 2ountenan2e, <7iend, is se7eneJ you7 2om3lexion is 3u7e and 67ight1 )n 5hose name, <7iend, ha;e you 7eti7ed <7om the 5o7ldM +ho is you7 tea2he7M +hose Dhamma do you 37o<ess M 8 /1 !ssa?i 7e3lied ' 8 "he7e is, <7iend, the g7eat 7e2luse o< the (akya:s 2lan J in this Blessed One:s name, ha;e ) 7eti7ed <7om the 5o7ld J this Blessed One is my tea2he7, and it is the Dhamma o< this Blessed One that ) <ollo518 DLL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D01 8!nd 5hat, ;ene7a6le (i7, is the do2t7ine 5hi2h you7 tea2he7 holds M !nd 5hat does he 37ea2h to youM8 DD1 8) am only a young dis2i3le, <7iend J ) ha;e 6ut 7e2ently 7e2ei;ed o7dination J and ) ha;e ne5ly ado3ted this Dhamma and dis2i3line1 ) 2annot ex3lain to you the Dhamma in detail J 6ut ) 5ill tell you in sho7t 5hat it means18 DK1 "hen (a7i3utta, the 5ande7ing as2eti2, said to the ;ene7a6le !ssa?i ' 8 (o 6e it, <7iend, tell me as mu2h o7 as little as you like, 6ut tell me the meaning, ) 5ant ?ust meaning1 +hy make so mu2h o< the lette7M8 DL1 "hen the ;ene7a6le !ssa?i ex3lained to (a7i3utta the su6stan2e o< the tea2hings o< the Buddha and (a7i3utta 5as 2om3letely satis<ied1 D.1 (a7i3utta and Aoggallana, though not 67othe7s, 5e7e 6ound togethe7 as hough they 5e7e 67othe7s1 "hey had gi;en thei7 5o7d to ea2h othe71 He 5ho

<i7st attains the t7uth shall tell the same to the othe7 one1 "hat 5as thei7 mutual engagement1 DE1 !22o7dingly (a7i3utta 5ent to the 3la2e 5he7e Aoggallana 5as1 (eeing him, he said to (a7i3utta ' 8 &ou7 2ountenan2e, <7iend, is se7ene J you7 2om3lexion is 3u7e and 67ight1 Ha;e you then 7eally 7ea2hed the t7uth M 8 DF1 8 &es, <7iend, ) ha;e 2ome to kno5 the t7uth18 8 !nd ho5, <7iend, ha;e you done so M 8 "hen (a7i3utta told him 5hat ha33ened 6et5een him and !ssa?i1 DH1 "hen Aoggallana said to (a7i3utta, 8 %et us go, <7iend, and ?oin the Blessed One J that he, the Blessed One, may 6e ou7 tea2he718 D-1 (a7i3utta 7e3lied ' 8 )t is on ou7 a22ount, <7iend, that these t5o hund7ed and <i<ty 5ande7ing Pa7i;7a?akas li;e he7e, and it is 5e 5hom they 7ega7d J let us <i7st tell them 6e<o7e taking lea;e o< them J they 5ill do 5hat they think <it18 D/1 "hen (a7i3utta and Aoggallana 5ent to the 3la2e 5he7e they 5e7e J ha;ing a337oa2hed them they said to them, 8 F7iends, 5e a7e going to ?oin the Blessed One J he, the Blessed One, is ou7 tea2he718 K01 "hey 7e3lied ' 8)t is on you7 a22ount1 (i7s, that 5e li;e he7e, and it is you 5hom 5e 7ega7d J i< you1 (i7s, 5ill lead the holy li<e unde7 the g7eat (amana, 5e all 5ill do the same18

DL.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KD1 "hen (a7i3utta and Aoggallana 5ent to the 3la2e 5he7e (an?aya 5as J ha;ing a337oa2hed him, they said ' 8 F7iend, 5e go to ?oin the Blessed One J he, the Blessed One, is ou7 tea2he718 KK1 (an?aya 7e3lied ' 8#ay, <7iends, do not go J 5e 5ill all th7ee look a<te7 this 2om3any18 KL1 !nd a se2ond and thi7d time (a7i3utta and Aoggallana said this and (an?aya ans5e7ed as 6e<o7e1

K.1 "hen (a7i3utta and Aoggallana took 5ith them t5o hund7ed and <i<ty 5ande7ing as2eti2s and 5ent to the Gelu;ana in a?ag7aha 5he7e the Blessed One 5as staying1 KE1 !nd the Blessed One sa5 them N (a7i3utta and Aoggallana, 2oming <7om a<a7 ' on seeing them he thus add7essed the monks' 8"he7e, monks, a77i;e t5o 2om3anions,8 3ointing to5a7ds (a7i3utta and Aoggallana, 8these 5ill 6e my 2hie< 3ai7 o< dis2i3les, and aus3i2ious 3ai718 KF1 +hen they had a77i;ed at the 6am6oo g7o;e, they 5ent to the 3la2e 5he7e the Blessed One 5as J ha;ing a337oa2hed him, they 37ost7ated themsel;es, 5ith thei7 heads at the <eet o< the Blessed One, and said to the Blessed One ' 8 %o7d, let us 7e2ei;e o7dination <7om the Blessed One18 KH1 "he Blessed One then utte7ed the usual <o7mula indi2ating dmission, 8 Ehi Bhikku 8 @Come AonksB, and (a7i3utta and Aoggallana and the t5o hund7ed Patilas 6e2ame the dis2i3les o< the Buddha18 '' .1 Con;e7sion o< Bim6isa7a1 ''

D1

a?ag7aha 5as the 2a3ital o< (eniya Bim6isa7aJ *ing o< Aagadha1

K1 Ha;ing hea7d o< the 2on;e7sions o< this la7ge num6e7 o< Patilas, e;e7yone in the 2ity had 6egun to talk a6out the Blessed One1 L1 "hus *ing Bim6isa7a 2ame to kno5 o< his a77i;al in the 2ity1 .1 8"o ha;e 2on;e7ted the most o7thodox and the most o6stinate Patilas 5as no mean task18 8 "7uly so,8 said *ing Bim6isa7a to himsel<, 8 he must 6e the Blessed, holy, a6solute Buddha, 37o<i2ient in kno5ledge and 2ondu2t, the 5ay9<a7e7, 5ho unde7stands the 5o7ld, the highest one, 5ho guides men, DLE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> the tea2he7 o< gods and men1 He must 6e tea2hing the t7uth, 5hi2h he unde7stood himsel<1 E1 8He must 6e 37ea2hing that Dhamma 5hi2h is lo;ely in the 6eginning, lo;ely in the middle, lo;ely at the end, in the s3i7it and in the lette7 J he must 6e 37o2laiming the 2onsummate 3e7<e2t, 3u7e and holy li<e1 )t is good to

o6tain the sight o< a man like him18 F1 (o *ing Bim6isa7a, su77ounded 6y t5el;e my7iads o< Aagadha B7ahmins and householde7s, 5ent to the 3la2e 5he7e the Blessed One 5as1 Ha;ing a337oa2hed him and 7es3e2t<ully saluted the Blessed One, he sat do5n nea7 him1 !nd o< those t5el;e my7iads o< Aagadha B7ahmins and householde7s, some also 7es3e2t<ully saluted the Blessed One and sat do5n nea7 him J some ex2hanged g7eetings 5ith the Blessed One, and ha;ing done so they sat do5n nea7 him 5ith 2om3laisant 5o7ds J some 6ent thei7 2las3ed hands to5a7ds the Blessed One and sat do5n nea7 him J some made kno5n thei7 name and <amily name 6e<o7e the Blessed One and sat do5n nea7 him J some sat do5n nea7 him silently1 H1 #o5 those t5el;e my7iads o< Aagadha B7ahmins and householde7s sa5 $7u;ella *assya3a among the monks 5ho 2ame 5ith the Blessed %o7d1 "hey thought' 8 Ho5 no5 is this M Does the g7eat (amana <ollo5 the holy li<e unde7 $7u;ella *assya3a, o7 does $7u;ella *assya3a <ollo5 the holy li<e unde7 the g7eat (amanaM8 -1 !nd the Blessed One, 5ho unde7stood in his mind the 7e<le2tion 5hi2h had a7isen in the minds o< those t5el;e my7iads o< Aagadha B7ahmins and householde7s, add7essed the ;ene7a6le $7u;ella *assya3a ' 8+hat has thou seen, d5elle7 o< $7u;ella, that thou 5ho a7t 2alled the g7eat one has <o7saken the <i7e 5o7shi3M Ho5 is it thou has <o7saken the <i7e sa27i<i2e M 8 /1 *assya3a 7e3lied ' 8 )t is sights and sounds, and also tastes, and omen o< sense desi7e that the sa27i<i2es 37omise J 6e2ause ) unde7stood that these things a7e im3u7e that ) took no mo7e delight in sa27i<i2es and o<<e7ings18 D01 8 But i< you don:t mind, tell us 5hat made you think so M 8 D D 1 "hen the ;ene7a6le $7u;ella *assya3a 7ose <7om his seat, ad?usted his u33e7 7o6e so as to 2o;e7 one shoulde7, 37ost7ated himsel<, in2lining his head to the <eet o< the Blessed One, and said to the Blessed One' 8 Ay tea2he7 is the Blessed One, )1 am his 3u3il18 "hen those t5el;e my7iads o< Aagadha DLF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> B7ahmins and householde7s unde7stood ' 8 $7u;ella *assya3a <ollo5s the holy li<e unde7 the g7eat (amana18

DK1 !nd the Blessed One, 5ho unde7stood in his mind :the 7e<le2tion that had a7isen in the minds o< those t5el;e my7iads o< Aagadha B7ahmins and householde7s, 37ea2hed to them his Dhamma1 Pust as a 2lean 2loth <7ee <7om 6la2k s3e2ks 37o3e7ly takes the dye, thus ele;en my7iads o< those Aagadha B7ahmins and householde7s 5ith Bim6isa7a at thei7 head, 5hile sitting the7e, o6tained the 3u7e and s3otless dye o< the Dhamma1 One my7iad announ2ed thei7 ha;ing 6e2ome lay <ollo5e7s1 DL1 "hen the Aagadha king, (eniya Bim6isa7a, ha;ing 5itnessed the s2ene, ha;ing unde7stood the Dhamma, ha;ing 3enet7ated the Dhamma, ha;ing o;e72ome un2e7tainty, ha;ing dis3elled all dou6ts, ha;ing gained <ull kno5ledge, said to the Blessed One ' 8 )n <o7me7 days1 %o7d, 5hen ) 5as a 37in2e, ) ente7tained <i;e as3i7ations J these a7e no5 <ul<illed1 D.1 8)n <o7me7 days1 %o7d, to me 5hen ) 5as a 37in2e, 2ame this thought ' : O that ) might 6e inaugu7ated king ) : "hat 5as my <i7st as3i7ation, %o7d J that is no5 <ul<illed1 : !nd might then a holy one, a <ully Enlightened One, 2ome o;e7 into my kingdom ) : "his 5as my se2ond as3i7ation, %o7d J that is no5 <ul<illed1 : !nd might ) ministe7 to that Blessed One ) : "hat 5as my thi7d as3i7ation1 %o7d J that is no5 <ul<illed1 : !nd might he, the Blessed One, 37ea2h the Dhamma to me ) : "his 5as my <ou7th as3i7ation, %o7d J and that is no5 <ul<illed1 : !nd might ) unde7stand the Dhamma o< that Blessed One! "his 5as my <i<th as3i7ation, %o7dJ this is no5 <ul<illed1 "hese 5e7e my <i;e as3i7ations, %o7d, 5hi2h ) ente7tained in <o7me7 days 5hen ) 5as a 37in2e1 DE1 8 +onde7<ul, %o7d ) +onde7<ul, ?ust as i< one should set u3, 5hat had 6een o;e7tu7ned, o7 should 7e;eal 5hat had 6een hidden, o7 should 3oint out the 5ay to one 5ho had lost his 5ay, o7 should 67ing a lam3 into the da7kness, in o7de7 that those 5ho had eyes might see things, thus has the Blessed One 37ea2hed the Dhamma in many 5ays1 ) take 7e<uge1 %o7d, in that Blessed One, and in the Dhamma, and in the <7ate7nity o< Bhikkus @monksB 1 Aay the Blessed One 7e2ei;e me <7om this day <o7th, 5hile my li<e lasts, as a lay dis2i3le 5ho has taken 7e<uge in him18

DLH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> '' E1 Con;e7sion o< !natha3indika1 ''

D 1 (udatta 5as a 7esident o< (h7a;asti, the 2a3ital o< the kingdom o< *osala1 )t 5as 7uled 6y *ing Pasen?it1 (udatta 5as t7easu7e7 o< the king1 F7om his 6ounties to the 3oo7, (udatta 5as kno5n as !natha3indika1 K1 +hen the %o7d 5as at a?ag7aha, !natha3indika ha33ened to ;isit the 3la2e on some 37i;ate 6usiness o< his o5n1 He 5as sto33ing 5ith his 5ho 5as ma77ied to the guild maste7 o< a?ag7aha1 L1 +hen he a77i;ed he <ound the guild maste7 37e3a7ing a meal <o7 the %o7d and his monks on so g7eat a s2ale that he thought that a 5edding 5as in 37og7ess o7 that the king had 6een in;ited1 .1 On lea7ning the t7uth he 6e2ame ;e7y eage7 to ;isit the %o7d and he set out in the ;e7y night to meet the Blessed One1 E1 !nd the Blessed One sa5 at on2e the ste7ling Cuality o< !natha3indika:s hea7t and g7eeted him 5ith 5o7ds o< 2om<o7t1 !<te7 taking his seat !natha3indika ex37essed a desi7e to hea7 a dis2ou7se on some 7eligious su6?e2t1 F1 "he Blessed %o7d 7es3onding to his 5ishes 7aised the Cuestion, 8 +ho is it that sha3es ou7 li;es M )s it )sha;a7a, a 3e7sonal 27eato7 M )< )sha;a7a 6e the make7, all li;ing things should ha;e silently to su6mit to thei7 make7:s 3o5e71 "hey 5ould 6e like ;essels <o7med 6y the 3otte7:s hand1 )< the 5o7ld had 6een made 6y )sha;a7a the7e should 6e no su2h thing as so77o5, o7 2alamity, o7 sin J <o7 6oth 3u7e and im3u7e deeds must 2ome <7om him1 )< not, the7e 5ould 6e anothe7 2ause 6eside him, and he 5ould not 6e the sel<existent one1 "hus, you see, the thought o< )sha;a7a is o;e7th7o5n1 H1 8 !gain, it is said that the !6solute 2annot 6e a 2ause1 !ll things a7ound us 2ome <7om a 2ause as the 3lant 2omes <7om the seedJ ho5 2an the !6solute 6e the 2ause o< all things alike M )< it 3e7;ades them, then 2e7tainly it does not make them1

-1 8 !gain, it is said that sel< is the make71 But i< sel< is the make7, 5hy did he not make things 3leasingM "he 2ases o< so77o5 and ?oy a7e 7eal and o6?e2ti;e1 Ho5 2an they ha;e 6een made 6y sel<M

DL-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> /1 8 !gain, i< you ado3t the a7gument, the7e is no make7, o7 <ate in su2h as it is, and the7e is no 2ausation, 5hat use 5ould the7e 6e in sha3ing ou7 li;es and ad?usting means to an endM D01 8 "he7e<o7e, 5e a7gue that all things that exist a7e not 5ithout 2ause1 Ho5e;e7, neithe7 )sha;a7a, no7 the !6solute, no7 the sel<, no7 2auseless 2han2e, is the make7, 6ut ou7 deeds 37odu2e 7esults 6oth good and e;il1 D D 1 8"he 5hole 5o7ld is unde7 the la5 o< 2ausation, and the 2auses that a2t a7e not un9mental, <o7 the gold o< 5hi2h the 2u3 is made is gold th7oughout1 DK1 8 %et us, then, su77ende7 the he7esies o< 5o7shi33ing )sha;a7a and 37aying to himJ let us not lose ou7sel;es in ;ain s3e2ulations o< 37o<itless su6tletiesJ let us su77ende7 sel< and all sel<ishness, and as all things a7e <ixed 6y 2ausation, let us 37a2tise good so that good may 7esult <7om ou7 a2tions18 DL1 !nd !natha3indika said ' 8 ) see the t7uth o< 5hat the Blessed One has said and ) 5ish to o3en my 5hole mind1 Ha;ing listened to my 5o7ds let the %o7d ad;ise me 5hat ) should do1 D.1 8 Ay li<e is <ull o< 5o7k, and ha;ing a2Cui7ed g7eat 5ealth, ) am su77ounded 5ith 2a7es1 &et do ) en?oy my 5o7k, and ) a33ly mysel< to it 5ith all diligen2e1 Aany 3eo3le a7e in my em3loy and de3end u3on the su22ess o< my ente737ises1 DE1 8 #o5, ) ha;e hea7d you7 dis2i3les 37aise the 6liss o< the he7mit and denoun2e the un7est o< the 5o7ld1 : "he Blessed One,: they say, : has gi;en u3

his kingdom and his inhe7itan2e, and has <ound the 3ath o< 7ighteousness, thus setting an exam3le to all the 5o7ld ho5 to attain #i7;ana1: DF1 8 Ay hea7t yea7ns to do 5hat is 7ight and to 6e a 6lessing unto my <ello5-6eings1 %et me then ask you, must ) gi;e u3 my 5ealth, my home, and my 6usiness ente737ises, and, like you, go into homelessness in o7de7 to attain the 6liss o< a 7eligious li<e M8 D H1 !nd the Blessed %o7d 7e3lied ' 8 "he 6liss o< a 7eligious li<e is attaina6le 6y e;e7y one 5ho 5alks in the no6le eight-<old 3ath1 He that 2lea;es to 5ealth, had 6ette7 2ast it a5ay than allo5 his hea7t to 6e 3oisoned 6y it J 6ut he 5ho does not 2lea;e to 5ealth, and 3ossessing 7i2hes, uses them 7ightly, 5ill 6e a 6lessing unto his <ello5-6eings1

DL/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D-1 8) say unto thee, 7emain in thy station o< li<e and a33ly thysel< 5ith diligen2e to thy ente737ises1 )t is not li<e and 5ealth and 3o5e7 that ensla;e men, 6ut the 2lea;ing to li<e and 5ealth and 3o5e71 D/1 8 "he Bhikku 5ho 7eti7es <7om the 5o7ld in o7de7 to lead a li<e o< leisu7e 5ill ha;e no gain1 Fo7 a li<e o< indolen2e is an a6omination, and la2k o< ene7gy is to 6e des3ised1 K01 8"he Dhamma o< the "athagata does not 7eCui7e a man to go into homelessness o7 to 7esign the 5o7ld unless he <eels 2alled u3on to do so J 5hat the Dhamma o< the "athagata 7eCui7es is <o7 e;e7y man to <7ee himsel< <7om the illusion o< sel<, to 2leanse his hea7t, to gi;e u3 his thi7st <o7 3leasu7e, and lead a li<e o< 7ighteousness1 KD1 8!nd 5hate;e7 men do, 5hethe7 they 7emain in the 5o7ld as a7tisans, me72hants, and o<<i2e7s o< the king, o7 7eti7e <7om the 5o7ld and de;ote themsel;es to a li<e o< 7eligious meditation, let them 3ut thei7 5hole ea7t into thei7 task J let them 6e diligent and ene7geti2, and, i< they a7e like the lotus,

5hi2h, though it g7o5s in the 5ate7, yet 7emains untou2hed 6y the 5ate7, i< they st7uggle in li<e 5ithout 2he7ishing en;y o7 hat7ed, i< they li;e in the 5o7ld a li<e not o< sel< 6ut a li<e o< t7uth, then su7ely ?oy, 3ea2e, and 6liss 5ill d5ell in thei7 minds18 KK1 !natha3indika 3e72ei;ed that this 5as the most ex2ellent system o< t7uth, sim3le and o< 5isdom-6o7n1 KL1 "hus <i7mly settled in the t7ue do2t7ine he slo5ly 6ent in 5o7shi3 at the <eet o< the Blessed One and 5ith 2losed hands made his 7eCuest1 '' F1 Con;e7sion o< Pasen?it1 ''

D1 "hen *ing Pasen?it, hea7ing that the %o7d had 2ome, 5ent in his 7oyal eCui33age to the Peta;ana Giha7a1 (aluting him 5ith 2las3ed hands, he said' K1 8 Blessed is my un5o7thy and o6s2u7e kingdom that it has met 5ith so g7eat a <o7tune1 Fo7 ho5 2an 2alamities and dange7s 6e<all it in the 37esen2e o< %o7d o< the +o7ld, the Dha7ma a?a, the *ing o< "7uth1 L1 8 #o5 that ) ha;e seen you7 sa27ed <eatu7es, let me 3a7take o< the 7e<7eshing 5ate7s o< you7 tea2hings1 D.0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> .1 8+o7ldly 37o<it is <leeting and 3e7isha6le, 6ut 7eligious 37o<it is ete7nal and inexhausti6le1 ! 5o7ldly man, though a king, is <ull o< t7ou6le, 6ut e;en a 2ommon man 5ho is holy has 3ea2e o< mind18 E1 *no5ing the tenden2y o< the king:s hea7t, 5eighed do5n 6y a;a7i2e and lo;e o< 3leasu7e, the Blessed One seiOed the o33o7tunity and said ' F1 8 E;en those 5ho, ha;e 6een 6o7n in lo5 deg7ee, 5hen they see a ;i7tuous man, <eel 7e;e7en2e <o7 him, ho5 mu2h mo7e must an inde3endent king, 5ho 6y his 37e;ious 2onditions o< li<e has a2Cui7ed mu2h me7it, <eel M H1 8 !nd no5 as ) 67ie<ly ex3ound the la5, let the Aaha7a?a listen and 5eigh my 5o7ds, and hold <ast to 5hat ) say1

-1 8 Ou7 good o7 e;il deeds <ollo5 us 2ontinually like shado5s1 /1 8 "hat 5hi2h is most needed is a lo;ing hea7t ) D01 8 ega7d you7 3eo3le as 5e do an only son1 Do not o337ess them, do not dest7oy them J kee3 in due 2he2k e;e7y mem6e7 o< you7 6ody, <o7sake un7ighteous do2t7ines and 5alk in the st7aight 3athJ do not exalt you7sel< 6y t7am3ling do5n othe7s1 Ii;e 2om<o7t and 6e<7iend the su<<e7e71 D D 1 8#eithe7 3onde7 mu2h on kingly dignity, no7 listen to the smooth 5o7ds o< <latte7e7s1 DK1 8"he7e is no 37o<it in ;exing onesel< 6y auste7ities, 6ut meditate on Dhamma and 5eigh the 7ighteous la51 DL18 +e a7e en2losed on all sides 6y the 7o2ks o< so77o5 and ill and only 6y 2onside7ing the t7ue la5 2an 5e es2a3e <7om this so77o5-<illed mountain1 D., 8 +hat 37o<it, then, in 37a2tising ineCuity M DE18 !ll 5ho a7e 5ise s3u7n the 3leasu7es o< the 6ody1 "hey loathe lust and seek to 37omote thei7 s3i7itual existen2e1 DF1 8 +hen a t7ee is 6u7ning 5ith <ie72e <lames, ho5 2an the 6i7ds 2ong7egate the7ein M "7uth 2annot d5ell 5he7e 3assion li;es1 +ithout a kno5ledge o< this, the lea7ned man, though he may 6e 37aised as a sage, is igno7ant1 DH1 8On him 5ho has this kno5ledge t7ue 5isdom da5ns1 "o a2Cui7e this 5isdom is the one aim needed1 "o negle2t it im3lies the <ailu7e o< li<e1 D.D

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D-1 8 "he tea2hings o< all s2hools should 2ent7e he7e, <o7 5ithout it the7e is no 7eason1 D/1 8"his t7uth is not <o7 the he7mit alone J it 2on2e7ns e;e7y human 6eing, 37iest and layman alike1 "he7e is no distin2tion 6et5een the monk 5ho has

taken the ;o5s, and the man o< the 5o7ld li;ing 5ith his <amily1 "he7e a7e he7mits 5ho <all into 3e7dition, and the7e a7e hum6le householde7s 5ho mount to the 7ank o< 7ishis1 K01 8 "he tide o< lust is a dange7 2ommon to all J it 2a77ies a5ay the 5o7ld1 He 5ho is in;ol;ed in its eddies <inds no es2a3e1 But 5isdom is the handy 6oat, 7e<le2tion is the 7udde71 "he slogan o< 7eligion 2alls you to the 7es2ue o< you7 sel< <7om the assaults o< Aa7a, the enemy1 KD1 8 (in2e it is im3ossi6le to es2a3e the 7esult o< ou7 deeds, let us 37a2tise good 5o7ks1 KK1 8 %et us ins3e2t ou7 thoughts that 5e do no e;il, <o7 as 5e so5 so shall 5e 7ea31 KL1 8 "he7e a7e 5ays <7om light into da7kness and <7om da7kness into light1 "he7e a7e 5ays, also, <7om gloom into dee3e7 da7kness, and <7om the da5n into 67ighte7 light1 "he 5ise man 5ill use the light as he has to 7e2ei;e mo7e light1 He 5ill 2onstantly ad;an2e to the kno5ledge o< the t7uth1 K.1 8 Exhi6it t7ue su3e7io7ity 6y ;i7tuous 2ondu2t and the exe72ise o< 7easonJ meditate dee3ly on the ;anity o< ea7thly things, and unde7stand the <i2kleness o< li<e1 KE1 8 Ele;ate the mind, and seek sin2e7e <aith 5ith <i7m 3u73oseJ t7ansg7ess not the 7ules o< kingly 2ondu2t, and let you7 ha33iness de3end, not u3on exte7nal things 6ut u3on you7 o5n mind1 "hus you 5ill lay u3 a good name <o7 distant ages1 KF1 "he king listened 5ith 7e;e7en2e and 7emem6e7ed all the 5o7ds o< the Blessed One in his hea7t and 37omised to 6e2ome his lay dis2i3le1

D.K

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> '' H1 Con;e7sion o< Pee;aka1 ''

D1 Pee;aka 5as the son o< (al;ati, a 2ou7tesan o<

a?ag7aha1

K1 )mmediately a<te7 6i7th the 2hild, 6eing illegitimate, 5as 3la2ed in a 6asket and th7o5n on a dust-hea31 L1 ! la7ge num6e7 o< 3eo3le 5e7e standing 6y the dust -hea3 5at2hing the 2hild1 !6haya, the a?a-kuma7a, ha33ened to 3ass 6y the site1 He Cuestioned the 3eo3le 5ho said ' 8 )t is ali;e18 .1 Fo7 this 7eason the 2hild 5as 2alled Pee;aka1 !6haya ado3ted him and 67ought him u31 E1 +hen Pee;aka g7e5 in age he lea7ned ho5 he 5as sa;ed and 5as 2ha7ged 5ith the intense desi7e to Cuali<y himsel< to sa;e othe7s1 F1 He the7e<o7e 5ent to the $ni;e7sity o< "akashila 5ithout the kno5ledge and 3e7mission o< !6haya and studied medi2ine <o7 se;en yea7s1 H1 etu7ning to a?ag7aha he set u3 his 37a2ti2e as a do2to7 and 5ithin a ;e7y sho7t time a2Cui7ed a g7eat name and <ame in the 37o<ession1 -1 His <i7st 3atient 5as the 5i<e o< a sethi o< (aketa and <o7 2u7ing he7 he 7e2ei;ed sixteen thousand kaha3anas, a man-se7;ant, a maid- se7;ant and a 2oa2h 5ith a ho7se1 /1 *no5ing his eminen2e, !6haya ga;e him 7esiden2e in his o5n esta6lishment1 D01 !t a?ag7aha he 2u7ed Bim6isa7a o< a t7ou6lesome <istula and is said to ha;e 7e2ei;ed as 7e5a7d all the o7naments o< Bim6isa7a:s <i;e hund7ed 5i;es1 DD1 Othe7 note5o7thy 2u7es o< Pee;aka in2luded that o< the sethi o< a?ag7aha on 5hom he 3e7<o7med the o3e7ation o< t7e3anning and o< the son o< the sethi o< Bena7es 5ho 5as su<<e7ing <7om 2h7oni2 intestinal t7ou6le due to mis3la2ement1 DK1 Pee;aka 5as a33ointed 3hysi2ian to the king and the king:s 5omen1

D.L

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

DL1 But Pee;aka 5as g7eatly atta2hed to the Blessed %o7d1 ConseCuently he also a2ted as a 3hysi2ian to him and the (angh1 D.1 He 6e2ame a dis2i3le o< the %o7d1 "he Blessed %o7d did not make him a Bhikku as he 5anted him to 7emain <7ee to tend to the si2k and the 5ounded1 DE1 +hen Bim6isa7a died Pee;aka 2ontinued to se7;e his son !?atsat7u and 5as mainly inst7umental in 67inging him to the %o7d a<te7 his 27ime o< 3a77i2ide1 '' -1 Con;e7sion o< attha3ala1 ''

D 1 On2e 5hen the %o7d 5as on an alms 3ilg7image in the *u7u 2ount7y 5ith a g7eat 2om3any o< almsmen, he stayed at "hullakotthita, 5hi2h 5as a to5nshi3 o< the *u7us1 K1 "hey 2ame to kno5 o< it and 5ent to him to 3ay thei7 7es3e2ts1 L1 +hen they 5e7e seated, the %o7d inst7u2ted them 5ith a dis2ou7se on the Do2t7ine1 Ha;ing 7e2ei;ed thei7 inst7u2tion <7om the %o7d, the B7ahmin heads o< houses o< "hullakotthita g7ate<ully thanked him, 7ose u3 and de3a7ted 5ith dee3 o6eisan2e1 .1 (eated among them 5as a young man named attha3ala, a s2ion o< a leading <amily o< the 3la2e, to 5hom this thought 2ame ' 8(o <a7 as ) unde7stand, the Do2t7ine 5hi2h the %o7d has 37ea2hed is no easy matte7 <o7 one 5ho li;es in a home to lead the highe7 li<e in all its <ullness, 3u7ity, and 3e7<e2tion1 E1 8 +hat i< ) 5e7e to 2ut o<< hai7 and 6ea7d, don the yello5 7o6es and go <o7th <7om home to homelessness as a 3ilg7im!8 F1 +hen the B7ahmins had not 6een gone long, then attha3ala 2ame u3 and, a<te7 salutations, told the %o7d the thought 5hi2h had 2ome to him, and asked to 6e admitted to, and 2on<i7med in, the 2on<7ate7nity unde7 him1 H1 8 Ha;e you you7 3a7ents: 2onsent to this ste3, the %o7d1 -1 8#o, (i718 attha3alaM: asked

D..

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> /1 8) do not admit those 5ho ha;e not thei7 3a7ents: 2onsent18 D01 8"hat 2onsent1 (i7, ) 5ill take ste3s to o6tain,8 said the young man, 5ho 7ising u3 and taking a 7e;e7ential lea;e o< the %o7d, 5ent o<< to his 3a7ents, told them his thoughts and asked thei7 2onsent to his 6e2oming a Bhikku1 D D 1 "he 3a7ents made ans5e7 as <ollo5s ' 8 Dea7 attha3ala, you a7e ou7 only son, ;e7y dea7 to us and 6elo;ed J you li;e in 2om<o7t and ha;e 6een 67ought u3 in 2om<o7t, 5ith no ex3e7ien2e at all o< dis2om<o7t1 Io a5ay J eat, d7ink, en?oy you7sel<, and do good 5o7ks in all ha33iness1 +e 7e<use ou7 2onsent1 DK1 8 &ou7 death 5ould lea;e us desolate, 5ith no 3leasu7e le<t in li<e J 5hy, 5hile 5e ha;e you still, should 5e 2onsent to you7 going <o7th <7om home to homelessness as a Bhikku81 DL1 ! se2ond and yet a thi7d time did attha3ala 7e3eat his 7eCuest, only to 6e met 6y the same 7e<usal <7om his 3a7ents1 D.1 Failing thus to get his 3a7ents: 2onsent, the young man <lung himsel< do5n on the 6a7e g7ound, de2la7ing that he 5ould eithe7 die the7e o7 6e2ome a Bhikku1 DE1 His 3a7ents ent7eated him to get u3 5hile 7e3eating thei7 o6?e2tions to his 6e2oming a Bhikku, 6ut the young man said not a 5o7d1 ! se2ond and a thi7d time they ent7eated him 6ut still he said not a 5o7d1 DF1 (o the 3a7ents sought out attha3ala:s 2om3anions to 5hom they told all this and 6esought them to u7ge, as <7om themsel;es, 5hat his 3a7ents had said to him1 D H1 "h7i2e his 2om3anions a33ealed to him, 6ut still he said not a 5o7d1 (o his 2om3anions 2ame to the 3a7ents 5ith this 7e3o7t ' 8 "he7e on the 6a7e g7ound he lies, de2la7ing that he 5ill eithe7 die the7e o7 6e2ome a Bhikku1 )<

you 7e<use you7 2onsent, he 5ill ne;e7 get u3 ali;e1 But, i< you gi;e you7 2onsent, you 5ill see him 5hen he has 6e2ome a Bhikku1 (hould he not like 6eing a Bhikku, 5hat alte7nati;e 5ill he ha;e! +hy, only to 2ome 6a2k he7e1 Do gi;e you7 2onsent ) 8 they u7ged1 D-1 8 &es, 5e 2onsent J 6ut 5hen he is a Bhikku, he must 2ome and see us18

D.E

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D/1 O<< no5 5ent his 2om3anions to attha3ala, and they told him that his 3a7ents had gi;en thei7 2onsent, 6ut that 5hen he 5as a Bhikku he 5as to 2ome and see them1 K01 "he7eu3on the young man a7ose and, 5hen he had 7egained his st7ength, 6etook himsel< to the %o7d, and a<te7 salutations seated himsel< on one side, saying' 8 ) ha;e got my 3a7ents: 2onsent to my 6e2oming a Bhikku J ) ask the %o7d to admit me18 KD1 !dmission and 2on<i7mation 5e7e g7anted him unde7 the %o7dJ and a <o7tnight a<te75a7ds the %o7d, ha;ing stayed at "hullakot<hita as long as he 5anted, 37o2eeded on his alms 3ilg7image to5a7ds (7a;asti, 5he7e he took u3 his a6ode in Peta:s g7o;e in !natha3indika:s 3leasan2e1 KK1 D5elling alone and aloo<, st7enuous, a7dent and 3u7ged o< sel<, the 7e;e7end attha3ala 5as not long 6e<o7e he 5on the 37iOe in Cuest o< 5hi2h young men go <o7th <7om home to homelessness as Bhikkus, that 37iOe o< 37iOes 5hi2h 27o5ns the highest li<e1 KL1 "hen, he 5ent to the %o7d and, seated on one side a<te7 salutations, said that 5ith the %o7d:s 3e7mission, he 5ished to go and see his 3a7ents1 K.1 (2anning 5ith his o5n hea7t the thoughts o< attha3ala:s hea7t, and 7e2ogniOing the7e6y that he 5as in2a3a6le o< a6andoning his t7aining and 7e;e7ting to the lo5e7 li<e o< a layman, the %o7d 6ade him go 5hen he 5ould1 KE1 He7eu3on, 7ising u3 and taking his lea;e o< the %o7d 5ith dee3

7e;e7en2e, attha3ala, a<te7 duly 3utting a5ay his 6edding, set out, 5ith his 7o6e and 6o5l, on an alms 3ilg7image to "hullakotthita 5he7e he took u3 his a6ode in the dee7-3a7k o< the *u7u king1 KF1 Ea7ly next mo7ning, duly 7o6ed and 6o5l in hand, he 5ent into the to5n <o7 alms, and the7e as he 3assed <7om house to house on his undis27iminating 7ound, he 2ame to his <athe7:s house1 KH1 )ndoo7s, in the hall 5ithin the middle doo7, his <athe7 5as ha;ing his hai7 2om6ed and, seeing attha3ala 2oming in the distan2e, he said ' 8 )t 5as these sha;elings o< 7edu2es 5ho made Bhikku o< my only dea7 and 6elo;ed son18

D.F

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K-1 (o at his o5n <athe7:s house a 7e<usalJ all he got 5as a6use1 attha3ala 5as gi;en nothing, not e;en

K/1 !t this moment a sla;e -gi7l o< the <amily 5as a6out to th7o5 a5ay the 37e;ious day:s stale 7i2eJ and to he7 attha3ala said' 8 )<, siste7, that is to 6e th7o5n a5ay, 3ut it in my 6o5l he7e18 L01 !s the gi7l 5as doing so, she 7e2ognised his hands and <eet and ;oi2e, and going st7aight to he7 mist7ess, 27ied out' 8 Do you kno5, madam, the young maste7 is 6a2k18 LD1 8)< 5hat you say is t7ue, you a7e a sla;e no longe7,8 said the mothe7, 5ho hu77ied o<< to tell he7 hus6and that she hea7d thei7 son 5as 6a2k1 LK1 attha3ala 5as eating that stale 7i2e unde7 the hedge 5hen his <athe7 a77i;ed, ex2laimingJ 8 Can it 6e, my dea7 son, that you a7e eating stale 7i2eM (hould you not ha;e 2ome to you7 o5n house M8 LL1 (aid attha3ala, : :+hat house o< ou7 o5n, householde7, 2an 5e ha;e 5ho a7e homeless, ha;ing gone <o7th <7om home to homelessness M ) did 2ome to you7 house, 5he7e ) 5as gi;en nothing not e;en a 7e<usal J all ) got 5as a6use18

L.1 : Come, my sonJ let us go indoo7s1: : #ot so, householde7J ) ha;e <inished my eating <o7 today1: said attha3ala1 LE1 : +ell then, my son 37omise to take you7 meal he7e tomo77o51: LF1 By his silen2e the 7e;e7end attha3ala ga;e 2onsent1

LH1 "hen the <athe7 5ent indoo7s, N 5he7e <i7st he o7de7ed g7eat hea3s o< gold and 6ullion to 6e 3iled u3 unde7 a 2o;e7ing o< mats and then he told his daughte7s-in-la5, 5ho had 6een the 7e;e7end attha3ala:s 5i;es a<o7etime, to de2k themsel;es out in all the <ine7y thei7 hus6and liked to see them in1 L-1 +hen night had 3assed, the <athe7, ha;ing o7de7ed an ex2ellent meal to 6e got 7eady in his house, told his son 5hen it 5as 7eady1 Ea7ly that <o7enoon, the 7e;e7end attha3ala, duly 7o6ed and 6o5l in hand, 2ame and took the seat set <o7 him1 L/1 He7eu3on, o7de7ing the hea3 o< t7easu7e to 6e un;eiled, the <athe7 said' : "his is you7 mothe7:s <o7tune, that is you7 <athe7:s and that 2ame <7om you7 D.H

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> g7and-<athe71 &ou ha;e the 5he7e5ithal 6oth to en?oy you7sel< and to do good 5o7ks1 .01 :Come, my sonJ a6andon you7 t7ainingJ 7e;e7t to the lo5e7 li<e o< the laymanJ en?oy you7 su6stan2e and do good 5o7ks1: .D1 : )< you 5ill take my ad;i2e, householde7, you 5ill 2a7t a5ay all this hea3ed9u3 t7easu7e and sink it in the middle o< the Ianges1 !nd 5hy M Be2ause then2e you 5ill only de7i;e so77o5 and lamentation, ills, 3ain o< mind, 3ain o< 6ody and t7i6ulation1: .K1 Clinging to his <eet, the 7e;e7end attha3ala:s 5hilom 5i;es asked like 5hat 5e7e the nym3hs di;ine <o7 5hose sake he 5as leading the highe7 li<e1 .L1 8 Fo7 the sake o< no nym3hs at all, siste7s,8 said he1

..1 !t hea7ing themsel;es 2alled siste7s, the ladies all <ainted and <ell to the g7ound1 .E1 (aid attha3ala to his <athe7' 8 )< <ood is to 6e gi;en, householde7, gi;e itJ t7ou6le me not18 .F1 8 "he <ood is 7eady, my son J 6egin,8 said the <athe7 as he se7;ed that ex2ellent meal 5ithout stint till his son had his <ill1 .H1 !<te7 taking <ood he de3a7ted to the dee7-3a7k o< the *u7u king, 5he7e he sat do5n unde7 a t7ee du7ing the noontide heat1 .-1 #o5 the king had gi;en di7e2tions to his huntsman to tidy u3 the 3a7k against his 2oming to see itJ and the o6edient huntsman 5as engaged on his task 5hen he sa5 attha3ala seated unde7 a t7ee du7ing the noontide heat, and 7e3o7ted to the king that the 3a7k 5as in1 o7de7 6ut that unde7 a t7ee the7e 5as seated attha3ala, the young gentleman o< 5hom His Aa?esty had o<ten hea7d tell1 ./1 8 #e;e7 mind a6out the 3a7k today,8 said the kingJ 8 ) 5ill 3ay a 2all on His e;e7en2e18 O7de7ing, the7e<o7e, all the 7e3ast 5hi2h had 6een 37e3a7ed to 6e made 7eady, he mounted a 2ha7iot and d7o;e <o7th in 37o2ession in 7oyal state out o< the 2ity to see attha3ala1 E01 iding as <a7 as the g7ound 5as 3assa6le <o7 his 2ha7iot and 37o2eeding then2e on <oot 5ith his 37in2ely t7ain, the king 2ame at last u3on the

D.-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> 7e;e7end attha3ala, 5hom, a<te7 ex2hange o< 2ou7teous g7eetings, the king N still standing N in;ited to 6e seated on a 2lum3 o< <lo5e7s1 ED1 8 #ay, si7eJ sit you the7e, ) ha;e got a seat18 EK1 (eating himsel< on the seat indi2ated to him, the king said' 8 "he7e a7e <ou7 kinds o< losses, attha3ala, 5hi2h im3el men to 2ut o<< hai7 and 6ea7d, don the yello5 7o6es, and go <o7th <7om home to homelessness N namely,

@iB old age, @iiB <ailing health, @iiiB im3o;e7ishment, and @i;B death o< kins<olk1 EL1 8 "ake a man 5ho, 6eing aged and old, <a7 ad;an2ed in li<e, st7i2ken in yea7s, and at the 2lose o< li<e, 7e2ognises his 3osition, and 7ealises the di<<i2ulty eithe7 o< a2Cui7ing ne5 5ealth o7 o< doing 5ell 5ith 5hat he has gotJ so he de2ides to take to homelessness1 "his is kno5n as the loss 5hi2h old age entails1 But he7e a7e you in the 37ime o< youth and ea7ly manhood, 5ith a 5ealth o< 2oal-6la2k hai7 untou2hed 6y g7ey, and in all the 6eauty o< you7 37imeJ N not you7s is the loss old age entails1 +hat ha;e you kno5n o7 seen o7 hea7d to make you take to homelessness M E.1 8 O7 take a man 5ho, 6eing in ill-health o7 3ain, o7 g7a;ely ill, 7e2ognises his 3osition and 7ealises the di<<i2ulty eithe7 o< a2Cui7ing ne5 5ealth o7 doing 5ell 5ith 5hat he has al7eadyJ so he de2ides to take to homelessness1 "his is kno5n as the loss 5hi2h <ailing health entails1 But he7e a7e you neithe7 ill no7 ailing, 5ith a good digestion maintained 6y humou7s neithe7 too hot no7 too 2old J not you7s is the loss 5hi2h <ailing health entails1 +hat ha;e kno5n o7 seen o7 hea7d to make you take to homelessness M EE1 8O7 take a man 5ho, a<te7 6eing 7i2h and 5ealthy and o< g7eat su6stan2e, and a<te7 g7adually losing it, 7e2ognises his, 3osition and 7ealises the di<<i2ulty eithe7 o< a2Cui7ing ne5 5ealth o7 o< doing 5ell 5ith 5hat he has gotJ so he de2ides to 6e2ome a 3ilg7im1 "his is kno5n as the loss 5hi2h im3o;e7ishment entails1 But the 7e;e7ed attha3ala is the son o< leading <amily in this ;e7y "hullakotthita, and the7e is none o< this loss o< 5ealth <o7 the 7e;e7ed attha3ala1 +hat has the good attha3ala kno5n o7 seen o7 hea7d that he has gone <o7th <7om home into homelessness M !nd 5hat, good attha3ala, is loss o< 7elations M !s to this, good attha3ala, someone has D./

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> many <7iends and a2Cuaintan2es, kith and kin, 6ut g7adually these 7elations o< his diminish1 He 7e<le2ts thus' : Fo7me7ly ) had many <7iends and a2Cuaintan2es, kith and kin, 6ut g7adually these 7elations o< mine ha;e diminished, so it is not easy <o7 me to a2Cui7e 5ealth et21111: (o he that is <ollo5ed 6y this loss o< 7elations, ha;ing 2ut o<< hai7 and 6ea7d, ha;ing donned sa<<7on ga7ments, goes <o7th <7om home into homelessness1 "his is kno5n as the loss 5hi2h kins<olk:s death entails1 But he7e a7e you 5ith a host o< <7iends and 7elationsJ not you7s is the loss 5hi2h kins<olk:s death entails1 +hat ha;e you kno5n o7 seen o7 hea7d to make you take to homelessnessM8 EF1 8 ) ha;e gone <o7th,8 7e3lied attha3ala, 8 si7e, <7om home to homelessness 6e2ause ) ha;e kno5n, seen, and hea7d the <ollo5ing <ou7 37o3ositions enun2iated 6y the !ll-Englightened %o7d 5ho kno5s and sees ' 8@iB "he 5o7ld is in 2ontinual <lux and 2hange18 @iiB "he 5o7ld has no 37ote2to7 o7 37ese7;e71 8 @iiiB +e o5n nothingJ 5e must lea;e e;e7ything 6ehind1 8 @i;B "he 5o7ld la2ks and 6anke7s, 6eing ensla;ed to 27a;ing18 EH1 8)t is 5onde7<ul, it is ma7;ellous,8 said the king, 8ho5 7ight in this the %o7d 5as )8 Pa7t )G N Call <7om Home1 D1 (uddhodana and the %ast %ook1 ''

K1 Aeeting &eshodha7a and

ahula1

L1

e2e3tion 6y the (akyas1

.1 %ast attem3t to make Him a Householde71

E1 "he Buddha:s ans5e71

F1 "he Ainiste7:s 7e3ly1

H1 "he Buddha:s Dete7mination1

'' D1 (uddhodana and the %ast %ook1 '' D1 !<te7 the 2on;e7sion o< (a7i3utta and Aoggallana the %o7d stayed in a?ag7aha <o7 t5o months1 K1 Ha;ing hea7d that the %o7d 5as 7esiding at a?ag7aha, (uddhodana, his <athe7, sent 5o7d to him saying ' 8 ) 5ish to see my son 6e<o7e ) die1 Othe7s ha;e had the 6ene<it o< his do2t7ine, 6ut not his <athe7 no7 his 7elati;es18 DE0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L1 "he man 5ith 5hom the message 5as sent 5as *aludayin, the son o< one o< the 2ou7tie7s o< (uddhodana1 .1 !nd the messenge7 on a77i;al said' 8 O, 5o7ld-honou7ed "athagata, you7 <athe7 looks <o7 you7 2oming, as the lily longs <o7 the 7ising o< the sun18 E1 "he Blessed One 2onsented to the 7eCuest o< his <athe7 and set out on the ?ou7ney to his <athe7:s house a22om3anied 6y a la7ge num6e7 o< his dis2i3les1 F1 "he %o7d ?ou7neyed 6y slo5 stages1 But *aludayin 5ent ahead o< him to in<o7m (uddodhana that the Blessed One 5as 2oming and 5as on his 5ay1 H1 (oon the tidings s37ead in the (akya 2ount7y1 8 P7in2e (iddha7th, 5ho 5ande7ed <o7th <7om home into homelessness to o6tain enlightenment, ha;ing attained his 3u73ose, is 2oming home to *a3ila;atsu18 "his 5as on

the li3s o< e;e7y one1 -1 (uddhodana and Aaha37a?a3ati 5ent out 5ith thei7 7elati;es and ministe7s to meet thei7 son1 +hen they sa5 thei7 son <7om a<a7, they 5e7e st7u2k 5ith his 6eauty and dignity and his lust7e and they 7e?oi2ed in thei7 hea7t, 6ut they 2ould <ind no 5o7ds to utte71 /1 "his indeed 5as thei7 son J these 5e7e the <eatu7es o< (iddha7th! Ho5 nea7 5as the g7eat (amana to thei7 hea7t and yet 5hat a distan2e lay 6et5een them! "hat no6le muni 5as no longe7 (iddha7th thei7 son J he 5as no5 the Buddha, the Blessed One, the Holy One, %o7d o< "7uth and "ea2he7 o< Aankind! D01 (uddhodana, 2onside7ing the 7eligious dignity o< thei7 son, des2ended <7om the 2ha7iot and ha;ing saluted him <i7st, said ' 8 )t is no5 se;en yea7s sin2e 5e sa5 you1 Ho5 5e ha;e longed <o7 this moment18 D D 1 "hen the Buddha took a seat o33osite his <athe7, and the king eage7ly gaOed at his son1 He longed to 2all him 6y his name 6ut he da7ed not1 8(iddha7th,8 he ex2laimed silently in his hea7t, 8 (iddha7th, 2ome 6a2k to you7 old <athe7 and 6e his son again18 But seeing the dete7mination o< his son, he su337essed his sentiments1 Desolation o;e72ame him and Aaha37a?a3ati1 DK1 "hus the <athe7 sat <a2e to <a2e 5ith his son, 7e?oi2ing in his sadness and sad in his 7e?oi2ing1 +ell may he 6e 37oud o< his son, 6ut his 37ide 67oke do5n at the idea that his g7eat son 5ould ne;e7 6e his hei71 DED

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DL1 8 ) 5ould o<<e7 thee my kingdom,8 said the king, 8 6ut i< ) did, thou 5ould a22ount it 6ut as ashes18 D.1 !nd the %o7d said' 8) kno5 that the king:s hea7t is <ull o< lo;e and that <o7 his son:s sake he <eels dee3 g7ie<1 But let the ties o< lo;e that 6ind you to the son 5hom you lost, em67a2e 5ith eCual kindness all you7 <ello5 -6eings,

and you 5ill 7e2ei;e in his 3la2e a g7eate7 one than you7 son (iddha7th J you 5ill 7e2ei;e one 5ho is the tea2he7 o< t7uth, the 37ea2he7 o< 7ighteousness, and the 67inge7 o< 3ea2e and o< #i7;ana 5ill ente7 into you7 hea7t18 DE1 (uddhodana t7em6led 5ith ?oy 5hen he hea7d the melodious 5o7ds o< his son, the Buddha, and 2las3ing his hands, ex2laimed 5ith tea7s in his eyes ' 8 +onde7<ul is the 2hange ) "he o;e75helming so77o5 has 3assed a5ay1 !t <i7st my so77o5ing hea7t 5as hea;y 6ut no5 ) 7ea3 the <7uit o< you7 g7eat 7enun2iation1 )t 5as 7ight that mo;ed 6y you7 mighty sym3athy, you should 7e?e2t the 3leasu7es o< 3o5e7 and a2hie;e you7 no6le 3u73ose in 7eligious de;otion1 Ha;ing <ound the 3ath you 2an no5 37ea2h you7 Dhamma to all that yea7n <o7 deli;e7an2e18 DF1 (uddhodana 7etu7ned to his house 5hile the Buddha 7emained in the g7o;e 5ith his 2om3anions1 D H1 "he next mo7ning the Blessed %o7d took his 6o5l and set out to 6eg <o7 his <ood in *a3ila;atsu1 D-1 !nd the ne5s s37ead ' 8 (iddha7th is going <7om house to house to 7e2ei;e alms in the 2ity 5he7e he used to 7ide in a 2ha7iot attended 6y his 7etinue1 His 7o6e is like a 7ed 2lod and he holds in his hand an ea7then 6o5l18 D/1 On hea7ing the st7ange 7umou7, (uddhodana 5ent <o7th in g7eat hase and ex2laimed' 8 +hy do you disg7a2e me thus M Do you not kno5 that ) 2an easily su33ly you and you7 Bhikkus 5ith <ood M8 K01 !nd the %o7d 7e3lied' 8 )t is the 2ustom o< my O7de718 KD1 8 But ho5 2an this 6eM &ou a7e not one o< them that e;e7 6egged <o7 <ood18 KK1 8&es, <athe7,8 7e?oined the %o7d, 8&ou and you7 7a2e may 2laim des2ent <7om kingsJ my des2ent is <7om the Buddhas o< old1 "hey 6egged thei7 <ood, and al5ays li;ed on alms18

DEK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

KL1 (uddhodana made no 7e3ly, and the Blessed One 2ontinued' 8 )t is 2ustoma7y, 5hen one has <ound a hidden t7easu7e, <o7 him to make an o<<e7ing o< the most 37e2ious ?e5el to his <athe71 (u<<e7 me, the7e<o7e, to o<<e7 you this t7easu7e o< mine 5hi2h is the Dhamma18 K.1 !nd the Blessed %o7d told his <athe7' 8)< you <7ee you7sel< <7om d7eams, i< you o3en you7 mind to t7uth, i< you 6e ene7geti2, i< you 37a2tise 7ighteousness, you 5ill <ind ete7nal 6liss18 KE1 (uddhodana hea7d the 5o7ds in silen2e and 7e3lied' 8 Ay son ) +hat thou sayst 5ill ) endea;ou7 to <ul<il18

'' K1 Aeeting &eshodha7a and

ahula1 ''

D1 "hen (uddhodana 2ondu2ted the Blessed %o7d into his house and all the mem6e7s o< the <amily g7eeted him 5ith- g7eat 7e;e7en2e1 K1 But &eshodha7a, the mothe7 o< ahula, did not make he7 a33ea7an2e18 (uddhodana sent <o7 &eshodha7a1 6ut she 7e3lied' 8 (u7ely, i< ) am dese7;ing o< any 7ega7d, (iddha7tha 5ill 2ome and see me18 L1 "he Blessed One, ha;ing g7eeted all his 7elati;es and <7iends, asked' 8 +he7e is &eshodha7a M8 and on 6eing in<o7med that she had 7e<used to 2ome, he 7ose st7aighta5ay and 5ent to he7 a3a7tment1 .1 8 ) am <7ee,8 the Blessed One said to his dis2i3les (a7i3utta and Aoggallana 5hom he had 6idden to a22om3any him into &eshodha7a:s 2ham6e7J 8 But &eshodha7a, ho5e;e7, is not as yet <7ee1 #ot ha;ing seen me <o7 a long time, she is ex2eedingly so77o5<ul1 $nless he7 g7ie< 6e allo5ed to 7un its 2ou7se he7 hea7t 5ill 2lea;e1 (hould she tou2h the "athagata, the Holy One, you must not 37e;ent he718 E1 &eshodha7a sat in he7 7oom in dee3 7e<le2tion1 +hen the Blessed One ente7ed, she 5as, <7om the a6undan2e o< he7 a<<e2tion, like an o;e7<lo5ing ;essel, una6le to 2ontain he7sel<1 F1 Fo7getting that the man 5hom she lo;ed 5as Buddha, the %o7d o< the +o7ld, the P7ea2he7 o< "7uth, she held him 6y his <eet and 5e3t 6itte7ly1 DEL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> H1 emem6e7ing, ho5e;e7, that (uddhodana 5as 37esent, she <elt ashamed and 7ose u3, sitting he7sel< 7e;e7ently at a little distan2e1 -1 (uddhodana a3ologiOed <o7 &eshodha7a, saying' 8 "his a7ises <7om he7 dee3 a<<e2tion, and is mo7e than a tem3o7a7y emotion1 Du7ing the se;en yea7s that she has lost he7 hus6and, 5hen she hea7d that (iddha7th had sha;ed his head, she did like5iseJ 5hen she hea7d that he had le<t o<< the use o< 3e7<umes and o7naments she also 7e<used thei7 use1 %ike he7 hus6and she has eaten at a33ointed times <7om an ea7then 6o5l only1 /1 8)< this is mo7e than a tem3o7a7y emotion it is not <o7 5ant o< 2ou7age18 D01 !nd the Blessed One s3oke to &eshodha7a telling o< he7 g7eat me7its and the g7eat 2ou7age she sho5ed 5hen he took Pa7i;7a?a1 He7 3u7ity, he7 gentleness, he7 de;otion had 6een in;alua6le to him as a Bodhisatt;a 5hen he as3i7ed to the highest aim o< mankind to attain enlightenment1 "his, then, 5as he7 ka7ma, and it 5as the 7esult o< g7eat me7its1 DD1 He7 g7ie< had 6een uns3eaka6le, and the glo7y that su77ounded he7 s3i7itual inhe7itan2e in27eased 6y he7 no6le attitude du7ing he7 li<e and had made he7 a uniCue 3e7son1 DK1 "hen &eshodha7a d7essed ahula, no5 se;en yea7s old, in all the s3lendou7 o< a 37in2e and said to him' DL1 8 "his holy man, 5hose a33ea7an2e is so glo7ious that he looks like the I7eat B7ahma, is you7 <athe71 He 3ossesses g7eat mines o< 5ealth 5hi2h ) ha;e not yet seen1 Io to him and ent7eat him to 3ut you in the 3ossession the7eo< <o7 the son ought to inhe7it the 37o3e7ty o< the <athe718 D.1 ahula 7e3lied ' 8 +ho is my <athe71 ) kno5 o< no <athe7 6ut (uddhodana18 DE1 &eshodha7a took the 6oy in he7 a7ms and <7om the 5indo5 she 3ointed out to the %o7d, 5ho ha33ened to 6e nea7, 3a7taking o< <ood among the Bhikkus, in<o7ming him that he 5as his <athe7 and not (uddhodana1 DF1 ahula then 5ent to him and looking u3 in his <a2e, said 5ithout <ea7 and 5ith mu2h a<<e2tion' DH1 8 !7en:t thou my <athe7!8 !nd standing nea7 6y him, he added' 8 O

(amana, e;en you7 shado5 is <ull o< 6liss )8 "he Blessed One 7emained silent1 DE.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D-1 +hen the "athagata had <inished his 7e3ast, he ga;e 6lessings and 5ent a5ay <7om the 3ala2e, 6ut ahula <ollo5ed and asked him <o7 his inhe7itan2e1 D/1 #o one 37e;ented the 6oy, no7 did the Blessed One himsel<1 K01 "hen the Blessed One tu7ned to (a7i3utta, saying' 8 Ay son asks <o7 his inhe7itan2e11 ) 2annot gi;e him 3e7isha6le t7easu7es that 5ill 67ing 2a7es and so77o5s, 6ut ) 2an gi;e him the inhe7itan2e o< a holy li<e, 5hi2h is a t7easu7e that 5ill not 3e7ish18 KD1 !dd7essing ahula 5ith ea7nestness, the Blessed One said ' 8 Iold and sil;e7 and ?e5els ha;e ) none1 But i< you a7e 5illing to 7e2ei;e s3i7itual t7easu7es, and a7e st7ong to 2a77y them and to kee3 them, ) ha;e 3lenty1 Ay s3i7itual t7easu7e is the 3ath o< 7ighteousness1 Do you desi7e to 6e admitted to the 67othe7hood o< those 5ho de;ote thei7 li<e to the 2ultu7e o< the mind seeking <o7 the highest 6liss attaina6le M8 KK1 !nd ahula 7e3lied 5ith <i7mness' 8 ) do1:8

KL1 +hen (uddhodana hea7d that ahula had ?oined the 67othe7hood o< the Bhikkus he 5as g7eatly g7ie;ed1 '' L1 e2e3tion 6y the (akyas1 ''

D 1 On his 7etu7n to the 2ount7y o< the (akyas the %o7d <ound his 2ount7ymen di;ided into t5o 2am3s1 One in <a;ou7 and the othe7 against him1 K1 "his 7e2alled to his mind the old 2lash o< o3inion that took 3la2e in the (akya (angh 5hen the issue o< 5a7 6et5een the (akyas and *oliyas 5as <ought and in 5hi2h he had 3layed so 37ominent a 3a7t1 L1 "hose against him 7e<used e;en no5 to do o6eisan2e to him and to

7e2ognise his g7eatness1 "hose <o7 him had al7eady de2ided to dedi2ate a son 3e7 household to <o7m a 7etinue <o7 him1 "hese no5 de2ided to ente7 the O7de7 and set out 5ith the %o7d on his 7etu7n to a?ag7aha1 .1 !mong the <amilies 5hi2h had de2ided to dedi2ate a son the7e 5as the <amily o< !mitodana1

DEE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> E1 !mitodana had t5o sons1 One 5as !nu7uddha, 5ho had 6een ;e7y deli2ately nu7tu7ed, and the othe7 Aahanama1 F1 !nd Aahanama 5ent to !nu7uddha, saying' 8 Eithe7 do you 7enoun2e the 5o7ld, o7 ) 5ill do so18 !nd !nu7uddha 7e3lied, 8 ) am deli2ate1 )t is im3ossi6le <o7 me to go <o7th <7om the household li<e into the homeless state1 &ou do so18 H1 8But 2ome no5, dea7 !nu7uddha, ) 5ill tell you 5hat is in2ident to the household li<e1 Fi7st, you ha;e to get you7 <ields 3loughed1 +hen that is done, you ha;e to get them so5n1 +hen that is done, you ha;e to get the 5ate7 led do5n o;e7 them1 +hen that is done, you ha;e to get the 5ate7 led o<< again1 +hen that is done, you ha;e to get the seeds 3ulled u31 +hen that is done, you ha;e to get the 27o3 7ea3ed1 +hen that is done, you ha;e to get the 27o3 2a77ied a5ay1 +hen that is done, you ha;e to get it a77anged into 6undles1 +hen that is done, you ha;e to get it t7odden out1 +hen that is done, you ha;e to get the st7a5 3i2ked out1 +hen that is done you ha;e to get the 2ha<< 7emo;ed1 +hen that is done, you ha;e to get it 5inno5ed1 +hen that is done, you ha;e to get the ha7;est ga7ne7ed1 +hen that is done, you ha;e to do ?ust the same next yea7, and the same all o;e7 again the yea7 a<te7 that1 -1 8 "he 5o7k is ne;e7 o;e7 J one sees not the end o< one:s la6ou71 O, 5hen shall ou7 5o7k 6e o;e7 M +hen shall 5e see the end o< ou7 la6ou7s M +hen shall 5e, still 3ossessing and 7etaining the 3leasu7es o< ou7 <i;e senses, yet

d5ell at 7estM &es, the 5o7k, dea7 !nu7uddha, is ne;e7 o;e7 J no end a33ea7s to ou7 la6ou7s18 /1 8 "hen do you take thought <o7 the household duties1 ) 5ill go <o7th <7om the household li<e into the houseless state,8 said !nu7uddha1 D01 !nd !nu7uddha, the (akyan, 5ent to his mothe7, and said to he71 8 ) 5ant, mothe7, to go <o7th <7om the household li<e into the houseless state1 I7ant me thy 3e7mission to do so18 D D 1 !nd 5hen he had thus s3oken, his mothe7 7e3lied to !nu7uddha, the (akyan, saying ' 8 &ou t5o, dea7 !nu7uddha, a7e my t5o sons, nea7 and dea7 to me, in 5hom ) <ind no e;il1 "h7ough death ) shall some day, against my 5ill, 6e se3a7ated <7om you 6ut ho5 2an ) 6e 5illing, 5hilst you a7e still ali;e, that you should go <o7th <7om the household li<e into the houseless state M 8 DEF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DK1 !nd a se2ond time!nu7uddha made the same 7eCuest, and 7e2ei;ed the same 7e3ly1 !nd a thi7d time !nu7uddha made the same 7eCuest to his mothe71 DL1 #o5 at that time Bhaddiya, the (akyan a?a, held 7ule o;e7 the (akyans J and he 5as a <7iend o< !nu7uddha1 !nd the mothe7 o< !nu7uddha, thinking that that 6eing so, the 7a?a 5ould not 6e a6le to 7enoun2e the 5o7ld, said to he7 son' 8 Dea7 !nu7uddha, i< Bhaddiya the (akyan 7a?a 5ill 7enoun2e the 5o7ld, you also may go <o7th 5ith him18 D.1 "hen !nu7uddha 5ent to Bhaddiya and said to him ' 8 Ay 7enun2iation o< the 5o7ld, dea7 <7iend, is 6eing o6st7u2ted 6y you18 DE1 8"hen let that o6st7u2tion, dea7 <7iend, 6e 7emo;ed1 ) am 5ith you1 enoun2e the 5o7ld a22o7ding to you7 5ish18 DF1 8 Come, dea7 <7iend, let us 6oth 7enoun2e the 5o7ld togethe7! 8 DH1 8lam not 2a3a6le, dea7 <7iend, o< gi;ing u3 the household li<e1 +hatsoe;e7 else you 2an ask o< me, that 5ill ) do1 Do you go <o7th alone,8 said Bhaddiya1

D-1 8 Aothe7, dea7 <7iend, has told me that i< you do so, ) may1 !nd you ha;e e;en no5 de2la7ed, : )< you7 7enun2iation 6e o6st7u2ted 6y me, then let that o6st7u2tion 6e 7emo;ed1 E;en 5ith you 5ill ) 7enoun2e the 5o7ld a22o7ding to you7 5ish1: Come then, dea7 <7iend, let us 6oth 7enoun2e the 5o7ld18 D/1 !nd Bhaddiya, the (akyan 7a?a said to !nu7uddha, 8+ait, my <7iend, <o7 se;en yea7s1 !t the end o< se;en yea7s 5e 5ill 7enoun2e the 5o7ld togethe718 K01 8 (e;en yea7s a7e too long, dea7 <7iend1 ) am not a6le to 5ait <o7 se;en yea7s18 K D 1 Bhaddiya 7edu2ed the o<<e7 to six yea7s and so on do5n to one yea7, to se;en months and so on do5n to one month, and a <o7tnight1 "o ea2h o<<e7 !nu7uddha 7e3lied, 8 "oo long a time to 5ait18 KK1 "hen the 7a?a says ' 8 +ait, my <7iend, <o7 se;en days, 5hilst ) hand o;e7 the kingdom to my sons and my 67othe7s18 KL1 8 (e;en days is not too long1 ) 5ill 5ait thus <a7,8 5as the 7e3ly1

DEH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K.1 (o Bhaddiya the (akyan 7a?a and !nu7uddha and !nanda and Bhagu and *im6ila and De;adatta N ?ust as they had so o<ten 37e;iously gone out to the 3leasu7e-g7ound 5ith <ou7<old a77ay N e;en so did they no5 go out 5ith <ou7<old a77ay, and $3ali, the 6a76e7, 5ent 5ith them, making se;en in all1 KE1 !nd 5hen they had gone some distan2e they sent thei7 7etinue 6a2k and 27ossed o;e7 into the neigh6ou7ing dist7i2t, and took o<< thei7 <ine things and 57a33ed them in thei7 7o6es, and made a 6undle o< them, and said to $3ali the 6a76e7 ' 8 Do you no5, good $3ali, tu7n 6a2k to *a3ila;atsu1 "hese things 5ill 6e su<<i2ient <o7 you to: li;e u3on1 +e 5ill go and ?oin the Blessed One18 !nd so they 5ent ahead1

KF' "hey 5ent on and $3ali 3a7ted 2om3any <o7 the 3u73ose o< going 6a2k home1

'' .1 %ast attem3t to make Him a Householde71 ''

D 1 (uddhodana 5e3t 6itte7ly at the thought o< his son going a5ay ne;e7 to 6e seen again1 K1 "hen (uddhodana s3oke to his 2ounsello7 and his <amily 37iest and asked them i< they 2ould go and 3e7suade his son to stay 6a2k and ?oin the <amily1 L1 "he <amily 37iest a22om3anied 6y the 2ounsello7, in o6edien2e to the 5ishes o< the king, 5ent and o;e7took him on the 5ay1 .1 "hey 3aid him honou7 as 5as <itting, and ha;ing o6tained his 3e7mission, sat do5n nea7 him1 E1 "he <amily 37iest add7essed the %o7d as he sat at the <oot o< the t7ee1 F1 8O 37in2e, 2onside7 <o7 a moment the <eelings o< the king 5ith his eyes 7aining tea7s 5ith the a77o5 o< thy 7e3a7ation 3lunged into his hea7t1 He has asked you to 2ome 6a2k home1 )t is then only that he 2an die 3ea2e<ully1 H1 8 ) kno5 that thy 7esol;e is <ixed u3on 7eligion, and ) am 2on;in2ed that this 3u73ose o< thine is un2hanging J 6ut ) am 2onsumed 5ith a <lame o< anguish like <i7e at thy going into this homeless state1 DE-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> -1 8 Come, thou 5ho lo;e duty, N a6andon this 3u73ose <o7 the sake o< duty1 /1 8 En?oy <o7 a 5hile the so;e7eignty o< the ea7th, N thou shall go to the o7est at the time 37o;ided 6y the sast7as, N do not sho5 dis7ega7d <o7 thy unha33y kind7ed1 Com3assion <o7 all 27eatu7es is the t7ue 7eligion1

D01 8 eligion is not 57ought out only in the <o7ests, the sal;ation o< as2eti2s 2an 6e a22om3lished e;en in a 2ity J thought and e<<o7t a7e the t7ue means, the <o7est and the 6adge a7e only a 2o5a7d:s signs1 DD18 "he king o< the (akyas is d7o5ned in a dee3 sea o< so77o5, <ull o< 5a;es o< t7ou6le, s37inging <7om thee J do thou the7e<o7e deli;e7 him 5ho is hel3less and 37ote2t o7 less like an ox d7o5ning in the sea1 DK1 8 Conside7 also the Cueen, 5ho 67ought thee u3, 5ho has not yet gone to the 7egion inha6ited 6y !gastya N 5ilt thou not take some heed o< :he7, 5ho 2easelessly g7ie;es like a 2o5 that has lost he7 2al<M DL1 8 (u7ely thou 5ilt su22ou7 thy 5i<e 6y the1 sight o< thee, 5ho no5 mou7ns as a 5ido5 yet 5ith he7 lo7d still ali;e, N like a s5an se3a7ated <7om he7 mate o7 a <emale ele3hant dese7ted in the <o7est 6y he7 2om3anion18 D.1 "he %o7d ha;ing hea7d the 5o7ds o< the <amily 37iest, 7e<le2ted <o7 a moment, kno5ing all the ;i7tues o< the ;i7tuous, and then thus utte7ed his gentle 7e3ly'

'' E1 "he Buddha:s ans5e71 ''

D 1 8 ) 5ell kno5 the 3ate7nal tende7ness o< the king, es3e2ially that 5hi2h he has dis3layed to5a7ds me J yet kno5ing this as ) do, still ala7med at the ill and so77o5 5hi2h 3e7;ades the 5o7ld, ) am ine;ita6ly <o72ed to lea;e my kind7ed1 K1 8 +ho 5ould not 5ish to see his dea7 kind7ed, i< 6ut this se3a7ation <7om 6elo;ed ones did not existM But sin2e e;en a<te7 it has 6een on2e, se3a7ation 5ill still 2ome again, it is <o7 this that ) a6andon my <athe7, ho5e;e7 lo;ing1

DE/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

L1 8 ) do not ho5e;e7 a337o;e that thou should think8 the king:s g7ie< as 2aused 6y me, 5hen in the midst o< his d7eam -like unions, he is a<<li2ted 6y thoughts o< se3a7ations in the <utu7e1 .1 8 "hus let thy thoughts settle into 2e7tainty, ha;ing seen the multi<o7m in ts ;a7ious de;elo3mentsJ neithe7 a son no7 kind7ed is the 2ause o< so77o5, N this so77o5 is 2aused only 6y igno7an2e1 E1 8 (in2e 3a7ting is ine;ita6ly <ixed in the 2ou7se o< time <o7 all 6eings, ?ust as <o7 t7a;elle7s 5ho ha;e ?oined 2om3any on a 7oad, N 5hat 5ise man 5ould 2he7ish so77o5, 5hen he loses his kind7ed, e;en though he lo;es them M F1 8 %ea;ing his kind7ed in anothe7 5o7ld, he de3a7ts hithe7, and ha;ing stolen a5ay <7om them he7e, he goes <o7th on2e mo7e J ha;ings gone thithe7, he goes else5he7e also, N su2h is the lot o< mankind, N 5hat 2onside7ation 2an the li6e7ated ha;e <o7 them M H1 8 (in2e <7om the moment o< lea;ing the 5om6 death is a 2ha7a2te7isti2 ad?un2t, 5hy, in thy a<<e2tion <o7 thy son, has thou 2alled my de3a7tu7e to the <o7est ill-timed M -1 8"he7e may 6e an :ill time: in one:s attaining a 5o7ldly o6?e2t, N time indeed is des27i6ed as inse3a7a6ly 2onne2ted 5ith all thingsJ time d7ags the 5o7ld into all its ;a7ious times J 6ut all time suits a 6liss 5hi2h is 7eally 5o7thy o< 37aise1 /1 8 "hat the king should 5ish to su77ende7 to me his kingdom, N this is a no6le thought, 5ell 5o7thy o< a <athe7 J 6ut it 5ould 6e as im37o3e7 <o7 me to a22e3t it, as <o7 a si2k man th7ough g7eed to a22e3t un5holesome <ood1 D01 8 Ho5 2an it 6e 7ight <o7 the 5ise to ente7 7oyalty, the home o< illusion, 5he7e a7e <ound anxiety, 3assion, and 5ea7iness J and the ;iolation o< all 7ight th7ough anothe7:s se7;i2e M D D 1 8"he golden 3ala2e seems to me to 6e on <i7e J the daintiest ;iands seem mixed 5ith 3oison J in<ested 5ith 27o2odiles is the t7anCuil lotus -6ed18

DF0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

'' F1 "he Ainiste7:s 7e3ly1 ''

D1 Ha;ing hea7d the Buddha:s dis2ou7se, 5ell suita6le to his ;i7tues and kno5ledge, <7eed <7om all desi7es, <ull o< sound 7easons, and 5eighty, N the 2ounsello7 thus made ans5e7 ' K1 8 "his 7esol;e o< thine is an ex2ellent 2ounsel, not un<it in itsel< 6ut onlyun<it at the 37esent time ' it 2ould not 6e thy duty, lo;ing duty as thou do , to lea;e thy <athe7 in his old age to so77o5 L1 8 (u7ely thy mind is not ;e7y 3enet7ating, o7 it is ill -skilled in examining duty, 5ealth, and 3leasu7e, N 5hen <o7 the sake o< an unseen 7esult thou de3a7test dis7ega7ding a ;isi6le end1 .1 8 !gain some say that the7e is anothe7 6i7th, N othe7s 5ith 2on<ident asse7tion say that the7e is not, sin2e then the matte7 is all in dou6t, it is 7ight to en?oy the good <o7tune 5hi2h 2omes into thy hand1 E1 8 )< the7e is any a2ti;ity he7ea<te7, 5e 5ill en?oy ou7sel;es in it as may o<<e7 J o7 i< the7e is no a2ti;ity 6eyond this li<e, then the7e is an assu7ed li6e7ation to all the 5o7ld 5ithout any e<<o7t1 F1 8 (ome say the7e is a <utu7e li<e, 6ut they do not allo5 the 3ossi6ility o< li6e7ation J as <i7e is hot 6y natu7e, and 5ate7 liCuid, so they hold that the7e is a s3e2ial natu7e in ou7 3o5e7 o< a2tion1 H1 8 (ome maintain that all things a7ise <7om inhe7ent 37o3e7ties, N 6oth good and e;il and existen2e and non-existen2e ' and sin2e all this 5o7ld thus a7ises s3ontaneously, the7e<o7e also all e<<o7t o< ou7s is ;ain1

-1 8 (in2e the a2tion o< the senses is <ixed, and so too the ag7eea6leness o7 the disag7eea6leness o< out5a7d o6?e2ts, N then <o7 that 5hi2h is united to old age and 3ains, 5hat e<<o7t 2an a;ail to alte7 it M Does it not all a7ise s3ontaneously M /1 8 "he <i7e 6e2omes Cuen2hed 6y 5ate7, and <i7e 2auses 5ate7 to e;a3o7ate J and di<<e7ent elements, united in a 6ody, 37odu2ing unity, 6ea7 u3 the 5o7ld1 DFD

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D01 8 "hat the natu7e o< the em67yo in the 5om6 is 37odu2ed as 2om3osed o< hands, <eet, 6elly, 6a2k, and head, and that it is also united 5ith the soul, N the 5ise de2la7e that all this 2omes o< itsel< s3ontaneously1 D D 1 8+ho 2auses the sha73ness o< the tho7nM O7 the ;a7ious natu7es o< 6easts and 6i7ds M !ll this has a7isen s3ontaneously J the7e is no a2ting <7om desi7e, ho5 then 2an the7e 6e su2h a thing as 5ill M DK1 8 Othe7s say that 27eation 2omes <7om )s;a7a, N 5hat need then is the7e o< the e<<o7t o< the 2ons2ious soul M "hat 5hi2h is the 2ause o< the a2tion o< the 5o7ld, is also dete7mined as the 2ause o< its 2easing to a2t1 DL1 8 (ome say that the 2oming into 6eing and the dest7u2tion o< 6eing a7e alike 2aused 6y the soul, 6ut they say that 2oming into 6eing a7ises 5ithout e<<o7t, 5hile the attainment o< li6e7ation is 6y e<<o7t1 D.1 8! man dis2ha7ges his de6t to his an2esto7s 6y 6egetting o<<s37ing, to the saints 6y sa27ed lo7e, to the gods 6y sa27i<i2es J he is 6o7n 5ith these th7ee de6ts u3on him, N 5hoe;e7 has li6e7ation @<7om theseB, he indeed has li6e7ation1 DE18 "hus 6y this se7ies o< 7ules the 5ise 37omise li6e7ation to him 5ho uses e<<o7t J 6ut ho5e;e7 7eady <o7 e<<o7t 5ith all thei7 ene7gy, those 5ho seek

li6e7ation 5ill <ind 5ea7iness1 DF1 8 "he7e<o7e, gentle youth, i< thou has a lo;e <o7 li6e7ation, <ollo5 7ightly the 37es27i6ed 7ule J thus 5ilt thou thysel< attain to it, and the king:s g7ie< 5ill 2ome to an end1 DH18 !nd as <o7 thy meditations on the e;ils o< li<e ending in thy 7etu7n <7om the <o7est to thy home, N let not the thought o< this t7ou6le thee, my son, N those in old time also ha;e 7etu7ned <7om the <o7ests to thei7 houses18 He mentioned !m6a7ish D7umakesha, ama and othe7s1 H1 "he Buddha:s Dete7mination1

D 1 "hen ha;ing hea7d the a<<e2tionate and loyal 5o7ds o< the ministe7, 5ho 5as as the eye o< the king, N <i7m in his 7esol;e, the king:s son made his ans5e7, 5ith nothing omitted o7 dis3la2ed, neithe7 tedious no7 hasy'

DFK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K1 8 "his dou6t 5hethe7 anything exists o7 not, is not to 6e sol;ed <o7 me 6y anothe7:s 5o7ds J ha;ing dete7mined the t7uth 6y as2eti2ism o7 Cuietism, ) 5ill mysel< g7as3 5hate;e7 is the t7uth 2on2e7ning it1 L1 8)t is not <o7 me to a22e3t a theo7y 5hi2h de3ends on the unkno5n and is DD 2ont7o;e7ted, and 5hi2h in;ol;es a hund7ed 37e3ossessions J 5hat 5ise man 5ould go 6y anothe7:s 6elie<M Aankind is like the 6lind di7e2ted in da7kness 6y the 6lind1 .1 8 But e;en though ) 2annot dis2e7n the t7uth, yet still, i< good and e;il a7e dou6ted, let one:s mind 6e set on the good J e;en a toil in ;ain is to 6e 2hosen 6y him 5hose soul is good1 E1 8 But ha;ing seen that this : sa27ed t7adition : is un2e7tain, kno5 that that only is 7ight 5hi2h has 6een utte7ed 6y the t7ust5o7thyJ and kno5 that

t7ust5o7thiness means the a6sen2e o< <aults J he 5ho is 5ithout <aults 5ill not utte7 an unt7uth1 F1 8!nd as <o7 5hat thou said to me in 7ega7d to my 7etu7ning home, the exam3les you gi;e a7e no autho7ity, N <o7 in dete7mining duty, ho5 2an thou Cuote as autho7ities those 5ho ha;e 67oken thei7 ;o5s M H1 8 E;en the sun the7e<o7e may <all to the ea7th, e;en the mountain Hima;at may lose its <i7mness J 6ut ne;e7 2ould ) 7etu7n to my home as a man o< the 5o7ld, 5ith my senses only ale7t <o7 exte7nal o6?e2ts1 -1 8 ) 5ould ente7 the 6laOing <i7e, 6ut not my house 5ith my 3u73ose un<ul<illed18 ising u3 in a22o7dan2e 5ith his 7esol;e <ull o< disinte7estedness, he 5ent his 5ay1 /1 "hen the ministe7 and the B7ahmin, 6oth <ull o< tea7s, ha;ing hea7d his <i7m dete7mination, and ha;ing <ollo5ed him a5hile 5ith des3ondent looks, and o;e72ome 5ith so77o5, slo5ly 7etu7ned to *a3ila;atsu1 D01 "h7ough thei7 lo;e <o7 the 37in2e and thei7 de;otion to the king they 7etu7ned, and o<ten sto33ed looking 6a2k, they 2ould neithe7 6ehold him on the 7oad no7 yet lose the sight o< him, N shining in his o5n s3lendou7 and 6eyond the 7ea2h o< all othe7s, like the sun1 DD1 Ha;ing <ailed to 3e7suade him to 7etu7n home, the ministe7 and the 37iest 5ent 6a2k 5ith <alte7ing ste3s, saying to ea2h othe7, 8 Ho5 shall 5e a337oa2h the king and see him, 5ho is longing <o7 his dea7 son M8 DFL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

Pa7t G N Cam3aign <o7 Con;e7sion

esumed1

) '' D1 Con;e7sion o< usti2 B7ahmins1 '' R '' K1 Con;e7sion o< the B7ahmins o< $tta7a;ati1 ''

'' D1 Con;e7sion o<

usti2 B7ahmins1 ''

D1 !t the 6a2k o< the I7idh7akutta mountains, nea7 a?ag7iha, the7e 5as a ;illage, o< some se;enty o7 so <amilies, all o< them B7ahmins1 K1 "he Buddha, 5ishing to 2on;e7t these 3eo3le, 2ame to the 3la2e and sat do5n unde7 a t7ee1 L1 "he 3eo3le seeing the dignity o< his 37esen2e, and the glo7ious a33ea7an2e o< his 6ody, <lo2ked 7ound him, on 5hi2h he asked the B7ahmins ho5 long they had d5elt in the mountain the7e, and 5hat thei7 o22u3ation 5as1 .1 "o this they 7e3lied' 8+e ha;e d5elt he7e du7ing thi7ty gene7ations 3ast, and ou7 o22u3ation is to tend 2attle18 E1 On asking <u7the7 as to thei7 7eligious 6elie< they said ' 8 +e 3ay homage and sa27i<i2e to the sun and the moon, the 7ain @5ate7B, and <i7e, a22o7ding to the se;e7al seasons1 F1 8 )< one o< us dies, 5e assem6le and 37ay that he may 6e 6o7n in the hea;en o< B7ahma, and so es2a3e <u7the7 t7ansmig7ations18 H1 "he Buddha 7e3lied' 8 "his is not a sa<e 5ay, not 6y it 2an you 6ene<it1 "he t7ue 5ay is to <ollo5 me, 6e2ome t7ue as2eti2s, and 37a2tise 2om3lete sel< 9 2om3osu7e 5ith a ;ie5 to o6tain #i7;ana 8J and then he added these lines ' -1 8"hey 5ho 2onside7 t7uth as that 5hi2h is unt7ue, and 7ega7d that 5hi2h is unt7ue as t7uth, this is 6ut to ado3t he7eti2al o3inions, and 2an ne;e7 lead to t7ue ad;antage1 DF.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> /1 8 But to kno5 as t7uth that 5hi2h is t7ue, and to 7ega7d as <alse that 5hi2h is <alse, this is 3e7<e2t 7e2titude, and this shall 67ing t7ue 37o<it1 D01 8 E;e7y5he7e in the 5o7ld the7e is death N the7e is no es2a3e <7om it1 DD1 8"o 2onside7 this as the 2ondition o< all states o< 6eing that the7e is

nothing 6o7n 6ut must die, and, the7e<o7e, to desi7e to es2a3e 6i7th and death, this is to exe72ise one:s sel< in eligious "7uth18 DK1 "he se;enty B7ahmins hea7ing these 5o7ds, desi7ed at on2e to 6e2ome (hamans J and on 6eing 5el2omed 6y Buddha, thei7 hai7 <ell o<<, and they 37esented the a33ea7an2e o< t7ue dis2i3les1 DL1 "hen they all set out to 7etu7n to the Giha7a, and on the 7oad 2e7tain thoughts a6out thei7 5i;es and <amilies t7ou6led them 5hilst at the same time a hea;y do5n3ou7 o< 7ain 37e;ented thei7 ad;an2e1 D.1 "he7e 5e7e some ten houses on the 7oadside, in 5hi2h they sought shelte7J 6ut on ente7ing one o< them it 5as soon 3e72ei;ed that th7ough the 7oo< the 7ain <ound its 5ay, and the7e 5as 6ut little 37ote2tion <7om the 7ain1 DE1 On this the Buddha added these lines, and said, 8 !s 5hen a house -7oo< is not 37o3e7ly se2u7ed, then the 7ain <inds a 5ay th7ough it and d7o3s 5ithin, so 5hen the thoughts a7e not 2a7e<ully 2ont7olled, the desi7es @sexual desi7esB 5ill soon 6o7e th7ough all ou7 good 7esolutions1 DF1 8 But as 5hen a 7oo< is 5ell sto33ed then the 5ate7 2annot leak th7ough, so 6y 2ont7olling one:s thoughts, and a2ting 5ith 7e<le2tion, no su2h desi7es 2an a7ise o7 distu76 us18 D H1 "he se;enty B7ahmins, on hea7ing these lines, although 2on;in2ed that thei7 desi7es 5e7e 7e37ehensi6le, yet 5e7e not 5holly <7ee <7om dou6t, ne;e7theless they 5ent <o75a7d1 D-1 !s they ad;an2ed they sa5 some s2ented 57a33ing on the g7ound, and Buddha took the o33o7tunity o< 2alling thei7 attention to it J and a<te7 this, seeing some <ish -gut also lying a6out, he di7e2ted thei7 noti2e to its ill odou7 and then added these lines and said' D/1 8 He 5ho 2onso7ts 5ith the lo5 and the 6ase, 2ont7a2ts the same 2ha7a2te7 as he 5ho handles a <oul su6stan2eJ he goes <7om 5o7se to 5o7se, and utte7ly 5ithout 7eason, he 3e7<e2ts himsel< in 5i2kedness1 DFE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

K01 8 But the 5ise man @2onso7ting 5ith the 5iseB 2ont7a2ts the same 2ha7a2te7, e;en as the s2ent o< a s5eet odou7 adhe7es to him 5ho handles itJ ad;an2ing in 5isdom, 37a2tising ;i7tue, he goes on to 3e7<e2tion, and is satis<ied18 K D 1 "he se;enty B7ahmins, hea7ing these ;e7ses, 2on;in2ed that thei7 desi7e to 7etu7n home and en?oy 3e7sonal indulgen2e 5as the e;il taint that adhe7ed to them, 2ast o<< su2h thoughts, and, going <o75a7d, 2ame to the Giha7a, and <inally o6tained the 2ondition o< !7ahtas1 '' K1 Con;e7sion o< the B7ahmins o< $tta7a;ati1 ''

D1 On2e the Buddha 5as 7esiding in the Peta;ana, at (h7a;asti, and 37ea2hing his do2t7ine <o7 the 6ene<it o< men and gods, the7e 5e7e in a 2ount7y to the east5a7d, 2alled $tta7a;ati, a 2om3any o< E00 B7ahmins1 K1 "hey had ag7eed to go togethe7 to the 7esiden2e o< a #i7g7antha as2eti2 on the 6anks o< the Ianges, 5ho, 6y 3olluting himsel< 5ith di7t, et21, as3i7ed to the 2ondition o< a ishi1 L1 On thei7 5ay they 5e7e o;e7taken in the dese7t 5ith thi7st1 (eeing a t7ee, and ho3ing to <ind some human ha6itation nea7, they hasened to it, 6ut 5hen they a77i;ed the7e they <ound no sign o< li<e1 .1 On this they 7aised thei7 ;oi2es in lamentation1 (uddenly <7om the t7ee they hea7d the ;oi2e o< the 7esident (3i7it, 5ho asked them 5hy they lamented so, and on hea7ing the 7eason, su33lied them to the <ull 5ith d7ink and meat1 E1 "he B7ahmins, 7eady to sta7t on5a7d, asked the (3i7it 5hat had 6een his 37e;ious histo7y, that he 5as thus 6o7n1 F1 On 5hi2h he ex3lained that ha;ing gone to the assem6ly o< 37iests in (h7a;asti 5hen (udatta had 6esto5ed the ga7den on the Buddha, he had 7emained all night listening to the la5 Dhamma and ha;ing <illed his d7inking 2u3 5ith 5ate7 as he 5ent, had 6esto5ed it in 2ha7ity among the 37iests1 H1 On his 7etu7n next mo7ning, his 5i<e in ange7 asked him 5hat annoyan2e he had 7e2ei;ed that he should stay a5ay all night1 On 5hi2h he 7e3lied that

DFF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> he 5as not annoyed, 6ut he had 6een to listen to the Buddha 37ea2hing at the Peta;ana1 -1 On this his 5i<e 6egan 7oundly to a6use the Buddha, and said, 8"his Iotama is 6ut a mad 37ea2he7, 5ho de2ei;es the 3eo3le,8 and so on1 /1 8On this 8 he said, 8 ) 7esented not he7 statements, 6ut 7athe7 su6mitted to them and so 5hen ) 2ame to die ) 5as 6o7n as a s3i7it, 6ut on a22ount o< my 3usillanimity ) 5as 2on<ined to this t7ee,8 and then he 7e2ited these ;e7ses1 D01 8 (a27i<i2es and su2h se7;i2es a7e sou72es o< mise7y, day and night, a 2ontinual 6u7den and anxiety1 DD1 8"o es2a3e so77o5, and dest7oy the elements o< the 6ody, a man should attend to the %a5 @o< BuddhaB, and a77i;e at deli;e7an2e <7om all 5o7ldly ules o< eligion @+o7ld ishisB18 DK1 "he B7ahmins ha;ing hea7d these 5o7ds, 7esol;ed themsel;es to go to (h7a;asti, to the 3la2e 5he7e the Buddha 5as, and ha;ing ex3lained the o6?e2t o< thei7 ;isit, the 5o7ld-honou7ed said to them' DL1 8!lthough a man goes naked 5ith tangled hai7, o7 though he 2lothes himsel< 5ith a <e5 lea;es o7 ga7ment o< 6a7k, though he 2o;e7s himsel< 5ith di7t and slee3s on the stones, 5hat use is this in getting 7id o< im3u7e thoughts M D.1 8But he 5ho neithe7 2ontends o7 kills, o7 dest7oys 6y <i7e, 5ho desi7es not to get the ;i2to7y, 5ho is mo;ed 6y good5ill to5a7ds all the 5o7ld, the7e is no g7ound in su2h a 2ase <o7 ill-5ill o7 hate1 DE1 8"o sa27i<i2e to s3i7its in o7de7 to <ind 3ea2e @me7itB, o7, a<te7 this li<e ex3e2ting 7e5a7d, his ha33iness, is not one Cua7te7 o< that man:s 5ho 3ays homage to the good1 DF1 8He 5ho is e;e7 intent on good 2ondu2t and due 7e;e7en2e to othe7s, 5ho al5ays ;ene7ates old age, <ou7 ha33y 2onseCuen2es in27easingly attend

that man N 6eauty and st7ength, and li<e and 3ea2e18 D H1 On hea7ing this <7om he7 hus6and the 5i<e 6e2ame 7e2on2iled1

DFH

@/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> Pa7t G) N Con;e7sion o< the %o5 and the %o5ly1 D1 Con;e7sion o< $3ali, the Ba76e71 ''

K1 Con;e7sion o< (unita, the (5ee3e71

L1 Con;e7sion o< (o3aka and (u33ly a, the $ntou2ha6les1

.1 Con;e7sion o< (umangala and othe7 %o5 Castes1

E1 Con;e7sion o< (u37a6uddha, the %e3e71

'' D1 Con;e7sion o< $3ali, the Ba76e71 '' D1 +hile going 6a2k $3ali, the 6a76e7 thought' 8"he (akyans a7e a<ie72e 3eo3le1 )< ) go 6a2k 5ith these o7naments they 5ill kill me thinking that ) ha;e killed my 2om3anions and 7un a5ay 5ith thei7 o7naments1 +hy should ) not go the 5ay these young men o< the (akya 2lan ha;e gone M8 K1 8+hy indeed should ) notM8 asked $3ali to himsel<1 !nd he let do5n the 6undle o< o7naments <7om his 6a2k, and hung it on a t7ee, saying' 8 %et him 5ho <inds it take it as a gi<t,8 and 7etu7ned to <ollo5 the (akya youths1 L1 !nd the (akyans sa5 him 2oming <7om a<a7, and on seeing, they said to him' 8 +hat ha;e you 2ome 6a2k <o7, good $3ali M 8

.1 "hen he told them 5hat he <elt and they 7e3lied' 8 "hou has done 5ell, good $3ali, in that thou did not 7etu7nJ <o7 the (akyans a7e <ie72e, and they might ha;e killed thee18 E1 !nd they took $3ali the 6a76e7 5ith them to the 3la2e 5he7e the Blessed One 5as1 !nd on a77i;ing the7e, they 6o5ed do5n 6e<o7e the Blessed One and took thei7 seats on one side1 !nd so seated they said to the Blessed One ' F1 8 +e (akyans, %o7d, a7e haughty1 !nd this $3ali, the 6a76e7, has long 6een an attendant, %o7d, u3on us1 Aay1 the Blessed One admit him to the O7de7 6e<o7e us, so that 5e may 7ende7 him 7es3e2t and 7e;e7en2e, and 6o5 do5n 5ith outst7et2hed hands 6e<o7e him as ou7 senio7 and thus shall the (akyan 37ide 6e hum6led in us )8 H1 "hen the Blessed One 7e2ei;ed <i7st $3ali, the 6a76e7, and a<te75a7ds those young men o< the (akya 2lan, into the 7anks o< the O7de71

DF-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

'' K1 Con;e7sion o< (unita, the (5ee3e71 ''

D1 "he7e li;ed in a?ag7aha a s2a;enge7 6y name (unita1 He ea7ned his li;ing as a 7oad s5ee3e7, s5ee3ing a5ay the 7u66ish th7o5n 6y the householde7s on the 7oadside1 His 5as a lo5 and he7edita7y o22u3ation1 K1 One day in the ea7ly hou7s o< the da5n the Blessed One 7ose, d7essed himsel< and 5alked into a?ag7aha <o7 alms <ollo5ed 6y a la7ge num6e7 o< Bhikkus1 L1 #o5 (unita 5as 2leaning the st7eet, 2olle2ting s27a3s, 7u66ish, and so on into hea3s and <illing the7e5ith the 6asket 5hi2h he 2a77ied on a yoke1 .1 !nd 5hen he sa5 the Aaste7 and his t7ain a337oa2hing, his hea7t 5as <illed 5ith ?oy and a5e1

E1 Finding no 3la2e to hide in on the 7oad, he 3la2ed his yoke in a 6end in the 5all and stood as i< stu2k to the 5all, saluting the %o7d 5ith 2las3ed hands1 F1 "hen the %o7d 5hen he had 2ome nea7, s3oke to him in ;oi2e di;inely s5eet, saying' 8 (unita! +hat to you is this 57et2hed mode o< li;ing M Can you endu7e to lea;e home and 2ome into the O7de7M8 H1 !nd (unita, ex3e7ien2ing the 7a3tu7e o< one 5ho has 6een s37inkled 5ith !m67osia, said' 8)< e;en su2h as the Exalted One may in this li<e take O7de7s, 5hy should ) not M Aay the Exalted One su<<e7 me to 2ome <o7th18 -1 "hen the Aaste7 said' 8 Come Bhikku )8 !nd (unita 6y that 5o7d 7e2ei;ed san2tion and o7dination and 5as in;ested 5ith 6o5l and 7o6es1 /1 "he Aaste7 leading him to the Giha7 taught him the Dhamma and the Dis2i3line and said, 8By the dis2i3line o< holy li<e, 7est7aint and maste7y o< sel<, a man 6e2omes holy18 D01 +hen asked ho5 (unita 6e2ame so g7eat, the Buddha said, 8!s on a 7u66ish-hea3 on high5ay 2ast a lily may g7o5, <7ag7ant and s5eet, so among 7u66ish-27eatu7es, 5o7ldlings 6lind 6y insight shines the ;e7y Buddha:s 2hild18

DF/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

'' L1 Con;e7sion o< (o3aka and (u33ly a, the $ntou2ha6les1

D 1 (o3aka 5as a 3a7iah o< (h7a;asti1 )n he7 t7a;ail at his 6i7th his mothe7 <ell into a long dee3 s5oon, so that he7 hus6and and kins<olk said 8 (he is dead!8 !nd they 6o7e he7 to the 2emete7y and 37e3a7ed to 27emate he7 6ody1 K1 But on a22ount o< the sto7m o< 5ind and 7ain the <i7e 5ould not 6u7n1 (o they 5ent a5ay lea;ing (o3aka:s mothe7 on the <une7al 3y7e1

L1 (o3aka:s mothe7 5as not then dead1 (he died a<te75a7ds1 Be<o7e he7 death she ga;e 6i7th to a 2hild1 .1 "he 2hild 5as ado3ted 6y the 5at2hman o< the 2emete7y and 5as 67ought u3 6y him along 5ith his o5n 2hild (u33iya1 "he 2hild 5as kno5n 6y the name o< the 2ommunity (o3aka to 5hi2h its mothe7 6elonged1 E1 "he Blessed %o7d one day ha33ened to 3ass 6y the 2emete7y1 (o3aka, seeing the %o7d, a337oa2hed him1 !<te7 saluting the %o7d he asked his 3e7mission to ?oin him as his dis2i3le1 F1 (o3aka 5as then only se;en yea7s old1 (o the %o7d asked him to o6tain his <athe7:s 2onsent1 H1 (o3aka 5ent and <et2hed his <athe71 "he <athe7 saluted the %o7d and 7eCuested him to admit his son to the O7de71 -1 #ot5ithstanding that he 6elonged to the 3a7iah 2ommunity the %o7d admitted him to the O7de7 and inst7u2ted him in the do2t7ine and dis2i3line1 /1 (o3aka late7 6e2ame a "he7a1 D01 (u33iya and (o3aka had g7o5n togethe7 <7om 2hildhood and (o3aka ha;ing 6een ado3ted and 67ought u3 6y (u33iya:s <athe7, (u33iya lea7ned the %o7d:s do2t7ine and dis2i3line <7om his 2om3anion, (o3aka, and 7eCuested (o3aka to admit him to the O7de7, although (o3aka 6elonged to a 2ommunity 5hi2h 5as lo5e7 in 7ank than the 2ommunity to 5hi2h (u33iya 6elonged1

DH0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D D 1 (o3aka ag7eed and (u33iya, a mem6e7 5ho 6elonged to the des3ised 2ommunity 5hose o22u3ation 5as to 3e7<o7m the duties o< 5at2hmen in the 2emete7y, 6e2ame a Bhikku1

'' .1 Con;e7sion o< (umangala and othe7 %o5 Castes1 ''

D1 (umangala 5as a 3easant o< (h7a;asti1 He ea7ned his li;ing 6y 5o7k in the <ields, 5o7king 5ith a little si2kle, 3lough and s3ade1 K1 Channa 5as a nati;e o< *a3ila;atsu and 5as a sla;e in the house o<

(uddhodana1 L1 Dhanniya 5as a 7esident o< a?ag7aha1 He 5as a 3otte71

.1 *a33ata-*u7a 5as a nati;e o< (h7a;asti1 "he only 5ay he kne5 o<, to su33o7t himsel<, 5as to go a6out, 2lad in 7ags, 3an in hand, seeking <o7 7i2eg7ains1 Hen2e he 6e2ame kno5n as *a33ata-*u7a N 8 ags and-7i2e18 +hen g7o5n u3, he maintained himsel< 6y selling g7ass1 E1 !ll o< them sought <7om the Buddha 3e7mission to 6e2ome Bhikkus and ente7 the O7de71 "he Buddha 5ithout hesitation and 5ithout 2a7ing <o7 thei7 lo5 6i7th o7 thei7 37e;ious 2ondition, admitted them into the O7de71 '' E1 Con;e7sion o< (u37a6uddha, the %e3e71 ''

D1 On2e the Exalted One 5as staying nea7 g7o;e, at the sCui77els: <eeding -g7ound1

a?ag7aha, in the 6am6oo

K1 #o5 the7e li;ed in a?ag7aha at that time a 2e7tain man, 5ho 5as a le3e7, named (u337a6uddha, a 3oo7, 57et2hed, mise7a6le 27eatu7e1 L1 !nd it ha33ened at that time that the Exalted One 5as sitting the7e in the midst o< a g7eat multitude, tea2hing the Dhamma1 .1 !nd (u337a6uddha, the le3e7, sa5 <7om a<a7 the multitude gathe7ed togethe7, and at the sight he thought, 8 +ithout a dou6t an alms -gi;ing o< <ood, 6oth ha7d and so<t, is to5a7d yonde71 (u33ose ) d7a5 nea7 to yonde7 27o5d, ) might get the7e something to eat, <ood so<t o7 ha7d18 DHD

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> E1 (o (u337a6uddha, the le3e7, d7e5 nea7 that 27o5d, and he 6eheld the Exalted One sitting the7e amid a g7eat 27o5d, 37ea2hing the #o7m1 (o, seeing the Exalted One he thought' 8#o1 "he7e is no alms -gi;ing he7e o< <ood1 )t is Iotama the (amana 37ea2hing the Dhamma in the assem6ly1 (u33ose ) 5e7e to listen to his tea2hing18 F1 (o he sat do5n at one side, thinking, 8 ) too 5ill listen to the tea2hing18 H1 #o5 the Exalted One, 7eading 5ith His thought the thoughts o< that 5hole gathe7ing, said to Himsel<, 8 +ho, ) 5onde7, o< these 37esent, is a6le

to g7as3 the "7uthM8 "hen He sa5 (u337a6uddha, the le3e7, sitting in the 27o5d ' and at the sight o< him He kne5, 8 "his one 2an g7as3 the "7uth18 -1 (o <o7 the sake o< (u337a6uddha, the le3e7, the Aaste7 37ea2hed a se7mon, dealing in due o7de7 5ith these to3i2s1 On alms -gi;ing, on the holy li<e, and on the hea;en-5o7ld ' and He 3ointed out the meanness and ;ileness o< sensual desi7es and the 37o<it o< <7eedom <7om the asa;as1 /1 #o5 5hen the Exalted One sa5 that the hea7t o< (u337a6uddha, the le3e7, 5as so<tened, 3liant, set <7ee, elated, and <ull o< <aith, then He set <o7th to him the Dhamma most ex2ellent o< the Buddha, to 5it, su<<e7ing, the 2ause o< su<<e7ing, the 2easing o< su<<e7ing, and the 3ath1 D01 "hen, ?ust as a 5hite 2loth, <7ee <7om stains, is 7eady to 7e2ei;e the dye, e;en so in (u337a6uddha, the le3e7, as he sat the7e in that ;e7y 3la2e, a7ose the 3u7e stainless insight o< the "7uth, the kno5ledge that 5hatsoe;e7 hath a 6eginning, that also must ha;e an end1 !nd (u337a6uddha, the le3e7, sa5 the "7uth, 7ea2hed the "7uth, 3e72ei;ed the t7uth, 3lunged into the "7uth, 27ossed 6eyond dou6ting, 5as <7eed <7om all Cues-tionings, 5on 2on<iden2e, and needing nothing <u7the7, 6eing esta6lished in the Aaste7:s tea2hing, s37ang u3 <7om his seat and d7e5 nea7 to Him, and the7e he sat do5n at one side1 D D 1 (o seated he said to the Exalted One, 8 Ex2ellent, O %o7d Ex2ellent, O, %o7d, ?ust as i<, %o7d, one should li<t u3 the <allen, dis2o;e7 the hidden, 3oint out the 5ay to one 6e5ilde7ed, sho5 a light in the gloom, saying, : #o5 they 5ho ha;e eyes to see 2an see sha3es,: e;en so in di;e7se 5ays has the Exalted One ex3ounded the t7uth1 ), e;en ), %o7d, do go <o7 7e<uge to the Exalted One, to the #o7m and to the O7de7 o< B7eth7en1 Aay the Exalted One a22e3t me as His <ollo5e7, as one 5ho <7om this time <o7th e;en to li<e:s end has gone to 7e<uge in Him18 DHK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

DK1 "he7eu3on (u337a6uddha, the le3e7, 6eing taught, esta6lished, 7oused, and made ha33y 6y the Exalted One:s 3ious talk, 37aised and 5el2omed His 5o7ds, ga;e thanks and 7ose u3 <7om his seat, saluted the Exalted One 6y the 7ight, and 5ent a5ay1 DL1 $n<o7tunately it 2ame to 3ass that a young 2al< <lung the le3e7 (u337a6uddha do5n and go7ed him to death1 Pa7t G)) N Con;e7sion o< +omen1 0 '' D1 Con;e7sion o< Aaha37a?a3ati Iotami, &eshodha7a and he7 Com3anions1 '' '' K1 Con;e7sion o< P7ak7ati a Chandalika1 ''

'' D1 Con;e7sion o< Aaha37a?a3ati Iotami, &eshodha7a and he7 Com3anions1 ''

D 1 +hen the Blessed One had 6een on a ;isit to his <athe7:s home the desi7e to ?oin the (angh 5as as keen among the (akya 5omen as it 5as among the (akya men1 K1 "he leade7 o< su2h 5omen 5as no othe7 than Aaha37a?a3ati Iotami1 L1 #o5 at the time 5hen the Blessed One 5as staying among the (akyas in the #ig7odha7ama, Aaha37a?a3ati Iotami 5ent to him and said' 8 )t 5ould 6e 5ell1 %o7d, i< 5omen 5e7e allo5ed to 6e2ome Pa7i;7a?akas and ente7 the (angh unde7 the do2t7ine and dis2i3line 37o2laimed 6y the "athagata )8 .1 8 Enough, O Iotami ) %et not su2h a thought 2ome into you7 mind18 !nd a se2ond and a thi7d time did Aaha37a?a3ati make the same 7eCuest in the same 5o7ds, and a se2ond and a thi7d time did she 7e2ei;e the same 7e3ly1 E1 "hen Aaha37a?a3ati Iotami, sad and so77o5<ul, 6o5ed do5n 6e<o7e the Blessed One, and 5ent a5ay 5ee3ing and in tea7s1 F1 !<te7 the Blessed One had le<t #ig7odha7ama <o7 his 5ande7ings, Aaha37a?a3ati and the (akya 5omen sat togethe7 to gi;e <u7the7 2onside7ation to thei7 7eCuest <o7 admission to the (angh and the 7e<usal o< the %o7d to g7ant su2h a 7eCuest1 DHL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> H1 "he (akya 5omen 7e<used to take the %o7d:s 7e<usal as <inal1 "hey de2ided to go <u7the7 to assume the ga76 o< a Pa7i;7a?aka and 37esent the %o7d 5ith a <ait a22om3li1 -1 !22o7dingly Aaha37a?a3ati Iotami 2ut o<< he7 hai7 and 3ut on o7ange2olou7ed 7o6es and set out 5ith a num6e7 o< 5omen o< the (akya 2lan, on he7 ?ou7ney to meet the %o7d 5ho 5as at that time staying in Gesali in the Aaha;ana in the *utaga7a Hall1 /1 )n due 2ou7se Aaha37a?a3ati Iotami 5ith he7 2om3anions a77i;ed at Gesali and 5ith s5ollen <eet and 2o;e7ed 5ith dust 2ame to the *utoga7a Hall1 D01 !gain she made the same 7eCuest to the Blessed %o7d 5hi2h she had made 5hen he 5as staying at #ig7odha7ama and he 7e<used it again1 DD1 On 7e2ei;ing his 7e<usal a se2ond time Aaha37a?a3ati 5ithd7e5 and 5as standing outside the ent7an2e o< the hall not kno5ing 5hat to do1 +hile she 5as so standing !nanda on his 5ay to the hall sa5 he7 and 7e2ognised he71 DK1 He then asked Aaha37a?a3ati, 8 +hy standest thou the7e, outside the 3o72h, 5ith s5ollen <eet, 2o;e7ed 5ith dust, and so77o5<ul, 5ee3ing and in tea7sM8 8)nasmu2h, O !nanda, as the %o7d, the Blessed One, does not 3e7mit 5omen to 7enoun2e thei7 homes and ente7 the homeless state unde7 the do2t7ine and dis2i3line 37o2laimed 6y the "athagata,8 said Aaha37a?a3ati1 DL1 "hen did the Gene7a6le !nanda go u3 to the 3la2e 5he7e the Blessed One 5as, and 6o5ed do5n 6e<o7e the Blessed One, and take his seat on one side1 !nd, so sitting, the Gene7a6le !nanda said to the Blessed One ' 8 Behold, %o7dJ Aaha37a?a3ati Iotami is standing outside unde7 the ent7an2e 3o72h, 5ith s5ollen <eet 2o;e7ed 5ith dust, sad and so77o5<ul, 5ee3ing and in tea7s, inasmu2h as the Blessed One does not 3e7mit 5omen to 7enoun2e thei7 homes and ente7 the homeless state unde7 the do2t7ine and dis2i3line 37o2laimed 6y the Blessed One1 )t 5e7e 5ell, %o7d, i< 5omen 5e7e to ha;e 3e7mission g7anted to them to do as she desi7es1 D.1 8 Has not Aaha37a?a3ati 37o;ed he7sel< o< g7eat se7;i2e to the Blessed One, 5hen as aunt and nu7se she nou7ished him and ga;e him milk, and on

the death o< his mothe7 su2kled the Blessed One at he7 o5n 67eastJ it 5e7e, the7e<o7e, 5ell1 %o7d that 5omen should ha;e 3e7mission to go <o7th <7om DH.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> the household li<e and ente7 the homeless state, unde7 the do2t7ine and dis2i3line 37o2laimed 6y the "athagata18 DE1 8Enough !nanda" %et it not, 3lease, that 5omen should 6e allo5ed to do so18 ! se2ond time and a thi7d time did !nanda make the same 7eCuest, in the same 5o7ds, and 7e2ei;ed the same 7e3ly1 DF1 "hen the Gene7a6le !nanda asked the Blessed One ' 8 +hat 2an 6e the g7ound1 %o7d, <o7 you7 7e<usal to allo5 5omen to take Pa7i;7a?a1 DH18 "he %o7d kno5s that the B7ahmins hold that the (hud7as and 5omen 2annot 7ea2h moksha @(al;ationB 6e2ause they a7e un2lean and in<e7io71 "hey do the7e<o7e not allo5 (hud7as and 5omen to take Pa7i;7a?a1 Does the Blessed One hold the same ;ie5 as the B7ahmins M D-1 Has not the Blessed One allo5ed the (hud7as to take Pa7i;7a?a and ?oin the (angh in the same 5ay he has done to the B7ahmins M +hat is the g7ound1 %o7d, <o7 t7eating 5omen di<<e7ently M D/1 Does the Blessed One hold that 5omen a7e not 2a3a6le o< 7ea2hing #i66ana unde7 the do2t7ine and dis2i3line 37o2laimed 6y the Blessed One M8 K01 "he Blessed One 7e3lied ' 8 !nanda ) Do not misunde7stand me1 ) hold that 5omen a7e as mu2h 2a3a6le as men in the matte7 o< 7ea2hing #i66ana1 !nanda" do not misunde7stand me, ) am not an u3holde7 o< the do2t7ine o< sex ineCuality1 Ay 7e?e2tion o< Aaha37a?a3ati:s 7eCuest is not 6ased on sex ineCuality1 )t is 6ased on 37a2ti2al g7ounds18 KD1 8) am ha33y1 %o7d, to kno5 the 7eal 7eason1 But must the %o7d 7e<use he7 7eCuest 6e2ause o< 37a2ti2al di<<i2ulties M +ould not su2h an a2t 67ing the Dhamma into dis27edit and make it o3en to the 2ha7ge o< u3holding sex ineCualityM Could not the %o7d de;ise some 7ules to get o;e7 su2h 37a2ti2al di<<i2ulties 6y 5hi2h the %o7d is 5o77iedM8

KK1 8 +ell, !nanda, ) g7ant i< Aaha37a?a3ati insists that 5omen must 6e allo5ed to take Pa7i;7a?a unde7 the do2t7ine and dis2i3line 37o2laimed 6y me1 But it shall 6e su6?e2t to eight 2onditions1 %et Aaha37a?a3ati Iotami take u3on he7sel< the 7es3onsi6ility o< en<o72ing the Eight Chie< ules1 "hat 5ill 6e he7 initiation18

DHE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KL1 "hen the Gene7a6le !nanda, 5hen he lea7nt <7om the Blessed One these Eight Chie< ules, 5ent to Aaha37a?a3ati Iotami and told he7 all that the Blessed One had said1 K.1 8 Pust, !nanda, as a man o7 a 5oman, 5hen young and o< tende7 yea7s, a22ustomed to ado7n himsel<, 5ould, 5hen he had 6athed his head, 7e2ei;e 5ith 6oth hands a ga7land o< lotus <lo5e7s, o7 o< ?asmine <lo5e7s o7 o< stimutaka <lo5e7s, and 3la2e it on the to3 o< his head J e;en so do ), !nanda, take u3on me these Eight Chie< ules, ne;e7 to 6e t7ansg7essed du7ing my li<elong,8 said Aaha37a?a3ati to !nanda1 KE1 "hen the Gene7a6le !nanda 7etu7ned to the Blessed One, and 6o5ed do5n 6e<o7e him, and took his seat, on one side1 !nd, so sitting, the Gene7a6le !nanda said to the Blessed One' 8 Aaha37a?a3ati Iotami, %o7d, has taken u3on he7sel< the 7es3onsi6ility <o7 the en<o72ement o< the Eight Chie< ules, she may the7e<o7e 6e 7ega7ded as ha;ing 7e2ei;ed the $3asam3ada initiation,8 @ent7y into the (anghaB 1 KF1 #o5 Aaha37a?a3ati 7e2ei;ed o7dination, and E00 (akya ladies 5ho had 2ome 5ith he7 5e7e also o7dained at the same time1 "hus o7dained g7eat P7a?a3ati 2ame 6e<o7e the Aaste7, and saluting him, stood on one side and the Blessed One taught he7 the Dhamma, the do2t7ine and the dis2i3line1 KH1 "he othe7 <i;e hund7ed Bhikkhunis 5e7e ininst7u2ted 6y #andaka, one o< the dis2i3les o< the Blessed One1 K-1 !mong the (akya 5omen 5ho 6e2ame Bhikkhunis along 5ith Aaha37a?a3ati 5as &eshodha7a1 !<te7 he7 initiation she 2ame to 6e kno5n as Bhadda *a22ana1

'' K1 Con;e7sion o< P7ak7ati a Chandalika1 ''

D 1 On2e the Blessed %o7d 5as li;ing in (h7a;asti in the Peta;ana !7ama o< !nath3indika1 K1 )t so ha33ened that !nanda, his dis2i3le, had gone into the 2ity to 6eg <o7 alms1 !<te7 eating his <ood !nanda 5as going to the 7i;e7 <o7 d7inking 5ate71 L1 He sa5 a gi7l on the 7i;e7 6ank <illing he7 3ot1 !nanda asked he7 to gi;e him some 5ate71 DHF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> .1 "he gi7l, 5hose name 5as P7ak7ati, 7e<used, saying she 5as a Chandalika1 E1 !nanda said, 8) am 2on2e7ned 5ith 5ate7, ) am not 2on2e7ned 5ith you7 2aste18 "he gi7l then ga;e him some 5ate7 <7om he7 3ot1 F1 "he7ea<te7 !nanda le<t <o7 Peta;ana1 "he gi7l <ollo5ed him and sa5 5he7e he 5as staying and <ound that his name 5as !nanda and that he 5as a <ollo5e7 o< the Buddha1 H1 On 7etu7ning home she told he7 mothe7 Aatangi 5hat had ha33ened and <alling on the g7ound sta7ted 5ee3ing1 -1 "he mothe7 asked <o7 the 2ause o< he7 5ee3ing1 "he gi7l told the 5hole sto7y, and said, 8 )< you 5ish to ma77y me ) 2an only ma77y !nanda1 ) 5ill not ma77y any6ody else18 /1 "he mothe7 sta7ted on an inCui7y1 On 7etu7n she told the gi7l that su2h a ma77iage 5as im3ossi6le <o7 !nanda 5as unde7 a ;o5 o< 2eli6a2y1 D01 On hea7ing this ne5s the gi7l 5as <illed 5ith ext7eme so77o5 and ga;e u3 <ood1 (he 5as not 37e3a7ed to take things as though it 5as a de27ee o< <ate1 (o she said' 8 Aothe7, you kno5 the a7t o< so72e7y, don:t you M +hy don:t you em3loy it to a2hie;e ou7 3u73ose M8 "he mothe7 said, 8) 5ill see

5hat 2an 6e done18 D D 1 Aatangi in;ited !nanda to he7 house <o7 a meal1 "he gi7l 6e2ame ;e7y ha33y1 Aatangi then told !nanda that he7 daughte7 5as ;e7y anxious to ma77y him1 !nanda 7e3lied, 8 ) am ;o5ed to 6e 2eli6ate and the7e<o7e ) 2annot ma77y any 5oman18 DK1 8)< you do not ma77y my daughte7, she 5ill 2ommit sui2ide, so atta2hed she is to you,8 Aatangi told !nanda1 8 But ) 2annot hel3,8 7e3lied !nanda1 DL1 Aatangi 5ent inside and told he7 daughte7 that !nanda 7e<used to ma77y he71 D.1 "he gi7l 27ied' 8 Aothe7, 5he7e is you7 so72e7y M8 "he mothe7 said, 8 Ay so72e7y 2annot 5in against the "athagata18 DE1 "he gi7l shouted and said, 8 Close the doo7 and do not allo5 him to go out1 ) shall see that he 6e2omes my hus6and this ;e7y night18

DHH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D F1 "he mothe7 did 5hat the gi7l 5anted he7 to do1 !s night <ell the mothe7 67ought in the 7oom a 6ed1 "he gi7l, d7essed in he7 6est, ste33ed in1 But !nanda 7emained unmo;ed1 D H1 "he mothe7 at last used he7 so72e7y1 !s a 7esult a <i7e 67oke out in the 7oom1 "he mothe7 then held !nanda 6y his 2lothes and said, 8 )< you 5ill not ag7ee to ma77y my daughte7, ) 5ill th7o5 you in this <i7e18 Ho5e;e7, !nanda did not yield, and the mothe7 and the daughte7 <eeling hel3less, le<t him <7ee1 D-1 !nanda on his 7etu7n told the Blessed %o7d all that had ha33ened1 D/1 On the se2ond day the gi7l 2ame to Peta;ana in sea72h o< !nanda1 !nanda 5as going out <o7 alms1 !nanda sa5 he7 and 5anted to a;oid he71 But the gi7l <ollo5ed him 5he7e;e7 he 5ent1 K01 +hen !nanda 7etu7ned to Peta;ana he <ound the gi7l 5aiting at the doo7

o< his Giha71 K D 1 !nanda told the Blessed One ho5 the gi7l 5as 3u7suing him1 "he Blessed One sent <o7 he71 KK1 +hen the gi7l a33ea7ed 6e<o7e him the Blessed One asked he7 5hy she 5as 3u7suing !nanda1 "he gi7l 7e3lied that she 5as intent on ma77ying him 8 ) ha;e hea7d he is unma77ied and ) am also unma77ied18 KL1 "he Bhaga;an said, 8 !nanda is a Bhikku and he has no hai7 on his head1 )< you 2an get you7sel< 2lean sha;en ) shall see 5hat 2ould 6e done18 K.1 "he gi7l 7e3lied, 8 ) am 37e3a7ed <o7 it18 "he Bhaga;an said, 8&ou must get you7 mothe7:s 3e7mission <o7 unde7going tonsu7e18 KE1 "he gi7l 7etu7ned to he7 mothe7 and said, 8 Aothe7! ) ha;e a2hie;ed 5hat you <ailed to a2hie;e1 "he Bhaga;an has 37omised to get me ma77ied to !nanda i< ) unde7go tonsu7e18 KF1 "he mothe7 g7e5 ang7y and said, 8 &ou must not do that1 &ou a7e my 1daughte7 and you must kee3 hai71 +hy a7e you so eage7 to ma77y a (h7amana !nanda1 ) 2an get you ma77ied to a 6ette7 man18 KH1 (he 7e3lied, 8 ) 5ill eithe7 die o7 ma77y !nanda1 "he7e is no thi7d alte7nati;e <o7 me18

DH-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K-1 "he Aothe7 said, 8+hy a7e you insulting me M8 "he gi7l said, 8 )< you lo;e me you must let me do as ) 5ish18 K/1 "he mothe7 5ithd7e5 he7 o6?e2tion and the gi7l unde75ent tonsu7e1 L011 "hen the gi7l 37esented he7sel< 6e<o7e the Blessed %o7d saying, 8 ) ha;e tonsu7ed my head as di7e2ted 6y you18 L D 1 "he Blessed %o7d then asked he7, 8+hat do you 5ant M +hat 3a7t o< his 6ody you 2he7ish M8 "he gi7l said, 8) am in lo;e 5ith his nose, ) am in lo;e 5ith his mouth, ) am in lo;e 5ith his ea7s, ) am in lo;e 5ith his ;oi2e, ) am in lo;e 5ith his eyes and ) am in lo;e 5ith his gait18

LK1 "he Blessed %o7d then said to the gi7l, 8 Do you kno5 that the eyes a7e the home o< tea7s, the nose is the home o< di7t, the mouth is the home o< s3it, the ea7 is the home o< di7t and the 6ody is the 2ontaine7 o< dung and u7ine18 LL1 8 +hen men and 5omen 2ome togethe7 they 37o27eate 2hild7en1 But 5he7e the7e is 6i7th the7e is death alsoJ 5he7e the7e is death the7e is so77o5 also1 Ay dea7 gi7l, 5hat a7e you going to get 6y ma77ying !nanda1 ) do not kno518 L.1 "he gi7l 6egan to 2ogitate and ag7eed that the7e 5as no 3u73ose in he7 ma77iage 5ith !nanda on 5hi2h she 5as so intent and she told the Blessed %o7d a22o7dingly1 LE1 !<te7 saluting the Blessed %o7d the gi7l said' 8 O5ing to igno7an2e ) 5as going in 3u7suit o< !nanda1 Ay mind is no5 enlightened1 ) am like a sailo7 5hose shi3 a<te7 a misha3 has 7ea2hed the othe7 6ank1 ) am like an un37ote2ted aged 3e7son 5ho has <ound 37ote2tion1 ) am like the 6lind 5ho has got ne5 sight1 "he Blessed %o7d 6y his 5ise 5o7ds o< ad;i2e has a5akened me <7om my slee318 LF1 8 Blessed a7t thou, P7ak7ati, <o7 though you a7e a Chandalika you 5ill 6e a model <o7 no6lemen and no6le5omen1 &ou a7e o< lo5 2aste, 6ut B7ahmins 5ill lea7n a lesson <7om you1 (5e7;e not <7om the 3ath o< ?usti2e and 7ighteousness and you 5ill outshine the 7oyal glo7y o< Cueens on the th7one18 LH1 "he ma77iage ha;ing <ailed, the only 2ou7se <o7 he7 5as to ?oin the Bhikkhuni (angh1

DH/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L-1 Ha;ing ex37essed he7 5ish she 5as admitted into it, though she 6elonged to the lo5est 2lass1 Pa7t G))) N Con;e7sion o< the Fallen and the C7iminals1 D1 Con;e7sion o< a Gaga6ond1 ''

K1 Con;e7sion o< !ngulimala, the

o66e71

L1 Con;e7sion o< Othe7 C7iminals1

.1

isk o< Con;e7sion1

'' D1 Con;e7sion o< a Gaga6ond1 ''

D1 "he7e 5as in olden times a 2e7tain diso7de7ly 3e7son li;ing in a?ag7aha, 5ho neithe7 7e;e7en2ed his 3a7ents no7 3aid 7es3e2t to his su3e7io7s, 6ut al5ays had 7eso7t to sa27i<i2e and 5o7shi3 o< the sun and moon and <i7e 5hen he 5ent 57ong, ho3ing the7e6y to get me7it, and <eel ha33y in himsel<1 K1 But not5ithstanding all his 6odily exe72ises, in 5o7shi3 and o<<e7ings, he <ound no 3ea2e, e;en a<te7 th7ee yea7s: in2essant 3e7se;e7an2e1 L1 He at length 7esol;ed to go to (h7a;asti to inCui7e o< the Buddha1 !77i;ed the7e, and seeing the glo7y o< his 3e7son, he <ell do5n at his <eet, and said ho5 he 5as 3leased1 .1 "hen the %o7d ex3lained the <olly o< animal sa27i<i2e, and the selessness o< all su2h exe72ises 5he7e the hea7t 5as untou2hed, and 5he7e the7e 5as no <inal 7e;e7en2e o7 duti<ul 6eha;iou7 to those to 5hom it 6elonged J and in, 2on2lusion 7e2ited 2e7tain gathas, 5hi2h 7es3lendent 5ith glo7y, lit u3 the 3la2e and all the su77ounding 2ount7y 5ith the 67ightness o< his 37esen2e1 E1 On this, the ;illage7s, and es3e2ially the 3a7ents o< the 2hild7en, 2ame nea7 to 5o7shi3 him1 F1 On seeing the 3a7ents, and hea7ing thei7 a22ount o< the 2hild7en, Buddha smiled, and 7e2ited these gathas1 H1 8 "he g7eat man is enti7ely <7ee <7om 2o;etous desi7eJ he 5ells in a 3la2e

o< light himsel< enlightened1 !lthough 3e72han2e he meets 5ith so77o5, he 7e?oi2esJ 5ithout 2onste7nation, he exhi6its his 5isdom1 D-0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> -1 8 "he 5ise man @6had7aB 2on2e7ns himsel< 5ith no 5o7ldly 6usinessJ he desi7es neithe7 5ealth, 2hild7en, o7 3ossessions @landB, al5ays 2a7e<ully o6se7;ing the 37e2e3ts, and 5alking in the 5ay o< su37eme 5isdom, he 6anke7s not a<te7 st7ange do2t7ine @o7 5ealth o7 honou7B 1 /1 8 "he 5ise man, kno5ing the 2ha7a2te7 o< insta6ility, as a t7ee in the midst o< sand @uses e;e7y e<<o7tB to 2hange his <7iend 5hose mind is un<ixed, and to 67ing him 6a2k <7om im3u7ity to ;i7tue @3u7ityB18 '' K1 Con;e7sion o< !ngulimala, the o66e71 ''

D1 "he7e 5as, in the 7ealm o< Pasenadi, king o< *osala, a 7o66e7 named !ngulimala, a 7u<<ian 5hose hands 5e7e 7ed 5ith 6lood, 5ho 5as al5ays killing and 5ounding, and sho5ed no me72y to any li;ing 27eatu7e1 Be2ause o< him, 5hat had 6een ;illages 5e7e ;illages no mo7e, 5hat had 6een to5nshi3s 5e7e to5nshi3s no mo7e, and 5hat had 6een 2ount7yside 5as 2ount7yside no mo7e1 K1 F7om e;e7y human 6eing 5hom he sle5, he took a <inge7 to make <o7 himsel< a ne2kla2e, and so got his name o< 8 #e2kla2e o< Finge7s18 L1 On2e 5hen the %o7d 5as staying in (h7a;asti in Peta:s g7o;e he had hea7d o< the 7a;ages 2ommitted 6y the 7o66e7 !ngulimala1 "he Blessed %o7d de2ided to 2on;e7t him into a 7ighteous man1 (o one day a<te7 taking his meal and a<te7 3utting a5ay his 6edding and then, 5ith 7o6es and 6o5l, set out on his ?ou7ney : to <ind the 7o66e7 !ngulimala1 .1 (eeing him ?ou7neying thithe7, neathe7ds, goathe7ds, 3loughmen and 5ay<a7e7s 2alled out' 8Don:t go that 5ay, 7e2luse! )t 5ill take you to the 7o66e7 !ngulimala1 E1 8+hy, e;en 5hen, ten, t5enty, thi7ty, o7 <o7ty 3eo3le 6an themsel;es togethe7 to t7a;el this 7oad, the 5hole 2om3any <alls into the 7o66e7:s hands!8 But, 5ithout a 5o7d, the %o7d held on to his 5ay1

F1 ! se2ond time, and yet a thi7d time those nea7 the7e and the 7est 7e3eated thei7 5a7ningJ 6ut still, 5ithout a 5o7d, the %o7d 5ent his 5ay1 H1 F7om some 5ay o<< the 7o66e7 sa5 the %o7d 2oming and ma7;elled ex2eedingly that, 5he7e e;en 2om3anies o< ten to <i<ty t7a;elle7s da7e not D-D

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> 2ome his 5ay, this solita7y 7e2luse should 6e seen to 6e <o72ing his 5ay aloneJ and the 7o66e7 5as minded to slay : this 7e2luse1: (o, a7med 5ith s5o7d and 6u2kle7 and 5ith his 6o5 and Cui;e7, the 7o66e7 <ollo5ed u3 the %o7d:s t7ail1 -1 "he %o7d, 5hile he himsel< 5as 37o2eeding at his 5onted 3a2e, the 7o66e7, <o7 all his e<<o7ts, 2ould not 2at2h him u31 /1 "hought the 7o66e7' 8"his is a 5onde7<ul and ma7;ellous thing1 He7eto<o7e, ) 2ould al5ays o;e7take an ele3hant, o7 ho7se, o7 2a77iage, o7 dee7, 5hen going <ull s3eedJ and yet he7e am ) una6le, des3ite all my e<<o7ts, to o;e7take this 7e2luse 5hile he 37o2eeds at his 5onted 3a2e18 (o he sto33ed and shouted to the %o7d to sto31 D01 +hen the t5o met the %o7d said' 8) ha;e sto33ed, !ngulimala, <o7 you7 sake1 +ill you sto3 <ollo5ing you7 2a7ee7 o< an e;il doe7M ) ha;e 6een 3u7suing you in o7de7 to 5in you o;e7, to 2o;e7 you to the 3ath o< 7ighteousness1 "he good in you is not yet dead1 )< you 5ill only gi;e it a 2han2e it 5ill t7ans<o7m you18 D D 1 !ngulimala <elt o;e72ome 6y the 5o7ds o< the Blessed One, saying, 8 !t last this sage has t7a2ked me do5n18 DK1 8 !nd no5 that thy hallo5ed 5o7ds ask me to 7enoun2e e;il deeds <o7e;e7, ) am 37e3a7ed to gi;e mysel< a t7ial,8 7e3lied !ngulimala1 DL1 !ngulimala th7e5 into a dee3 a6yss the st7ing o< his ;i2tims: <inge7s 5hi2h he 5o7e 7ound his ne2k and <ell at the Aaste7:s <eet and 27a;ed admission to the B7othe7hood1 D.1 "he %o7d, the guide o< gods and men, said' 8 !lmsman, <ollo5 me 8J and

almsman sin2e that summons !ngulimala did 6e2ome1 D E1 +ith !ngulimala as his almsman in attendan2e, the %o7d no5 37o2eeded on his 5ay to the 3leasan2e in (h7a;asti1 !t this ;e7y time the 3o7tals o< *ing Pasenadi:s inne7 3ala2e 5e7e 6eset 6y a huge 27o5d loudly shouting that in the 7ealm he had 2onCue7ed the7e 5as a 7o66e7 named !ngulimala, a 7u<<ian 5ho 5as 2ommitting 7a;ages and 5as killing and 5ounding inno2ent 3eo3le and 5ho took 37ide in 5ea7ing a ne2kla2e made o< <inge7s o< ;i2tims 5hom he sle51 8(u337ess him, si7e,8 they 27ied1 Pasenadi 37omised to 7un him do5n to ea7th1 But he <ailed1 DF1 One mo7ning *ing Pasenadi 5ent to the 3leasan2e to see the %o7d1 "he Blessed %o7d inCui7ed' 8 +hat is D-K

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> the matte7, si7e M )s the7e t7ou6le 5ith (eniya Bim6isa7a o< Aagadha, o7 5ith %i22ha;is o< Gesali o7 5ith any othe7 hostile 3o5e7 M8 DH18 #o t7ou6le at all o< that so7t, si71 )n my 7ealms the7e is a 7o66e7 named !ngulimala 5ho is in<esting my te77ito7ies and ha7assing my su6?e2ts1 ) 5ant to su337ess him 6ut ) ha;e <ailed18 D-1 8)< no5, si7e, you 5e7e to see !ngulimala 5ith his hai7 and 6ea7d o<<, in the yello5 7o6es, as a 3ilg7im 5ho kills not1 steals not, lies not, eats 6ut one meal a day, and leads the highe7 li<e in ;i7tue and goodness, N 5hat 5ould you do to him M8 D/1 8 (i7, ) 5ould salute him, o7 7ise to meet him o7 5ould in;ite him to 6e seated o7 in;ite him to a22e3t 7o6es and othe7 7eCuisites, o7 ) 5ould extend to him the de<en2e, 37ote2tion and sa<egua7ds 5hi2h a7e his due1 But ho5 2ould the shado5 o< su2h ;i7tue e;e7 extend to one so 5i2ked and de37a;edM8 K01 !t that moment the e;e7end !ngulimala 5as seated Cuite 2lose to the %o7d, 5ho st7et2hing <o7th his 7ight a7m, said' 8 "his, si7e, is !ngulimala )8

KD1 !t this the king in his ala7m 6e2ame dum6<ounded, 5ith e;e7y hai7 o< his 6ody standing e7e2t1 (eeing this, the %o7d said, 8 Fea7 not, si7eJ <ea7 notJ the7e is no 2ause <o7 <ea7 he7e18 KK1 (o the king:s <ea7s and ala7m a6ated J and a27oss to the 7e;e7end !ngulimala he 5ent, saying' 8 )s you7 7e;e7en2e indeed !ngulimala M8 8 &es, si7e18 KL1 8 +hat si7e, 5as you7 <athe7:s <amily, and you7 mothe7:s M8 8 Ay <athe7 5as a Iagga, si7e, and my mothe7 a Aantani18 K.1 8 Be o< good 2hee7, Iagga Aantani-3uttaJ ) 5ill take 2a7e to su33ly you 5ith all 7eCuisites18 KE1 #o5 at the time the e;e7end !ngulimala ha;ing 3ledged to 6e 7esident in the 5ilds, su6sisting on alms, and 5ea7ing 2lothes <7om the dust hea3 not ex2eeding th7ee in num6e7, he de2lined the king:s o<<e7 on the g7ound that he had al7eady got his <ull th7ee 7o6es1 KF1 "hen the king 5ent a27oss to the %o7d and a<te7 salutations seated himsel< to the one side, sayingJ 8 )t is 5onde7<ul, si7, it is ma7;ellous, 5hat a tame7 o< the untamed the %o7d is, ho5 he Cuells the unCuelled, and ho5 he 2alms the un2almed ) He7e is one D-L

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> 5hom ) 2ould not su6due 5ith 2udgel and s5o7dJ 6ut 5ithout eithe7 2udgel o7 s5o7d the %o7d has su6dued him! !nd no5, si7, ) must 6e going, <o7 ) ha;e mu2h to do and attend to18 KH1 8 +hen &ou7 Aa?esty 3leases18 "hen, 7ising <7om his seat, the king saluted the %o7d 5ith dee3 7e;e7en2e and 5ithd7e51 K-1 One day 5hen, duly 7o6ed and 6o5l in hand, !ngulimala had gone into (h7a;asti <o7 alms, he 5as hit 6y a 2lod <lung 6y one man, 6y a 2lu6 <lung 6y a se2ond and 6y a 3otshe7d <lung 6y a thi7d, so that it 5as 5ith a 67oken head st7eaming 5ith 6lood, 5ith his 6o5l smashed, and 5ith his 2loak in tatte7s, that he 37esented himsel< 6e<o7e the %o7d1 (eeing him d7a5ing nea7,

the %o7d said to !ngulimala' 8 Endu7e it all, endu7e it all18 K/1 "hus did !ngulimala the 7o66e7 6e2ome a 7ighteous man 6y a22e3ting the tea2hings o< the Buddha1 L01 Ex37essing the ?oy o< the 6liss o< deli;e7an2e he said' 8 +ho sho5s Oeal, 5he7e Oeal 5as none, 5ho 5ith ;i7tue 2lokes his 3ast, 5ho in youth to Buddha 2lea;es, he, like the moon, <loods ea7th 5ith light1 LD18 %et my <oes hea7 this gos3el, em67a2e this 27eed and <ollo5 5isdom:s sons 5ho 2lea;e to it1 %et my <oes hea7 in season, lo;e:s message 5hi2h is meek <o76ea7an2e N and 2on<o7m thei7 li;es to it1 LK1 8 !s : Finge7 #e2kla2e,: ), 6andit, li;ed and 5hi7led do5nst7eam, till He 67ought me to land1 !s "inge7 #e2kla2e, : ) 5as stee3ed in 6loodJ sa;ed no5 am )18 '' L1 Con;e7sion o< Othe7 C7iminals1 ''

D1 "he7e 5as to the south o< the 2ity a6out K00 li1

a?ag7aha a g7eat mountain, distant <7om

K1 K1 "h7ough this mountain the7e 5as a 3ass, dee3 and lonely, th7ough 5hi2h the 7oad to (outh )ndia lay1 L1 Fi;e hund7ed 7o66e7s had taken u3 thei7 a6ode in this de<ile, 5ho used to mu7de7 and 7o6 all t7a;elle7s that 3assed that 5ay1

D-.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> .1 "he king had ;ainly sent his <o72es to 2a3tu7e them, 6ut they al5ays es2a3ed1 E1 "he Buddha, 7esiding in the neigh6ou7hood, and 2onside7ing the 2ase o< these men, that they unde7stood not the natu7e o< thei7 2ondu2t, and that although he had 2ome into the 5o7ld to tea2h them, yet thei7 eyes had not seen him, no7 thei7 ea7s hea7d the tidings o< his la5, he 7esol;ed to go to

them1 F1 ConseCuently he t7ans<o7med himsel< into a man 7i2hly dighted, on a 5ell-2a3a7isoned steed, 5ith his s5o7d and 6o5, 5ith 6ags o< sil;e7 and gold on his saddle-6o5, and 37e2ious stones studding his ho7se:s 67a;e7y1 H1 On ente7ing the de<ile loud neighed his steed1 On hea7ing the sound the E00 7o66e7s sta7ted u3, and s3ying the t7a;elle7, ex2laimed, 8 #e;e7 ha;e 5e had su2h a 37os3e2t o< 6ootyJ let us 6e u3, and 2a3tu7e him!8 -1 (o they 37o2eeded to su77ound the t7a;elle7, 5ith a ;ie5 to 37e;ent his es2a3eJ 6ut on seeing him they <ell on the g7ound1 /1 On thei7 <alling to the g7ound, they ex2laimed, 8 +hat Iod is this M8 8 +hat Iod is this M8 D01 On this the t7a;elle7 6egan to ex3lain that su2h hu7ts and 3ains as they gi;e and 7e2ei;e 5e7e t7i;ial 2om3a7ed 5ith the 3ain 2aused 6y the so77o5 that 7ules the 5o7ld, and the 5ounds o< un6elie< and dou6t, and that nought 6ut the 5isdom 7esulting <7om ea7nest attention @hea7ingB to the (27i3tu7es 2ould heal su2h 5oundsJ and then he added these 5o7ds and said' DD1 8"he7e is no 3ain<ul 5ound so 6ad as so77o5 N no 3ie72ing a77o5 so sha73 as <olly1 #othing 2an 7emedy these 6ut an ea7nest attention to 7eligious inst7u2tion1 F7om this the 6lind 7e2ei;e sight, the deluded a7e enlightened1 DK1 8Aen a7e guided and led 6y this, as eyes, gi;en to them 5ithout eyes1 DL1 8"his, then, is a6le to dis3el un6elie<, to 7emo;e so77o5, to im3a7t ?oyJ the highest 5isdom is the lot o< those 5ho 8 hea718 D.1 8 "his is the title o< him 5ho has a2Cui7ed the g7eatest me7it @most to 6e 7e;e7edB18

D-E

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

DE1 On hea7ing this the 7o66e7s 7e3ented o< thei7 e;il li;es, and the a77o5s, o< themsel;es, le<t thei7 6odies, and thei7 5ounds 5e7e healed1 DF1 "hey then 6e2ame dis2i3les, and o6tained 7est and 3ea2e1

'' .1

isk o< Con;e7sion1 ''

D1 )n olden times, Buddha 5as 7esiding in a 2ount7y a6out E00 li <7om a?ag7aha, <ull o< mountains1 )n these mountains the7e li;ed a 2e7tain 2lan o< a6out DKK 3e7sons, 5ho o22u3ied themsel;es in hunting, and <ed themsel;es on the <lesh o< the animals they killed1 K1 @Buddha goes to the 3la2e and 2on;e7ts the 5omen, 5ho :5e7e le<t alone du7ing the day, 5hilst thei7 hus6ands 5e7e hunting, and then adds these lines1B L1 8He 5ho is humane does not kill @o7, it is humane not to killBJ he is e;e7 a6le to 37ese7;e @his o5nMB li<e1 .1 8"his 37in2i3le @2huB is im3e7isha6leJ 5hoe;e7 o6se7;es it, no 2alamity shall 6etide that man1 E1 8Politeness, indi<<e7en2e to 5o7dly things, hu7ting no one, 5ithout 3la2e <o7 annoyan2e N this is the 2ha7a2te7 o< the B7ahma Hea;en @o7 o< B7ahma De;aB 1 F1 8E;e7 exe72ising lo;e to5a7ds the in<i7mJ 3u7e, a22o7ding to the tea2hing o< Buddha J kno5ing 5hen su<<i2ient has 6een hadJ kno5ing 5hen to sto3, N this is to es2a3e @the 7e2u77en2e o<B 6i7th and death18 "he 5omen, ha;ing hea7d these 5o7ds, 5e7e 2on;e7ted, and on the men:s 7etu7n, although they 5ished at <i7st to kill Buddha, they 5e7e 7est7ained 6y thei7 5i;es J and, listening to these 5o7ds o< lo;e, they also 5e7e 2on;e7ted1 H1 !nd then he added these lines1 -1 8 "he7e a7e ele;en ad;antages 5hi2h attend the man 5ho 37a2ti2es me72i<ulness, and is tende7 to all that li;es1 /1 8His 6ody is al5ays in health @ha33yBJ he is 6lessed 5ith 3ea2e<ul slee3, and 5hen engaged in study he is also 2om3osed18 D-F

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D01 8He has no e;il d7eams, he is 37ote2ted 6y Hea;en @De;asB and lo;ed 6y man J he is unmolested 6y 3oisonous things, and es2a3es the ;iolen2e o< 5a7J he is unha7med 6y <i7e o7 5ate71 D D 1 8He is su22ess<ul 5he7e;e7 he li;es, and 5hen dead goes to the Hea;en o< B7ahma1 "hese a7e the ele;en18 DK1 Ha;ing utte7ed these 5o7ds, 6oth men and 5omen 5e7e admitted into the 2om3any o< his dis2i3les, and o6tained 7est1

D-H

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

8''BOO* )))''8 +H!" "HE B$DDH! "!$IH" Pa7t ) N His Pla2e in His Dhamma1 \ ''D1 "he Buddha 2laimed no 3la2e <o7 Himsel< in His O5n Dhamma1 '' WB '' K1 "he Buddha did not 37omise to gi;e sal;ation1 He said He 5as Aa7ga Data @+ay Finde7B and not Aoksha Data @Ii;e7 o< (al;ationB1 '' '' L1 "he Buddha did not 2laim any Di;inity <o7 Himsel< o7 <o7 His Dhamma1 )t 5as dis2o;e7ed 6y man <o7 man1 )t 5as not a e;elation1

D 1 "he Buddha 2laimed no 3la2e <o7 Himsel< in His O5n Dhamma1 ''

D 1 Ch7ist 2laimed to 6e the P7o3het o< Ch7istianity1 K1 He <u7the7 2laimed that he 5as the (on o< Iod1 L1 Ch7ist also laid do5n the 2ondition that the7e 5as no sal;ation <o7 a 3e7son unless he a22e3ted that Ch7ist 5as the (on o< Iod1 .1 "hus Ch7ist se2u7ed a 3la2e <o7 Himsel< 6y making the sal;ation o< the Ch7istian de3end u3on his a22e3tan2e o< Ch7ist as the P7o3het and (on o< Iod1 E1 Aohammad, the P7o3het o< )slam, 2laimed that he 5as a P7o3het sent 6y Iod1 F1 He <u7the7 2laimed that no one 2ould get sal;ation unless he a22e3ted t5o othe7 2onditions1 H1 ! seeke7 o< sal;ation in )slam must a22e3t that Aohammad is the P7o3het o< Iod1 -1 ! seeke7 a<te7 sal;ation in )slam must <u7the7 a22e3t that he is the last 37o3het1 D--

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> /1 (al;ation in )slam is thus ensu7ed only to those 5ho a22e3t these t5o 2onditions1 D01 Aohammad thus se2u7ed a 3la2e <o7 Himsel< 6y making the sal;ation o< the Auslim de3end u3on his a2kno5ledgement o< Aohammed as the P7o3het o< Iod1 D D 1 #o su2h 2ondition 5as e;e7 made 6y the Buddha1 DK1 He 2laimed that he 5as no mo7e than the natu7al son o< (uddhodana and Aahamaya1 DL1 He 2a7;ed <o7 himsel< no 3la2e in his 7eligion 6y laying do5n any su2h 2onditions 7ega7ding himsel< <o7 sal;ation as Pesus and Aahommad did1 D.1 "hat is the 7eason 5hy 5e a7e le<t to kno5 so little a6out himsel< e;en

though a6undant mate7ial 5as a;aila6le1 DE1 !s is kno5n, the <i7st Buddhist 2ong7egation 5as held soon a<te7 the death o< the Buddha at a?ag7aha1 DF1 *assya33a 37esided o;e7 the 2ong7egation1 !nand, $3ali and many othe7s 5ho 6elonged to *a3ila;atsu and 5ho 5ande7ed 5ith him 5he7e;e7 he 5ent and 5e7e 5ith him till his death 5e7e 37esent1 D H1 But 5hat did *assya33a the P7esident do M D-1 He asked !nand to 7e3eat the Dhamma and 3ut the Cuestion to the 2ong7egation, 8 )s this 7ightM8 "hey ans5e7ed in the a<<i7mati;e1 !nd *assya33a then 2losed the Cuestion1 D/1 "he7ea<te7 he asked $3ali to 7e3eat the Ginaya and 3ut the Cuestion to the 2ong7egation, 8 )s this 7ight M8 "hey ans5e7ed in the a<<i7mati;e1 *assya33a then 2losed the Cuestion1 K01 *assya33a then should ha;e 3ut the thi7d Cuestion to someone 37esent in the 2ong7egation to 7e2o7d some im3o7tant in2idents in the li<e o< the Buddha1 K D 1 But *assya33a did not1 "hese 5e7e the only t5o Cuestions 5ith 5hi2h he thought the (angh 5as 2on2e7ned1 KK1 )< *assya33a had 2olle2ted the 7e2o7d o< the Buddha:s li<e 5e 5ould ha;e had today a <ull-<ledged 6iog7a3hy o< the Buddha1 D-/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KL1 +hy did it not st7ike *assya33a to 2olle2t the 7e2o7d a6out the Buddha:s li<eM K.1 )t 2ould not 6e indi<<e7en2e1 "he only ans5e7 one 2an gi;e is that the Buddha had 2a7;ed no ni2he <o7 himsel< in his 7eligion1 KE1 "he Buddha and his 7eligion 5e7e Cuite a3a7t1 KF1 !nothe7 illust7ation o< the Buddha kee3ing himsel< out o< his 7eligion is to 6e <ound in his 7e<usal to a33oint a su22esso71

KH1 "5i2e o7 th7i2e the Buddha 5as 7eCuested 6y his <ollo5e7s to a33oint a su22esso71 K-1 E;e7y time the Buddha 7e<used1 K/1 His ans5e7 5as, 8"he Dhamma must 6e its o5n su22esso71 L01 8 P7in2i3le must li;e 6y itsel<, and not 6y the autho7ity o< man1 L D 1 8)< 37in2i3le needs the autho7ity o< man it is no 37in2i3le1 LK1 8)< e;e7y time it 6e2omes ne2essa7y to in;oke the name o< the <ounde7 to en<o72e the autho7ity o< Dhamma then it is no Dhamma18 LL1 (u2h 5as the ;ie5 he took o< his o5n 3osition 7ega7ding his Dhamma1 '' K1 "he Buddha did not 37omise to gi;e sal;ation1 He said He 5as Aa7ga Data @+ay Finde7B and not Aoksha Data @Ii;e7 o< (al;ationB1 ''

D1 Aost 7eligions a7e des27i6ed as 7e;elations1 But the Buddha:s 7eligion is not a 7e;elation1 K1 ! 7e;ealed 7eligion is so 2alled 6e2ause it is a message o< Iod to His 27eatu7es to 5o7shi3 thei7 make7 @i1e1, IodB and to sa;e thei7 souls1 L1 O<ten the message is sent th7ough a 2hosen indi;idual 5ho is 2alled a 37o3het to 5hom the message is 7e;ealed and 5ho 7e;eals it to the 3eo3le1 )t is then 2alled eligion1

D/0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> .1 "he o6ligation o< the 37o3het is to ensu7e sal;ation to the <aith<ul1 E1 (al;ation o< the <aith<ul means the sa;ing o< thei7 souls, <7om 6eing sent to hell 37o;ided they o6ey Iod:s 2ommands and 7e2ognise the 37o3het as his messenge71

F1 "he Buddha ne;e7 2laimed that he 5as a 37o3het o7 a messenge7 o< Iod1 He 7e3udiated any su2h des27i3tion1 H1 ! mo7e im3o7tant 3oint than this is that his 7eligion is a dis2o;e7y1 !s su2h it must 6e sha73ly distinguished <7om a 7eligion 5hi2h is 2alled e;elation1 -1 His 7eligion is a dis2o;e7y in the sense that it is the 7esult o< inCui7y and in;estigation into the 2onditions o< human li<e on ea7th and unde7standing o< the 5o7king o< human instin2ts 5ith 5hi2h man 6o7n, the moulding o< his instin2ts and dis3ositions 5hi2h man has <o7med as a 7esult o< histo7y and t7adition and 5hi2h a7e 5o7king to his det7iment1 /1 !ll 37o3hets ha;e 37omised sal;ation1 "he Buddha is the one tea2he7 5ho did not make any su2h 37omise1 He made a sha73 distin2tion 6et5een a moksha data and a ma7ga data, one 5ho gi;es sal;ation and one 5ho only sho5s the 5ay1 D01 He 5as only a ma7ga data1 (al;ation must 6e sought 6y ea2h <o7 himsel< 6y his o5n e<<o7t1 D D 1 He made this ;e7y 2lea7 to the B7ahmin Aoggallana in the <ollo5ing (utta1 DK1 8 On2e the Exalted One 5as staying at (h7a;asti, in the East Pa7k, at the sto7eyed house o< Aiga7a:s mothe71 DL1 8 "hen, the B7ahmin Aoggallana, the a22ountant, 2ame to the Exalted One and ga;e him <7iendly g7eeting and a<te7 the ex2hange o< 2ou7tesies sat do5n at one side1 (o seated, the B7ahmin Aoggallana, the a22ountant, said this to the Exalted One ' D.1 8 : Pust as1 Aaste7 Iautama, one gets a g7adual ;ie5 o< this sto7eyed house, a 37og7ess, a g7aduated 3ath, and so on 7ight u3 to the last ste3 o< the stai7s, ?ust so is the 37og7essi;e t7aining o< us B7ahmins ' that is to say, in ou7 2ou7se o< study in the Gedas1: D/D

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

DE1 8 : Pust as in a 2ou7se o< a72he7y, Iautama, 5ith us the B7ahmins, the t7aining, the 37og7ess, the a337oa2h is ste3 6y ste3J <o7 instan2e, in 2ounting1: DF1 8 : +hen 5e take a 37i;ate 3u3il 5e make him 2ount thus' :One one, t5i2e t5o, th7i2e th7ee, <ou7 times <ou7, and so on u3 to a hund7ed1: #o5 is it 3ossi6le1 Aaste7 Iautama, <o7 you to 3oint to a simila7 37og7essi;e t7aining on the 3a7t o< you7 <ollo5e7s in you7 Dhamma1: DH1 8 : )t is so, B7ahmin1 "ake the 2ase, B7ahmin, o< a 2le;e7 ho7se -t7aine71 He takes a tho7ough67ed in hand, gi;es him his <i7st lesson 5ith 6it and 67idle, and then 37o2eeds to the <u7the7 2ou7se1: D-1 8 : Pust so1 B7ahmin, the "athagata takes in hand a man 5ho is to 6e t7ained and gi;es him his <i7st lesson, thus ' : Come thou, 67othe7 ) Be ;i7tuous1 !6ide, 2onst7ained 6y the 7est7aint o< the o6ligation1: D/1 8 : Be2ome ;e7sed in the 37a2ti2e o< 7ight 6eha;iou7 J seeing dange7 in t7i<ling <aults, do you unde7take the t7aining and 6e a 3u3il in the mo7alities1: K01 8 : !s soon as he has maste7ed all that, the "athagata gi;es him his se2ond lesson, thus ' : Come thou 67othe7 ) (eeing an o6?e2t 5ith the eye, 6e not 2ha7med 6y its gene7al a33ea7an2e o7 its details1: KD1 :8Pe7sist in the 7est7aint o< that de?e2tion that 2omes <7om 27a;ing, 2aused 6y the sense o< sight un2ont7olled, these ill states, 5hi2h 5ould o;e75helm one like a <lood1 Iua7d the sense o< sight, 5in 2ont7ol o;e7 the sense o< sight1: KK1 8 : !nd so do 5ith the othe7 o7gans o< sense1 +hen you hea7 a sound 5ith the ea7, o7 smell a s2ent 5ith the nose, taste a taste 5ith the tongue, o7 5ith 6ody tou2h things tangi6le, and 5hen 5ith mind you a7e 2ons2ious o< a thing, 6e not 2ha7med 5ith its gene7al a33ea7an2e o7 its details1: KL1 8 : !s soon as he has maste7ed all that, the "athagata gi;es him a <u7the7 lesson, thus ' : Come thou, 67othe7 ) Be mode7ate in eating J ea7nest and heed<ul do you take you7 <ood, not <o7 s3o7t not <o7 indulgen2e, not <o7

adding 3e7sonal 2ha7m o7 2omeliness to 6ody, 6ut do it <o7 6ody:s sta6ilising, <o7 its su33o7t, <o7 37ote2tion <7om ha7m, and <o7 kee3ing u3 the 37a2ti2e o< the 7ighteous li<e, 5ith this thought J : ) 2he2k my <o7me7 <eeling1 "o no ne5 <eeling 5ill ) gi;e 7ise, that maintenan2e and 2om<o7t may 6e mine1: D/K

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K.1 8 : "hen, B7ahmin, 5hen he has 5on 7est7aint in <ood, the "athagata gi;es him a <u7the7 lesson thus ' : Come thou, 67othe7 ) !6ide gi;en to 5at2h<ulness1 By day, 5hen 5alking o7 sitting, 2leanse you7 hea7t <7om things that may hinde7 you1 By night s3end the <i7st 5at2h 5alking u3 and do5n o7 sitting and do like5ise1 By night in the se2ond 5at2h, lie do5n on the 7ight side in the 3ostu7e o< a lion, and 3la2ing one <oot u3on the othe7, mind<ul and sel<-3ossessed, set you7 thoughts on the idea o< exe7tion1 "hen in the thi7d 5at2h o< the night 7ise u3, and 5alking u3 and do5n, o7 sitting, 2leanse the hea7t o< things that may hinde71: KE1 8 : "hen, B7ahmin, 5hen the 67othe7 is de;oted to 5at2h<ulness, the "athagata gi;es him a <u7the7 lesson, thus ' : Come thou, 67othe7 ) Be 3ossessed o< mind<ulness and sel<-2ont7ol1 )n going <o7th o7 going 6a2k, ha;e you7sel< unde7 2ont7ol1 )n looking <o75a7d o7 looking 6a2k, in 6ending o7 7elaxing, in 5ea7ing 7o6es o7 2a77ying 7o6e and 6o5l, in eating, 2he5ing, tasting, in easing you7sel<, in going, standing, sitting, lying, slee3ing o7 5aking, in s3eaking o7 kee3ing silen2e ha;e you7sel< unde7 2ont7ol1: KF1 8 : "hen B7ahmin, 5hen he is 3ossessed o< sel<-2ont7ol, the "athagata gi;es him a <u7the7 lesson thus ' : Come thou, 67othe7 ) (eek out a se2luded lodging, a <o7est o7 7oot o< a t7ee, a mountain o7 a 2a;e o7 a mountain g7otto, a 2ha7nel <ield, a <o7est 7et7eat, the o3en ai7, a hea3 o< st7a51: !nd he does so1 !nd 5hen he has eaten his <ood he sits do5n 27osslegged, and kee3ing his 6ody st7aight u3, he 37o2eeds to 37a2tise the <ou7 e2sta2ies1: KH1 8 : #o5, B7ahmin, <o7 all 67othe7s 5ho a7e 3u3ils, 5ho ha;e not yet attained maste7y o< mind, 5ho a6ide as3i7ing, <o7 su2h is the manne7 o< my

t7aining1: K-1 8 : But as to those 67eth7en 5ho a7e a7hants, 5ho ha;e dest7oyed the asa;as, 5ho ha;e li;ed the li<e, done thei7 task, laid do5n the 6u7den, 5on thei7 o5n sal;ation, utte7ly dest7oyed the <ette7s o< 6e2oming, and a7e 7eleased 6y the 3e7<e2t insight, <o7 su2h as those these things a7e 2ondu2i;e to ease in the 37esent li<e and to mind<ul sel<-2ont7ol as 5ell1: K/1 8+hen this 5as said, the B7ahmin Aoggallana, the a22ountant, said to the Exalted One ' L01 8 : But tell me, Aaste7 Iautama1 Do the dis2i3les o< the 5o7thy Iautama, N do all o< them 5in the a6solute 3e7<e2tion 5hi2h is #i66ana ' o7 do some <ail thus to attainM: D/L

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> LD18 (ome o< my dis2i3les1 B7ahmin, thus ad;ised and t7ained 6y me, do so attain1 Othe7s do not,8 LK1 8 But 5hat is the 7eason, Aaste7 Iautama M +hat is the 2ause, Aaste7 Iautama M He7e 5e ha;e #i66ana1 He7e 5e ha;e the Path to #i66ana1 He7e 5e ha;e the 5o7thy Iautama as inst7u2to71 +hat is the 7eason, ) say, 5hy some dis2i3les thus ad;ised and t7ained do attain, 5hile othe7s do not attain M 8 LL1 8"hat, B7ahmin, is a Cuestion that ) 5ill ans5e71 But <i7st do you ans5e7 me this, so <a7 as you think <it1 #o5 ho5 say you1 B7ahmin N !7e you 5ell skilled in the 7oad to a?ag7ahaM8 L.1 8 ) am, maste7, : (killed indeed am ) in the 7oad to a?ag7aha ) :

LE1 8 +ell, thus inst7u2ted, thus ad;ised, he takes the 57ong 7oad, and o<< he goes 5ith his <a2e set to the 5est1 LF1 8 "hen a se2ond man 2omes u3 5ith the same 7eCuest and you gi;e him the same inst7u2tions1 He <ollo5s you7 ad;i2e and 2omes sa<e to a?ag7aha1 LH1 8 "hat is my 6usinessM:

L-1 8 : +hat do ) in the matte71 B7ahmin M "he "athagata is one 5ho only sho5s the 5ay1 : 8 L/1 He7e is a <ull statement that he does not 37omise sal;ation1 He only sho5s the 5ay1 .01 Besides 5hat is sal;ationM . D 1 +ith Aohammad and Pesus sal;ation means sa;ing the soul <7om 6eing sent to hell 6y the inte72ession o< the P7o3het1 .K1 +ith Buddha sal;ation means #i66ana and #i66ana means 2ont7ol o< 3assions1 .L1 +hat 37omise o< sal;ation 2an the7e 6e in su2h a Dhamma M

'' L1 "he Buddha did not 2laim any Di;inity <o7 Himsel< o7 <o7 His Dhamma1

D/.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> )t 5as dis2o;e7ed 6y man <o7 man1 )t 5as not a e;elation1

D 1 E;e7y <ounde7 o< 7eligion has eithe7 2laimed di;inity <o7 himsel< o7 <o7 his tea2hings1 K1 Aoses, although he did not 2laim <o7 himsel< any di;ine o7igin, did 2laim di;ine o7igin <o7 his tea2hings1 He told his <ollo5e7s that i< they 5ished to 7ea2h the land o< milk and honey they must a22e3t the tea2hings 6e2ause they 5e7e the tea2hings o< Peho;ah the Iod1 L1 Pesus 2laimed di;inity <o7 himsel<1 He 2laimed that he 5as the (on o< Iod1 #atu7ally His tea2hings a2Cui7ed a di;ine o7igin1 .1 *7ishna said that he 5as Iod himsel< and the Iita 5as his o5n 5o7d1 E1 "he Buddha made no su2h 2laim eithe7 <o7 himsel< o7 his (asana1

F1 He 2laimed that he 5as one o< the many human 6eings and his message to the 3eo3le 5as the message o< man to man1 H1 He ne;e7 2laimed in<alli6ility <o7 his message1 -1 "he only 2laim he made 5as that his message 5as the only t7ue 5ay to sal;ation as he unde7stood it1 /1 )t 5as 6ased on uni;e7sal human ex3e7ien2e o< li<e in the 5o7ld1 D01 He said that it 5as o3en to anyone to Cuestion it, test it and <ind 5hat t7uth it 2ontained1 D D 1 #o <ounde7 has so <ully th7o5n o3en his 7eligion to su2h a 2hallenge1

D/E

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> Pa7t )) N Di<<e7ent Gie5s o< the Buddha:s Dhamma1 D '' D1 +hat othe7s ha;e unde7stood Him to ha;e "aught1 '' <U J '' K1 "he Budha:s O5n Classi<i2ation1'' '' D1 +hat othe7s ha;e unde7stood Him to ha;e "aught1 '' D 1 8+hat a7e the tea2hings o< the BuddhaM8 K1 "his is a Cuestion on 5hi2h no t5o <ollo5e7s o< the Buddha o7 the students o< Buddhism ag7ee1 L1 "o some (amadhi is his 37in2i3al tea2hing1 .1 "o some it is Gi33assana @a kind o< P7anayamB1 E1 "o some Buddhism is esote7i21 "o othe7s it is exote7i21 F1 "o some it is a system o< 6a77en meta3hysi2s1 H1 "o some it is shee7 mysti2ism1 -1 "o some it is a sel<ish a6st7a2tion <7om the 5o7ld1 /1 "o some it is a systemati2 7e37ession o< e;e7y im3ulse and emotion o< the hea7t1 D01 Aany othe7 ;ie5s 7ega7ding Buddhism 2ould 6e 2olle2ted1

DD1 "his di;e7gen2e o< ;ie5s is astonishing1 DK1 (ome o< these ;ie5s a7e those o< men 5ho ha;e a <an2y <o7 2e7tain things1 (u2h a7e those 5ho 7ega7d thai the essen2e o< Buddhism lies in (amadhi o7 Gi33assana, o7 Esote7ism1 DL1 "he othe7 ;ie5s a7e the 7esults o< the <a2t that the ma?o7ity o< the 57ite7s on Buddhism a7e students o< an2ient )ndian histo7y1 "hei7 study o< Buddhism is in2idental and o22asional1 D.1 (ome o< them a7e not students o< Buddhism1 D E1 "hey a7e not e;en students o< anth7o3ology, the su6?e2t matte7 5hi2h deals 5ith the o7igin and g7o5th o< 7eligion1 DF1 "he Cuestion that a7ises is N 8 Did the Buddha ha;e no (o2ial Aessage M 8 D/F

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D H1 +hen 37essed <o7 an ans5e7, students o< Buddhism 7e<e7 to the t5o 3oints1 "hey say N D-1 8"he Buddha taught !himsa18 D/1 8"he Buddha taught 3ea2e!8 K01 !sked N 8 Did the Buddha gi;e any othe7 (o2ial Aessage M8 KD1 8 Did the Buddha tea2h ?usti2e M 8 KK1 8Did the Buddha tea2h lo;eM8 KL1 8Did the Buddha tea2h li6e7tyM8 K.1 8Did the Buddha tea2h eCualityM8 KE1 8 Did the Buddha tea2h <7ate7nity M 8 KF1 8 Could the Buddha ans5e7 *a7l Aa7x M 8 KH1 "hese Cuestions a7e ha7dly e;e7 7aised in dis2ussing the Buddha:s Dhamma1 K-1 Ay ans5e7 is that the Buddha has a (o2ial Aessage1 He ans5e7s all these Cuestions1 But they ha;e 6een 6u7ied 6y mode7n autho7s1 '' K1 "he Budha:s O5n Classi<i2ation1''

D 1 "he Buddha ado3ted a di<<e7ent 2lassi<i2ation o< Dhamma1 K1 "he <i7st 2atego7y he 2alled Dhamma1 L1 He 27eated a ne5 2atego7y 2alled #ot -Dhamma @!dhammaB though it 5ent 6y the name o< Dhamma1 .1 He 27eated a thi7d 2atego7y 5hi2h he 2alled (addhamma1 E1 "he thi7d 2atego7y 5as anothe7 name <o7 Philoso3hy o< Dhamma1 F1 "o unde7stand His Dhamma one must unde7stand all the th7ee N DhammaJ !dhammaJ (addhamma1 D/H

@/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> Pa7t ))) N +hat is Dhamma1 D1 "o Aaintain Pu7ity o< %i<e is Dhamma1 ''

K1 "o

ea2h Pe7<e2tion in %i<e is Dhamma1

L1 "o %i;e in #i66ana is Dhamma1

.1 "o Ii;e u3 C7a;ing is Dhamma1

E1 "o 6elie;e that all 2om3ound things a7e im3e7manent is

Dhamma1 '' '' F1 "o 6elie;e that *a7ma is the inst7ument o< Ao7al O7de7 is Dhamma1 ''

'' D1 "o Aaintain Pu7ity o< %i<e is Dhamma1 ''

D1 8"he7e a7e these th7ee <o7ms o< 3u7ity111 !nd o< 5hat so7t is 3u7ity o< 6odyM K1 8He7ein a 2e7tain one a6stains <7om taking li<e, <7om stealing, <7om sin<ul li;ing1 "his is 2alled : 3u7ity o< 6ody1: L1 8 !nd o< 5hat so7t is 3u7ity o< s3ee2h M .1 8He7ein a 2e7tain one a6stains <7om <alsehood111 E1 8 !nd o< 5hat so7t is 3u7ity o< mind M F1 8 He7ein a monk, i< he ha;e some 3e7sonal sensual desi7e, is a5a7e' : "he7e is in me sensual desi7e1: )< the7e 6e none he is like5ise a5a7e o< it1 !lso he is a5a7e o< ho5 the a7ising o< sensual desi7e not yet a7isen 2omes a6out, and ho5 it is a6andoned 5hen it has a7isen, and ho5 in the <utu7e the7e is no su2h a7ising1 H1 8)< he ha;e some 3e7sonal male;olen2e, he is a5a7e J : "he7e is 5ithin me male;olen2e1: !lso he is a5a7e o< the a7ising 1 1 1 and the a6andoning the7eo<, and o< ho5 in <utu7e the7e is no 7e2u77en2e the7eo<1 -1 8 )< he ha;e some 3e7sonal sloth9and9to73o7 1 1 1 ex2itement and <lu77y 1 1 1 i< he ha;e some 3e7sonal dou6t-and- 5a;e7ing, he is a5a7e o< the <a2t1 !lso o< ho5 @ea2h o< theseB a7ises, is a6andoned and 7e2u7s not again in <utu7e1 "his is 2alled : 3u7ity o< mind1:

D/-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> /1 8He 5ho is 3u7e in 6ody, s3ee2h, and mind, 8 (inless and 2lean and 6lessed 5ith 3u7ity, N 8 W(in95ashe7: is the name men gi;e to him18

@iiB D1 8 "he7e a7e th7ee <o7ms o< 3u7ity 1 1 1 Pu7ity o< 6ody, 3u7ity o< s3ee2h, 3u7ity o< mind18 K1 8 !nd o< 5hat so7t is 3u7ity o< 6ody M8 L1 8 He7ein a 2e7tain one a6stains <7om taking li<e, <7om stealing <7om 57ong 37a2ti2e in sensual lusts1 "his is 2alled : 3u7ity o< 6ody:18 .1 8 !nd o< 5hat so7t is 3u7ity o< s3ee2h M 8 E1 8 He7ein a 2e7tain one a6stains <7om <alsehood 1 1 1 <7om idle 6a66le1 "his is 2alled :3u7ity o< s3ee2h1: 8 F1 8 !nd o< 5hat so7t is 3u7ity o< mind M 8 H1 8He7ein a 2e7tain one is not 2o;etous o7 male;olent o< hea7t and has 7ight ;ie51 "his is 2alled W 3u7ity o< mind1: "hese a7e the th7ee <o7ms o< 3u7ity18 @iiiB D1 "he7e a7e these <i;e 5eaknesses, 5hi2h a7e a sou72e o< 5eakness to t7aining1 +hat <i;e M K1 "aking li<eJ taking 5hat is not gi;enJ lust<ul, e;il 37a2ti2es J lying J and indulging in s3i7ituous liCuo7s, 5hi2h 2ause idleness1 L1 "hese a7e the <i;e 2auses 5hi2h lead to <ailu7e1 .1 +hen these <i;e sou72es o< 5eakness to t7aining a7e 3ut a5ay, <ou7 a7isings o< mind<ulness should 6e made to 6e2ome1 E1 He7ein a monk a6ides 2ontem3lating the 6ody as 6ody, st7enuous, mind<ul and sel<-3ossessed, ha;ing o;e72ome 6oth the hanke7ing and dis2ontent 2ommon in the 5o7ld1 F1 He a6ides 2ontem3lating the <eelings as <eelings 111 H1 He a6ides 2ontem3lating the mind as mind 1 1 1 D//

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> -1 He a6ides 2ontem3lating ideas as ideas, st7enuous, mind<ul and sel<3ossessed, ha;ing o;e72ome 6oth the hanke7ing and dis2ontent 2ommon in

the 5o7ld1 /1 +hen these <i;e sou72es o< 5eakness to t7aining a7e 3ut a5ay, these <ou7 a7isings o< mind<ulness should 6e made to 6e2ome1 @i;B D 1 "he7e a7e these th7ee <ailu7es1 Failu7e in mo7als, <ailu7e in mind, <ailu7e in ;ie51 K1 !nd o< 5hat so7t is <ailu7e in mo7alsM ! 2e7tain one takes li<e, steals, is a 57ong-doe7 in sensual desi7es, a lia7, a slande7e7, o< 6itte7 s3ee2h, an idle 6a66le71 "his is 2alled 8 <ailu7e in mo7als18 L1 !nd o< 5hat so7t is <ailu7e in mind M .1 ! 2e7tain one is 2o;etous and male;olent o< hea7t1 "his is 2alled 8 <ailu7e in mind18 E1 !nd o< 5hat so7t is <ailu7e in ;ie5 M F1 He7ein a 2e7tain one holds the de37a;ed, the 3e7;e7se ;ie5 that the7e is no @;i7tue inB alms gi;ing, in sa27i<i2e, in o<<e7ings ' that the7e is no <7uit, no 7esult o< good and e;il deeds' that this 5o7ld is not, that the7e is no 5o7ld 6eyond' that the7e is no mothe7, no <athe7, no 6eings o< s3ontaneous 6i7th ' that in the 5o7ld a7e no 7e2luses and B7ahmins 5ho ha;e 5on the summit, 5ho ha;e 5on 3e7<e2tion, 5ho o< themsel;es 6y thei7 o5n in tuitional 3o5e7s ha;e 7ealised the 5o7ld 6eyond and 2an 37o2laim it1 "his, monks, is 2alled 8 <ailu7e in ;ie518 H1 Aonks, it is due to <ailu7e in mo7als, <ailu7e in mind and in ;ie5 that 6eings, 5hen 6ody 67eaks u3 a<te7 death, a7e 7e6o7n in the +aste, the +ay o< +oe, in the Do5n<all, in Pu7gato7y1 (u2h a7e the th7ee <ailu7es1 -1 Aonks, the7e a7e these th7ee su22esses1 +hat th7ee M (u22ess in mo7als, su22ess in mind, su22ess in ;ie51 /1 #o5 o< 5hat so7t is su22ess in mo7als M D01 ! 2e7tain one a6stains <7om taking li<e and the 7est 1 1 1 <7om 6itte7 s3ee2h and idle 6a66ling1 "his is 2alled 8 su22ess in mo7als18

K00

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D D 1 !nd o< 5hat so7t is su22ess in mind M DK1 He7ein a 2e7tain one is not 2o;etous o7 male;olent o< hea7t1 "his is 2alled 8 su22ess in mind18 D L1 !nd o< 5hat so7t is su22ess in ;ie5 M D.1 He7ein a 2e7tain one has 7ight ;ie5' he holds 5ith 2e7tainty that the7e is @;i7tue inB almsgi;ing, in sa27i<i2e, in o<<e7ings' that the7e is <7uit and 7esult o< good and e;il deeds' that this 5o7ld is, that the7e is a 5o7ld 6eyond' that mothe7, <athe7 and 6eings o< s3ontaneous 6i7th do exist' that in the 5o7ld the7e a7e 7e2luses and B7ahmins 5ho ha;e 7ealised the 5o7ld 6eyond and 2an 37o2laim it1 "his, monks, is 2alled 8 su22ess in ;ie518 D E1 )t is o5ing to su22ess in these th7ee things that 6eings, 5hen 6ody 67eaks u3 a<te7 death, a7e 7e6o7n in the Ha33y %ot, in the Hea;en +o7ld1 (u2h, monks, a7e the th7ee su22esses1 '' K1 "o ea2h Pe7<e2tion in %i<e is Dhamma1 ''

D 1 "he7e a7e these th7ee 3e7<e2tions1 K1 Pe7<e2tion in 6ody, s3ee2h and mind1 L1 !nd o< 5hat so7t is 3e7<e2tion in mind M .1 By the dest7u2tion himsel<, kno5ing it tho7oughly 5hi2h is <7ee <7om the asa;as, 83e7<e2tion in mind18 o< the asa;as, 7ealising in this ;e7y li<e N the hea7t:s 7elease, the 7elease 6y insight ha;ing attained it a6ides the7ein1 "his is 2alled "hese a7e the th7ee 6odily 3e7<e2tions1

E1 "he7e a7e othe7 3e7<e2tions1 "he Buddha ex3lained them to (u6huti1 F1 ($BH$") ' +hat is a Bodhisatt;a:s 3e7<e2tion o< gi;ing M H1 the lo7d ' He7e a Bodhisatt;a, his thoughts asso2iated 5ith the kno5ledge o< all modes, gi;es gi<ts, i1e1, in5a7d o7 out5a7d things, and, ha;ing made them 2ommon to all 6eings, he dedi2ates them to su37eme enlightenment J

and also othe7s he instigates the7eto1 But the7e is no5he7e an a337ehension o< anything1 -1 ($BH$") ' +hat is a Bodhisatt;a:s 3e7<e2tion o< mo7ality M K0D

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> /1 the lo7d ' He himsel< li;es unde7 the o6ligation o< the ten 5ays o< 5holesome a2ting, and also othe7s he instigates the7eto1 D01 su6huti ' +hat is a Bodhisatt;a:s 3e7<e2tion o< 3atien2e M DD1 the lo7d ' He himsel< 6e2omes one 5ho has a2hie;ed 3atien2e, and othe7s also he instigates to 3atien2e1 DK1 su6huti ' +hat is a Bodhisatt;a:s 3e7<e2tion o< ;igou7 M DL1 the lo7d' He d5ells 3e7sistently in the <i;e 3e7<e2tions, and also othe7s he instigates to do like5ise1 D.1 ($BH$") ' +hat is the Bodhisatt;a:s 3e7<e2tion o< 2on2ent7ation @o7 meditationB M DE1 the lo7d ' He himsel<, th7ough skill in means, ente7s into the t7an2es, yet he is not 7e6o7n in the 2o77es3onding hea;ens o< <o7m as he 2ould J and othe7s also he instigates to do like5ise1 D F1 su6huti ' +hat is a Bodhisatt;a:s 3e7<e2tion o< 5isdom M D H1 the lo7d ' He does not settle do5n in any dha7ma, he 2ontem3lates the essential o7iginal natu7e o< all dha7mas J and othe7s also he instigates to the 2ontem3lation o< all dha7mas1 D-1 )t is Dhamma to 2ulti;ate these 3e7<e2tions1 '' L1 "o %i;e in #i66ana is Dhamma1 ''

D1 8#othing 2an gi;e 7eal ha33iness as #i66ana18 (o said the Buddha1 K1 O< all the do2t7ines taught 6y the Buddha the do2t7ine o< #i66ana is the most 2ent7al one1 L1 +hat is #i66ana M #i66ana as taught 6y the Buddha has a totally di<<e7ent

meaning and 2ontent than 5hat has 6een gi;en to it 6y his 37ede2esso7s1 .1 By #i66ana they meant the sal;ation o< the soul1

K0K

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> E1 "hus the7e 5e7e <ou7 5ays in 5hi2h #i66ana 5as 2on2ei;ed o<' @DB %aukik @mate7ial, eat, d7ink and 6e me77y ty3eB J @KB &ogi2 J @LB B7ahmani2 and @.B $3anishadi21 F1 "he7e 5as one 2ommon <eatu7e o< the B7ahmani2 and $3anishadi2 2on2e3tions o< #i66ana1 "hey in;ol;ed the 7e2ognition o< a soul as an inde3endent entity N a theo7y 5hi2h the Buddha had denied1 "he Buddha had the7e<o7e no di<<i2ulty in 7e?e2ting the B7ahmani2 and $3anishadi2 tea2hing o< #i66ana1 H1 "he %aukik 2on2e3tion o< #i66ana 5as too mate7ialisti2 to a33eal to the Buddha1 )t meant nothing 6ut the satis<a2tion o< man:s animal a33etites1 "he7e 5as nothing s3i7itual in it1 -1 "o a22e3t su2h a 2on2e3tion o< #i66ana the Buddha <elt 5as a g7oss 57ong that 2an 6e done to a human 6eing1 /1 Fo7 the satis<a2tion o< a33etites 2an 7esult only in 27eating mo7e a33etites1 (u2h a 5ay o< li<e 2ould 67ing no ha33iness, he thought1 On the 2ont7a7y, su2h ha33iness 5as su7e to 67ing mo7e unha33iness1 D01 "he &ogi2 2on2e3tion o< #i66ana 5as a 3u7ely tem3o7a7y state1 "he ha33iness it 67ought 5as negati;e1 )t in;ol;ed disasso2iation <7om the 5o7ld1 )t a;oided 3ain 6ut ga;e no ha33iness1 +hate;e7 ha33iness it may 6e said to 67ing lasted as long as the yoga lasted1 )t 5as not 3e7manent1 )t 5as tem3o7a7y1 D D 1 "he Buddha:s 2on2e3tion o< #i66ana is Cuite di<<e7ent <7om that o< his 37ede2esso7s1 DK1 "he7e a7e th7ee ideas 5hi2h unde7lie his 2on2e3tion o< #i66ana1 DL1 O< these the ha33iness o< a sentient 6eing as distin2t <7om the sal;ation o< the soul is one1

D.1 "he se2ond idea is the ha33iness o< the sentient 6eing in (amsa7a 5hile he is ali;e1 But the idea o< a soul and the sal;ation o< the soul a<te7 death a7e a6solutely <o7eign to the Buddha:s 2on2e3tion o< #i66ana1 D E1 "he thi7d idea 5hi2h unde7lies his 2on2e3tion o< #i66ana is the exe72ise o< 2ont7ol o;e7 the <lames o< the 3assions 5hi2h a7e al5ays on <i7e1

K0L

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D F1 "hat the 3assions a7e like 6u7ning <i7e 5as the text o< a se7mon 5hi2h the Buddha deli;e7ed to the Bhikkus 5hen he 5as staying in Iaya1 "his is 5hat he said' DH1 8 !ll things, O Bhikkus, a7e on <i7e1 !nd 5hat, P7iests, a7e all these things 5hi2h a7e on <i7e M D-1 8 "he eye, O Bhikkus, is on <i7e J <o7ms a7e on <i7e J eye -2ons2iousness is on <i7e J im37essions 7e2ei;ed 6y the eye a7e on <i7e J and 5hate;e7 sensation, 3leasant, un3leasant, - o7 indi<<e7ent, o7iginates in de3enden2e on im37ession 7e2ei;ed 6y he ty3e, that also is on <i7e18 D/1 8!nd 5ith 5hat a7e these on <i7eM8 K01 8 +ith the1 <i7e o< 3assion say ), 5ith the <i7e o< hat7ed, 5ith the <i7e o< in<atuation J 5ith 6i7th, old age, death, so77o5, lamentation, mise7y, g7ie< and des3ai7 a7e they on <i7e18 K D 1 8"he ea7 is on <i7e J sounds a7e on <i7e J the nose is on <i7e J odou7s a7e on <i7e J the tongue is on <i7e J tastes a7e on <i7e J the 6ody is on <i7e J ideas a7e on <i7e J and 5hate;e7 sensation, 3leasant, un3leasant, o7 indi<<e7ent, o7iginates in de3enden2e on im37ession 7e2ei;ed 6y the mind, that also is on <i7e1 KK1 8!nd 5ith 5hat a7e these on <i7eM8

KL1 8 +ith the <i7e o< 3assion, say ) J 5ith the <i7e o< hat7ed J 5ith the <i7e o< in<atuation J 5ith 6i7th J old age, death, so77o5, lamentation, mise7y, g7ie<, and des3ai7 a7e they on <i7e18 K.1 8 Pe72ei;ing this, O Bhikkus, the lea7ned and no6le 2on2ei;es an a;e7sion1 !nd in 2on2ei;ing this a;e7sion, he 6e2omes di;ested o< 3assion, and 6y the a6sen2e o< 3assion he 6e2omes <7ee, and 5hen he is <7ee he 6e2omes a5a7e that he is <7ee18 KE1 Ho5 2an #i66ana gi;e ha33iness M "hat is the next Cuestion 5hi2h 2alls <o7 ex3lanation1 KF1 "he 2ommon notion is that man is unha33y 6e2ause he is in 5ant1 But this is not al5ays t7ue1 Aan is unha33y e;en though he is in the midst o< 3lenty1

K0.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KH1 $nha33iness is the 7esult o< g7eed, and g7eed is the 6ane o< li<e o< those 5ho ha;e as 5ell as o< those 5ho ha;e not1 K-1 "his the Buddha has made 2lea7 in a se7mon deli;e7ed to the Bhikkus in 5hi2h he said1 K/1 8 Ex2ited 6y g7eed @lo6haB, 67othe7s, <u7ious 5ith ange7 @dosaB, 6linded 6y delusion @mohaB, 5ith mind o;e75helmed, 5ith mind ensla;ed, men 7e<le2t u3on thei7 o5n mis<o7tune, men 7e<le2t u3on the mis<o7tune o< othe7s, men ex3e7ien2e mental su<<e7ing and anguish1 L01 )<, ho5e;e7, g7eed, ange7 and delusion a7e done a5ay, men 7e<le2t neithe7 u3on thei7 o5n mis<o7tune no7 on mental su<<e7ing and anguish1 L D 1 "hus, 67othe7s, is #i66ana ;isi6le in this li<e and not me7ely in the <utu7e J in;iting, att7a2ti;e, a22essi6le to the 5ise dis2i3le18 LK1 He7ein lies the ex3lanation o< 5hat 2onsumes man and makes him unha33y1 By using this analogy o< 6u7ning <i7e to the 5o7king o< human 3assions the Buddha has gi;en the most <o72e<ul ex3lanation <o7 the unha33iness o< man1 LL1 +hat makes man unha33y is his <alling a 37ey to his 3assions1 "hese

3assions a7e 2alled <ette7s 5hi2h 37e;ent a man <7om 7ea2hing the state o< #i66ana1 "he moment he is <7ee <7om the s5ay o< his 3assions, i1e1, he lea7ns to a2hie;e #i66ana, man:s 5ay to ha33iness is o3en to him1 L.1 "hese 3assions, a22o7ding to the Buddha:s analysis, <all unde7 th7ee g7ou3s1 LE1 Fi7st' that 5hi2h 7e<e7s to all deg7ees o< 27a;ing o7 atta2hment N su2h as lust, in<atuation and g7eed @lo6haB 1 LF1 (e2ond' that 5hi2h 7e<e7s to all deg7ees o< anti3athy N hat7ed, ange7, ;exation o7 7e3ugnan2e @dosaB 1 LH1 "hi7d' that 5hi2h 7e<e7s to all deg7ees o< igno7an2e N delusion, dullness and stu3idity @moha o7 a;idyaB 1 L-1 "he <i7st and se2ond <i7es 7elate to the emotions and o;e7 the 5hole s2ale o< one:s attitudes and <eelings to5a7ds othe7 6eings, 5hile the thi7d <i7e 7elates to all ideas that a7e in any 5ay 7emo;ed <7om the t7uth1

K0E

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L/1 "he7e a7e 2e7tain misunde7standings a6out the Buddha:s do2t7ine o< #i66ana1 .01 "he 5o7d #i66ana etymologi2ally means out6lo5ing, extinguishing1 . D 1 "aking hold o< this 7oot meaning o< the 5o7d, 27iti2s ha;e t7ied to make nonsense o< the do2t7ine o< #i66ana1 .K1 "hey hold that #i66ana means extin2tion o< all human 3assions 5hi2h is eCui;alent to death1 .L1 "hey ha;e 6y this means t7ied to th7o5 7idi2ule o;e7 the do2t7ine o< #i66ana1 ..1 "hat su2h is not the meaning o< #i66ana is Cuite 2lea7 i< one examines the language o< the <i7e se7mon1

.E1 "he <i7e se7mon does not say that li<e is 6u7ning and death is extin2tion1 )t says 3assions a7e on <i7e1 .F1 "he <i7e se7mon does not say that the 3assions must 6e extinguished 2om3letely1 )t says do not add <uel to the <lame1 .H1 (e2ondly, 27iti2s ha;e <ailed to make a distin2tion 6et5een #i66ana and Pa7ini66ana1 .-1 !s the $dana says' 8Pa7ini66ana o22u7s 5hen the 6ody 6e2omes disinteg7ated, all 3e72e3tions 6e2ome sto33ed, all sensations die a5ay, the a2ti;ities 2ease and 2ons2iousness goes a5ay1 "hus Pa7ini66ana means 2om3lete extin2tion18 ./1 #i66ana 2an ne;e7 ha;e this meaning1 #i66ana means enough 2ont7ol o;e7 3assion so as to ena6le one to 5alk on the 3ath o< 7ighteousness1 )t 5as not intended to mean, anything mo7e1 E01 "hat #i66ana is anothe7 name <o7 7ighteous li<e is made 2lea7 6y the Buddha himsel< to adha1 E D 1 On2e the ;ene7a6le adha 2ame to the Exalted One1 Ha;ing done so he saluted the Exalted One and sat do5n at one side1 (o seated the ;ene7a6le adha thus add7essed the Exalted One' 8 P7ay %o7d, 5hat <o7 is #i66anaM8 EK1 8 #i66ana means 7elease <7om 3assion 8 7e3lied the %o7d1

K0F

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> EL1 8 But #i66ana, %o7d, N 5hat is the aim o< itM8 E.1 8 ooted in #i66ana, adha, the 7ighteous li<e is li;ed1 #i66ana is its goal1 #i66ana is its end18 EE1 "hat #i66ana does not mean extin2tion is also made 2lea7 6y (a7i3utta in the <ollo5ing se7mon' EF1 8 On2e the Blessed %o7d 5as staying at (h7a;asti in !nath3indika:s !7ama 5he7e (a7i3utta 5as also staying1

EH1 8"he %o7d, add7essing the 67eth7en, said ' : !lmsmen, 6e ye 3a7take7s not o< the 5o7ld:s goods 6ut o< my do2t7ineJ in my 2om3assion <o7 you all ) am anxious to ensu7e this1: E-1 8 "hus s3oke the %o7d, 5ho the7eu3on 7ose and 3assed to his o5n 2ell1 E/1 8 (a7i3utta 7emained 6ehind and the 67eth7en asked him to ex3lain 5hat is #i66ana1

F01 8 "hen (a7i3utta in 7e3ly to the 67eth7en said ' : B7eth7en, kno5 ye that g7eed is ;ile, and ;ile is 7esentment1 F D 1 8"o shed this g7eed and this 7esentment, the7e is the Aiddle +ay 5hi2h gi;es us eyes to see and makes us kno5, leading us on to 3ea2e, insight, enlightenment and #i66ana1 FK1 8 : +hat is this Aiddle +ay M )t is naught 6ut the #o6le Eight<old Path o< 7ight outlook, 7ight aims, 7ight s3ee2h, 7ight a2tion, 7ight means o< li;elihood, 7ight e<<o7t, 7ight mind<ulness, and 7ight 2on2ent7ationJ this, almsmen is the Aiddle +ay1 FL1 8 : &es, si7s' ange7 is ;ile and male;olen2e is ;ile, en;y and ?ealousy a7e ;ile, nigga7dliness and a;a7i2e a7e ;ile, hy3o27isy and de2eit and a77ogan2e a7e ;ile, in<lation is ;ile, and indolen2e is ;ile1 F.1 8 : Fo7 the shedding o< in<lation and indolen2e the7e is the Aiddle +ay N gi;ing us eyes to see, making us kno5, and leading us on to 3ea2e, insight, enlightenment1 FE1 8 :#i66ana 5hi2h is naught 6ut that #o6le Eight<old Path1: 8

K0H

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

II1 "hus s3oke the 7e;e7ed (a7i3utta N Ilad at hea7t, the almsmen 7e?oi2ed at 5hat he had said1 FH1 "hat the idea unde7lying #i66ana is that it is the 3ath o< 7ighteousness1 #o one 5ill mistake #i66ana <o7 anything else1 I(1 Com3lete annihilation is one ext7eme and Pa7ini66ana is anothe7 ext7eme1 #i66ana is the Aiddle +ay1 F/1 (o unde7stood all 2on<usion a6out #i66ana 5ill disa33ea71

'' .1 "o Ii;e u3 C7a;ing is Dhamma1 ''

D 1 )n the Dhamma3ada the Buddha says' 8 "he7e is no g7eate7 6ene<it than, health and the7e is nothing mo7e ;alua6le than the s3i7it o< 2ontentment18 K1 "his s3i7it o< 2ontentment is not to 6e unde7stood to mean meekness o7 su77ende7 to 2i72umstan2es1 L1 Be2ause that 5ould 6e Cuite 2ont7a7y to the othe7 tea2hings o< the Buddha1 .1 "he Buddha has not said, 8 Blessed a7e they 5ho a7e 3oo718 E1 "he Buddha has not said that the su<<e7e7 should not t7y to 2hange his 2ondition1 F1 On the othe7 hand, he has said that 7i2hes a7e 5el2ome and instead o< listless su<<e7ing he taught Gi7ya 5hi2h is ene7geti2 a2tion1 H1 +hat the Buddha meant 5hen he said that 2ontentment is the highest <o7m o< 5ealth is that man should not allo5 himsel< to 6e o;e73o5e7ed 6y g7eed 5hi2h has no limits1 -1 !s the Bhikku atha3ala has said' 8 i2h men ) see 5ho, <olly-led, ne;e7 gi;e, 6ut still amass, athi7st <o7 3leasu7es ne5J the king 5hose 2onCuests to the sea extend, <o7 s5ay o;e7 em3i7es o;e7seas 5ill 3ine, still 27a;ing, kings and su6?e2ts 3ass a5ayJ la2king, still la2king, they thei7 6odies CuitJ ne;e7 on ea7th 2an 3leasu7es: measu7e 6e <illed18 K0-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> /1 )n the Aaha-#idan-(uttanta the Buddha has ex3lained to !nanda the ne2essity o< 2ont7olling g7eed1 "his is 5hat he said1 D01 8"his it is, !nanda, that 27a;ing 2omes into 6eing 6e2ause o< desi7e <o7 gain, 5hen desi7e <o7 gain 6e2omes a 3assion <o7 3ossession 5hen the s3i7it o< 3ossession gi;es 7ise to tena2ity o< 3ossession it 6e2omes a;a7i2e1 DD18 !;a7i2e o7 3ossession due to un2ont7olled a2Cuisiti;e instin2t 2alls <o7 5at2h and 5a7d1 DK1 8 +hy is this 27a;ing o7 g7eed to 6e 2ondemned M Be2ause o< this,8 said the Buddha to !nanda, 8 many a 6ad and 5i2ked state o< things a7ises N 6lo5s and 5ounds, st7i<e, 2ont7adi2tion and 7eto7ts J Cua77elling, slande7 and lies18 D L1 "hat this is the 2o77e2t analysis o< 2lass st7uggle the7e 2an 6e no dou6t1 D.1 "hat is 5hy the Buddha insisted u3on the 2ont7ol o< g7eed and 27a;ing1 '' E1 "o 6elie;e that all 2om3ound things a7e im3e7manent is Dhamma1 ''

D1 "his do2t7ine o< im3e7manen2e has th7ee as3e2ts1 K1 "he7e is the im3e7manen2e o< 2om3osite things1 L1 "he7e is the im3e7manen2e o< the indi;idual 6eing1 .1 "he7e is the im3e7manen2e o< the sel< natu7e o< 2onditioned things1 E1 "he im3e7manen2e o< 2om3osite things has 6een 5ell ex3lained 6y the g7eat Buddhist 3hiloso3he7 !sanga1 F1 8 !ll things,8 says !sanga, 8 a7e 37odu2ed 6y the 2om6ination o< 2auses and 2onditions and ha;e no inde3endent noumenon o< thei7 o5n1 +hen the 2om6ination is dissol;ed, thei7 dest7u2tion ensu7es1 H1 8 "he 6ody o< a li;ing 6eing 2onsists o< the 2om6ination o< <ou7 g7eat

elements, ;iO1, ea7th, 5ate7, <i7e and ai7, and 5hen this 2om6ination is 7esol;ed into the <ou7 2om3onent elements, dissolution ensues1 -1 8"his is 5hat is 2alled the im3e7manen2e o< a 2om3osite entity18 K0/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> /1 )m3e7manen2e o< the li;ing indi;idual is 6est des27i6ed 6y the <o7mula N 6eing is 6e2oming1 D01 )n this sense a 6eing o< a 3ast moment has li;ed, 6ut does not li;e no7 5ill he li;e1 "he 6eing o< a <utu7e moment 5ill li;e 6ut has not li;ed no7 does he li;e J the 6eing o< the 37esent moment does li;e 6ut has not li;ed and 5ill not li;e1 D D 1 )n sho7t, a human 6eing is al5ays 2hanging, al5ays g7o5ing1 He is not the same at t5o di<<e7ent moments o< his li<e1 DK1 "he thi7d 3hase o< the do2t7ine o< im3e7manen2e is some5hat di<<i2ult <o7 a 2ommon man to <ollo51 DL1 "o 7ealise that e;e7y li;ing 6eing 5ill die sometime o7 othe7 is a ;e7y easy matte7 to unde7stand1 D.1 But it is not Cuite so easy to unde7stand ho5 a human 6eing 2an go on 2hanging N 6e2oming N 5hile he is ali;e1 DE1 8Ho5 is this 3ossi6leM8 "he Buddha:s ans5e7 5as, 8"his is 3ossi6le 6e2ause all is im3e7manent18 DF1 "his late7 on ga;e 7ise to 5hat is 2alled (unnya Gad1 DH1 "he Buddhist (unnyata does not mean nihilism out and out1 )t only means the 3e73etual 2hanges o22u77ing at e;e7y moment in the 3henomenal 5o7ld1 D-1 Ge7y <e5: 7ealise that it is on a22ount o< (unnyata that e;e7ything 6e2omes 3ossi6le J 5ithout it nothing in the 5o7ld 5ould 6e 3ossi6le1 )t is on the im3e7manen2e o< the natu7e o< all things that the 3ossi6ility o< all othe7 things de3ends1

D/1 )< things 5e7e not su6?e2t to 2ontinual 2hange 6ut 5e7e 3e7manent and un2hangea6le, the e;olution o< all o< li<e <7om one kind to the othe7 and the de;elo3ment o< li;ing things 5ould 2ome to a dead sto31 K01 )< human 6eings died o7 2hanged 6ut had 2ontinued al5ays in the :same state 5hat 5ould the 7esult ha;e 6een M "he 37og7ess o< the human 7a2e 5ould ha;e 2ome to a dead halt1

KD0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KD1 )mmense di<<i2ulty 5ould ha;e a7isen i< (unnya is 7ega7ded as 6eing ;oid o7 em3ty1 KK1 But this is not so1 (unnya is like a 3oint 5hi2h has su6stan2e 6ut neithe7 67eadth no7 length1 KL1 !ll things a7e im3e7manent 5as the do2t7ine 37ea2hed 6y the Buddha1 K.1 +hat is the mo7al9o< this do2t7ine o< the BuddhaM "his is a mu2h mo7e im3o7tant Cuestion1 KE1 "he mo7al o< :this do2t7ine o< im3e7manen2e is sim3le1 Do not 6e atta2hed to anything1 KF1 )t is to 2ulti;ate deta2hment, deta2hment <7om 37o3e7ty, <7om <7iends, et21, that he said 8!ll these a7e im3e7manent18 '' F1 "o 6elie;e that *a7ma is the inst7ument o< Ao7al O7de7 is Dhamma1 ''

D 1 "he7e is an o7de7 in the 3hysi2al 5o7ld1 "his is 37o;ed 6y the <ollo5ing 3henomenon1 K1 "he7e is a 2e7tain o7de7 in the mo;ements and a2tions o< the sta77y 6odies1 L1 "he7e is a 2e7tain o7de7 6y 5hi2h seasons 2ome and go in 7egula7 seCuen2e1

.1 "he7e is a 2e7tain o7de7 6y 5hi2h seeds g7o5 into t7ees and t7ees yield <7uits and <7uits gi;e seeds1 E1 )n Buddhist te7minology these a7e 2alled #iyamas, la5s 5hi2h 37odu2e an o7de7ly seCuen2e su2h as utu #iyam, Bi?a #iyam1 F1 (imila7ly is the7e a mo7al o7de7 in Human (o2iety1 Ho5 is it 37odu2ed M Ho5 is it maintainedM H1 "hose 5ho 6elie;e in the existen2e o< Iod ha;e no di<<i2ulty in ans5e7ing the Cuestion1 !nd thei7 ans5e7 is easy1

KDD

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> -1 Ao7al o7de7, they say, is maintained 6y Di;ine Dis3ensation1 Iod 27eated the 5o7ld and Iod is the (u37eme Io;e7no7 o< the 5o7ld1 He is also the autho7 o< mo7al as 5ell as o< 3hysi2al la51 /1 Ao7al la5, a22o7ding to them, is <o7 man:s good 6e2ause it ensues <7om Di;ine 5ill1 Aan is 6ound to o6ey Iod 5ho is his make7 and it is o6edien2e to Iod 5hi2h maintains the mo7al o7de71 D01 (u2h is the a7gument in su33o7t o< the ;ie5 that the mo7al o7de7 is maintained 6y Di;ine Dis3ensation1 D D 1 "he ex3lanation is 6y no means satis<a2to7y1 Fo7 i< the mo7al la5 has o7iginated <7om Iod, and i< Iod is the 6eginning and end o< the mo7al o7de7 and i< man 2annot es2a3e <7om o6eying Iod, 5hy is the7e so mu2h mo7al diso7de7 in the 5o7ld M DK1 +hat is the autho7ity o< the Di;ine %a5 M +hat is the hold o< the Di;ine %a5 o;e7 the indi;idualM "hese a7e 3e7tinent Cuestions1 But to none o< them is the7e any satis<a2to7y ans5e7 <7om those 5ho 7ely on Di;ine Dis3ensation as the 6asis <o7 the mo7al o7de71 DL1 "o o;e72ome these di<<i2ulties the thesis has 6een some5hat modi<ied1

D.1 )t is said ' no dou6t 27eation took e<<e2t at the 2ommand o< Iod1 )t is also t7ue that the 2osmos ente7ed u3on its li<e 6y his 5ill and 6y his di7e2tion, )t is also t7ue that He im3a7ted to the 2osmos on2e <o7 all the ene7gy 5hi2h se7;ed as the d7i;ing 3o5e7 o< a stu3endous me2hanism1 DE1 But Iod lea;es it to #atu7e to 5o7k itsel< out in o6edien2e to the la5s o7iginally gi;en 6y him1 D F1 (o that i< the mo7al o7de7 <ails to 5o7k out as ex3e2ted 6y Iod, the <ault is o< #atu7e and not o< Iod1 D H1 E;en this modi<i2ation in the theo7y does not sol;e the di<<i2ulty1 )t only hel3s to exone7ate Iod <7om his 7es3onsi6ility1 Fo7 the Cuestion 7emains, 5hy should Iod lea;e it to #atu7e to exe2ute His la5s M +hat is the use o< su2h an a6sentee Iod M D-1 "he ans5e7 5hi2h the Buddha ga;e to the Cuestion, N 8 Ho5 is mo7al o7de7 maintained M 8 is totally di<<e7ent1

KDK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D/1 His ans5e7 5as sim3le1 8)t is the *amma #iyam and not Iod 5hi2h maintains the mo7al o7de7 in the uni;e7se18 "hat 5as the Buddha:s ans5e7 to the Cuestion1 K01 "he mo7al o7de7 o< the uni;e7se may 6e good o7 it may 6e 6ad1 But a22o7ding to the Buddha the mo7al o7de7 7ests on man and on no6ody else1 K D 1 *amma means man:s a2tion and Gi3aka is its e<<e2t1 )< the mo7al o7de7 is 6ad it is 6e2ause man does !kusala @BadB *amma1 )< the mo7al o7de7 is good it is 6e2ause man does *usala @IoodB *amma1 KK1 "he Buddha 5as not 2ontent 5ith me7ely s3eaking o< *amma1 He s3oke o< the la5 o< *amma 5hi2h is anothe7 name <o7 *amma #iyam1 KL1 By s3eaking o< the la5 o< *amma 5hat the Buddha 5anted to 2on;ey 5as that the e<<e2t o< the deed 5as 6ound to <ollo5 the deed, as su7ely as

night <ollo5s day1 )t 5as like a #iyam o7 7ule1 K.1 #o one 2ould <ail to 6ene<it 6y the good e<<e2ts o< a *usala *amma and no one 2ould es2a3e the e;il e<<e2ts o< !kusala *amma1 KE1 "he7e<o7e, the Buddha:s admonition 5as' Do *usala *amma so that humanity may 6ene<it 6y a good mo7al o7de7 5hi2h a *usala *amma hel3s to sustain J do not do !kusala *amma <o7 humanity 5ill su<<e7 <7om the 6ad mo7al o7de7 5hi2h an !kusala *amma 5ill 67ing a6out1 KF1 )t may 6e that the7e is a time inte7;al 6et5een the moment 5hen the *amma is done and the moment 5hen the e<<e2t is <elt1 )t is so, o<ten enough1 KH1 F7om this 3oint o< ;ie5, *amma is eithe7 @DB Ditthadamma Gedaniya *amma @)mmediately E<<e2ti;e *ammaBJ @KB $3a3a??a;edaniya *amma @ emotely E<<e2ti;e *ammaBJ and @LB !3o7a3a7iya Gedaniya *amma @)nde<initely E<<e2ti;e *ammaB 1 K-1 *amma may also <all into the 2atego7y o< !hosi *amma, i1e1, *amma 5hi2h is non-e<<e2ti;e1 "his !hosi *amma 2om37ises all su2h *ammas 5hi2h a7e too 5eak to o3e7ate, o7 5hi2h a7e 2ounte7a2ted 6y a mo7e *amma, at the time 5hen it should ha;e 5o7ked1 K/1 But making allo5an2e <o7 all these 2onside7ations, it does not in any sense de7ogate <7om the 2laim made 6y the Buddha that the la5 o< *amma is inexo7a6le1 KDL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L01 "he theo7y o< the la5 o< *amma does not ne2essa7ily in;ol;e the 2on2e3tion that the e<<e2t o< the *amma 7e2oils on the doe7 o< it and the7e is nothing mo7e to 6e thought a6out it1 "his is an e77o71 (ometimes the a2tion o< one a<<e2ts anothe7 instead o< the doe71 !ll the same it is the 5o7king o< the la5 o< *amma 6e2ause it eithe7 u3holds o7 u3sets the mo7al o7de71 L D 1 )ndi;iduals 2ome and indi;iduals go1 But the mo7al o7de7 o< the uni;e7se 7emains and so also the la5 o< *amma 5hi2h sustains it1 LK1 )t is <o7 this 7eason that in the 7eligion o< the Buddha, Ao7ality has 6een gi;en the 3la2e o< Iod1

LL1 "hus the Buddha:s ans5e7 to the Cuestion N 8Ho5 the mo7al o7de7 in the uni;e7se is sustainedM8 is so sim3le and so i77e<uta6le1 L.1 !nd yet its t7ue meaning is s2a72ely g7as3ed1 O<ten, almost al5ays, it is eithe7 misunde7stood o7 misstated o7 misinte737eted1 #ot many seem to 6e 2ons2ious that the la5 :o< *amma 5as 37o3ounded 6y the Buddha as an ans5e7 to the Cuestion N 8 Ho5 the mo7al o7de7 is maintained M8 LE1 "hat, ho5e;e7, is the 3u73ose o< Buddha:s %a5 o< *amma1 LF1 "he %a5 o< *amma has to do only 5ith the Cuestion o< gene7al mo7al o7de71 )t has nothing to do 5ith the <o7tunes o7 mis<o7tunes o< an indi;idual1 LH1 )t is 2on2e7ned 5ith the maintenan2e o< the mo7al o7de7 in the uni;e7se1 L-1 )t is 6e2ause o< this that the la5 o< *amma is a 3a7t o< Dhamma1

KD.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> Pa7t )G N +hat is #ot Dhamma1 R '' D1 Belie< in the (u3e7natu7al is #ot Dhamma1 '' - '' K1 Belie< in )sh5a7a @IodB is #ot Essentially Pa7t o< Dhamma1 '' @ UB '' L1 Dhamma Based on $nion 5ith B7ahma is a False Dhamma1 ''

.1 Belie< in (oul is #ot Dhamma1

E1 Belie< in (a27i<i2es is #ot N Dhamma1

F1 Belie< Based on (3e2ulation is #ot Dhamma1

H1

eading Books o< Dhamma is #ot Dhamma1

-1 Belie< in the )n<alli6ility o< Books o< Dhamma is #ot

Dhamma1

'' D1 Belie< in the (u3e7natu7al is #ot Dhamma1 ''

D 1 +hene;e7 any 3henomenon o22u7s, humanity is al5ays 5anting to kno5 ho5 it has ha33ened, 5hat is the 2ause o< it1 K1 (ometimes 2ause and the e<<e2t a7e so 37oximate and so 2lose that it is not di<<i2ult to a22ount <o7 the o22u77en2e o< the e;ent1 L1 But o<ten-times the e<<e2t is so <a7 a5ay <7om the 2ause <o7 the e<<e2t is not a22ounta6le1 !33a7ently the7e a33ea7s to 6e no 2ause <o7 it1 .1 "hen the Cuestion a7ises' Ho5 has this e;ent o22u77edM E1 "he 2ommonest ans5e7 is that the o22u77en2e o< the e;ent is due to some su3e7natu7al 2ause 5hi2h is o<ten 2alled a mi7a2le1 F1 "he Buddha:s 37ede2esso7s ga;e ;e7y di<<e7ent ans5e7s to this Cuestion1 H1 Pakauda *atyana denied that the7e 5as a 2ause <o7 e;e7y e;ent1 E;ents, he said, o22u77ed inde3endently1 -1 Aakhali Ihosal admitted that an e;ent must ha;e a 2ause1 But he 37ea2hed that the 2ause is not to 6e <ound in human agen2y 6ut is to 6e sought in natu7e, ne2essity, inhe7ent la5s o< things, 37edestination o7 the like1

KDE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> /1 "he Buddha 7e3elled these do2t7ines1 He maintained that not only e;e7y e;ent has a 2ause 6ut the 2ause is the 7esult o< some human a2tion o7

natu7al la51 D01 His 2ontention against the do2t7ine o< "ime, #atu7e, #e2essity, et21, 6eing the 2ause o< the o22u77en2e o< an e;ent, 5as this1 D D1 )< "ime, #atu7e, #e2essity, et21, 6e the sole 2ause o< the o22u77en2e o< an e;ent, then 5ho a7e 5e M DK1 )s man me7ely a 3u33et in the hands o< "ime, #atu7e, Chan2e, Iods, Fate, #e2essity M DL1 +hat is the use o< man:s existen2e i< he is not <7ee M +hat is the se o< man:s intelligen2e i< he 2ontinues to 6elie;e in su3e7natu7al 2auses M D.1 )< man is <7ee, then e;e7y e;ent must 6e the 7esult o< man:s a2tion o7 o< an a2t o< #atu7e1 "he7e 2annot 6e any e;ent 5hi2h is su3e7natu7al in its o7igin1 DE1 )t may 6e that man is not a6le to dis2o;e7 the 7eal 2ause o< the o22u77en2e o< an e;ent1 But i< he has intelligen2e he is 6ound one day to dis2o;e7 it1 DF1 )n 7e3udiating su3e7natu7alism the Buddha had th7ee o6?e2ts1 D H1 His <i7st o6?e2t 5as to lead man to the 3ath o< 7ationalism1 D-1 His se2ond o6?e2t 5as to <7ee man to go in sea72h o< t7uth1 D/1 His thi7d o6?e2t 5as to 7emo;e the most 3otent sou72e o< su3e7stition, the 7esult o< 5hi2h is to kill the s3i7it o< inCui7y1 K01 "his is 2alled the la5 o< *amma o7 Causation1 KD1 "his do2t7ine o< *amma and Causation is the most 2ent7al do2t7ine in Buddhism1 )t 37ea2hes ationalism and Buddhism is nothing i< not 7ationalism1 KK1 "hat is 5hy 5o7shi3 o< the su3e7natu7al is #ot N Dhamma1

KDF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K1 Belie< in )sh5a7a @IodB is #ot Essentially Pa7t o<

Dhamma1 ''

D 1 +ho 27eated the 5o7ld is a 2ommon Cuestion1 "hat the 5o7ld 5as 27eated 6y Iod is also a ;e7y 2ommon ans5e71 K1 )n the B7ahmani2 s2heme this Iod is 2alled 6y a ;a7iety o< names N P7a?a3ati, )sh5a7, B7ahma o7 Aaha B7ahma1 L1 "o the Cuestion 5ho this Iod is and ho5 He 2ame into 6eing the7e is no ans5e71 .1 "hose 5ho 6elie;e in Iod des27i6e Him as a 6eing 5ho is omni3otent, i1e1, all-3o5e7<ul1 Omni 37esent, i1e1, he <ills the 5hole uni;e7se, and Omnis2ient, i1e1, he kno5s e;e7ything1 E1 "he7e a7e also 2e7tain mo7al Cualities 5hi2h a7e att7i6uted to Iod1 Iod is said to 6e good, Iod is said to 6e ?ust and Iod is said to 6e alllo;ing1 F1 "he Cuestion is did the Blessed %o7d a22e3t Iod as the 27eato7 o< the uni;e7se, H1 "he ans5e7 is, 8 #o1 8 He did not1 -1 "he7e a7e ;a7ious g7ounds 5hy he 7e?e2ted the do2t7ine o< the Existen2e o< Iod1 /1 #o6ody has seen Iod1 Peo3le only s3eak o< Iod1 D01 Iod is unkno5n and unseen1 DD1 #o6ody 2an 37o;e that Iod has 27eated the 5o7ld1 "he 5o7ld has e;ol;ed and is not 27eated1 DK1 +hat ad;antage 2an the7e 6e in 6elie;ing in Iod M )t is un37o<ita6le1 DL1 "he Buddha said that a 7eligion 6ased on Iod is 6ased on s3e2ulation1 D.1 ! 7eligion 6ased on Iod is, the7e<o7e, not 5o7th ha;ing1 D E1 )t only ends in 27eating su3e7stition1

KDH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DF1 "he Buddha did not lea;e the Cuestion the7e1 He dis2ussed the Cuestion in its ;a7ious as3e2ts1 D H1 "he g7ounds on 5hi2h he 7e?e2ted the do2t7ine 5e7e ;a7ious1 D-1 He a7gued that the do2t7ine o< the Existen2e o< Iod is not 6ased on t7uth1 D/1 "his he made 2lea7 in his dialogue 5ith the t5o B7ahmins, Gasettha and Bha7d;a?a1 K01 #o5 a dis3ute a7ose 6et5een them as to 5hi2h 5as the t7ue 3ath o< sal;ation and 5hi2h <alse1 KD1 !6out the time the Blessed One 5as ?ou7neying th7ough *osala 5ith a g7eat 2om3any o< the 67eth7en he ha33ened to halt at the B7ahmin ;illage 2alled Aanaskata and stayed in the mango g7o;e on the 6ank o< the 7i;e7 !ki7a;ati1 KK1 Aanaskata 5as the to5n in 5hi2h Gasettha and Bha7d;a?a li;ed1 Ha;ing hea7d that the Blessed %o7d 5as staying in thei7 to5n, they 5ent to him and ea2h one 3ut <o7th his 3oint o< ;ie51 KL1 Bha7d;a?a said ' 8 "he 3ath o< "a7ukkha is the st7aight 3ath, this is the di7e2t 5ay 5hi2h makes <o7 sal;ation, and leads him, 5ho a2ts a22o7ding to it, into a state o< union 5ith B7ahma18 K.1 Gasettha said' 8Ga7ious B7ahmins, Iotama, tea2h ;a7ious 3aths1 "he !ddha7iya B7ahinmins, the "itti7iya B7ahmins, the *an2hoka B7ahmins, the Bheehu;a7giya B7ahmins1 "hey all lead those 5ho a2t a22o7ding to them, into a state o< union 5ith B7ahma1 KE1 8 Pust as nea7 a ;illage o7 a to5n the7e a7e many and ;a7ious 3aths yet they all meet togethe7 in the ;illage N ?ust in the same 5ay all the ;a7ious 3aths taught 6y the ;a7ious B7ahmins lead to union 5ith B7ahma18 KF1 8Do you say that they all lead a7ight, GasetthaM8 asked the Buddha1 8) say so, Iautama,8 7e3lied Gasettha1

KH1 8 But Gasettha, is the7e a single one o< the B7ahmins ;e7sed in the th7ee Gedas 5ho has e;e7 seen B7ahma <a2e to <a2e18 K-1 8#o, indeed, Iautama18

KD-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K/1 8 )s the7e a single one o< the tea2he7s o< the B7ahmanas ;e7sed in the th7ee Gedas 5ho has seen B7ahma <a2e to <a2e M 8 L01 8#o, indeed, Iautama18 LD1 8#o6ody has seen B7ahma1 "he7e is no 3e72e3tual kno5ledge a6out B7ahma18 8 (o it is,8 said Gasettha1 8 Ho5 then 2an you 6elie;e that the asse7tion o< the B7ahmins that B7ahma exists is 6ased on t7uth M LK1 8 Pust, Gasettha, as 5hen a st7ing o< 6lind men a7e 2linging one to the othe7, neithe7 2an the <o7emost see no7 2an the middle one see no7 2an the hindmost see N ?ust e;en so, methinks, Gasettha, is the talk o< the B7ahmins nothing 6ut 6lind talk1 "he <i7st sees not, the middle one sees not, no7 2an the latest one1 "he talk o< these B7ahmins tu7ns out to 6e 7idi2ulous, me7e 5o7ds, a ;ain and em3ty thing1 LL1 8)s this not a 2ase, Gasettha, o< a man <alling in lo;e 5ith a 5oman 5hom he has not seen M 8 8 &es, it is,8 7e3lied Gasettha1 L.1 8 #o5 5hat think you Gasettha M )< 3eo3le should ask you, :+eill Iood <7iend ) "his most 6eauti<ul 5oman in the land, 5hom you thus lo;e and long <o7, 5ho is sheM )s she a no6le lady, o7 a B7ahmin 5oman, o7 o< the t7ade7 2lass, o7 a (ud7a M : LE1 8 +ith 7ega7d to the o7igin o< Aaha B7ahma, the so-2alled 27eato7,8 the Blessed %o7d said, add7essing Bha7d;a?a and Gasettha, 8 F7iends, that 6eing 5ho 5as <i7st 6o7n thinks thus ' ) am B7ahma, the I7eat B7ahma, the GanCuishe7, the $n;anCuished, the !ll -seeing, the Dis3ose7, the %o7d, the

Aake7, the C7eato7, the Chie<, the !ssigno7, the Aaste7 o< Aysel<, the <athe7 o< all that a7e and a7e to 6e1 By me a7e these 6eings 27eated1 LF1 8"his means that B7ahma is the <athe7 o< those that a7e and a7e to 6e1 L H1 8&ou say that the 5o7shi3<ul B7ahma, the GanCuishe7, the $n;anCuished, Fathe7 o< all that a7e and a7e to 6e, he 6y 5hom 5e 5e7e 27eated, he is 3e7manent, 2onstant, ete7nal, un2hanging, and he 5ill 7emain so <o7 e;e7 and e;e71 "hen 5hy a7e 5e 5ho a7e 27eated 6y that B7ahma, ha;e 2ome hithe7, all im3e7manent, t7ansient, unsta6le, sho7t-li;ed, destined to 3ass a5ayM8 L-1 "o this Gasettha had no ans5e71

KD/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L/1 His thi7d a7gument had 7e<e7en2e to the Omni3oten2e o< Iod1 8 )< Iod is Omni3otent and is also the e<<i2ient 2ause o< 27eation, then 6e2ause o< this man 2annot ha;e any desi7e to do anything, no7 2an the7e 6e any ne2essity to do anything, no7 2an he ha;e the 5ill to do anything o7 to 3ut <o7th any e<<o7t1 Aan must 7emain a 3assi;e 27eatu7e 5ith no 3a7t to 3lay in the a<<ai7s o< the 5o7ld1 )< this is so, 5hy did B7ahma 27eate man at allM .01 "o this also Gasettha had no ans5e71 . D 1 His <ou7th a7gument 5as that i< Iod is good then 5hy do men 6e2ome mu7de7e7s, thie;es, un2haste, lia7s, slande7e7s, a6usi;e 6a66le7s, 2o;etous, mali2ious and 3e7;e7se M "he 2ause o< this must 6e )sh5a7a1 )s this 3ossi6le 5ith the existen2e o< Iod 5ho is good M .K1 His <i<th a7gument 5as 7elated to Iod 6eing Omnis2ient, ?ust and me72i<ul1 .L1 8)< the7e is a su37eme 27eato7 5ho is ?ust and me72i<ul, 5hy then does so mu2h in?usti2e 37e;ail in the 5o7ldM8 asked the Blessed %o7d1 8He 5ho has

eyes 2an see the si2kening sightJ 5hy does not B7ahma set his 27eatu7es 7ight M )< his 3o5e7 is so 5ide that no limits 2an 7est7ain, 5hy is his hand so 7a7ely s37ead to 6lessM +hy a7e his 27eatu7es all 2ondemned to su<<e7ing M +hy does he not gi;e ha33iness to allM 8+hy do <7aud, lies and igno7an2e 37e;ailM +hy does <alsehood t7ium3h o;e7 t7uth M +hy does t7uth and ?usti2e <ail M ) 2ount you7 B7ahma as one o< the most un?ust, 5ho made a 5o7ld only to shelte7 57ong1 ..1 8 )< the7e exists some %o7d all-3o5e7<ul to <ul<il in e;e7y 27eatu7e, 6liss o7 5oe, and a2tion, good o7 ill, then that %o7d is stained 5ith sin1 Eithe7 man does not 5o7k his 5ill o7 Iod is not ?ust and good o7 Iod is 6lind18 .E1 His next a7gument against the do2t7ine o< Iod 5as that the dis2ussion o< this Cuestion a6out the existen2e o< Iod 5as un37o<ita6le1 .F1 !22o7ding to him the 2ent7e o< 7eligion lay not in the 7elation o< man to Iod1 )t lay in the 7elation 6et5een man and man1 "he 3u73ose o< 7eligion is to tea2h man ho5 he should 6eha;e to5a7ds othe7 men so that all may 6e ha33y1 .H1 "he7e 5as also anothe7 7eason 5hy the Blessed %o7d 5as against 6elie< in the existen2e o< Iod1

KK0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> .-1 He 5as against 7eligious 7ites, 2e7emonies, and o6se7;an2es1 He 5as against them 6e2ause they 5e7e the home o< su3e7stition and su3e7stition 5as the enemy o< (amma Ditthi, the most im3o7tant element in his !shtangma7g1 ./1 "o the Blessed %o7d 6elie< in Iod 5as the most dange7ous thing1 Fo7 6elie< in Iod ga;e 7ise to 6elie< in the e<<i2a2y o< 5o7shi3 and 37aye7 and the e<<i2a2y o< 5o7shi3 and 37aye7 ga;e 7ise to the o<<i2e o< the 37iest and the 37iest 5as the e;il genius 5ho 27eated all su3e7stition and the7e6y dest7oyed the g7o5th o< (amma Ditthi1 E01 O< these a7guments against 6elie< in the existen2e o< Iod some 5e7e

37a2ti2al 6ut the ma?o7ity o< them theologi2al1 "he Blessed %o7d kne5 that they 5e7e not <atal to the 6elie< in the existen2e o< Iod1 E D 1 )t must not, ho5e;e7, 6e su33osed that he had no a7gument 5hi2h 5as <atal1 "he7e 5as one 5hi2h he ad;an2ed 5hi2h is 6eyond dou6t <atal to 6elie< in Iod1 "his is 2ontained in his do2t7ine o< Patit (amut3ad 5hi2h is des27i6ed as the do2t7ine o< De3endent O7igination1 EK1 !22o7ding to this do2t7ine, the Cuestion 5hethe7 Iod exists o7 does not exist is not the main Cuestion1 #o7 is the Cuestion 5hethe7 Iod 27eated the uni;e7se the 7eal Cuestion1 "he 7eal Cuestion is ho5 did the 27eato7 27eate the 5o7ld1 "he ?usti<i2ation <o7 the 6elie< in Iod is a 2on2lusion 5hi2h <ollo5s <7om ou7 ans5e7 to the Cuestion ho5 5as the 5o7ld 27eated1 EL1 "he im3o7tant Cuestion is ' Did Iod 27eate something out o< nothing o7 did he 27eate something out o< something M E.1 )t is im3ossi6le to 6elie;e that something 2ould ha;e 6een 27eated out o< nothing1 EE1 )< the so-2alled Iod has 27eated something out o< something, then that something out o< 5hi2h something ne5 5as 27eated has 6een in existen2e 6e<o7e he 27eated anything1 Iod 2annot the7e<o7e 6e 2alled the C7eato7 o< that something 5hi2h has existed 6e<o7e him1 EF1 )< something has 6een 27eated 6y some6ody out o< something 6e<o7e Iod 27eated anything then Iod 2annot 6e said to 6e the C7eato7 o7 the <i7st Cause1

KKD

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> EH1 (u2h 5as his last 6ut in2ont7o;e7ti6le a7gument against 6elie< in the existen2e o< Iod1 E-1 Being <alse in 37emises, 6elie< in Iod as the 27eato7 o< the uni;e7se is #ot N Dhamma1 )t is only 6elie< in <alsehood1

'' L1 Dhamma Based on $nion 5ith B7ahma is a False Dhamma1 ''

D1 +hen the Buddha 5as 37ea2hing his 7eligion the7e 5as 2u77ent a do2t7ine 2alled Gedantism1 K1 "he tenets o< this do2t7ine a7e <e5 and sim3le1 L1 Behind the uni;e7se the7e is omni37esent a 2ommon 37in2i3le o< li<e 2alled B7ahma o7 B7ahman1 .1 "his B7ahma is a 7eality1 E1 "he !tman o7 the indi;idual soul is the same as B7ahma1 F1 Aan:s li6e7ation lies in making !tman to 6e one 5ith B7ahma1 "his is the se2ond 37in2i3le1 H1 "his unity 5ith B7ahma the !tman 2an a2hie;e 6y 7ealising that it is the same as B7ahman1 -1 !nd the 5ay to make the !tman 7ealise that it is the same as B7ahman is to gi;e u3 (ansa7a1 /1 "his do2t7ine is 2alled Gedantism1 D01 "he Buddha had no 7es3e2t <o7 the do2t7ine1 He 7ega7ded it as 6ased on <alse 37emises and 37odu2ing nothing o< ;alue and, the7e<o7e, not 5o7th ha;ing1 D D 1 "his he made 2lea7 in his dis2ussion 5ith t5o B7ahmins, Bha7ad;a? and Gasettha1 DK1 "he Buddha a7gued that the7e must 6e 37oo< 6e<o7e one 2an a22e3t a thing to 6e a 7eality1 KKK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DL1 "he7e a7e t5o modes o< 37oo<, 3e72e3tion and in<e7en2e1 D.1 "he Buddha asked, 8Has any6ody 3e72ei;ed B7ahma J ha;e you seen B7ahma J ha;e you s3oken to B7ahma J ha;e you smelt B7ahma M 8

D E1 Gasettha said, 8 #o1 DF1 8 "he othe7 mode o< 37oo< is inadeCuate to 37o;e the existen2e o< B7ahma18 DH18 F7om 5hat is B7ahma the in<e7en2e o<M8 asked the Buddha1 "he7e again 5as no ans5e71 D -1 "he7e a7e othe7s 5ho a7gue that a thing exists although it is in;isi6le1 (o they say that B7ahma exists although it is in;isi6le1 D/1 )n this 6ald statement it is an im3ossi6le 3osition1 K01 But <o7 a7gument:s sake let it 6e g7anted that a thing exists although it is in;isi6le1 K D 1 "he 6est illust7ation o< it is ele2t7i2ity1 )t exists although it is in;isi6le1 KK1 "his a7gument is not enough, KL1 !n in;isi6le thing must sho5 itsel< in some othe7 <o7m that is ;isi6le1 "hen alone it 2an 6e 2alled 7eal1 K.1 But i< an in;isi6le thing does not sho5 itsel< in any ;isi6le <o7m then it is not a 7eality1 KE1 +e a22e3t 7eality o< ele2t7i2ity although it is in;isi6le 6e2ause o< the 7esults it 37odu2es1 KF1 Ele2t7i2ity 37odu2es light1 F7om light 5e a22e3t the 7eality o< ele2t7i2ity although it is in;isi6le1 KH1 +hat does this in;isi6le B7ahma 37odu2eM Does it 37odu2e any ;isi6le 7esults M K-1 "he ans5e7 is in the negati;e1 K/1 !nothe7 illust7ation may 6e gi;en1 )n la5 too it is 2ommon to ado3t as a 6asi2 2on2e3t a <i2tion N a 37o3osition, the existen2e o< 5hi2h is not 37o;ed 6ut 5hi2h is assumed to 6e t7ue1

KKL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L01 !nd 5e all a22e3t su2h a legal <i2tion1 L D 1 But 5hy is su2h a legal <i2tion a22e3tedM LK1 "he 7eason is that a legal <i2tion is a22e3ted 6e2ause it gi;es a <7uit<ul and ?ust 7esult1 LL1 8 B7ahma is a <i2tion1 +hat <7uit<ul 7esult does it gi;eM8 L.1 Gasettha and Bha7ad;a? 5e7e silent1 LE1 "o d7i;e the a7gument home he tu7ned to Gasettha and asked 8 Ha;e you seen B7ahma M 8 LF1 8)s the7e a single one o< the B7ahmanas ;e7sed in th7ee, Gedas 5ho has e;e7 seen B7ahma <a2e to <a2e M 8 LH1 8 #o, indeed, Iautama18 L-1 8 )s the7e a single one o< the tea2he7s o< the B7ahmanas ;e7sed in the th7ee Gedas 5ho ha;e seen B7ahma <a2e to <a2eM8 L/1 8 #o, indeed, Iautama18 .01 8)s the7e, Gasettha, a single one o< the B7ahmanas u3to the se;enth gene7ation 5ho has seen B7ahma <a2e to <a2eM8 .D1 8#o, indeed, Iautama18 .K1 8 +ell then, Gasettha N did the an2ient ishis o< the B7ahmanas N did e;en they s3eak thus, saying ' +e kno5 it, 5e ha;e seen it, 5he7e B7ahma is, 5hithe7 B7ahma is M : .L1 8 #ot so, Iautama18 ..1 "he Buddha 2ontinued his Cuestioning o< the t5o B7ahmin 6oys and said' .E1 8 #o5 5hat think you, Gasettha M Does it not <ollo5, this 6eing so, that the talk o< the B7ahmanas a6out union 5ith B7ahma tu7ns out to 6e <oolish talkM .F1 8 Pust, Gasettha, as 5hen a st7ing o< 6lind men a7e 2linging one to the

othe7, neithe7 2an the <o7emost see, no7 2an the middle one see, no7 2an the hindmost see N ?ust e;en so, methinks, Gasettha, is the talk o< the B7ahmanas KK.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> all 6ut 6lind talkM "he <i7st sees not, the middle one sees not, no7 2an the last one1 "he talk o< these B7ahmanas tu7ns out to 6e 7idi2ulous, me7e 5o7ds, a ;ain and em3ty thing1 .H1 8Pust, Gasettha, as i< a man should, say, Ho5 ) long <o7, ho5 ) lo;e the most 6eauti<ul 5oman in this land1: .-1 8 !nd 3eo3le should ask him, : +ell ) good <7iend ) "his most 6eauti<ul 5oman in the land, 5hom you thus lo;e and long <o7, do you kno5 5hethe7 that 6eauti<ul 5oman is a no6le lady o7 a B7ahmin 5oman, o7 o< the t7ade7 2lass, o7 a (ud7a M : ./1 8But 5hen so asked, he 5ould ans5e7' :#o1: E01 8 !nd 5hen 3eo3le should ask him, : +ell ) good <7iend ) "his most 6eauti<ul 5oman in all the land, 5hom you lo;e and long <o7, do you kno5 5hat the name o< that most 6eauti<ul 5oman is, o7 5hat he7 <amily name, 5hethe7 she 6e tall o7 sho7t o7 o< medium height, da7k o7 67unette o7 golden in 2olou7, o7 in 5hat ;illage o7 to5n o7 2ity she d5ells M : But 5hen so asked, he 5ould ans5e7 ' :#o1 : E D 1 8#o5 5hat think you, GasetthaM +ould it not tu7n out that 6eing so, that the talk o< that man 5as <oolish talk M 8 EK1 8 )n sooth, Iautama, that 5ould 6e so, 8 said the t5o B7ahmins1 EL1 (o B7ahma is not 7eal and any 7eligion 6ased u3on it is useless1 '' .1 Belie< in (oul is #ot Dhamma1 ''

D 1 "he Buddha said that 7eligion 6ased on soul is 6ased on s3e2ulation1 K1 #o6ody has seen the soul o7 has 2on;e7sed 5ith the soul1

L1 "he soul is unkno5n and unseen1 .1 "he thing that exists is not the soul 6ut the mind1 Aind is di<<e7ent <7om the soul1 E1 Belie< in soul He said is un37o<ita6le1 F1 ! 7eligion 6ased on soul is the7e<o7e not 5o7th ha;ing1 KKE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> H1 )t only ends in 27eating su3e7stition1 -1 "he Buddha did not lea;e the Cuestion the7e1 He dis2ussed it in all its as3e2ts1 /1 Belie< in the existen2e o< soul is as 2ommon as the 6elie< in the existen2e o< Iod1 D01 Belie< in the existen2e o< soul 5as also a 3a7t o< the B7ahmani2 eligion1 DD1 )n the B7ahmani2 eligion the soul is 2alled !tma o7 !tman1

DK1 )n the B7ahmani2 eligion, !tman is the name gi;en to an entity 5hi2h 5as held to 6e a6iding se3a7ate <7om the 6ody, 6ut li;ing inside the 6ody 2onstantly existing <7om the moment o< his 6i7th1 DL1 Belie< in the soul in2luded othe7 6elie<s, 2onne2ted 5ith it1 D.1 "he soul does not die 5ith the 6ody1 )t takes 6i7th in anothe7 6ody 5hen it 2omes into 6eing1 D E1 "he 6ody se7;es as an exte7nal 2lothing <o7 the soul1 DF1 Did the Buddha 6elie;e in the soulM #o1 He did not1 His do2t7ine a6out the soul is 2alled !n9atta, no soul1 DH1 Ii;en a disem6odied soul ;a7ious Cuestions a7ise ' +hat is the soul M +he7e did it 2ome <7om M +hat 6e2omes o< it on the death o< the 6ody M +he7e does it go M )n 5hat <o7m does it exist 8 he7ea<te718 Ho5 long does it 7emain the7e M "hese Cuestions the Buddha t7ied to

a7gue out 5ith the u3holde7s o< the do2t7ine o< the soul1 D-1 He <i7st t7ied to sho5 ho5 ;ague 5as the idea a6out the soul 6y his usual method o< 27oss examination1 D/1 He asked those 5ho 6elie;ed in the existen2e o< the soul, 5hat the soul 5as like in siOe a7id in sha3e1 K01 "o !nanda he said the de2la7ations 2on2e7ning the soul a7e a6ounding1 (ome de2la7e ' 8 Ay soul has a <o7m and it is minute18 Othe7s 1de2la7e the soul to ha;e <o7m and to 6e 6oundless and minute1 Othe7s de2la7e it to 6e <o7mless and 6oundless1 KD1 8)n so many 5ays, !nanda, a7e de2la7ations made 2on2e7ning the soul18 KKF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KK1 8 Ho5 is the soul 2on2ei;ed 6y those 5ho 6elie;e in the soulM8 5as anothe7 Cuestion 7aised 6y the Buddha1 (ome say, 8Ay soul is <eeling18 Othe7s say, 8 #ay, my soul is not <eeling, my soul is not sentient 8 J o7 again ' 8 #ay, my soul is not <eeling, no7 is it non-sentient J my soul has <eeling, it has the 37o3e7ty o< sentien2e18 $nde7 su2h as3e2ts as these is the soul 2on2ei;ed1 KL1 "he Buddha next asked those 5ho 6elie;ed in the existen2e o< the soul as to the 2ondition o< the soul a<te7 the death o< the 6ody1 K.1 He also 7aised the Cuestion 5hethe7 the soul 5as ;isi6le a<te7 the death o< the 6ody1 KE1 He <ound in<inite num6e7 o< ;ague statements1 KF1 Does the soul kee3 its <o7m a<te7 the death o< the 6ody M He <ound that the7e 5e7e eight di<<e7ent s3e2ulations1 KH1 Does the soul die 5ith the 6odyM "he7e 5e7e innume7a6le s3e2ulations on this1 K-1 He also 7aised the Cuestion o< the ha33iness o7 mise7y o< the soul a<te7

the 6ody is dead1 )s the soul ha33y a<te7 the death o< the 6ody M On this also the e2luses and B7ahmins di<<e7ed1 (ome said it 5as altogethe7 mise7a6le1 (ome said it 5as ha33y1 (ome said it1 is 6oth ha33y and mise7a6le and some said it is neithe7 ha33y no7 mise7a6le1 K/1 His ans5e7 to all these theo7ies a6out the existen2e o< the soul 5as the same 5hi2h he ga;e to Cunda1 L01 "o Cunda he said ' 8 #o5, Cunda, to those 7e2luses and B7ahmins, 5ho 6elie;e and 37o<ess any one o< these ;ie5s, ) go and say this ' : )s this so, <7iends M : !nd i< they 7e3ly' : &es1 "his alone is t7ue, any othe7 ;ie5 is a6su7d1: ) do not admit thei7 2laim1 +hy is thisM Be2ause 3e7sons hold di<<e7ent o3inions on su2h Cuestions1 #o7 do ) 2onside7 this @o7 thatB ;ie5 on a le;el 5ith my o5n, let alone highe718 LD1 #o5 the mo7e im3o7tant Cuestion is 5hat 5e7e the a7guments o< the Buddha against the existen2e o< the soul1 LK1 "he gene7al a7guments he ad;an2ed in su33o7t o< his denial o< the soul 5e7e the same as those 5hi2h he ad;an2ed in su33o7t o< his denial o< the existen2e o< Iod1 KKH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> LL1 He a7gued that the dis2ussion o< the existen2e o< the soul is as un37o<ita6le as the dis2ussion o< the existen2e o< Iod1 L.1 He a7gued that the 6elie< in the existen2e o< the soul is as mu2h against the 2ulti;ation o< (amma Ditthi as the 6elie< in the existen2e o< Iod1 LE1 He a7gued that the 6elie< in the existen2e o< the soul is as mu2h a sou72e o< su3e7stition as the 6elie< in Iod is1 )ndeed in his o3inion the 6elie< in the existen2e o< a soul is <a7 mo7e dange7ous than the 6elie< in Iod1 Fo7 not onlydoes it 27eate a 37iesthood, not only is it the o7igin o< all su3e7stition 6ut it gi;es the 37iesthood 2om3lete 2ont7ol o;e7 man <7om 6i7th to death1

LF1 Be2ause o< these gene7al a7guments it is said that the Buddha did not ex37ess any de<inite o3inion on the existen2e o< the soul1 Othe7s ha;e said that he did not 7e3udiate the theo7y o< the existen2e o< the soul1 Othe7s ha;e said that he 5as al5ays dodging the issue1 LH1 "hese statements a7e Cuite in2o77e2t1 Fo7 to Aahali he did tell in most 3ositi;e te7ms that the7e is no su2h thing as a soul1 "hat is 5hy his theo7y o< the soul is 2alled !natta, i1e:1, non-soul1 L-1 !3a7t <7om the gene7al a7guments against the existen2e o< the soul, the Buddha had a s3e2ial a7gument against the existen2e o< the soul 5hi2h he 7ega7ded as <atal to the theo7y o< the soul1 L/1 His theo7y against the existen2e o< the soul as a se3a7ate entity is 2alled #ama- u3a1 .01 "he theo7y is the 7esult o< the a33li2ation o< the Gi6ha?a test, o< sha73, 7igo7ous analysis, o< the 2onstituent elements o< (entient 6eing othe75ise 2alled Human Pe7sonality1 .D1 #ama- u3a is a 2olle2ti;e name <o7 a (entient Being1 .K1 !22o7ding to the Buddha:s analysis, a (entient Being is a 2om3ound thing 2onsisting o< 2e7tain 3hysi2al elements and 2e7tain mental elements1 "hey a7e 2alled *handas1 .L1 "he u3a *handa 37ima7ily 2onsists o< the 3hysi2al elements su2h as ea7th, 5ate7, <i7e and ai71 "hey 2onstitute the Body o7 u3a1 ..1 Besides u3a *handa, the7e is su2h a thing as #ama *handa 5hi2h goes to make u3 a (entient Being1 KK-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> .E1 "his #ama *handa is 2alled Ginana, o7 2ons2iousness1 "his #ama *handa in2ludes the th7ee mental elements ' Gedana @sensation s37inging <7om 2onta2t o< the six senses 5ith the 5o7ldB, (anna @3e72e3tionBJ (ankha7a @states o< mindB 1 Chetana @2ons2iousnessB is sometimes s3oken o< along 5ith

the th7ee othe7 mental states as 6eing one o< them1 ! mode7n 3sy2hologist 5ould say that 2ons2iousness is the mains37ing <7om 5hi2h othe7 3sy2hologi2al 3henomena a7ise1 Ginana is the 2ent7e o< a sentient 6eing1 .F1 Cons2iousness is 7esult o< the 2om6ination o< the <ou7 elements, P7ithi, !3a, "e? and Gayu1 .H1 !n o6?e2tion is 7aised to this theo7y o< 2ons2iousness 37o3ounded 6y the Buddha1 .-1 "hose 5ho o6?e2t to this theo7y ask, 8 Ho5 is, 2ons2iousness 37odu2ed M 8 ./1 )t is t7ue, that 2ons2iousness a7ises 5ith 6i7th and dies 5ith death1 !ll the same, 2an it 6e said that 2ons2iousness is the 7esult o< the 2om6ination o< the <ou7 elements M E01 "he Buddha:s ans5e7 5as not that the 2o-existen2e o7 agg7egation o< the 3hysi2al elements 37odu2es 2ons2iousness1 +hat the Buddha said 5as that 5he7e;e7 the7e 5as 7u3a o7 kaya the7e 5as 2ons2iousness a22om3anying it1 E D 1 "o gi;e an analogy <7om s2ien2e, the7e is an ele2t7i2 <ield and 5he7e;e7 the7e is an ele2t7i2 <ield it is al5ays a22om3anied 6y a magneti2 <ield1 #o one kno5s ho5 the magneti2 <ield is 27eated o7 ho5 it a7ises1 But it al5ays exists along 5ith the ele2t7i2 <ield1 EK1 +hy should not the same 7elationshi3 6e said to exist 6et5een 6ody and 2ons2iousnessM EL1 "he magneti2 <ield in 7elation to the ele2t7i2 <ield is 2alled an indu2ed <ield1 +hy 2annot 2ons2iousness 6e 2alled an indu2ed <ield in 7elation to u3a- *aya1 E.1: "he Buddha:s a7gument against the soul is not yet 2om3lete1 He had <u7the7 to say something o< im3o7tan2e1 EE1 On2e 2ons2iousness a7ises man 6e2omes a sentient 6eing1 Cons2iousness is, the7e<o7e, the 2hie< thing in man:s li<e1 KK/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> EF1 Cons2iousness is 2ogniti;e, emotional and ;olitional1 EH1 Cons2iousness is 2ogniti;e 5hen it gi;es kno5ledge, in<o7mation, as a337e2iating o7 a337ehending, 5hethe7 it 6e a337e2iation o< inte7nal <a2ts o7 o< exte7nal things and e;ents1 E-1 Cons2iousness is emotional 5hen it exists in 2e7tain su6?e2ti;e states, 2ha7a2te7ised 6y eithe7 3leasu7a6le o7 3ain<ul tones, 5hen emotional 2ons2iousness 37odu2es <eeling1 E/1 Cons2iousness in its ;olitional stage makes a 6eing exe7t himsel< <o7 the attainment o< some end1 Golitional 2ons2iousness gi;es 7ise to 5hat 5e 2all 5ill o7 a2ti;ity1 IO1 )t is thus 2lea7 that all the <un2tions o< a sentient 6eing a7e 3e7<o7med 6y the sentient 6eing th7ough and as a 7esult o< 2ons2iousness1 FD1 !<te7 this analysis the Buddha asked 5hat in a7e the <un2tions 5hi2h a7e le<t to 6e 3e7<o7med 6y the soulM !ll <un2tions assigned to the soul a7e 3e7<o7med 6y 2ons2iousness1 FK1 ! soul 5ithout any <un2tion is an a6su7dity1 FL1 "his is ho5 the Buddha dis37o;ed the existen2e o< the soul1 F.1 "hat is 5hy1 the existen2e o< the soul 2annot 6e a 3a7t o< Dhamma1 '' E1 Belie< in (a27i<i2es is #ot N Dhamma1 '' @iB D 1 "he B7ahmani2 7eligion 5as 6ased u3on sa27i<i2es1 K1 (ome sa27i<i2es 5e7e 2lassi<ied as #itty a and othe7 sa27i<i2es 5e7e 2lassi<ied as #aimitik1 L1 "he #ittya sa27i<i2es 5e7e o6ligations and had to 6e 3e7<o7med 5hethe7 one got any <7uit the7e<7om o7 not1 .1 "he #aimittitik sa27i<i2es 5e7e 3e7<o7med 5hen the 3e7<o7me7 5anted to gain something 6y 5ay o< 5o7ldly ad;antage1 E1 "he B7ahmani2 sa27i<i2es in;ol;ed d7inking, killing animals and me77ymaking1

KL0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> F1 &et these sa27i<i2es 5e7e held as 7eligious o6se7;an2es1 H1 "he Buddha de2lined to 7ega7d a 7eligion 6ased on sa27i<i2es as 5o7th ha;ing1 -1 He has gi;en his 7easons to many a B7ahmin 5ho 5ent to ha;e a 2ont7o;e7sy 5ith him as to 5hy sa27i<i2es 5e7e not 3a7t o< 7eligion1 /1 )t is 7e3o7ted that the7e 5e7e th7ee B7ahmins 5ho had a 2ont7o;e7sy 5ith him on the su6?e2t1 D01 "hey 5e7e *utada7ita, $??aya and the thi7d 5as $dayin1 D D 1 *utadanta the B7ahmin 7eCuested the Blessed One to tell him 5hat he thought a6out the ;alue o< a sa27i<i2e1 DK1 "he Blessed One said' 8 +ell then, B7ahmin, gi;e ea7 and listen attenti;ely and ) 5ill s3eak18 DL1 8 Ge7y 5ell, si7, 8 said *utadanta in 7e3ly J and the Blessed One s3oke as <ollo5s ' D.1 8 %ong ago, B7ahmin, the7e 5as a king 6y name Aaha Gigeta, mighty, 5ith g7eat 5ealth and la7ge 37o3e7tyJ 5ith sto7es o< sil;e7 and gold, o< aids to en?oyment, o< goods and 2o7n J 5ith his t7easu7e-houses and his ga7ne7s <ull1 DE1 8#o5 5hen *ing Aaha Gigeta 5as on2e sitting alone in meditation he 6e2ame anxious at the thought' : ) ha;e in a6undan2e all the good things a mo7tal 2an en?oy1 "he 5hole 5ide 2i72le o< the ea7th is mine 6y 2onCuest to 3ossess1 )t 5e7e 5ell i< ) 5e7e to o<<e7 a g7eat sa27i<i2e that should ensu7e me 5eal and 5el<a7e <o7 many days1: DF1 8 "he7eu3on the B7ahmin 5ho 5as 2ha3lain said to the king ' : "he king:s 2ount7y, si7e, is ha7assed and ha77ied1 "he7e a7e da2oits a67oad 5ho 3illage the ;illages and to5nshi3s and 5ho make the 7oads unsa<e1 +e7e the king, so long as that is so, to le;y a <7esh tax, ;e7ily his ma?esty 5ould a2ting

57ongly1 DH1 8 : But 3e72han2e his ma?esty might think ' "il soon 3ut a sto3 to these s2ound7els: game 6y deg7adation and 6anishment, and <ines and 6onds and death ) : But thei7 li2en2e 2annot 6e satis<a2to7ily 3ut a sto3 to1 "he 7emnant le<t un3unished 5ould still go on ha7assing the 7ealm1 KLD

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D-1 8 : #o5 the7e is one method to ado3t to 3ut a tho7ough end to this o7de71 +hosoe;e7 the7e 6e in the king:s 7ealm 5ho de;ote themsel;es to kee3ing 2attle and the <a7m, to them let His Aa?esty the *ing gi;e <ood and seed2o7n1 +hosoe;e7 the7e 6e in the king:s 7ealm 5ho de;ote themsel;es to t7ade, to them let His Aa?esty the *ing gi;e 2a3ital1 +hosoe;e7 the7e 6e in the king:s 7ealm 5ho de;ote themsel;es to go;e7nment se7;i2e, to them let His Aa?esty the *ing gi;e 5ages and <ood1 D/1 8 : "hen those men, <ollo5ing ea2h his o5n 6usiness, 5ill no longe7 ha7ass the 7ealmJ the king:s 7e;enue 5ill go u3J the 2ount7y 5ill 6e Cuiet and at 3ea2e1J and the 3o3ula2e, 3leased one 5ith anothe7 and ha33y, dan2ing thei7 2hild7en in thei7 a7ms, 5ill d5ell 5ith o3en doo7s 5ithout <ea71: K01 8"hen *ing Aaha Gigeta, B7ahmin, a22e3ted the 5o7d o< his 2ha3lain, and did as he had said1 !nd those men, <ollo5ing ea2h his 6usiness, ha7assed the 7ealm no mo7e1 !nd the king:s 7e;enue 5ent u31 !nd the 2ount7y 6e2ame Cuiet and at 3ea2e1 !nd the 3o3ula2e, 3leased one 5ith anothe7 and ha33y, dan2ing thei7 2hild7en in thei7 a7ms, d5elt 5ith o3en doo7s1 KD1 8 +hen 3ea2e and o7de7 5as 7esto7ed1 *ing Aaha Gigeta had his2ha3lain 2alled again and said ' W "he diso7de7 is at an end1 "he 2ount7y is at 3ea2e1 ) 5ant to o<<e7 that g7eat sa27i<i2e N let the Gene7a6le One inst7u2t me ho5 N <o7 my 5eal and my 5el<a7e <o7 many days1: KK1 8 "he 2ha3lain, 7e3lying to the king, said, W Be it so1 %et His Aa?esty the *ing send in;itations to those in the to5n and the 2ount7y in his 7ealm 5ho a7e *shat7iyas, ;assals o< hisJ 5ho a7e ministe7s and o<<i2ials o< his o7 5ho

a7e B7ahmins o< 3osition, o7 5ho a7e householde7s o< su6stan2e, saying' : ) intend to o<<e7 a g7eat sa27i<i2e1 %et the Gene7a6le Ones gi;e thei7 san2tion to 5hat 5ill 6e to me <o7 5eal and 5el<a7e <o7 many days1: KL1 8"hen the king, B7ahmin *utadanta, a22e3ted the 5o7d o< his 2ha3lain, and did as he had said1 !nd they ea2h N *shat7iya and Ainiste7s and B7ahmins and householde7s N made a like 7e3ly' : %et His Aa?esty the *ing 2ele67ate the sa27i<i2e1 "he time is suita6le, *ing ) : K.1 8 *ing Gigeta 5as 5ise and gi<ted in many 5ays1 !nd his 2ha3lain 5as eCually 5ise and gi<ted1 KE1 8 "he 2ha3lain, B7ahmin, 6e<o7e the sa27i<i2e had 6egun, ex3lained to the king 5hat it 5ould in;ol;e1 KLK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KF1 : : (hould His Aa?esty the *ing, 6e<o7e sta7ting on the g7eat sa27i<i2e o7 5hilst he is o<<e7ing the g7eat sa27i<i2e, o7 5hen the g7eat sa27i<i2e has 6een o<<e7ed, <eel any su2h 7eg7et as ' : I7eat alas, has 6een the 3o7tion o< my 5ealth used u3 he7ein,: let not the king ha76ou7 su2h 7eg7et, KH1 8!nd <u7the7, B7ahmin, the 2ha3lain, 6e<o7e the sa27i<i2e had 6egun, in o7de7 to 37e;ent any 2om3un2tion that might a<te75a7ds a7ise as 7ega7ds those 5ho had taken 3a7t the7ein, said' : #o5 the7e 5ill 2ome to you7 sa27i<i2e, si7e, men 5ho dest7oy the li<e o< li;ing things, and men 5ho 7e<7ain the7e<7om N men 5ho take 5hat has not 6een gi;en, and men 5ho 7e<7ain the7e<7om, men 5ho a2t e;illy in 7es3e2t o< lusts, and men 5ho 7e<7ain the7e<7om, men 5ho s3eak lies, and men 5ho do not, men 5ho slande7, and men 5ho do not, men 5ho s3eak 7udely, and men 5ho do not, men 5ho 2hatte7 ;ain things and men 5ho 7e<7ain the7e<7om, men 5ho 2o;et, and men 5ho 2o;et not, men 5ho ha76ou7 ill 5ill and men 5ho ha76ou7 it not, men 5hose ;ie5s a7e +7ong, and men 5hose ;ie5s a7e 7ight1 O< ea2h o< these let them, 5ho do e;il, alone 5ith thei7 e;il1 Fo7 them 5ho do 5ell let &ou7 Aa?esty o<<e7, <o7 them, si7e, a77ange the 7ites, them let the king g7ati<y, in them shall you7 hea7t 5ithin <ind 3ea2e1: K-1 8 !nd <u7the7, B7ahmin, at that sa27i<i2e neithe7 5e7e any oxen slain, neithe7 goats, no7 <o5ls, no7 <atted 3igs, no7 5e7e any kinds o< li;ing

27eatu7es 3ut to death1 #o t7ees 5e7e 2ut do5n to 6e used as 3osts, no Da66ha g7asses mo5n to st7e5 a7ound the sa27i<i2ial s3ot1 !nd the sla;es and messenge7s and 5o7kmen the7e em3loyed 5e7e d7i;en neithe7 6y 7ods no7 <ea7, no7 2a77ied on thei7 5o7k 5ee3ing 5ith tea7s u3on thei7 <a2es1 +hose 2hose to hel3, he 5o7ked 5ho so 2hose not to hel3, 5o7ked not1 +hat ea2h 2hose to do, he didJ 5hat they 2hose not to do, that 5as le<t undone1 +ith ghee, and oil and 6utte7, and milk and honey, and suga7 only 5as that sa27i<i2e a22om3lished1 K/1 8 %et you7 sa27i<i2e 6e su2h as that o< *ing Gigeta i< you at all 5ish to 3e7<o7m any sa27i<i2e1 (a27i<i2es a7e a 5aste1 !nimal sa27i<i2es a7e 27uelties1 (a27i<i2es 2annot 6e 3a7t o< 7eligion1 )t is a 5o7st <o7m o< 7eligion 5hi2h says you 2an go to hea;en 6y killing an animal18

KLL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L01 D 5as in2lined to ask 8 )s the7e, Iautama, any othe7 sa27i<i2e 5ith mo7e <7uit and mo7e ad;antage than killing animals M 8 LD1 8 &es, B7ahmin, the7e is18 LK1 8 !nd 5hat, O Iautama, may that 6e M 8 LL1 8+hen a man 5ith t7usting hea7t takes u3on himsel< the 37e2e3ts N a6stinen2e <7om dest7oying li<eJ a6stinen2e <7om taking 5hat has not 6een gi;enJ a6stinen2e <7om e;il 2ondu2t in 7es3e2t o< lustsJ a6stinen2e <7om lying 5o7dsJ a6stinen2e <7om st7ong, intoxi2ating, maddening d7inks, the 7oot o< 2a7elessness that is a sa27i<i2e 6ette7 than o3en la7gesse, 6ette7 than 3e73etual alms, 6ette7 than the gi<t o< d5elling 3la2es, 6ette7 than a22e3ting guidan2e18 L.1 !nd 5hen he had thus s3oken, *utadanta the B7ahmin said to the Blessed One' 8 Aost ex2ellent, Iautama, a7e the 5o7ds o< thy mouth, most ex2ellent1 8

@iiB

D1 #o5 the B7ahmin $??aya said this to the Exalted One' K1 8P7ay does the 5o7thy Iautama 37aise sa27i<i2eM8 L1 8#o B7ahmin, ) do not 37aise e;e7y sa27i<i2e1 &et ) 5ould not 5ithhold 37aise <7om e;e7y sa27i<i2e1 )n 5hate;e7 sa27i<i2e1 B7ahmin, 2o5s a7e slaughte7ed, goats and shee3 a7e slaughte7ed, 3oult7y and 3igs a7e slaughte7ed and di;e7s li;ing 27eatu7es 2ome to dest7u2tion N su2h sa27i<i2e1 B7ahmin, 5hi2h in;ol;es 6ut2he7y, ) do not 37aise18 8 +hy so M 8 .1 8"o su2h a sa27i<i2e1 B7ahmin, in;ol;ing 6ut2he7y, neithe7 the 5o7thy ones no7 those 5ho ha;e ente7ed on the 5o7thy 5ay d7a5 nea71 E1 8 But in 5hate;e7 sa27i<i2e1 B7ahmin, 2o5s a7e not slaughte7ed N and li;ing 27eatu7es 2ome not to dest7u2tion, su2h sa27i<i2e not in;ol;ing 6ut2he7y, ) do 37aiseJ su2h as, <o7 instan2e, a long-esta6lished 2ha7ity, an o6lation <o7 the 5el<a7e o< the <amily18 KL.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> F1 8+hy soM8 8Be2ause, B7ahmin, the 5o7thy ones, those 5ho ha;e ente7ed on the 5o7thy 5ay, do d7a5 nea7 to su2h- a sa27i<i2e 5hi2h in;ol;es not 6ut2he7y18 @iiiB D1 "he B7ahmin $dayin asked the same Cuestion to the Exalted One as 5as asked 6y the B7ahmin $??aya' K1 8P7ay, does the 5o7thy Iautama 37aise sa27i<i2e M 8 "he Buddha ga;e the same ans5e7 5hi2h he ga;e to $??aya1 L1 He said' 8 Fit sa27i<i2e 3e7<o7med in season due !nd <7ee <7om 27uelty, to su2h d7a5 nea7 "hose 5ell t7ained in the Iod-li<e, e;en those +ho ha;e the ;eil 7olled 6a2k 5hile @yet on ea7thB,

+ho ha;e t7ans2ended time and going1 (u2h do the enlightened 37aise, : those skilled in me7it1 8 +hethe7 in sa27i<i2e o7 a2t o< <aith, O6lation <itly made 5ith hea7t de;out "o that good <ield o< Ae7it, N those 5ho li;e 1 "he Iood N li<e, sa27i<i2ed, 2on<e77ed, N so gi;en %a;ish the o<<e7ingJ de;as the7e5ith a7e 3leased, "hus o<<e7ing, the thought<ul, the7e6y 6e2oming 5ise, +ins the 6liss<ul 5o7ld <7om su<<e7ing <7ee1 8 '' F1 Belie< Based on (3e2ulation is #ot Dhamma1 '' @iB

D 1 )t 5as usual to ask su2h Cuestions as @DB +as ) in ages 3ast M @KB +as ) not in ages 3ast M KLE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> @LB +hat 5as ) then M @.B F7om 5hat did ) 3ass to 5hatM @EB (hall ) 6e in ages to 2omeM @FB (hall ) not 6e in ages to 2omeM @HB +hat shall ) then 6eM @-B Ho5 shall ) then 6e M @/B F7om 5hat shall ) 3ass to 5hatM O7, again, it is (el< today a6out 5hi2h he is in dou6t, asking himsel< N @DB !m )M @KB !m ) notM @LB +hat am DM @.B Ho5 am )M @EB +hen2e 2ame my 6eing M @FB +hithe7 5ill it 3ass M 8

K1 !s 7ega7ds the $ni;e7se ;a7ious Cuestions 5e7e 7aised1 (ome o< them 5e7e as <ollo5s L1 8 Ho5 5as the $ni;e7se 27eated M )s it e;e7lasting M 8 .1 )n ans5e7 to the <i7st Cuestion some said e;e7ything 5as 27eated 6y B7ahma N othe7s said it 5as 27eated 6y P7a?a3ati1 E1 )n ans5e7 to the se2ond Cuestion some said it 5as e;e7lasting1 Othe7s said it 5as not1 (ome said it 5as <inite1 Othe7s said, it 5as in<inite1 F1 "hese Cuestions the Buddha 7e<used to ente7tain1 He said that they 2ould only 6e asked and ente7tained 6y 57ong-headed 3eo3le1 H1 "o ans5e7 these Cuestions 7eCui7ed omnis2ien2e 5hi2h no6ody had1 -1 He said that he 5as not omnis2ient enough to ans5e7 these Cuestions1 #o one 2ould 2laim to kno5 all that is to 6e kno5n no7 5hat 5e 5ish to kno5 at any time is kno5n at the time1 "he7e is al5ays something that is unkno5n1 /1 )t is <o7 these 7easons that the Buddha ex2luded su2h do2t7ines <7om his 7eligion1 D01 He 7ega7ded a 7eligion 5hi2h made su2h do2t7ines a 3a7t o< it as a 7eligion not 5o7th ha;ing1

KLF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> @iiB D1 "he do2t7ines 5ith 5hi2h the 2ontem3o7a7ies o< the Buddha had made the 6asis o< thei7 7eligion 5e7e 2on2e7ned 5ith @DB (el<J and @KB the o7igin o< the $ni;e7se1 K1 "hey 7aised 2e7tain Cuestions a6out the sel<1 "hey asked ' 8@DB +as ) in ages 3astM @KB +as ) not in ages 3ast M @LB +hat 5as ) then M @.B F7om 5hat did ) 3ass to 5hat M @EB (hall ) 6e in ages to 2ome M @FB (hall ) not 6e in ages to 2ome M @HB +hat shall ) then 6e M @-B Ho51 1shall ) then 6e M @/B F7om

5hat shall ) 3ass to 5hat M O7, again, it is (el< today a6out 5hi2h he is in dou6t, asking himsel< N @DB !m ) M @KB !m ) notM @LB +hat am D, @.B Ho5 am D,@EB +hen2e 2ame my 6eing M @FB +hithe7 5ill it 3ass M 8 L1 Othe7s 7aised the Cuestion 7ega7ding the o7igin o< the $ni;e7se1 .1 (ome said it 5as 27eated 6y B7ahma1 E1 Othe7s said it 5as 127eated 6y P7a?a3ati sa27i<i2ing himsel<1 F1 Othe7 tea2he7s had othe7 Cuestions to 7aise ' 8"he 5o7ld is e;e7lasting, N the 5o7ld is not e;e7lasting N the 5o7ld is <inite, N the 5o7ld is in<inite, the 6ody is the li<e @?i;aB, N the 6ody is the one thing and the li<e anothe7,1 N t7uth-<inde7 exists a<te7 death, N a t7uth-<inde7 does not exist a<te7 death, N he 6oth exists and does not exist a<te7 death, N he neithe7 exists no7 does not exist a<te7 death18 H1 "hese 5e7e Cuestions 5hi2h the Buddha said 2ould 6e asked 6y 57ongheaded 3e7sons1 -1 "he7e 5e7e th7ee 7easons 5hy the Buddha 2ondemned these 7eligious theo7ies1 /1 )n the <i7st 3la2e, the7e 5as no 7eason to make them 3a7t o< 7eligion1 : D01 )n the se2ond 3la2e, to ans5e7 these Cuestions 7eCui7ed omnis2ien2e 5hi2h no6ody had1 He em3hasised this in his add7esses1 DD1 He said that at one and the same time, no one 2an kno5 and see e;e7ything1 *no5ledge is ne;e7 <inal1 "he7e is al5ays something mo7e to 6e kno5n1 DK1 "he thi7d a7gument against these theo7ies 5as that they 5e7e me7ely s3e2ulati;e1 "hey a7e not ;e7i<ied no7 a7e they ;e7i<ia6le1 KLH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DL1 "hey 5e7e the 7esult o< imagination let 1loose1 "he7e 5as no 7eality 6ehind them1 D.1 Besides o< 5hat good 5e7e these s3e2ulati;e theo7ies to man in his 7elation to menM #one 5hate;e71

D E1 "he Buddha did not 6elie;e that the 5o7ld 5as 27eated1 He 6elie;ed that the 5o7ld had e;ol;ed1

'' H1

eading Books o< Dhamma is #ot Dhamma1 ''

D1 "he B7ahmins 3ut all thei7 em3hasis u3on kno5ledge1 "hey taught that kno5ledge 5as the 6e-all and end-all o< e;e7y thing1 #othing <u7the7 5as to 6e 2onside7ed1 K1 "he Buddha 5as on the othe7 hand an u3holde7 o< edu2ation <o7 all1 Besides, he 5as mo7e 2on2e7ned 5ith the use o< kno5ledge a man is likely to make than 5ith kno5ledge itsel<1 L1 ConseCuently he 5as ;e7y 3a7ti2ula7 to em3hasise that he 5ho has kno5ledge must ha;e (ila @Gi7tueB and that kno5ledge 5ithout (ila @Gi7tueB 5as most dange7ous1 .1 "he im3o7tan2e o< (ila as against P7a?na is 5ell illust7ated 6y 5hat he told the Bhikku Patisena1 E1 )n olden times 5hen Buddha 5as 7esiding at (7a;asti, the7e 5as an old mendi2ant 2alled Patisena 5ho 6eing 6y natu7e 27oss and dull, 2ould not lea7n so mu2h as one Iatha 6y hea7t1 F1 "he Buddha a22o7dingly o7de7ed E00 !7ahatas day 6y day to inst7u2t him, 6ut a<te7 th7ee yea7s he still 5as una6le to 7emem6e7 e;en one Iatha1 H1 "hen all the 3eo3les o< the 2ount7y @the <ou7 o7de7s o< 3eo3leB kno5ing his igno7an2e, 6egan to 7idi2ule him, on 5hi2h the Buddha, 3itying his 2ase, 2alled him to his side, and gently 7e3eated the <ollo5ing stanOa ' 8 He 5ho gua7ds his mouth, and 7est7ains his thoughts, he 5ho o<<ends not 5ith his 6ody, the man 5ho a2ts thus shall o6tain deli;e7an2e18

KL-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

-1 "hen Patisena, mo;ed 6y a sense o< the Aaste7:s goodness to him, <elt his hea7t o3ened, and on2e he 7e3eated the stanOa1 /1 "he Buddha then add7essed him <u7the7 N 8 &ou no5, an old man, 2an 7e3eat a stanOa only, and men kno5 this, and they 5ill still 7idi2ule you, the7e<o7e, ) 5ill no5 ex3lain the meaning o< the ;e7se to you, and do you on you7 3a7t attenti;ely listen18 D01 "hen the Buddha de2la7ed the th7ee 2auses 2onne2ted 5ith the 6ody, the <ou7 2onne2ted 5ith the mouth, and the th7ee 2onne2ted 5ith the thoughts, 6y dest7oying 5hi2h men might o6tain deli;e7an2e, on 5hi2h the mendi2ant, <ully 7ealiOing the t7uth thus ex3lained, o6tained the 2ondition o< an !7ahat1 D D 1 #o5, at this time, the7e 5e7e E00 Bhikkhunis d5elling in thei7 Giha7a, 5ho sent one o< thei7 num6e7 to the Buddha to 7eCuest him to send them a 37iest to inst7u2t them in the Dhamma1 DK1 On hea7ing thei7 7eCuest the Buddha desi7ed the old mendi2ant Patisena to go to them <o7 this 3u73ose1 D L1 On kno5ing that this a77angement had 6een made, all the nuns 6egan to laugh togethe7, and ag7eed on the mo77o5, 5hen he 2ame, to say the Iatha 57ong @6a2k5a7dB, and so 2on<use the old man and 3ut him to shame1 D.1 "hen on the mo77o5 5hen he 2ame, all the Bhikkhunis, g7eat and small, 5ent <o7th to salute him and as they did so, they looked at one anothe7 and smiled1 D E1 "hen sitting do5n, they o<<e7ed him <ood1 Ha;ing eaten and 5ashed his hands, they then 6egged him to 6egin his se7mon1 On 5hi2h the aged mendi2ant as2ended the ele;ated seat, and sitting do5n, 6egan' DF1 8 (iste7s! Ay talent is small, my lea7ning is ;e7y little1 ) kno5 only one Iatha, 6ut ) 5ill 7e3eat that and ex3lain its meaning1 Do you listen 5ith attention and unde7stand18 D H1 "hen all the young nuns 6egan to attem3t to say the Iatha 6a2k5a7dsJ 6ut lol they 2ould not o3en thei7 mouths J and <illed 5ith shame, they hung

do5n thei7 heads in so77o51 D-1 "hen Patisena ha;ing 7e3eated the Iatha, 6egan to ex3lain it, as the Buddha inst7u2ted him1 KL/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D/1 "hen all the Bhikkhunis hea7ing his 5o7ds, 5e7e <illed 5ith su737ise, and 7e?oi2ing to hea7 su2h inst7u2tion, 5ith one hea7t they 7e2ei;ed it, and 6e2ame !7ahatas1 K01 On the day a<te7 this, the *ing P7asen?it in;ited the Buddha and the 5hole 2ong7egation o< 37iests to assem6le at his 3ala2e to 3a7take o< hos3itality1 K D 1 "he Buddha the7e<o7e 7e2ogniOing the su3e7io7 and 7e;e7ed a33ea7an2e o< Patisena, desi7ed him to 6ea7 his alms-dish and <ollo5 him as he 5ent1 KK1 But 5hen they 2ame to the 3ala2e gate, the 3o7te7, kno5ing his 2ha7a2te7 @ante2edentsB, 5ould not let him go into the hall, saying' 8+e ha;e no hos3itality <o7 a 37iest 5ho kno5s 6ut one Iatha J the7e is no 7oom <o7 su2h 2ommon <ello5s as you N make 3la2e <o7 you7 6ette7s and 6egone18 KL1 Patisena a22o7dingly sat do5n outside the doo71 K.1 "he Buddha no5 as2ended the dais, a<te7 ha;ing 5ashed his hands, and to the a7m o< Patisena, 5ith the alms-dish in its hand, ente7ed the 7oom1 KE1 "hen the king, the ministe7s, and all the assem6ly seeing this sight, 5e7e <illed 5ith astonishment, and said, 8 !h ) +ho is this M 8 KF1 On 5hi2h the Buddha 7e3lied, 8 )t is Patisena, the mendi2ant1 He has 6ut ?ust o6tained enlightenment, and ) desi7ed him to 6ea7 my alms -dish 6ehind meJ 6ut the 3o7te7 has 7e<used him admission18 KH1 On this he 5as admitted and ente7ed the assem6ly1 K-1 "hen P7asen?it, tu7ning, to Buddha, said ' 8 ) hea7 that this Patisena is a

man o< small a6ility, and kno5s only one Iatha, ho5, then, has he o6tained the su37eme 5isdom M8 K/1 "o 5hi2h Buddha 7e3lied ' 8 %ea7ning need not 6e mu2h, 2ondu2t @(ilaB is the <i7st thing1 L01 8"his, Patisena, has allo5ed the se27et ;i7tue o< the 5o7ds o< this one Iatha to 3enet7ate his s3i7it J his 6ody, mouth, and thoughts ha;e o6tained 3e7<e2t CuietudeJ <o7 though a man kno5s e;e7 so mu2h, i< his kno5ledge 7ea2hes not to his li<e, to deli;e7 him <7om the 3o5e7 5hi2h leads to dest7u2tion, 5hat 6ene<it 2an all his lea7ning 6e M 8

K.0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> LD, "hen the Buddha 1 8 !lthough a man 7e3eats a thousand stanOas @se2tionsB, 6ut unde7stands not the meaning o< the lines he 7e3eats, his 3e7<o7man2e is not eCual to the 7e3etition o< one senten2e 5ell unde7stood, 5hi2h is a6le 5hen hea7d to 2ont7ol thought1 "o 7e3eat a thousand 5o7ds 5ithout unde7standing, 5hat 37o<it is the7e in thisM But to unde7stand one t7uth, and hea7ing it, to a2t a22o7dingly, this is to <ind deli;e7an2e1 LL1 8! man may 6e a6le to 7e3eat many 6ooks 6ut i< he 2annot ex3lain them 5hat 37o<it is the7e in this M But to ex3lain one senten2e o< the la5 and to 5alk a22o7dingly, this is the 5ay to <ind su37eme 5isdom18 L.1 On hea7ing these 5o7ds, the t5o hund7ed 6hikkhus, the king and his ministe7s 5e7e <illed 5ith ?oy1 '' -1 Belie< in the )n<alli6ility o< Books o< Dhamma is #ot Dhamma1 ''

D1 "he B7ahmins had de2la7ed that the Gedas 5e7e not only sa27ed 6ut in 3oint o< autho7ity they 5e7e <inal1 K1 #ot only 5e7e the Gedas de2la7ed 6y the B7ahmins to 6e <inal 6ut they 5e7e de2la7ed 6y them to 6e in<alli6le1

L1 "he Buddha 5as totally o33osed to the B7ahmins on this 3oint1 .1 He denied that the Gedas 5e7e sa27ed1 He denied that 5hate;e7 the Gedas said 5as <inal1 He denied that the Gedas 5e7e in<alli6le1 E1 "he7e 5e7e many tea2he7s 5ho had taken the same 3osition as he had done1 Ho5e;e7, late7 on they o7 thei7 <ollo5e7s all ga;e in o7de7 to 5in 7es3e2t and good5ill <7om the B7ahmins <o7 thei7 systems o< 3hiloso3hy1 But the Buddha ne;e7 yielded on this issue1 F1 )n the ";i??a (utta the Buddha de2la7ed that the Gedas 5e7e a 5ate7less dese7t, a 3athless ?ungle, in <a2t 3e7dition1 #o man 5ith intelle2tual and mo7al thi7st 2an go to the Gedas and ho3e to satis<y his thi7st1 H1 !s to in<alli6ility o< the Gedas, he said nothing is in<alli6le, not e;en the Gedas1 E;e7ything, he said, must 6e su6?e2t to examination and 7eexamination1 K.D

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> -1 "his he made 2lea7 in his se7mon to the *alamas1 /1 On2e the Blessed One, 5hile 3assing th7ough the land o< the *osalas a22om3anied 6y a la7ge <ollo5ing o< dis2i3les, 2ame to the to5n o< *esa3utta 5hi2h 15as inha6ited 6y the *alamas1 D01 +hen the *alamas 2ame to kno5 o< his a77i;al they 6etook themsel;es thithe7 5he7e the Blessed One 5as and sat do5n on one side1 (o seated, the *alamas o< *esa3utta s3oke thus to the Blessed One ' DD18 "he7e a7e1 %o7d, some as2eti2s and 7e2luses 5ho 2ome to *esa3utta and 5ho elu2idate and exalt thei7 o5n ;ie5s, 6ut they 67eak u3, 27ush do5n, 7e;ile and o33ose the ;ie5s o< othe7s1 !nd the7e 6e othe7 as2eti2s and 7e2luses1 %o7d, 5ho 2ome to *esa3utta, and they too ex3ound and magni<y thei7 o5n 6elie<s, 6ut dest7oy, su337ess, des3ise and set themsel;es against the 6elie<s o< othe7s1 DK1 8!nd so1 %o7d, 5e a7e in un2e7tainty and dou6t, kno5ing not 5hi2h among these ;ene7a6le as2eti2s s3eaks t7uth and 5hi2h <alsehood18 DL1 8 Iood 2ause, indeed, ha;e you *alamas to 6e un2e7tain J good 2ause ha;e you to dou6t,8 said the Blessed One1 8"7uly, u3on ?ust o22asion has

un2e7tainty and dou6t a7isen in you18 D.1 8 Come, you *alamas,8 2ontinued the %o7d, 8 do not go me7ely 6y 5hat you hea7 J do not go me7ely 6y 5hat has 6een handed do5n <7om one to anothe7 J do not go 6y 5hat is 2ommonly 7e3o7ted J do not go me7ely 6y 5hat is <ound 57itten in the s27i3tu7es J do not go 6y su6tleties o< 7easoning, do not go 6y su6tleties o< logi2 J do not go me7ely 6y 2onside7ations 6ased u3on me7e a33ea7an2es J do not go me7ely 6y ag7eea6le 6elie<s and ;ie5s J do not go me7ely 6y 5hat looks to 6e genuine J do not go me7ely 6y 5o7d o< some as2eti2 o7 su3e7io718 DE1 8+hat, then, should 5e doM +hat test should 5e a33lyM8 asked the *alamas1 DF1 8"he tests do 5e kno5 5hethe7 ' 6lame5o7thy J these things attem3ted lead a7e these,8 7e3lied the Blessed OneJ 8 ask1 you7sel;es, : "hese things a7e insaluta7y J these things a7e a7e 7e37ehended 6y the 5ise J these things 6eing done o7 to ill-6eing and to su<<e7ing1: :

K.K

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D H1 8 *alamas, you should go <u7the7 and ask 5hethe7 the do2t7ine taught 37omotes 27a;ing, hat7ed, delusion, and ;iolen2e1 D-1 8"his is not enough, *alamas, you should go <u7the7 and see 5hethe7 the do2t7ine is not likely to make a man 2a3ti;e o< his 3assions, and is not likely to lead him to kill li;ing 27eatu7es J take 5hat has not 6een gi;en to him J go a<te7 anothe7:s 5i<e J utte7 <alsehood, and 2ause othe7s to 37a2tise like deeds M D/1 8 !nd <inally you should ask ' : +hethe7 all this does not tend to his ill6eing and su<<e7ing1: K01 8 #o5, *alamas, 5hat think you M KD1 8Do these things tend to man:s ill-6eing o7 5ell-6eing M 8

KK1 -8"o his ill-6eing, %o7d,8 7e3lied the *alamas1 KL1 8 +hat think you, *alamas, N a7e these things saluta7y o7 insaluta7y M 8 K.1 8"hey a7e insaluta7y1 %o7d18 KE1 8!7e these things 6lame5o7thyM8 KF1 8 Blame5o7thy, %o7d,8 7e3lied the *alamas1 KH1 8 K-1 8 e37ehended 6y the 5ise o7 a337o;ed 6y the 5iseM8 e37ehended 6y the 5ise,8 7e3lied the *alamas1

K/1 8 Being done o7 attem3ted, do they lead to ill -6eing and to su<<e7ing M 8 L01 8 Done o7 attem3ted, %o7d, they lead to ill-6eing and to su<<e7ing18 LD1 8! s27i3tu7e 5hi2h tea2hes this 2annot 6e a22e3ted as <inal o7 in<alli6le M )! LK1 8 #o, %o7d,8 said the *alamas1 LL1 8 But this, *alamas, is ?ust 5hat ) ha;e said1 +hat ) ha;e said is 8 do not go me7ely 6y 5hat you hea7J do not go me7ely 6y 5hat has 6een handed do5n <7om one to anothe7J do not go me7ely 6y su6tleties o< 7easoningJ do not go 6y su6tleties o< logi2 J do not go 6y 2onside7ations 6ased u3on me7e a33ea7an2es J do not go me7ely 6y ag7eea6le 6elie<s and ;ie5s J do not go me7ely 6y the 5o7d o< some as2eti2 o7 su3e7io71 K.L

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L.1 8 Only 5hen o< insaluta7y J these things a7e 5ise J these things 6eing su<<e7ing : N then, *alamas, you you7sel;es you indeed kno5 ' "hese things a7e 6lame5o7thy J these things a7e 7e37ehended 6y the done o7 attem3ted lead to ill -6eing and to should 3ut them a5ay18

LE1 8 +onde7<ul, %o7d, most 5onde7<ul! +e go to %o7d, the Blessed One, <o7

7e<uge, and to his "ea2hings1 !s <ollo5e7s1 %o7d, may the Blessed One a22e3t us, <7om this day hen2e<o7th long as li<e shall last, 5e take ou7 7e<uge in you18 LF1 "he su6stan2e o< the a7gument is 3lain1 Be<o7e you a22e3t any6ody:s tea2hings as autho7itati;e, do not go 6y the <a2t that it is 2ontained in the s27i3tu7es, do not go 6y the su6tleties o< logi2 J do not go 6y 2onside7ations 6ased u3on me7e a33ea7an2esJ do not go me7ely 6y the <a2t that 6elie<s and ;ie5s 37ea2hed a7e ag7eea6le J do not go me7ely 6e2ause they look to 6e genuineJ do not go me7ely 6y the <a2t that the 6elie<s and ;ie5s a7e those o< some as2eti2 o7 su3e7io71 LH1 But 2onside7 5hethe7 the 6elie<s and ;ie5s sought to 6e in2ul2ated a7e saluta7y o7 insaluta7y, 6lame5o7thy o7 6lameless, lead to 5ell-6eing o7 ill6eing1 L-1 )t is only on these g7ounds that one 2an a22e3t the tea2hings o< any6ody1

K..

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> Pa7t G N +hat is (addhamma1 '' (e2tion ) N "he Fun2tions o< (addhamma1'' D 1 "o 2leanse the Aind o< its im3u7ities1 F K1 "o make the 5o7ld a *ingdom o< ighteousness1 '' (e2tion )) N Dhamma to 6e (addhamma must 37omote P7adnya1 '' Z D 1 Dhamma is (addhamma 5hen it makes lea7ning o3en to all1 Z K1 Dhamma7is (addhamma 5hen it tea2hes that me7e lea7ning is not enough1 )t may lead to 3edant7y1 \ L1 Dhamma is (addhamma 5hen it tea2hes that 5hat is needed is P7adnya1 '' (e2tion ))) N Dhamma to 6e (addhamma must 37omote Aait7i1 '' ! :^ D 1 Dhamma is (addhamma only 5hen it tea2hes that me7e P7adnya is not enough1 )t must 6e a22om3anied 6y (ila1

( K1 Dhamma is (addhamma only 5hen it tea2hes that 6esides P7adnya and (ila 5hat is ne2essa7y is *a7una1 L1 Dhamma is (addhamma only 5hen it tea2hes that mo7e than *a7una 5hat is ne2essa7y is Aait7i1 '' (e2tion )G N Dhamma to 6e (addhamma must 3ull do5n all so2ial 6a77ie7s '' - D 1 Dhamma to 6e (addhamma must 67eak do5n 6a77ie7s 6et5een man and man1 K1 Dhamma to 6e (addhamma must tea2h that 5o7th and not 6i7th is the measu7e o< man1 @D L1 Dhamma to 6e (addhamma must 37omote eCuality 6et5een man and man1

(e2tion ) N "he Fun2tions o< (addhamma1

D1 "o 2leanse the Aind o< its im3u7ities1

D 1 On2e 5hen the 1Blessed %o7d 5as 7esiding at (h7a;asti, P7asen?it,the king o< the *osalas, 2ame to the 3la2e 5he7e he 5as staying and des2ending <7om his 2ha7iot, a337oa2hed the "ea2he7 5ith the dee3est 7e;e7en2e1 K1 !nd in;ited him on the mo77o5 to ente7 the 2ity and 3a7take o< his hos3itality, 5ith a ;ie5 to exhi6it to the 3eo3le the ex2ellen2e o< his 3e7son and do2t7ine, that they might 6elie;e in him1 K.E

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L1 "he Buddha ha;ing 2onsented, on the mo77o5 ente7ed the 2ity 5ith all his dis2i3les, and ha;ing 3assed th7ough the <ou7 27oss st7eets o< the to5n, he 2ame to the 3la2e a33ointed and sat do5n1

.1 !<te7 <inishing the meal, he 6egan, on the 7eCuest o< the king, to 37ea2h in the midst o< the <ou7 high5ays, 5hilst his audito7s 5e7e ;e7y many1 E1 !t this time the7e 5e7e t5o me72hants listening to him1 F1 One o< them 7e<le2ted, 8 +hat ex2ellent 5isdom on the 3a7t o< the king to ha;e su2h do2t7ines as these 3u6li2ly 37ea2hed! Ho5 5ide thei7 a33li2ation, ho5 sea72hing thei7 2ha7a2te7 ) 8 H1 "he othe7 7e<le2ted thus, 8 +hat <olly is this on the 3a7t o< the king, 67inging this man he7e to 37ea2h! -1 8%ike the 2al< that <ollo5s the 2o5, he7e and the7e, <astened to a ;ehi2le she d7a5s, 6y eating as it goes, so is- this Buddha <ollo5ing the king18 "he t5o me72hants ha;ing de3a7ted <7om the 2ity 2ame to an inn 5he7e they 3ut u31 /1 )n taking some 5ine the good me72hant 5as 7est7ained and 37ote2ted 6y the <ou7 gua7dian s3i7its that 5at2h o;e7 the 5o7ld1 D01 "he othe7 on the 2ont7a7y 5as in2ited 6y an e;il s3i7it to d7ink on, till he 5as o;e73o5e7ed 6y slee3, and lay do5n in the 7oad nea7 the inn1 DD1 Ea7ly in the mo7ning, the me72hants: 5agons lea;ing the 3la2e, the d7i;e7s not 3e72ei;ing the man lying in the 7oad, 27ushed him to death 6y the 5agon 5heels1 DK1 "he othe7 me72hant, ha;ing 2ome to a distant 2ount7y, 5as sele2ted 6y the genu<le2tion o< a sa27ed ho7se to su22eed the king J and he a22o7dingly 5as a33ointed to the th7one1 DL1 !<te7 this, 2onside7ing the st7ange tu7n, e;ents had taken, he 7etu7ned and in;ited the Buddha to ;isit him, and 37ea2h to his 3eo3le1 D.1 On 5hi2h o22asion the +o7ld-honou7ed One de2la7ed the 7eason o< the death o< the e;il-minded me72hant, and the 37os3e7ity o< him 5ho thought 5isely, and then added these lines '

K.F

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DE18 "he mind is the o7igin o< all this isJ the mind is 1the maste7, the mind is the 2ause1 DF1 8 )< in the midst o< the mind the7e a7e e;il thoughts, then the 5o7ds a7e e;il, the deeds a7e e;il, and the so77o5 5hi2h 7esults <7om sin <ollo5s that man, as the 2ha7iot 5heel <ollo5s him @o7 itB 5ho d7a5s it, DH18 "he mind is the o7igin o< all that is J it is the mind that 2ommands, it is the mind that 2ont7i;es1 D-1 8 )< in the mind the7e a7e good thoughts, then the 5o7ds a7e good and the deeds good, and the ha33iness 5hi2h 7esults <7om su2h 2ondu2t <ollo5s that man, as the shado5 a22om3anies the su6stan2e18 D/1 On hea7ing these 5o7ds, the king and his ministe7s, 5ith 2ountless othe7s, 5e7e 2on;e7ted, and 6e2ame dis2i3les1 K1 "o make the 5o7ld a *ingdom o< D 1 +hat is the 3u73ose o< ighteousness1

eligion M

K1 Di<<e7ent 7eligions ha;e gi;en di<<e7ent ans5e7s1 L1 "o make man seek a<te7 Iod and to tea2h him the im3o7tan2e o< sa;ing his soul is the 2ommonest ans5e7 one gets to this Cuestion1 .1 Aost 7eligions s3eak o< th7ee kingdoms1 E1 One is 2alled the kingdom o< hea;en1 "he se2ond is 2alled the kingdom o< ea7th and the thi7d is 2alled the kingdom o< hell1 F1 "his kingdom o< hea;en is said to 6e 7uled 6y Iod1 "he kingdom o< hell is des27i6ed to 6e a 3la2e 5he7e the su37ema2y o< the E;il One is undis3uted1 "he kingdom o< ea7th is a dis3uted <ield1 )t is not unde7 the dominan2e o< the E;il One1 !t the same time Iod:s so;e7eignty does not extend to it1 )t is ho3ed that one day it 5ill1 H1 )n some 7eligions the kingdom o< hea;en is said to 6e a kingdom in 5hi2h ighteousness 37e;ails no dou6t 6e2ause it is di7e2tly 7uled 6y Iod1

-1 )n othe7 7eligions the kingdom o< hea;en is not on ea7th1 )t is anothe7 name <o7 hea;en1 )t 2an 6e 7ea2hed 6y one 5ho 6elie;es in Iod and his K.H

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> P7o3het1 +hen he 7ea2hes hea;en all the 2a7nal 3leasu7es o< li<e a7e 3la2ed 5ithin the 7ea2h o< all those 5ho a7e <aith<ul1 /1 !ll 7eligions 37ea2h that to 7ea2h this kingdom o< hea;en should 6e the aim o< man and ho5 to 7ea2h it is the end o< all1 D01 "o the Cuestion 8 +hat is the 3u73ose o< 7eligion M 8 the Buddha:s ans5e7 is ;e7y di<<e7ent1 D D 1 He did not tell 3eo3le that thei7 aim in li<e should 6e to 7ea2h some imagina7y hea;en1 "he kingdom o< 7ighteousness lies on ea7th and is to 6e 7ea2hed 6y man 6y 7ighteous 2ondu2t1 DK1 +hat he did 5as to tell 3eo3le that to 7emo;e thei7 mise7y ea2h one must lea7n to 6e 7ighteous in his 2ondu2t in 7elation to othe7s and the7e6y make the ea7th the kingdom o< 7ighteousness1 DL1 )t is this 5hi2h distinguishes his 7eligion <7om all othe7 7eligions1 D.1 His 7eligion em3hasiOes Pan2h (ila, the !shtanga Aa7ga and the Pa7amitas1 D E1 +hy did the Buddha make them the 6asis o< his 7eligion M Be2ause they 2onstitute a 5ay o< li<e 5hi2h alone 2an make man 7ighteous1 DF1 Aan:s mise7y is the 7esult o< man:s ineCuity to man1 D H1 Only 7ighteousness 2an 7emo;e this ineCuity and the 7esultant mise7y1 D-1 "hat is 5hy he said that 7eligion must not only 37ea2h 6ut must in2ul2ate u3on the mind o< man the su37eme ne2essity <o7 6eing 7ighteous in his 2ondu2t D/1 Fo7 the 3u73ose o< in2ul2ating 7ighteousness 7eligion, he said, had 2e7tain othe7 <un2tions to unde7take1

K01 eligion must tea2h man to kno5 5hat is 7ight and to <ollo5 5hat is 7ight1 K D 1 eligion must :tea2h man to kno5 5hat is 57ong and not to <ollo5 5hat is 57ong1 KK1 Besides these 3u73oses o< 7eligion he em3hasised t5o othe7 3u73oses 5hi2h he 7ega7ded as o< su37eme im3o7tan2e1 K.-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KL1 "he <i7st is t7aining o< man:s instin2ts and dis3ositions as distinguished <7om o<<e7ing 37aye7s o7 3e7<o7ming o6se7;an2es o7 doing sa27i<i2es1 K.1 "his the Buddha has made 2lea7 in his ex3osition o< Painism in the De;adaha (utta1 KE1 +hat Aaha;i7a, the <ounde7 o< Painism, a<<i7med 5as that 5hatsoe;e7 the indi;idual ex3e7ien2es N 6e it 3leasant o7 un3leasant, all 2omes <7om a2ts done in <o7me7 6i7ths1 KF1 "hat 6eing so, 6y ex3i7ation and 3u7ge o< <o7me7 misdeeds and 6y not 2ommitting <7esh misdeeds, X nothing a227ues <o7 the <utu7e' as nothing a227ues <o7 the <utu7e, the misdeeds die a5ayJ as misdeeds die a5ay, mise7y dies a5ay ' as mise7y dies a5ay, <eelings die a5ay ' and as <eelings die a5ay, all mise7y 5ill 5ea7 out and 3ass1 KH1 "his is 5hat Painism a<<i7med, K-1 On this the Buddha asked this Cuestion' 8Do you kno5 that, he7e and no5, 57ong dis3ositions ha;e 6een got 7id o< and 7ight dis3ositions a2Cui7edM8 K/1 "he ans5e7 5as 8 #o18 L01 8 +hat is the use,8 asked the1 Buddha, 8 o< a 3u7ge <o7 <o7me7 misdeeds, 5hat is the use o< not 2ommitting <7esh misdeeds, i< the7e is no t7aining o< the mind to tu7n 6ad dis3osition into good dis3osition18 LD1 "his 5as in his o3inion a ;e7y se7ious de<e2t in 7eligion1 ! good dis3osition is the only 3e7manent <oundation o< and gua7antee o< 3e7manent goodness1

LK1 "hat is 5hy the Buddha ga;e the <i7st 3la2e to the t7aining o< the mind 5hi2h is the same as the t7aining o< a man:s dis3osition1 LL1 "he se2ond thing to 5hi2h he ga;e g7eat im3o7tan2e is 2ou7age to stand 6y 5hat is 7ight e;en i< one is alone1 L.1 )n the (allekha- (utta the Buddha has em3hasised this 3oint1 LE1 "his is 5hat he has said ' LF1 8&ou a7e to ex3unge 6y 7esol;ing that, though othe7s may 6e ha7m<ul, you 5ill 6e ha7mless1 K./

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> LH1 8 "hat though othe7s may kill, you 5ill ne;e7 kill1 L-1 8"hat though othe7s may steal, you 5ill not1 L/1 8"hat though othe7s may not lead the highe7 li<e, you 5ill1 .01 8"hat though othe7s may lie, t7adu2e, denoun2e, o7 37attle, you 5ill .D18 "hat though othe7s may 6e 2o;etous, you 5ill 2o;et not1 .K1 8"hat though othe7s may 6e malignant, you 5ill not 6e malignant1 .L1 8"hat though othe7s may 6e gi;en o;e7 to 57ong ;ie5s, 57ong aims, 57ong s3ee2h, 57ong a2tions, and 57ong 2on2ent7ation, you must <ollo5 @the #o6le Eight<old Path inB 7ight outlook, 7ight aims, 7ight s3ee2h, 7ight a2tions, 7ight mode o< li;elihood, 7ight e<<o7t, 7ight mind<ulness and 7ight 2on2ent7ation1 ..1 8"hat though othe7s a7e 57ong a6out the t7uth and 57ong a6out Deli;e7an2e, you 5ill 6e 7ight a6out t7uth and 7ight a6out Deli;e7an2e1 .E1 8 "hat though othe7s may 6e 3ossessed 6y sloth and to73o7, you 5ill <7ee you7sel;es the7e<7om1 .F1 8"hat though othe7s may 6e 3u<<ed u31 you 5ill 6e hum6le -minded1 .H1 8"hat though othe7s may 6e 3e73lexed 6y dou6ts, you 5ill 6e <7ee <7om them1

.-1 8 "hat though othe7s may ha76ou7 57ath, male;olen2e, en;y, ?ealousy, nigga7dliness, a;a7i2e, hy3o27isy, de2eit, im3e7;iousness, a77ogan2e, <o75a7dness, asso2iation 5ith 6ad <7iends, sla2kness, un6elie<, shamelessness, uns27u3ulousness, la2k o< inst7u2tion, ine7tness, 6e5ilde7ment, and un5isdom, you 5ill 6e the 7e;e7se o< all these things1 ./1 8"hat though othe7s may 2lut2h at and hug the tem3o7al no7 loose thei7 hold the7eon, you 5ill 2lut2h and hug the things that a7e not tem3o7al, and 5ill ensue enun2iation1 E01 8 ) say it is the de;elo3ment o< the 5ill 5hi2h is so e<<i2a2ious <o7 7ight states o< 2ons2iousness, not to s3eak o< a2t and s3ee2h1 !nd the7e<o7e, Cunda, the7e must 6e de;elo3ed the 5ill to all the <o7egoing 7esol;es ) ha;e detailed18

KE0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> E D 1 (u2h is the 3u73ose o< 7eligion as 2on2ei;ed 6y the Buddha1 '' (e2tion )) N Dhamma to 6e (addhamma must 37omote P7adnya1 '' D1 1 Dhamma is (addhamma 5hen it makes lea7ning o3en to all1

D1 "he B7ahmini2 do2t7ine 5as that a2Cuisition o< kno5ledge 2annot 6e th7o5n o3en to all1 )t must ne2essa7ily 6e limited to a <e51 K1 "hey 3e7mitted a2Cuisition o< kno5ledge only to the B7ahmins, *shat7iyas and Gaishyas1 But it 5as only to the male sex o< these th7ee 2lasses1 L1 !ll 5omen, no matte7 5hethe7 they 6elonged to the B7ahmin, *shat7iya and Gaishyas, and all (hud7as, 6oth males and <emales, 5e7e 37ohi6ited <7om a2Cui7ing kno5ledge, e;en <7om a2Cui7ing lite7a2y1 .1 "he Buddha 7aised a 7e;olt against this at7o2ious do2t7ine o< the B7ahmins1 E1 He 37ea2hed that the 7oad to kno5ledge must 6e o3en to all N to males as 5ell as to <emales1

F1 Aany B7ahmins t7ied to 2ont7o;e7t his ;ie5s1 His 2ont7o;e7sy 5ith the B7ahmin %ohikka th7o5s g7eat light on ,his ;ie5s1 H1 "he Exalted One, 5hen on2e 3assing on a tou7 th7ough the *osala dist7i2ts 5ith a multitude o< the mem6e7s o< the O7de7, a77i;ed at (ala;atika, a ;illage su77ounded 6y a 7o5 o< sala t7ees1 -1 #o5 at the time, %ohikka the B7ahmin 5as li;ing at (ala;atika, a s3ot teeming 5ith li<e, 5ith mu2h g7assland and 5oodland and 2o7n, on a 7oyal domain g7anted him 6y *ing Pasenadi o< *osala, as a 7oyal gi<t, 5ith 3o5e7 o;e7 it as i< he 5e7e the king1 /1 %ohikka the B7ahmin 5as o< o3inion that i< a (amana o7 a B7ahmana a2Cui7ed kno5ledge, he should not 2ommuni2ate it to the 5omen o7 to the (hud7as1

KED

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D01 "hen the B7ahmin %ohikka hea7d that the Blessed %o7d 5as staying in (ala;atika1 D D 1 Ha;ing hea7d o< this he said to Bhesika the 6a76e7 ' 8 Come no5, good Bhesika, go 5he7e the (amana Iotama is staying, and, on you7 a77i;al, ask in my name as to 5hethe7 his si2kness and indis3osition has a6ated, as to his health and ;igou7 and 2ondition o< ease J and s3eak thus ' 8 Aay8 the ;ene7a6le Iotama, and 5ith him the 67eth7en o< the O7de7, a22e3t tomo77o5:s meal <7om %ohikka the B7ahmin18 DK1 8Ge7y 5ell, si7,8 said the 6a76e71 DL1 !2Cuies2ing in the 5o7d o< %ohikka the B7ahmi:i, he did so e;en as he had 6een en?oined1 !nd the Exalted One 2onsented, 6y silen2e, to his 7eCuest1 D.1 Ea7ly next mo7ning, the Exalted One 5ent 7o6ed, and 2a77ying his 6o5l 5ith him, 5ith the 67eth7en o< the O7de7, to5a7ds (ala;atika1 D E1 Bhesika, the 6a76e7, 5ho had 6een sent 6y %ohikka to <et2h the Blessed

One, 5alked ste3 6y ste3, 6ehind the Exalted One1 On the 5ay he told the Blessed One that %ohikka the B7ahmin held the 5i2ked o3inion that a (amana o7 a B7ahmana shall not 2ommuni2ate any kno5ledge o7 lea7ning to 5omen and the (hud7as1 DF1 8 "hat may 5ell 6e, Bhesika, that may 5ell 6e,8 7e3lied the Blessed One1 DH1 !nd the Exalted One 5ent on to the d5elling 3la2e o< %ohikka the B7ahmin, and sat do5n on the seat 37e3a7ed <o7 him1 D -1 !nd %ohikka the B7ahmin se7;ed the O7de7, 5ith the Buddha at its head, 5ith his o5n hand, 5ith s5eet <ood 6oth ha7d and so<t, until they 7e<used any mo7e1 D/1 !nd 5hen the Exalted One had <inished his meal, and had 2leansed the 6o5l and his hands, %ohikka the B7ahmin, 67ought a lo5 seat and sat do5n 6eside him1 K01 !nd to him, thus seated, the Exalted One said ' 8 )s it t7ue, 5hat they say, %ohikka, that you hold the ;ie5 that a (amana o7 a B7ahmana should not 2ommuni2ate any kno5ledge o7 lea7ning to 5omen and (hud7as,M 8 K D 1 8"hat is so, Iotama,8 7e3lied %ohikka1 KEK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KK1 8 #o5 5hat think you, %ohikkaM !7e you not esta6lished at (ala;atika M 8 8 &es, that is so, Iotama18 KL1 8"hen su33ose, %ohikka, one 5e7e to s3eak thus' : %ohikka the B7ahmin has a domain at (ala;atika1 %et him alone en?oy all the 7e;enue and all the 37odu2e o< (ala;atika, allo5ing nothing to any6ody else!: +ould the utte7e7 o< that s3ee2h 6e a dange7-make7 as tou2hing the men 5ho li;e in de3enden2e u3on you o7 not M 8 K.1 8 He 5ould 6e a dange7-make7, Iotama18 KE1 8 !nd making that dange7, 5ould he 6e 7ega7ded as a 3e7son 5ho sym3athised 5ith thei7 5el<a7eM8 KF1 8 #o1 He 5ould not 6e 2onside7ing thei7 5el<a7e, Iotama,8 7e3lied

%ohikka1 KH1 8 !nd not 2onside7ing thei7 5el<a7e, 5ould his hea7t stand <ast in lo;e to5a7ds them o7 in enmity M 8 K-1 8)n enmity, Iotama18 K/1 8 But 5hen one:s hea7t stands <ast in enmity, is that unsound do2t7ine, o7 sound M 8 L01 8 )t is an unsound do2t7ine, Iotama18 LD1 8#o5 5hat think you, %ohikkaM )s not *ing Pasenadi o< *osala in 3ossession o< *asi and *osalaM8 LK1 8 &es, that is so, Iotama18 LL1 8 "hen su33ose, %ohikka, one 5e7e to s3eak thus ' : *ing Pasenadi o< *osala is in 3ossession o< *asi and *osala1 %et him en?oy all the 7e;enue and all the 37odu2e o< *asi and *osala, allo5ing nothing to any6ody else1: +ould the utte7e7 o< that s3ee2h 6e a dange7-make7 as tou2hing the men 5ho li;e in de3enden2e on *ing Pasenadi o< *osala N 6oth you you7sel< and othe7s N o7 not M 8 L.1 8 He 5ould 6e a dange7-make7, Iotama18 LE1 8 !nd making that dange7, 5ould he 6e a 3e7son 5ho sym3athised 5ith thei7 5el<a7e M 8

KEL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> LF1 8 He 5ould not 6e 2onside7ing thei7 5el<a7e, Iotama18 LH1 8 !nd not 2onside7ing thei7 5el<a7e, 5ould his hea7t stand <ast in lo;e to5a7ds them, o7 in enmity M8 L-1 8)n enmity, Iotama18 L/1 8 But 5hen one:s hea7t stands <ast in enmity, is that unsound do2t7ine, o7 soundM8

.01 8 )t is an unsound do2t7ine, Iotama18 . D 1 8 (o then, %ohikka, you admit that he 5ho should say that you, 6eing in o22u3ation o< (ala;atika, should the7e<o7e you7sel< en?oy all the 7e;enue and 37odu2e the7eo<, 6esto5ing nothing on anyone else J and he 5ho should say that *ing Pasenadi o< *osala, 6eing in 3o5e7 o;e7 *asi and *osala, should the7e<o7e himsel< en?oy all the 37odu2e the7eo<, 6esto5ing nothing on anyone else, 5ould 6e making dange7 <o7 those li;ing in de3enden2e on youJ o7 <o7 those, you and othe7s, li;ing in de3enden2e u3on the king1 !nd that those 5ho thus make dange7 <o7 othe7s, must 6e 5anting in sym3athy and ha;e thei7 hea7ts set <ast in enmity1 !nd that to ha;e one:s hea7t set <ast in enmity is unsound do2t7ine1 .K1 8 "hen ?ust so, %ohikka, is he 5ho should say that a (amana o7 a B7ahmin should not 2ommuni2ate his kno5ledge and lea7ning to 5omen and (hud7as1 .L1 8 Pust so, he 5ho should say thus, 5ould 6e 3utting o6sta2les in the 5ay o< othe7s and 5ould 6e out o< sym3athy <o7 thei7 5el<a7e1 ..1 8 Being out o< sym3athy <o7 thei7 5el<a7e his hea7t 5ould 6e2ome esta6lished in enmity J and 5hen one:s hea7t is esta6lished in enmity, that is unsound do2t7ine18

K1 Dhamma7is (addhamma 5hen it tea2hes that me7e lea7ning is not enough1 )t may lead to 3edant7y1

KE.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D1 On2e 5hen the Buddha 5as 7esiding in the 2ount7y o< *ausam6i, in a 2e7tain Giha7a 2alled the 8 Beauti<ul Goi2e,8 37ea2hing to the 3eo3le assem6led the7e 5as a 2e7tain B7ahma2ha7in1 K1 "he B7ahma2ha7in <elt that he 5as un7i;alled <o7 kno5ledge o< s27i3tu7es and 6eing una6le to <ind anyone eCual to himsel< in a7gument, 5as a22ustomed to 2a77y, 5he7e;e7 he 5ent, a lighted to72h in his hand1

L1 One day a man in the ma7ket 3la2e o< a 2e7tain to5n, seeing him thus, asked him the 7eason o< his st7ange 2ondu2t, on 5hi2h he 7e3lied' .1 8 "he 5o7ld is so da7k, and men so deluded, that ) 2a77y this to72h to light it u3 so <a7 as ) 2an18 E1 (eeing this the Buddha <o7th5ith 2alled out to the B7ahma2ha7in, 8+hat ho the7e ) +hat a7e you a6out 5ith that "o72h M 8 F1 "he B7ahma2ha7in 7e3lied, 8 !ll men a7e so 57a33ed in igno7an2e and gloom, that ) 2a77y this to72h to illumine them18 H1 "hen the Blessed %o7d asked him to 6e a2Cuainted 5ith the <ou7 t7eatises the (a27ed Books, to 5it, the t7eatise t7eatise on the : Hea;enly Bodies and thei7 Io;e7nment : and the t7eatise on :Ailita7y !7t:M8 again, 8 !nd a7e you so lea7ned as @GidyasB 5hi2h o22u7 in the midst o< on : %ite7atu7e : @(a6da;idyaB J the Paths : J the t7eatise on :

-1 On the B7ahma2ha7in 6eing <o72ed to 2on<ess he 5as una2Cuainted 5ith these things, he <lung a5ay his to72h, and the Buddha added these 5o7ds' /1 8)< any man, 5hethe7 he 6e lea7ned o7 not, 2onside7s himsel< so g7eat as to des3ise othe7 men he is like a 6lind man holding a 2andle N 6lind himsel<, he illumines othe7s18 L1 Dhamma is (addhamma 5hen it tea2hes that 5hat is needed is P7adn;a1

D 1 "he B7ahmins 7ega7ded Gidya @*no5ledge, %ea7ningB as in itsel< a thing o< ;alue1 ! man o< me7e lea7ning and kno5ledge 5as to them an o6?e2t o< ;ene7ation i77es3e2ti;e o< the Cuestion 5hethe7 o7 not he 5as a man o< ;i7tue1

KEE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K1 )ndeed they said that a king is honou7ed in his o5n 2ount7y 6ut a man o<

lea7ning is honou7ed all o;e7 the 5o7ld, suggesting the7e6y that a man o< lea7ning is g7eate7 than the king1 L1 "he Buddha made a distin2tion 6et5een Gidya and P7adnya, i1e1, .1 )t may 6e said that the B7ahmins also made a distin2tion 6et5een P7adnya and Gidya1 E1 "hat may 6e t7ue1 But the7e is a ;ast di<<e7en2e 6et5een the P7adnya o< the Buddha and the P7adnya o< the B7ahmins1 F1 "his distin2tion has 6een 5ell 67ought out 6y the Buddha in his se7mon 7e3o7ted in !ngutta7a #ikaya1 H1 On a 2e7tain o22asion the Exalted One 5as staying nea7 the 6am6oo g7o;e at the sCui77els: <eeding g7ound1 a?ag7aha, in

-1 #o5 on that o22asion Gassaka7a the B7ahmin, a g7eat o<<i2ial o<Aagadha, 2ame to ;isit the Exalted One, and on 2oming to him g7eeted him 2ou7teously, and a<te7 ex2hange o< g7eetings and 2ou7tesies sat do5n at one side1 !s he: sat thus Gassaka7a the B7ahmin said this to the Exalted One ' /1 8 Aaste7 Iotama, 5e B7ahmins 37o2laim a man, i< he 3ossesses <ou7 Cualities, as one o< g7eat 5isdom, as a g7eat man1 +hat a7e the <ou7 Cualities M D01 8 He7ein, Aaste7 Iotama, he is lea7ned1 O< 5hatsoe;e7 he hea7s he unde7stands the meaning as soon as it is utte7ed, saying' : "his is the meaning o< that saying! : Ao7eo;e7, he has a good memo7y, he 2an 7emem6e7 and 7e2all a thing done long ago, and said long ago1 DD18 !gain, in all the 6usiness o< a householde7 he is skilled and diligent, and the7ein he is 7esou72e<ul and 2a3a6le o< in;estigating 5hat is 37o3e7 to 6e done, 5hat should 6e a77anged1 DK1 8 #o5, maste7 Iotama, i< a man 3ossesses these Cualities, 5e 37o2laim him as one o< g7eat 5isdom, as a g7eat man1 )< the 5o7thy Iotama thinks me 5o7thy o< 2ommendation he7ein, let him 2ommend me1 On the 2ont7a7y, i< he thinks me 6lame5o7thy, let him 6lame me the7e<o718

KEF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DL1 8+ell, B7ahmin ) neithe7 2ommend you no7 6lame you he7ein1 ) mysel< 37o2laim a man to 6e one o< g7eat 5isdom, i< he 3ossesses the <ollo5ing <ou7 Cualities 5hi2h a7e Cuite di<<e7ent <7om those mentioned 6y you, D.1 8 He7ein, B7ahmin, 5e ha;e a man gi;en to the 5el<a7e o< many <olk, to the ha33iness o< many <olk1 By him a7e many <olk esta6lished in the !7iyan Aethod, to 5it ' in 5hat is o< a lo;ely natu7e, in 5hat is o< a 37o<ita6le natu7e1 D E1 8"o 5hatsoe;e7 t7ain o< thought he 5ishes to a33ly himsel<, to that t7ain o< thought he a33lies himsel< ' to 5hate;e7 t7ain o< thought he desi7es not to a33ly himsel<, to that t7ain o< thought he a33lies not himsel<1 DF1 8+hate;e7 intention he 5ishes to intend, he does so o7 not i< he so 5ishes1 "hus is he maste7 o< the mind in the 5ays o< thought1 DH1 8 !lso he is one 5ho attains at 5ill, 5ithout di<<i2ulty and 5ithout t7ou6le the <ou7 musings 5hi2h 6elong to the highe7 thought, 5hi2h e;en in this ;e7y li<e a7e 6liss<ul to a6ide in1 D-1 8 !lso 6y dest7u2tion o< the asa;as @<ette7sB in this ;e7y li<e tho7oughly 2om37ehending it 6y himsel<, he 7ealises the hea7t:s 7elease, the 7elease 6y 5isdom, and attaining it a6ides the7ein1 D/1 8 #o B7ahmin, ) neithe7 2ommend no7 6lame you he7ein, 6ut ) mysel< 37o2laim a man 3ossessed o< these <ou7 di<<e7ent Cualities to 6e one o< g7eat 5isdom, to 6e a g7eat man18 K01 8 )t is 5onde7<ul, Aaste7 Iotama" )t is ma7;ellous1 Aaste7 Iotama, ho5 5ell this has 6een said 6y the 5o7thy Iotama ) KD1 8) mysel< do hold the 5o7thy Iotama to 6e 3ossessed o< these same <ou7 Cualities1 )ndeed, the 5o7thy Iotama is gi;en to the 5el<a7e o< many <olk, to the ha33iness o< many <olk1 By him a7e many <olk esta6lished in the !7iyan :Aethod, to 5it' in 5hat is o< a lo;ely natu7e, in 5hat is o< a 37o<ita6le natu7e1

KK1 8 )ndeed, the 5o7thy Iotama, to 5hate;e7 t7ain o< thought he 5ishes to a33ly himsel<, to that t7ain o< thought a33lies himsel< 1 1 (u7ely the 5o7thy Iotama is maste7 o< the mind in the 5ays o< thought1 KL1 8 (u7ely the 5o7thy Iotama is one 5ho attains at 5ill 1 1 1 the <ou7 musings 1 1 1 (u7ely the 5o7thy Iotama 6y dest7u2tion o< the asa;as 1 1 1 KEH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> 7ealises the hea7t:s 7elease, the 7elease 6y 5isdom 1 1 1 and attaining it a6ides the7ein18 K.1 He7ein is stated in the 2lea7est te7ms the di<<e7en2e 6et5een P7adnya a22o7ding to the Buddha and P7adnya, a22o7ding to the B7ahmins1 KE1 He7ein is set out his 2ase 5hy the Buddha 7ega7ded P7adnya as mo7e im3o7tant than Gidya1 '' (e2tion ))) N Dhamma to 6e (addhamma must 37omote Aait7i1 ''

D1 Dhamma is (addhamma only 5hen it tea2hes that me7e P7adnya is not enough1 )t must 6e a22om3anied 6y (ila1

D1 P7adnya is ne2essa7y1 But (ila is mo7e ne2essa7y1 P7adnya 5ithout (ila is dange7ous1 K1 Ae7e P7adnya is dange7ous1 L1 P7adnya is like a s5o7d in the hand o< a man1 .1 )n the hand o< a man 5ith (ila it may 6e used <o7 sa;ing a man 5ith dange71 E1 But in the hand o< a man 5ithout (ila it may 6e used <o7 mu7de71 F1 "hat is 5hy (ila is mo7e im3o7tant than P7adnya1 H1 P7adnya is Gi2ha7 Dhamma o7 thinking a7ight1 (ila is !2ha7 Dhamma, a2ting a7ight1

-1 "he Buddha 37es27i6ed <i;e 6asi2 37in2i3les 7ega7ding (ila1 /1 One 7elating to taking li<e1 D01 (e2ond 7elating to stealing, D D 1 "hi7d 7elating to sexual immo7ality1 DK1 Fou7th 7elating to telling a lie1

KE-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DL1 Fi<th 7elating to d7ink1 D.1 On ea2h o< these the Blessed %o7d di7e2ted the 3eo3le not to killJ not to stealJ no7 to tell a lieJ no7 to indulge in sex immo7ality and not to indulge in d7inking1 DE1 "he 7eason 5hy the Buddha ga;e g7eate7 im3o7tan2e to (ila than to kno5ledge is o6;ious1 DF1 "he use o< kno5ledge de3ends u3on a man:s (ila1 !3a7t <7om (ila, kno5ledge has no ;alue1 "his is 5hat he said1 D H1 !t anothe7 3la2e, he said, 8 (ila is in2om3a7a6le in this 5o7ld1 D-1 8 (ila is the 6eginning and the 7e<uge, (ila is the mothe7 o< all good1 )t is the <o7emost o< all good 2onditions1 "he7e<o7e, 3u7i<y you7 (ila18 K1 Dhamma is (addhamma only 5hen it tea2hes that 6esides F7adnya and (ila 5hat is ne2essa7y is *a7una1

D 1 "he7e has 6een some di<<e7en2e o< o3inion on the issue as to <oundation o< Buddha:s Dhamma1 K1 )s P7adnya alone the <oundation o< his 7eligionM )s *anma alone the <oundation o< his 7eligion M L1 "he 2ont7o;e7sy had di;ided the <ollo5e7s o< the Buddha into t5o s2hools1 One s2hool held that P7adnya alone is the <oundation o< the Buddha:s 7eligion1 "he othe7 s2hool held that *a7una alone is the <oundation o< the

Buddha:s 7eligion1 .1 "hese t5o s2hools still 7emain di;ided1 E1 Both the s2hools seem to 6e 57ong i< ?udged in the light o< the Buddha:s o5n 5o7ds1 F1 "he7e is no di<<e7en2e o< o3inion that P7adnya is one o< the t5o 3illa7s o< the Buddha:s 7eligion1 H1 "he dis3ute is 5hethe7 *amna is also a 3illa7 o< his 7eligion1 -1 "hat *a7una is a 3illa7 o< his 7eligion is 6eyond dis3ute1 KE/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> /1 His o5n 5o7ds 2an 6e Cuoted in su33o7t o< it1 D01 )n days gone 6y the7e 5as a 2ount7y 2alled Iandha7a, in 5hi2h 5as a ;e7y old mendi2ant a<<li2ted 5ith a ;e7y loathsome disease, 5hi2h 2aused him to 3ollute e;e7y 3la2e he o22u3ied1 D D 1 Being in a 2e7tain Giha7a 6elonging to the 3la2e, no one 5ould 2ome nea7 him o7 hel3 him in his dist7ess1 DK1 On this Buddha 2ame 5ith his E00 <ollo5e7s, and o6taining all so7ts o< ne2essa7y utensils and 5a7m 5ate7, they togethe7 ;isited the 3la2e 5he7e the old mendi2ant lay1 DL1 "he smell in the 3la2e 5as so o<<ensi;e that all the Bhikkus 5e7e <illed 5ith 2ontem3t <o7 the manJ 6ut the +o7ld-honou7ed, 2ausing (ak7a-de;a to 67ing the 5a7m 5ate7, then 5ith his o5n hand 6egan to 5ash the 6ody o< the mendi2ant and attend to his maladies1 D.1 "hen the ea7th shook, and the 5hole 3la2e 5as <illed 5ith a su3e7natu7al light, so that the king and the ministe7s, and all the hea;enly host @De;as, #agas, et21B <lo2ked to the 3la2e, and 3aid ado7ation to Buddha1 DE1 Ha;ing done so, they all add7essed the +o7ld-honou7ed, and Cui7ed ho5 one so highly exalted 2ould lo5e7 himsel< to su2h o<<i2es as these, on 5hi2h Buddha ex3lained the matte7 thus '

DF1 8"he 3u73ose o< "athagata in 2oming into the 5o7ld, is to 6e<7iend those 3oo7 and hel3less and un37ote2ted, to nou7ish those in 6odily a<<li2tion, 5hethe7 they 6e (amanas o7 men o< any othe7 7eligion N to hel3 the im3o;e7ished, the o73han and the aged, and to 3e7suade othe7s so to do18 L1 Dhamma is (addhamma only 5hen it tea2hes that mo7e than *a7una 5hat is ne2essa7y is Aait7i1

D 1 "he Buddha did not sto3 5ith tea2hing *a7una1 K1 *a7una is only lo;e <o7 human 6eings1 Buddha 5ent 6eyond and taught Aait7i1 Aait7i is lo;e <o7 li;ing 6eings:1

KF0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L1 "he Buddha 5anted man not to sto3 5ith *a7una 6ut to go 6eyond mankind and 2ulti;ate the s3i7it o< Aait7i <o7 all li;ing 6eings1 .1 "his he has 5ell ex3lained in a (utta 5hen the Blessed One 5as staying in (h7a;asti1 E1 (3eaking a6out Aait7i, the Blessed %o7d told the almsmen' F1 8 (u33ose a man 2omes to dig the ea7th1 Does the ea7th 7esentM8 H1 8 #o, %o7d,8 the almsmen 7e3lied1 -1 8 (u33osing a man 2omes 5ith la2 and 2olou7s to 3aint 3i2tu7es in the ai71 Do you think he 2ould do itM8 /1 8#o, %o7d18 D01 8 +hy M 8 8 Be2ause the7e a7e no da7k 3at2hes in the ai7, 8 said the Bhikkus1 DD1 8)n the same 5ay you must not ha;e any da7k 3at2hes in you7 mind 5hi2h a7e the 7e<le2tions o< you7 e;il 3assions18 DK1 8 (u33ose a man 2omes 5ith a 6laOing 5is3 o< 67a2ken to set the i;e7

Ianges on <i7e1 Could he do itM8 DL1 8#o, %o7d18 D.1 8+hyM8 8Be2ause the Ianges has no 2om6usti6ility in its 5ate718 DE1 Con2luding his add7ess, the Blessed %o7d said ' 8 Pust as the ea7th does not <eel hu7t and does not 7esent, ?ust as the ai7 does not lend to any a2tion against it, ?ust as the Ianges 5ate7 goes on <lo5ing 5ithout 6eing distu76ed 6y the <i7e so also you Bhikkus must 6ea7 all insults and in?usti2es in<li2ted on you and 2ontinue to 6ea7 Aait7i to5a7ds you7 o<<ende7s1 DF1 8(o almsmen, Aait7i must <lo5 and <lo5 <o7 e;e71 %et it 6e you7 sa27ed o6ligation to kee3 you7 mind as <i7m as the ea7th, as 2lean as the ai7 and as dee3 as the Ianges11 )< you do so you7 Aait7i 5ill not 6e easily distu76ed, 6y an a2t ho5e;e7 un3leasant1 Fo7 all 5ho do in?u7y 5ill soon 6e ti7ed out1 DH18 %et the am6it o< you7 Aait7i 6e as 6oundless as the 5o7ld and let you7 thought 6e ;ast and 6eyond measu7e in 5hi2h no hat7ed is thought o<1

KFD

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D-1 8 !22o7ding to my Dhamma, it is not enough to 37a2tise *a7una1 )t is ne2essa7y to 37a2tise Aait7i18 D/1 )n the 2ou7se o< the se7mon the Blessed %o7d told a sto7y to the almsmen 5hi2h is 5o7th 7emem6e7ing1 K01 8 On2e u3on a time the7e li;ed in (h7a;asti a lady named Gideshika, 5ho 5as 7e3uted gentle and meek, and mild1 (he had a maid se7;ant named Da7kie, a 67ight gi7l, an ea7ly 7ise7 and a good 5o7ke71 : ) 5onde7,: thought Da7kie, : 5hethe7 my mist7ess, 5ho is so 5ell s3oken o<, has 7eally got a tem3e7 o< he7 o5n 5hi2h she does not sho5 o7 5hethe7 she has got no tem3e7 atallM O7 do D do my 5o7k so 5ell, that though she has got a tem3e7, she does not sho5 itM ) 5ill t7y he71:

KD1 8(o next mo7ning she got u3 late1 : Da7kie ) Da7kie ) 27ied the mist7ess1: : &es, madam,: ans5e7ed the gi7l1 : +hy did you get u3 so late M : : Oh, that:s nothing, madam1: : #othing , indeed, you naughty gi7l! : thought the mist7ess, <7o5ning 5ith ange7 and dis3leasu7e1 KK1 8 : (o she has got a tem3e7, though she does not sho5 it,8 thought the maid ' : )t is 6e2ause ) do my 5o7k so 5ell that she does not sho5 it J ) 5ill t7y he7 <u7the71: (o she got u3 late7 next mo7ning1 :Da7kie! Da7kie": 27ied the mist7ess1 :&es, madam,: ans5e7ed the gi7l1 : +hy did you get u3 so late M : : Oh that:s nothing, madam1: : #othing, indeed, you naughty gi7l ) : ex2laimed the mist7ess, gi;ing ;ent in 5o7ds to he7 ange7 and dis3leasu7e1 KL1 8 : &es,: thought the maid, 8 she has got a tem3e7 though she does not sho5 it 6e2ause ) do my 5o7k so 5ellJ ) 5ill t7y he7 yet <u7the71: (o next mo7ning she got u3 late7 still1 : Da7kie ) Da7kie ) 27ied he7 mist7ess1: : &es, madam,: ans5e7ed the gi7l1 : +hy did you get u3 so lateM: :Oh, that:s nothing, madam1: K.1 8 : #othing indeed you naughty gi7l, to get u3 so late!: ex2laimed the mist7ess and in he7 ange7 and dis3leasu7e she 3i2ked u3 the lyn2h -3in and st7u2k the gi7l on the head 5ith it, d7a5ing 6lood1 KE1 8+ith he7 67oken head st7eaming 5ith 6lood, Da7kie 7oused the neigh6ou7hood 5ith sh7ieks' : (ee, lady, 5hat the gentle one has done! (ee, lady, 5hat the meek one has done ! (ee, lady, 5hat the mild one has done1 +hat <o7 M Pust 6e2ame he7 only maid got u3 late, she 5as so ang7y and

KFK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> dis3leased that she ?ust ?um3ed 5ith the lyn2h -3in to st7ike he7 on the head and 67eak it1:

KF1 8)n the 7esult the lady Gideshika got the 7e3utation o< 6eing ;iolent, anything 6ut meek and mild1 KH1 8)n like manne7 an almsman may 6e gentle and meek, and mild enough so long as nothing un3leasant is said against him1 )t is only 5hen un3leasant things a7e said against him that you 2an test i< he has Aait7i N <ello5shi3 in him18 K-1 "hen he added, 8 ) do not 2all an almsman Cha7ged 5ith the s3i7it o< Aait7i i< he sho5s it only to get 2lothes and <ood1 Him only do ) 7e2ognise as a t7ue almsman 5hose Aait7i s37ings <7om the do2t7ine18 K/1 8 #one o< the means em3loyed to a2Cui7e 7eligious me7it, Aonks, has a sixteenth 3a7t o< the ;alue o< lo;ing kindness1 %o;ing kindness, 5hi2h is <7eedom o< hea7t, a6so76s them all J it glo5s, it shines, it 6laOes <o7th1 L011 8 !nd in the same 5ay, Aonks, as the light o< all the sta7s has not a sixteenth 3a7t o< the ;alue o< the moonlight, 6ut the moonlight a6so76s it and glo5s and shines and 6laOes <o7th J in the same 5ay, Aonks, none o< the means em3loyed to a2Cui7e 7eligious me7it has a sixteenth 3a7t o< the ;alue o< lo;ing kindness1 %o;ing kindness, 5hi2h is <7eedom o< hea7t, a6so76s themJ it glo5s, it shines, it 6laOes <o7th1 L D 1 8!nd in the, same 5ay, Aonks, as at the end o< the 7ainy season, the sun, 7ising into the 2lea7 and 2loudless sky, 6anishes all the da7k s3a2es and glo5s and shines and 6laOes <o7th J and in the same 5ay again, as at night:s end the mo7ning sta7 glo5s and shines and 6laOes <o7thJ so, Aonks, none o< the means em3loyed to a2Cui7e 7eligious me7it has a sixteenth 3a7t o< the ;alue o< lo;ing kindness1 %o;ing kindness, 5hi2h is <7eedom o< hea7t, a6so76s themJ it glo5s, it shines, it 6laOes <o7th18 '' (e2tion )G N Dhamma to 6e (addhamma must 3ull do5n all so2ial 6a77ie7s ''

KFL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D1 Dhamma to 6e (addhamma must 67eak do5n 6a77ie7s 6et5een man and man1

D1 +hat is an ideal so2iety M !22o7ding to the B7ahmins, the Gedas ha;e de<ined 5hat is an ideal so2iety and the Gedas 6eing in<alli6le, that is the only ideal so2iety 5hi2h man 2an a22e3t1 K1 "he ideal so2iety 37es27i6ed 6y the Gedas is kno5n 6y the name Chatu7;ama1 L1 (u2h a so2iety, a22o7ding to the Gedas, must satis<y th7ee 2onditions1 .1 )t must 6e 2om3osed o< <ou7 2lasses1 B7ahmins, *shat7iyas, Gaishyas and (hud7as1 E1 "he inte77elations o< these 2lasses must 6e 7egulated 6y the 37in2i3le o< g7aded ineCuality1 )n othe7 5o7ds, all these 2lasses a7e not to 6e on eCual le;el 6ut to 6e one a6o;e the othe7, in 3oint o< status, 7ights and 37i;ileges1 F1 "he B7ahmins 5e7e 3la2ed at the to3 J the *shat7iyas 5e7e 3la2ed 6elo5 the B7ahmins 6ut a6o;e the GaishyasJ the Gaishyas 5e7e 3la2ed 6elo5 the *shat7iyas 6ut a6o;e the (hud7as and the (hud7as 5e7e 3la2ed the lo5est o< all1 H1 "he thi7d <eatu7e o< Chatu7;ama 5as that ea2h 2lass must engage itsel< in an o22u3ation assigned to it1 "he B7ahmins: o22u3ation 5as to lea7n, tea2h and o<<i2iate at 7eligious 2e7emonies1 "he *shat7iyas: o22u3ation 5as to 6ea7 a7ms and to <ight1 "he o22u3ation o< the Gaishyas 5as t7ade and 6usiness1 "he (hud7as: o22u3ation 5as to do menial se7;i2e <o7 all the th7ee su3e7io7 2lasses1 -1 #o 2lass is to t7ansg7ess and t7en2h u3on the o22u3ation o< the othe7 2lasses1 /1 "his theo7y o< an ideal so2iety 5as u3held 6y the B7ahmins and 37ea2hed to the 3eo3le1 D01 "he soul o< this theo7y, it is o6;ious, is ineCuality1 "his so2ial ineCuality

is not the 7esult o< histo7i2al g7o5th1 )neCuality is the o<<i2ial do2t7ine o< B7ahminism1 D D 1 "he Buddha o33osed it 7oot and 67an2h1 KF.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DK1 He 5as the st7ongest o33onent o< 2aste and the ea7liest and staun2hest u3holde7 o< eCuality1 DL1 "he7e is no a7gument in <a;ou7 o< 2aste and ineCuality 5hi2h he did not 7e<ute1 D.1 "he7e 5e7e many B7ahmins 5ho 2hallenged Buddha on this issue1 But he silen2ed them 2om3letely1 DE1 "he sto7y is told in the !ssalayana-(utta that on2e the B7ahmins 3e7suaded one o< them, 6y name !ssalayana, to go to the Buddha and 2ont7o;e7t his ;ie5s against 2aste and ineCuality1 DF1 !ssalayana 5ent to the Buddha and 3la2ed 6e<o7e him the 2ase in <a;ou7 o< the su3e7io7ity o< the B7ahmins1 DH1 He said, 8 B7ahmins maintain, Iotama, that only B7ahmins <o7m the su3e7io7 2lass, all othe7 2lasses 6eing in<e7io7 J that only B7ahmins <o7m the 5hite 2lass, all othe7 2lasses 6eing 6la2k <ello5s J that 3u7ity 7esides in B7ahmins alone and not in non- B7ahminsJ and that only B7ahmins a7e B7ahma:s legitimate sons, 6o7n <7om his mouth, o<<s37ing o< his, 27eations o< his, and his hei7s1 +hat does Iotama say he7eon M 8 D-1 "he Buddha:s ans5e7 sim3ly 3ul;e7iOed !ssalayana1 D/1 "he Buddha said ' 8 !ssalayana, a7e not the B7ahmin 5i;es o< B7ahmins kno5n to ha;e thei7 3e7iods, and to 2on2ei;e, and to lie and gi;e 6i7thM #ot5ithstanding this do B7ahmins 7eally maintain all 5hat you ha;e said though they a7e themsel;es 6o7n o< 5omen like e;e7y6ody else M 8 K01 !ssalayana ga;e no ans5e71 KD1 "he Buddha 5ent <u7the7 and asked !ssalaJ9yana anothe7 Cuestion1 KK1 8 (u33ose, !ssalayana, a young no6le 2on -so<ts 5ith a B7ahmin maiden,

5hat 5ould 6e the issue M +ill it 6e an animal o7 human 6eing M 8 KL1 !gain !ssalayana ga;e no ans5e71 K.1 8 !s to the 3ossi6ility o< mo7al de;elo3ment, is it only a B7ahmin and not a man o< the othe7 th7ee 2lasses, 5ho in this 2ount7y, 2an de;elo3 in his hea7t the lo;e that kno5s no hate o7 ill-5ill M 8 KE1 8 #o1 !ll <ou7 2lasses 2an do it,8 7e3lied !ssalayana1 KFE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KF1 8 !ssalayana ) Ha;e you e;e7 hea7d,8 asked the Buddha, 8 that in the &ona and *am6o?a 2ount7ies and in othe7 ad?a2ent 2ount7ies, the7e a7e only t5o 2lasses, namely, maste7s and sla;es, and that a maste7 2an 6e2ome a sla;e and ;i2e ;e7sa M 8 KH1 8 &es, ) ha;e hea7d so,8 7e3lied !ssalayana1 K-1 8)< you7 Chatu7;a7na is an ideal so2iety, 5hy is it not uni;e7sal M 8 1 K/1 On none o< these 3oints 5as !ssalayana a6le to de<end his theo7y o< 2aste and ineCuality1 He 5as 2om3letely silen2ed1 He ended 6y 6e2oming a dis2i3le o< the Buddha1 L01 ! B7ahmin 6y name Gasettha had em67a2ed the 7eligion o< the Blessed %o7d1 "he B7ahmins used to a6use him <o7 his 2on;e7sion1 LD1 One day he 5ent to Buddha and dis2losed to him 5hat the B7ahmins said o< him1 LK1 "hen Gasettha said ' 8 "he B7ahmins, %o7d, say thus ' : Only a B7ahmin is o< the 6est so2ial g7ade J othe7 g7ades a7e lo51 Only a B7ahmin is o< a 2lea7 2om3lexion J othe7 2om3lexions a7e s5a7thy1 Only B7ahmins a7e o< 3u7e 67eed J not they that a7e not o< the B7ahmins1 Only B7ahmins a7e genuine 2hild7en o< B7ahma, 6o7n o< his mouth, o<<s37ing o< B7ahma, 27eated 6y B7ahma, hei7s o< B7ahma1 LL1 8 :!s <o7 you, you ha;e 7enoun2ed the 6est 7ank and ha;e gone o;e7 to that lo5 2lass, to the sha;en 7e2luses, to ;ulga7 7i2h, to them o< s5a7thy

skins, to the <oot -6o7n des2endants1 (u2h a 2ou7se is not good, su2h a 2ou7se is not 37o3e7, e;en this, that you, ha;ing <o7saken that u33e7 2lass, should asso2iate 5ith an in<e7io7 2lass, to 5it, 5ith sha;elings, <ai7 <olks, menials, s5a7thy o< skin, the o<<s37ing o< ou7 kinsmen:s heels1: L.1 8 )n these te7ms1 %o7d, do the B7ahmins 6lame and 7e;ile me 5ith 2ha7a2te7isti2 a6use, 2o3ious, not at all stinted1 8 LE1 8(u7ely, Gasettha,8 said the Buddha, 8the B7ahmins ha;e Cuite <o7gotten the an2ient lo7e 5hen they say so1 On the 2ont7a7y, the 5i;es o< B7ahmins, like all 5omen o< othe7 2lasses, a7e seen to 6e 5ith 2hild, 67inging <o7th and nu7sing 2hild7en1 !nd yet it is these ;e7y 5om6-6o7n B7ahmins 5ho say that B7ahmins a7e genuine 2hild7en o< B7ahma, 6o7n <7om his mouth J his

KFF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> o<<s37ing J his 27eation J and his hei7s ) By this they make a t7a;esty o< the natu7e o< B7ahma18 LF1 On2e the B7ahmin Esuka7i 5ent to the Buddha to a7gue 5ith him th7ee Cuestions1 LH1 "he <i7st Cuestion he 7aised 7elated to the 3e7manent di;ision o< o22u3ations1 )n de<en2e o< the system he 6egan 6y saying ' 8) ha;e 2ome to ask you a Cuestion1 "he B7ahmins say they shall se7;e no6ody 6e2ause they stand a6o;e all1 E;e7yone else is 6o7n to se7;e them1 L-1 8 (e7;i2e, Iotama, is di;ided into <ou7 N se7;i2e o< B7ahmin, se7;i2e o< no6le, se7;i2e o< a middle-2lass man, o7 6y a 3easantJ 5hile a 3easant may 6e se7;ed only 6y a 3easant, N <o7 5ho else 2ould M 8 +hat does the 7e;e7end Iotama say he7eon M 8 L/1 "he Buddha ans5e7ed him 6y asking a Cuestion ' 8 )s the 5hole 5o7ld in a22o7d 5ith B7ahmins in thei7 <ou7<old di;ision o< se7;i2e M 8 asked the %o7d1

.01 8 Fo7 mysel<, ) neithe7 asse7t that all se7;i2e is to 6e 7ende7ed no7 that all se7;i2e is to 6e 7e<used1 )< the se7;i2e makes a man 6ad and not good, it should not 6e 7ende7edJ 6ut i< it makes him 6ette7 and not 6ad, then it should 6e 7ende7ed1 . D 1 8"his is the guiding 2onside7ation 5hi2h should de2ide the 2ondu2t alike o< no6les, o< B7ahmins, o< middle-2lass men and o< 3easants J ea2h indi;idual should 7e<use se7;i2e 5hi2h makes him 6ad and should a22e3t only the se7;i2e 5hi2h makes him a 6ette7 man18 .K1 "he next Cuestion 7aised as 6y Esuka7i1 8 +hy should an2est7y and lineage not ha;e a 3la2e in dete7mining the status o< a man M 8 .L1 "o this Cuestion the Buddha 7e3lied thus ' 8 !s against 37ide o< an2est7y, the station into 5hi2h a man ha33ens to 6e 6o7n dete7mines only his designation 6e it no6le o7 B7ahmin o7 middle-2lass o7 3easant1 E;en as a <i7e is 2alled a<te7 the mate7ial out o< 5hi2h it is kindled, and may thus 6e 2alled eithe7 a 5ood-<i7e, o7 a 2hi3-<i7e, o7 a 67a2ken-<i7e, o7 a 2o5dung <i7e, ?ust in the same 5ay the no6le, t7an-s2endant do2t7ine, ) a;e7, is the sou72e o< t7ue 5ealth <o7 e;e7y man, 6i7th me7ely dete7mining his designation in one o< the <ou7 2lasses1

KFH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> ..1 8 %ineage does not ente7 into a man:s 6eing eithe7 good o7 6ad ' no7 do good looks o7 5ealth1 Fo7, you 5ill <ind a man o< no6le 6i7th 5ho is a mu7de7e7, a thie<, a <o7ni2ato7, a lia7, a slande7e7, a man o< 6itte7 tongue, a tattle7, a 2o;etous 3e7son, a man o< 7an2ou7 o7 o< 57ong ;ie5s, and the7e<o7e ) asse7t that no6le 6i7th does not make a good man1 O7 again you 5ill <ind a man o< no6le 6i7th 5ho is inno2ent o< all these ;i2es J and, the7e<o7e, ) asse7t that it is not lineage 5hi2h makes a man 6ad18 .E1 "he thi7d Cuestion 5hi2h Esuka7i 7aised 5as 5ith 7ega7d to the 5ays o< ea7ning a li;ing assigned to ea2h 2lass1

.F1 "he B7ahmin Esuka7i said to the %o7d' 8 B7ahmins gi;e a <ou7<old assignment o< in2ome, <7om alms, <o7 B7ahmins J <7om his 6o5 and a77o5s, <o7 the no6leJ <7om 3loughing and tending 2attle, <o7 the middle -2lass man J and <o7 the 3easant, 6y the 2a77iage o< 27o3s on the 3ole slung o;e7 his shoulde71 )< anyone o< these dese7ts his ;o2ation <o7 something else, he does 5hat he should not do, not less than a gua7dian 5ho a337o37iates 5hat is not his1 +hat does the 7e;e7end Iotama say on this M 8 .H1 8)s the 5hole 5o7ld in a22o7d 5ith this B7ahmin 2lassi<i2ation M 8 asked the %o7d1 .-1 8#o,8 7e3lied Esuka7i1 ./1 "o Gasettha he said ' 8 +hat is im3o7tant is high ideals and not no6le 6i7th1 E01 8 #o 2aste J no ineCuality J no su3e7io7ity J no in<e7io7ity J all a7e eCual1 "his is 5hat he stood <o71 ED1 8)denti<y you7sel< 5ith othe7s1 !s they, sol1 !s ), so they,8 so said the Buddha1

K1 Dhamma to 6e (addhamma must tea2h that 5o7th and not 6i7th is the measu7e o< man1

D1 "he theo7y o< Chatu7;ama, 37ea2hed 6y the B7ahmins, 5as 6ased on 6i7th1

KF-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K1 One is a B7ahmin 6e2ause he is 6o7n o< B7ahmin 3a7ents1 One is a *shat7iya 6e2ause he is 6o7n o< *shat7iya 3a7ents1 One is a Gaishya 6e2ause one is 6o7n o< Gaishya 3a7ents1 !nd one is a (hud7a 6e2ause one is 6o7n o< (hud7a 3a7ents1

L1 "he 5o7th o< a man a22o7ding to the B7ahmins 5as 6ased on 6i7th and on nothing else1 .1 "his theo7y 5as as 7e3ulsi;e to the Buddha as 5as the theo7y o< Chatu7;ama1 E1 His do2t7ine 5as ?ust the o33osite o< the do2t7ine o< the B7ahmins1 )t 5as his do2t7ine that 5o7th and not 6i7th 5as the measu7e o< man1 F1 "he o22asion on 5hi2h the Buddha 37o3ounded his do2t7ine has its o5n 3e2ulia7 inte7est1 H1 On2e the Blessed One 5as staying in !nath-3indika:s !s7am1 One day in the <o7enoon he took his 6egging 6o5l and ente7ed (h7a;asti <o7 alms1 -1 !t that time a sa27i<i2ial <i7e 5as 6u7ning and an o<<e7ing 5as 37e3a7ed1 "hen the Blessed One, going <o7 alms <7om house to house in (h7a;asti, a337oa2hed the house o< the B7ahmin !ggika1 /1 "he B7ahmin, seeing the Blessed One 2oming at a distan2e, 6e2ame ang7y and said ' 8 (tay the7e, (ha;eling ) "he7e, stay, ye 57et2hed monk ) (tay the7e, ye mise7a6le out2ast18 D01 +hen he s3oke thus, the Blessed One add7essed him as <ollo5s' 8 Do you kno5, B7ahmin, 5ho an out2ast is, o7 the things that make a 3e7son an out2ast M 8 DD18 #o, Iotama, ) do not kno5 5ho an out2ast is1 #o7 indeed do ) kno5 5hat things make a man an out2ast18 DK1 "he %o7d 3leaded that nothing 5ould 6e lost in kno5ing 5ho is an out2ast1 8 #o5 that you insist on my kno5ing it,8 the B7ahmin !ggika said, 8 5ell go on and ex3lain18 DL1 "he B7ahmin ha;ing 7es3onded, the Blessed One s3eak as <ollo5s ' D.1 8 "he man 5ho is i77ita6le, 7an2o7ous, ;i2ious, det7a2ti;e, 3e7;e7ted in ;ie5s, and de2eit<ul N kno5 ye that he is an out2ast1 KF/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

DE1 8+hosoe;e7 in this 5o7ld ha7ms li;ing 6eings on2e -6o7n o7 t5i2e6o7n, in 5hom the7e is no 2om3assion <o7 li;ing 6eings N kno5 ye that he is an out2ast1 DF1 8 +hosoe;e7 dest7oys and 6esieges ;illages and hamlets, and is kno5n as an o337esso7 N kno5 ye that he is an out2ast1 D H1 8+hethe7 in the ;illage o7 in the <o7est 5hosoe;e7 a337o37iates 6y the<t 5hat 6elongs to othe7s, o7 5hat is not gi;en N kno5 ye that he is an out2ast, D-1 8 +hosoe;e7, ha;ing 7eally taken a de6t, <lees, 5hen 37essed, saying, : "he7e is no de6t to you,: N kno5 ye that he is an out2ast1 D/1 8 +hosoe;e7, desi7ing some t7i<le, kills a man going alone on the 7oad, and 3illages him N kno5 ye that he is an out2ast1 K01 8 +hosoe;e7 <o7 his o5n sake, o7 <o7 the sake o< othe7s, o7 <o7 the sake o< 5ealth, utte7s lies 5hen asked as a 5itness N kno5 ye that he is an out2ast1 KD1 8+hosoe;e7 6y <o72e o7 5ith 2onsent is seen t7ansg7essing 5ith the 5i;es o< 7elati;es o7 <7iends - kno5 ye that he is an out2ast1 KK1 8+hosoe;e7, 6eing 7i2h, does not su33o7t aged mothe7 and <athe7 5ho ha;e 3assed thei7 youth N kno5 ye that he is an out2ast1 KL1 8+hosoe;e7, 5hen Cuestioned a6out 5hat is good, 2ounsels 5hat is 57ong and tea2hes in a 2on2ealing 5ay N kno5 ye that 6e is an out2ast1 K.1 8 #o one is an out2ast 6y 6i7th N and no one is a B7ahmin 6y 6i7th18 KE1 !ggika, on hea7ing this, <elt g7eatly ashamed <o7 the a6use he had 6u7ied against the Blessed %o7d1

L1 Dhamma to 6e (addhamma must 37omote eCuality 6et5een man and man1

D 1 Aen a7e 6o7n uneCual1 K1 (ome a7e 7o6ust, othe7s a7e 5eaklings1 L1 (ome ha;e mo7e intelligen2e, othe7s ha;e less o7 none1

KH0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> .1 (ome ha;e mo7e 2a3a2ity, othe7s ha;e less1 E1 (ome a7e 5ell-to-do, othe7s a7e 3oo71 F1 !ll ha;e to ente7 into 5hat is 2alled the st7uggle <o7 existen2e1 H1 )n the st7uggle <o7 existen2e i< ineCuality 6e 7e2ognised as the 7ule o< the game the 5eakest 5ill al5ays go to the 5all1 -1 (hould this 7ule o< ineCuality 6e allo5ed to 6e the 7ule o< li<eM /1 (ome ans5e7 in the a<<i7mati;e on the g7ound that it 7esults in the su7;i;al o< the <ittest1 D01 "he Cuestion, ho5e;e7, is' )s the <ittest the 6est <7om the 3oint o< ;ie5 o< so2iety1 D D 1 #o one 2an gi;e a 3ositi;e ans5e71 DK1 )t is 6e2ause o< this dou6t that 7eligion 37ea2hes eCuality1 Fo7 eCuality may hel3 the 6est to su7;i;e e;en though the 6est may not 6e the <ittest1 D L1 +hat so2iety 5ants is the 6est and not the <ittest1 D.1 )t is, the7e<o7e, the 37ima7y 7eason 5hy 7eligion u3holds eCuality1 D E1 "his 5as the ;ie53oint o< the Buddha and it 5as 6e2ause o< this that he a7gued that a 7eligion 5hi2h does not 37ea2h eCuality is not 5o7th ha;ing1 DF1 Can you 7es3e2t o7 6elie;e in a 7eligion 5hi2h 7e2ommends a2tions that 67ing ha33iness to onesel< 6y 2ausing so77o5 to othe7s, o7 ha33iness to othe7s 6y 2ausing so77o5, to onesel< o7 so77o5 to 6oth onesel< and othe7s M DH1 )s not that a 6ette7 7eligion 5hi2h 37omotes the ha33iness o< othe7s simultaneously 5ith the ha33iness o< onesel< and tole7ates no o337ession1 D-1 "hese 5e7e some o< the most 3e7tinent Cuestions 5hi2h he asked the

B7ahmins 5ho o33osed ECuality1 D/1 "he 7eligion o< the Buddha is 3e7<e2t ?usti2e s37inging <7om a man:s o5n me7ito7ious dis3osition1

KHD

<t

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

8''BOO* )G''8 E%)I)O# !#D DH!AA! Pa7t ) N D1 +hat is eligion and Dhamma1 eligionM ''

K1 Ho5 Dhamma Di<<e7s F7om

eligion1

L1 "he Pu73ose o<

eligion and the Pu73ose o< Dhamma1

.1 Ao7ality and

eligion1

E1 Dhamma and Ao7ality1

F1 Ae7e Ao7ality is not Enough1 )t must 6e (a27ed and

$ni;e7sal1 '' '' D1 +hat is eligionM ''

D 1 "he 5o7d 8 7eligion 8 is an inde<inite 5o7d 5ith no <ixed meaning1 K1 )t is one 5o7d 5ith many meanings1 L1 "his is 6e2ause 7eligion has 3assed th7ough many stages1 "he 2on2e3t at ea2h stage is 2alled eligion though the 2on2e3t at one stage has not had the same meaning 5hi2h it had at the 37e2eding stage o7 is likely to ha;e at the su22eeding stage1 .1 "he 2on2e3tion o< 7eligion 5as ne;e7 <ixed1 E1 )t has ;a7ied <7om time to time1 F1 Be2ause most o< the 3henomena su2h as lightning, 7ain and <loods, the o22u77en2e o< 5hi2h the 37imiti;e man 2ould not ex3lain, any 5ei7d 3e7<o7man2e done to 2ont7ol the 3henomenon 5as 2alled magi21 eligion the7e<o7e 2ame to 6e identi<ied 5ith magi21 H1 "hen 2ame the se2ond stage in the e;olution o< 7eligion1 )n this stage 7eligion 2ame to 6e identi<ied 5ith 6elie<s, 7ituals, 2e7emonies, 37aye7s and sa27i<i2es1 -1 But this 2on2e3tion o< 7eligion is de7i;ati;e1 KHK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> /1 "he 3i;otal 3oint in 7eligion sta7ts 5ith the 6elie< that the7e exists some 3o5e7 5hi2h 2auses these 3henomena 5hi2h 37imiti;e man did not kno5 and 2ould not unde7stand1 Aagi2 lost its 3la2e at this stage1 D01 "his 3o5e7 5as o7iginally male;olent1 But late7 it 5as <elt that it 2ould also 6e 6ene;olent1 DD1 Belie<s, 7ites, 2e7emonies and sa27i<i2es 5e7e ne2essa7y 6oth to 37o3itiate a 6ene;olent 3o5e7 and also to 2on2iliate an ang7y 3o5e71 DK1 %ate7 that 3o5e7 5as 2alled Iod o7 the C7eato71 DL1 "hen 2ame the thi7d stage that it is this Iod 5ho 27eated this 5o7ld and also man1

D.1 "his 5as <ollo5ed 6y the 6elie< that man has a soul and the soul is ete7nal and is ans5e7a6le to Iod <o7 man:s a2tions in the 5o7ld1 D E1 "his is, in sho7t, the e;olution o< the 2on2e3t o< eligion1

DF1 "his is 5hat eligion has 2ome to 6e and this is 5hat it 2onnotes N 6elie< in Iod, 6elie< in soul, 5o7shi3 o< Iod, 2u7ing o< the e77ing soul, 37o3itiating Iod 6y 37aye7s, 2e7emonies, sa27i<i2es, et21 '' K1 Ho5 Dhamma Di<<e7s F7om eligion1 ''

D1 +hat the Buddha 2alls Dhamma di<<e7s <undamentally <7om 5hat is 2alled eligion1 K1 +hat the Buddha 2alls Dhamma is analogous to 5hat the Eu7o3ean theologians 2all eligion1 L1 But the7e is no g7eate7 a<<inity 6et5een the t5o1 On the othe7 hand, the di<<e7en2es 6et5een the t5o a7e ;e7y g7eat1 .1 On this a22ount some Eu7o3ean theologians 7e<use to 7e2ognise the Buddha:s Dhamma as eligion1 E1 "he7e need 6e no 7eg7ets o;e7 this1 "he loss is thei7s1 )t does no ha7m to the Buddha:s Dhamma1 athe7, it sho5s 5hat is 5anting in eligion1

KHL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> F1 )nstead o< ente7ing into this 2ont7o;e7sy it is 6ette7 to 37o2eed to gi;e an idea o< Dhamma and sho5 ho5 it di<<e7s <7om eligion1 H1 eligion, it is said, is 3e7sonal and one must kee3 it to onesel<1 One must not let it 3lay its 3a7t in 3u6li2 li<e1 -1 Cont7a7y to this, Dhamma is so2ial1 )t is <undamentally and essentially so1 /1 Dhamma is 7ighteousness, 5hi2h means 7ight 7elations 6et5een man and man in all s3he7es o< li<e1 D01 F7om this it is e;ident that one man i< he is alone does not need Dhamma1

D D 1 But 5hen the7e a7e t5o men li;ing in 7elation to ea2h othe7 they must <ind a 3la2e <o7 Dhamma 5hethe7 they like it o7 not1 #eithe7 2an es2a3e it1 DK1 )n othe7 5o7ds1 (o2iety 2annot do 5ithout Dhamma1 DL1 (o2iety has to 2hoose one o< the th7ee alte7nati;es1 D.1 (o2iety may 2hoose not to ha;e any Dhamma, as an inst7ument o< Io;e7nment1 Fo7 Dhamma is nothing i< it is not an inst7ument o< Io;e7nment1 D E1 "his means (o2iety 2hooses the 7oad to ana72hy1 DF1 (e2ondly, (o2iety may 2hoose the 3oli2e, i1e1, di2tato7shi3 as an inst7ument o< Io;e7nment1 DH1 "hi7dly, (o2iety may 2hoose Dhamma 3lus the Aagist7ate 5he7e;e7 3eo3le <ail to o6se7;e the Dhamma1 D-1 )n ana72hy and di2tato7shi3 li6e7ty is lost1 D/1 Only in the thi7d li6e7ty su7;i;es1 K01 "hose 5ho 5ant li6e7ty must the7e<o7e ha;e Dhamma1 KD1 #o5 5hat isDhammaM and 5hy isDhamma ne2essa7y M !22o7ding to the Buddha, Dhamma 2onsists o< P7a?na and *a7una1 KK1 +hat is P7a?na M !nd 5hy P7a?na M P7a?na is unde7standing1 "he Buddha made P7a?na one o< the t5o 2o7ne7-stones o< His Dhamma 6e2ause he did not 5ish to lea;e any 7oom <o7 su3e7stition1 KH.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KL1 +hat is *a7unaM !nd 5hy *a7unaM *a7una is lo;e1 Be2ause, 5ithout it (o2iety 2an neithe7 li;e no7 g7o5, that is 5hy the Buddha made it the se2ond 2o7ne7-stone o< His Dhamma1 K.1 (u2h is the de<inition o< the Buddha:s Dhamma1 KE1 Ho5 di<<e7ent is this de<inition o< Dhamma <7om that o< eligion1

KF1 (o an2ient, yet so mode7n is the de<inition o< Dhamma gi;en 6y the Buddha1 KH1 (o a6o7iginal yet so o7iginal1 K-1 #ot 6o77o5ed <7om anyone, yet so t7ue1

K/1 ! uniCue amalgam o< P7adnya and *a7una is the Dhamma o< the Buddha1 L01 (u2h is the di<<e7en2e 6et5een '' L1 "he Pu73ose o< eligion and Dhamma1

eligion and the Pu73ose o< Dhamma1 ''

D 1 +hat is the 3u73ose o< eligion M +hat is the 3u73ose o< Dhamma M !7e they one and the same M O7 a7e they di<<e7ent M K1 "he ans5e7 to these Cuestions a7e to 6e <ound in t5o dialogues N one 6et5een the Buddha and (unakkhatta and the othe7 6et5een the Buddha and the B7ahmin Pottha3ada1 L1 "he Exalted One 5as on2e staying among the Aallas at !nu3iya, one o< thei7 to5ns1 .1 #o5 the Exalted One ha;ing 7o6ed himsel< in the ea7ly mo7ning, 3ut on his 2loak and took his 6o5l and ente7ed the to5n <o7 alms1 E1 On the 5ay he thought it 5as too ea7ly to go <o7 alms1 "he7e<o7e he 5ent to the 3leasan2e 5he7e Bhagga;a the 5ande7e7 d5elt and 2alled on him1 F1 On seeing the Blessed One Bhagga;a got u3, saluted him and said, 8Aay it 3lease you, si7e, to 6e seated J he7e is a seat made 7eady <o7 you18

KHE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> H1 "he Exalted One sat do5n the7eon, and Bhagga;a taking a 2e7tain lo5stool sat do5n 6eside him1 (o seated, Bhagga;a, the 5ande7e7, s3ake thus to the Exalted One ' - 8 (ome days ago, %o7d, a good many days ago, (unakkhatta o< the %i22ha;is 2alled on me and s3ake thus' :) ha;e no5 gi;en u3 the Exalted One, Bhagga;a1 ) am 7emaining no longe7 unde7 him @as my tea2he7B1: )s the <a2t 7eally so, ?ust as he said M 8 /1 8)t is ?ust so Bhagga;a, as (unakkhatta o< the %i22ha;is said,8 7e3lied the iessed One1 D01 8 (ome days ago, Bhagga;a, a good many days ago, (unakkhatta, the

%i22ha;i, 2ame to 2all on me, and s3ake thus ' : (i7, ) no5 gi;e u3 the Exalted One1 ) 5ill hen2e<o7th 7emain no longe7 unde7 him @as my tea2he7B1: +hen he told me this, ) said to him ' : But no5, (unakkhatta, ha;e ) e;e7 said to you, Come, (unakkhatta, li;e unde7 me @as my 3u3ilB M : D D 1 8 : #o, si7, you ha;e not1: DK1 8O7 ha;e you e;e7 said to me' : (i7, ) 5ould <ain d5ell unde7 the Exalted One @as my tea2he7B M: DL1 8 :#o, si7, ) ha;e not1: D.1 8 "hen ) asked him :)< ) said not the one, and you said not the othe7, 5hat a7e you and 5hat am ) that you talk o< gi;ing u3 M (ee, <oolish one, in ho5 <a7 the <ault he7e is you7 o5n1: DE1 :8+ell, 6ut, si7, the Exalted One 5o7ks me no mysti2 5onde7s su73assing the 3o5e7 o< o7dina7y men: DF1 8 +hy, no5 (unakkhatta, ha;e ) e;e7 said to you' : Come, take me as you7 tea2he7, (unakkhatta, and ) 5ill 5o7k <o7 you mysti2 5onde7s su73assing the 3o5e7 o< o7dina7y men M : DH18 :&ou ha;e not, si71: D-1 8 O7 ha;e you e;e7 said to me' : (i7, ) 5ould <ain take the Exalted One as my tea2he7, <o7 he 5ill 5o7k <o7 me mysti2 5onde7s 6eyond the 3o5e7s o< o7dina7y men M : D/1 :8 ) ha;e not, si71:

KHF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K01 8 : But i< ) said not the one, and you said not the othe7, 5hat a7e you and 5hat am ), <oolish man, that you talk o< gi;ing u3 M +hat think you, (unakkhattaM +hethe7 mysti2 5onde7s 6eyond the 3o5e7 o< o7dina7y man a7e 57ought, o7 5hethe7 they a7e not is the o6?e2t <o7 5hi2h ) tea2h the Dhamma' that it leads to the tho7ough, dest7u2tion o< ill <o7 the doe7 the7eo< M :

KD1 :8+hethe7, si7, they a7e so 57ought o7 not, that is indeed the o6?e2t <o7 5hi2h the Dhamma is taught 6y the Exalted One1: KK1 8 : )< then, (unakkhatta, it matte7s not to that o6?e2t 5hethe7 mysti2 5onde7s a7e 57ought o7 not, o< 5hat use to you 5ould 6e the 5o7king o< themM (ee, <oolish one, in ho5 <a7 the <ault he7e is you7 o5n1: KL1 8 :But, si7, the Exalted One does not 7e;eal to me the 6eginning o< things1: K.1 8 +hy no5, (unakkhatta, ha;e ) e;e7 said to you' : Come, (unakkhatta, 6e my1 dis2i3le and ) 5ill 7e;eal to you the 6eginning o< things M : KE1 8 : (i7, you ha;e not : KF1 8 O7 ha;e you e;e7 said to me' : ) 5ill 6e2ome the Exalted One:s 3u3il, <o7 he 5ill 7e;eal to me the 6eginning o< things M : KH1 8 : (i7, ) ha;e not1:

K-1 8 : But i< ) ha;e not said the one and you ha;e not said the othe7, 5hat a7e you and 5hat am ), <oolish man, that you talk o< gi;ing u3 on that a22ount M +hat think you, (unakkhattaM +hethe7 the 6eginning o< things 6e 7e;ealed, o7 5hethe7 it 6e not, is the o6?e2t <o7 5hi2h ) tea2h the Dhamma that it leads to the tho7ough dest7u2tion o< ill <o7 the doe7 the7eo< M K/1 8 : +hethe7, si7, they a7e 7e;ealed o7 not, that is indeed the o6?e2t <o7 5hi2h the Dhamma is taught 6y the Exalted One1: L01 8 : )< then, (unakkhatta, it matte7s not to that o6?e2t 5hethe7 the 6eginning o< things 6e 7e;ealed, o7 5hethe7 it 6e not, o< 5hat use to you 5ould it 6e to ha;e the 6eginning o< things 7e;ealed M : 8

KHH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> LD1 "his illust7ates that eligion is 2on2e7ned 5ith 7e;ealing the 6eginning o< things and Dhamma is not1

@KB "he othe7 di<<e7en2es 6et5een eligion and Dhamma a7e 67ought out in the dis2ussion 6et5een the Blessed One and Pottha3ada1

D1 "he Blessed One 5as on2e staying at (h7a;asti in !natha3indika:s 3leasan2e o< the Peta:s 5ood1 #o5 at that time Pottha3ada, the 5ande7ing mendi2ant 5as d5elling in the hall 3ut u3 in ]ueen Aallika:s 3a7k <o7 a de6ate on gene7al systems o< 3hiloso3hi2al o3inion1 K1 "he7e 5as 5ith him a g7eat <ollo5ing o< mendi2antsJ to 5it, th7ee hund7ed1 ! dialogue took 3la2e 6et5een the Blessed %o7d and Pottha3ada1 Pottha3ada asked' L1 8 "hen, si7, i< that 6e so, tell me at least' )s the 5o7ld ete7nal M )s this alone the t7uth, and any othe7 ;ie5 me7e <olly M : 8 .1 8"hat, Pottha3ada, is a matte7 on 5hi2h ) ha;e ex37essed no o3inion,8 7e3lied the Blessed %o7d1 E1 "hen, in the same te7ms, Pottha3ada asked ea2h o< the <ollo5ing Cuestions' @iB : )s the 5o7ld not ete7nal M : @iiB : )s the 5o7ld <inite M : @iiiB : )s the 5o7ld in<inite M @i;B : )s the soul the same as the 6ody M: @;B : )s the soul one thing, and the 6ody anothe7 M : @;iB : Does one 5ho has gained the t7uth li;e again a<te7 death M : @;iiB : Does he not li;e again a<te7 death M : @;iiiB : Does he 6oth li;e again and not li;e again, a<te7 death M : @ixB : Does he neithe7 li;e again, no7 not li;e again, a<te7 deathM: KH-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> F1 !nd to ea2h Cuestions the Exalted One made the same 7e3ly ' N H1 8 "hat too, Pottha3ada, is a matte7 on 5hi2h ) ha;e ex37essed no o3inion18

-1 8 But 5hy has the Exalted One ex37essed no o3inion on that M 8 /1 8 Be2ause this Cuestion is not 2al2ulated to 37o<it, it is not 2on2e7ned 5ith the Dhamma, it does not 7edound e;en to the elements o< 7ight 2ondu2t, no7 to deta2hment, no7 to 3u7i<i2ation <7om lusts, no7 to Cuietude, no7 to t7anCuillisation o< hea7t, no7 to 7eal kno5ledge, no7 to the insight @o< the highe7 stages o< the PathB, no7 to #i7;ana1 "he7e<o7e is it that ) ex37ess no o3inion u3on it1 8 D01 8 "hen 5hat is it that the Exalted One has dete7mined M : : DD1 8) ha;e ex3ounded, Pottha3ada, 5hat Dukkha is J ) ha;e ex3ounded 5hat is the o7igin o< DukkhaJ ) ha;e ex3ounded 5hat is the 2essation o< Dukkha ' ) ha;e ex3ounded 5hat is the method 6y 5hi2h one may 7ea2h the 2essation o< Dukkha18 DK1 8 !nd 5hy has the Exalted One 3ut <o7th a statement as to that M 8 DL1 8 Be2ause that Cuestion, Pottha3ada, is 2al2ulated to 37o<it, is 2on2e7ned 5ith the Dhamma, 7edounds to the 6eginnings o< 7ight 2ondu2t, to deta2hment, to 3u7i<i2ation <7om lusts, 1to Cuietude, to t7anCuillisation o< hea7t, to 7eal kno5ledge, to the insight o< the highe7 stages o< the Path and to #i7;ana1 "he7e-<o7e is it, Pottha3ada, that ) ha;e 3ut <o75a7d a statement as to that18 D.1 )n this dialogue it is 2lea7ly 3ut <o7th 5hat is the su6?e2t matte7 o< eligion and 5hat is not the su6?e2t matte7 o< Dhamma1 "he t5o a7e 3oles a3a7t DE1 "he 3u73ose o< eligion is to ex3lain the o7igin o< the 5o7ld1 "he 3u73ose o< Dhamma is to 7e2onst7u2t the 5o7ld1

'' .1 Ao7ality and

eligion1 '' eligion M

D 1 +hat is the 3la2e o< mo7ality in

KH/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

K1 !s a matte7 o< t7uth mo7ality has no 3la2e in

eligion1

L1 "he 2ontent o< 7eligion 2onsists o< Iod, soul, 37aye7s, 5o7shi3, 7ituals, 2e7emonies and sa27i<i2es1 .1 Ao7ality 2omes in only 5he7ein man 2omes in 7elation to man1 E1 Ao7ality 2omes in into 7eligion as a side 5ind to maintain 3ea2e and o7de71 F1 eligion is a t7iangula7 3ie2e1

H1 Be good to you7 neigh6ou7 6e2ause you a7e 6oth 2hild7en o< Iod1 -1 "hat is the a7gument o< 7eligion1 /1 E;e7y 7eligion 37ea2hes mo7ality 6ut mo7ality is not the 7oot o< 7eligion1 D01 )t is a 5agon atta2hed to it1 )t is atta2hed and deta2hed as the o22asion 7eCui7es1 D D 1 "he a2tion o< mo7ality in the <un2tioning o< 7eligion is the7e<o7e 2asual and o22asional1 DK1 Ao7ality in 7eligion is the7e<o7e not e<<e2ti;e1 '' E1 Dhamma and Ao7ality1 '' D 1 +hat is the 3la2e o< mo7ality in Dhamma M K1 "he sim3le ans5e7 is Ao7ality is Dhamma and Dhamma is Ao7ality1 L1 )n othe7 5o7ds, in Dhamma mo7ality takes the 3la2e o< Iod although the7e is no Iod in Dhamma1 .1 )n Dhamma the7e is no 3la2e <o7 37aye7s, 3ilg7images, 7ituals, 2e7emonies o7 sa27i<i2es1 E1 Ao7ality is the essen2e o< Dhamma1 +ithout it the7e is no Dhamma1 F1 Ao7ality in Dhamma a7ises <7om the di7e2t ne2essity <o7 man to lo;e man1

K-0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

H1 )t does not 7eCui7e the san2tion o< Iod1 )t is not to 3lease Iod that man has to 6e mo7al1 )t is <o7 his o5n good that man has to lo;e man1

'' F1 Ae7e Ao7ality is not Enough1 )t must 6e (a27ed and $ni;e7sal1 '' D 1 +hen is a thing sa27edM +hy is a thing sa27ed M K1 )n e;e7y human so2iety, 37imiti;e o7 ad;an2ed, the7e a7e some things o7 6elie<s 5hi2h it 7ega7ds as sa27ed and the 7est as 37o<ane1 L1 +hen a thing o7 6elie< has 7ea2hed the stage o< 6eing sa27ed @3a;it7aB it means that it 2annot 6e ;iolated1 )ndeed it 2annot 6e tou2hed1 )t is ta6oo1 .1 Cont7a7y to this, a thing o7 a 6elie< 5hi2h is 37o<ane @a3a;it7aB, i1e1, outside the <ield o< the sa27ed, may 6e ;iolated1 )t means one 2an a2t 2ont7a7y to it, 5ithout <eeling any <ea7 o7 Cualms o< 2ons2ien2e1 E1 "he sa27ed is something holy1 "o t7ansg7ess it is a sa27ilege1 F1 +hy is a thing made sa27ed M "o 2on<ine the s2o3e o< the Cuestion to the matte7 in hand, 5hy mo7ality should ha;e 6een made sa27ed M H1 "h7ee <a2to7s seem to ha;e 3layed thei7 3a7t in making mo7ality sa27ed1 -1 "he <i7st <a2to7 is the so2ial need <o7 37ote2ting the 6est1 /1 "he 6a2kg7ound o< this Cuestion lies im6edded in 5hat is 2alled the st7uggle o< existen2e and the su7;i;al o< the <ittest1 D01 "his a7ises out o< the theo7y o< e;olution1 )t is 2ommon kno5ledge that e;olution takes 3la2e th7ough a st7uggle <o7 existen2e 6e2ause the means o< <ood su33ly in ea7ly times 5e7e so limited1 D D 1 "he st7uggle is 6itte71 #atu7e is said to 6e 7ed in 2la5 and tooth1 DK1 )n this st7uggle 5hi2h is 6itte7 and 6loody only the <ittest su7;i;e1 D L1 (u2h is the o7iginal state o< so2iety1

K-D

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D.1 )n the 2ou7se o< an2ient 3ast someone must ha;e 7aised the Cuestion, )s the <ittest @the st7ongestB the 6est M +ould not the 5eakest i< 37ote2ted 6e ultimately the 6est <o7 ad;an2ing the ends and aims o< so2iety M D E1 "he then 37e;ailing state o< so2iety seems to ha;e gi;en an ans5e7 in the a<<i7mati;e1 DF1 "hen 2omes, the Cuestion 5hat is the 5ay to 37ote2t the 5eak M D H1 #othing less than to im3ose some 7est7aints u3on the <ittest1 D-1 )n this lies the o7igin and ne2essity <o7 mo7ality1 D/1 "his mo7ality had to 6e sa27ed 6e2ause it 5as im3osed o7iginally on the <ittest, i1e1, the st7ongest1 K01 "his has ;e7y se7ious 2onseCuen2es1 KD1 Fi7st, does mo7ality in 6e2oming so2ial 6e2ome anti- so2ial M KK1 )t is not that the7e is no mo7ality among thie;es1 "he7e is mo7ality among 6usinessmen1 "he7e is mo7ality among <ello5 2astemen and the7e is also mo7ality among a gang o< 7o66e7s1 KL1 But this mo7ality is ma7ked 6y isolation and ex2lusi;eness1 )t is a mo7ality to 37ote2t 8 g7ou3 inte7est1 8 )t is the7e<o7e anti-so2ial1 K.1 )t is the isolation and ex2lusi;eness o< this kind o< mo7ality 5hi2h th7o5s its anti -so2ial s3i7it in 7elie<1 KE1 "he same is t7ue 5he7e a g7ou3 o6se7;es mo7ality 6e2ause it has inte7ests o< its o5n to 37ote2t1 KF1 "he 7esults o< this g7ou3 o7ganisation o< so2iety a7e <a7-7ea2hing1 KH1 )< so2iety 2ontinues to 2onsist o< anti -so2ial g7ou3s, so2iety 5ill 7emain a diso7ganised and a <a2tional so2iety1 K-1 "he dange7 o< a diso7ganised and <a2tional state o< so2iety is that it sets u3 a num6e7 o< di<<e7ent models and standa7ds1 K/1 )n the a6sen2e o< 2ommon models and 2ommon standa7ds so2iety 2annot 6e a ha7monious 5hole,

K-K

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L01 +ith su2h di<<e7ent models and standa7ds it is im3ossi6le <o7 the indi;idual to attain 2onsisten2y o< mind1 LD1 ! so2iety 5hi2h 7ests u3on the su37ema2y o< one g7ou3 o;e7 anothe7 i77es3e2ti;e o< its 7ational o7 37o3o7tionate 2laims ine;ita6ly leads to 2on<li2t1 LK1 "he only 5ay to 3ut a sto3 to 2on<li2t is to ha;e 2ommon 7ules o< mo7ality 5hi2h a7e sa27ed to all1 LL1 "he7e is the thi7d <a2to7 5hi2h 7eCui7es mo7ality to 6e made sa27ed and uni;e7sal1 )t is to sa<egua7d the g7o5th o< the indi;idual1 L.1 $nde7 the st7uggle <o7 existen2e o7 unde7 g7ou3 7ule the inte7ests o< the indi;iduals a7e not sa<e1 LE1 "he g7ou3 set-u3 37e;ents an indi;idual <7om a2Cui7ing 2onsisten2y o< mind 5hi2h is 3ossi6le only 5hen so2iety has 2ommon ideals, 2ommon models1 His thoughts a7e led ast7ay and this 27eates a mind 5hose seeing unity is <o72ed and disto7ted1 LF1 (e2ondly the g7ou3 set-u3 leads to dis27imination and denial o< ?usti2e1 LH1 "he g7ou3 set-u3 leads to st7ati<i2ation o< 2lasses1 "hose 5ho a7e maste7s 7emain maste7s and those 5ho a7e 6o7n in sla;e7y 7emain sla;es1 O5ne7s 7emain o5ne7s and 5o7ke7s 7emain 5o7ke7s1 "he 37i;ileged 7emain 37i;ileged and the se7<s 7emain se7<s1 L-1 "his means that the7e 2an 6e li6e7ty <o7 some 6ut not <o7 all1 "his means that the7e 2an 6e eCuality <o7 a <e5 6ut none <o7 the ma?o7ity1 L/1 +hat is the 7emedy M "he only 7emedy lies in making <7ate7nity uni;e7sally e<<e2ti;e1 .01 +hat is <7ate7nity M )t is nothing 6ut anothe7 name <o7 67othe7hood o< men 5hi2h is anothe7 name <o7 mo7ality1 .D1 "his is 5hy the Buddha 37ea2hed that Dhamma is mo7ality and as Dhamma is sa27ed so is mo7ality1

K-L

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> Pa7t )) N Ho5 (imila7ities in "e7minology Con2eal Fundamental Di<<e7en2e1 '' (e2tion ) N e6i7th ''

!:WB P7elimina7y1 L e6i7th o< +hatM XB e6i7th o< +homM '' (e2tion )) N *a7ma1 '' @E )s the Buddhist do2t7ine o< *a7ma the same as the B7ahmini2 do2t7ineM ) Did the Buddha 6elie;e in 3ast *a7ma ha;ing e<<e2t on <utu7e li<e M - Did the Buddha 6elie;e in 3ast *a7ma ha;ing e<<e2t on <utu7e li<e M N 2on2luded1 '' (e2tion ))) N !himsa '' \ "he di<<e7ent 5ays in 5hi2h it is inte737eted and <ollo5ed1 L "he t7ue meaning o< !himsa1 '' (e2tion )G N "7ansmig7ation '' '' (e2tion G N Causes o< "his Aisunde7standing '' '' (e2tion ) N e6i7th ''

D1 P7elimina7y1

D 1 +hat ha33ens a<te7 death is a Cuestion o<ten asked, K1 "he 2ontem3o7a7ies o< the Buddha held t5o di<<e7ent ;ie5s1 One set 5as 2alled Ete7nalist and the othe7 5as 2alled !nnihilationist1 L1 "he Ete7nalist said that the soul kno5s no death' the7e<o7e li<e is ete7nal1 )t is 7ene5ed 6y 7e6i7th1 .1 "he thesis o< the !nnihilationists 5as summed u3 in one 5o7d, $22hed;ad, 5hi2h meant that death is the end o< e;e7ything1 "he7e is nothing le<t a<te7 death1

E1 "he Buddha 5as not an ete7nalist1 Fo7 it in;ol;ed a 6elie< in the existen2e o< a se3a7ate, immo7tal soul to 5hi2h he 5as o33osed1 F1 +as the Buddha an annihilationistM +ith his 6elie< in the nonexisten2e o< the soul, the Buddha 5ould natu7ally 6e ex3e2ted to 6e an annihilationist1

K-.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> H1 But in the !lagaddu3amma-(utta the Buddha 2om3lains that he is 2alled an annihilationist 5hen as a matte7 o< <a2t he is not1 -1 "his is 5hat he says ' 8 "hough this is 5hat ) a<<i7m and 5hat ) 37ea2h yet some 7e2luses and B7ahmins, 57ongly, e77oneously and <alsely 2ha7ge me in de<ian2e o< <a2ts, 5ith 6eing an annihilationist and 5ith 37ea2hing the disinteg7ation, dest7u2tion and exti73ation o< human 6eings1 /1 8 )t is ?ust 5hat lam not, and 5hat ) do not a<<i7m, that is 57ongly, e77oneously, and <alsely 2ha7ged against me 6y these good 3eo3le 5ho 5ould make me out to 6e an annihilationist18 D01 )< this statement is a genuine one and is not an inte73olation 6y those 5ho 5anted to <oist a B7ahmani2 do2t7ine on Buddhism the statement 7aises a se7ious dilemma D D 1 Ho5 2an the Buddha not 6elie;e in the existen2e o< the soul and yet say that he is not an annihilationist M DK1 "his 7aises the Cuestion ' Did the Buddha 6elie;e in 7e6i7th M K1 e6i7th o< +hatM

D 1 Did the Buddha 6elie;e in 7e6i7th M K1 "he ans5e7 is in the a<<i7mati;e1 L1 )t is 6ette7 to s3lit this Cuestion <u7the7 into t5o 3a7ts ' @DB e6i7th o< +hat and @KB e6i7th o< +hom1 .1 )t is 6ette7 to take ea2h one o< these t5o Cuestions se3a7ately1

E1 He7e 5e may 2onside7 the <i7st1

e6i7th o< +hat1

F1 "his Cuestion is almost al5ays igno7ed1 )t is 6e2ause o< the mixing o< the t5o Cuestions that so mu2h 2on<usion has a7isen1 H1 !22o7ding to the Buddha the7e a7e <ou7 elements o< Existen2e 5hi2h go to 2om3ose the 6ody1 "hey a7e @DB P7ith;iJ @KB !3a J K-E

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> @LB "e? J and @.B Gayu1 -1 ]uestion is 5hen the human 6ody dies 5hat ha33ens to these <ou7 elementsM Do they also die along 5ith dead 6ody M (ome say that they do1 /1 "he Buddha said no1 "hey ?oin the mass o< simila7 elements <loating in @!kashB s3a2e1 D01 +hen the <ou7 elements <7om this <loating mass ?oin togethe7 a ne5 6i7th takes 3la2e1 D D 1 "his is 5hat the Buddha meant 6y 7e6i7th1 DK1 "he elements need not and a7e not ne2essa7ily <7om the same 6ody5hi2h is dead1 "hey may 6e d7a5n <7om di<<e7ent dead 6odies1 D L1 )t must 6e noted that the 6ody dies1 But the elements a7e e;e7 li;ing1 D.1 "his is the kind o< 7e6i7th in 5hi2h the Buddha 6elie;ed1 DE1 I7eat light is :th7o5n u3on the su6?e2t 6y (a7i3utta in his dialogue 5ith Aaha-*otthita1 DF1 )t is said that on2e 5hen the %o7d 5as staying at (h7a;asti in Peta:s I7o;e in !natha3indika:s !7am, the Aaha-*otthita 7ising u3 at e;en-tide <7om his meditations, 5ent to (a7i3utta and asked him to elu2idate some o< the

Cuestions 5hi2h t7ou6led him1 D H1 "he <ollo5ing 5as one o< them1 D-1 Aaha-*otthita asked ' 8 Ho5 many <a2to7s has the <i7st e2stasy @DhyanaB 3ut <7om it and ho5 many does it 7etain M 8 D/1 (a7i3utta 7e3lied' 8 Fi;e o< ea2h1 Ione a7e lusts, male;olen2e, to73o7, 5o77y and dou6t1 O6se7;ation, 7e<le2tion, Oest, satis<a2tion and a <o2ussed hea7t 3e7sist18 K01 Aaha-*otthita asked' 8 "ake the <i;e senses o< sight, sound, smell, taste and tou2h, N ea2h 5ith its o5n 3a7ti2ula7 37o;in2e and 7ange o< <un2tion, se3a7ate and mutually distin2t1 +hat ultimate 6ase ha;e they M +ho en?oys all thei7 <i;e 37o;in2es and 7anges M 8 KD1 (a7i3utta 7e3lied' 8Aind @AanoB18 K-F

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KK1 Aaha-*otthita asked ' 8 On 5hat do these <i;e <a2ulties o< sense de3end M 8 KL1 (a7i3utta 7e3lied ' 8 On ;itality18 K.1 Aaha-*otthita asked' 8 On 5hat does ;itality de3end M KE1 (a7i3utta' 8 On heat18 KF1 Aaha-*otthita asked' 8 On 5hat does heat de3end M 8 KH1 (a7i3utta 7e3lied ' 8 On ;itality18 K-1 Aaha-*otthita asked ' 8 &ou say that ;itality de3ends on heat, you also say that heat de3ends on ;itality! +hat 37e2isely is the meaning to 6e atta2hed to this M 8 K/1 (a7i3utta 7e3lied ' 8 ) 5ill gi;e you an illust7ation1 Pust as in the 2ase o< a lam3, the light 7e;eals the <lame and the <lame8 the light, so ;itality de3ends u3on heat and heat on ;itality1 L01 Aaha-*otthita asked ' 8 Ho5 many things must Cuit the 6ody 6e<o7e it is

<lung aside and 2ast a5ay like a senseless log M 8 L D 1 (a7i3utta ans5e7ed' 8Gitality, heat and 2ons2iousness18 LK1 Aaha-*otthita asked ' 8 +hat is the di<<e7en2e 6et5een a li<eless 2o73se and an almsman in t7an2e, in 5hom 3e72e3tion and <eelings a7e stilledM8 LL1 (a7i3utta 7e3lied ' 8 )n the 2o73se not only a7e the 3lasti2 <o72es o< the 6ody and s3ee2h and mind stilled and Cuies2ent 6ut also ;itality is exhausted, heat is Cuen2hed and the <a2ulties o< sense 67oken u3 J 5he7eas in the almsman in t7an2e ;itality 3e7sists, heat a6ides, and the <a2ulties a7e 2lea7, although 7es3i7ation, o6se7;ation and 3e72e3tion a7e stilled and Cuies2ent18 L.1 "his 37o6a6ly is the 6est and most 2om3lete ex3osition o< Death o7 !nnihilation1 LE1 "he7e is only one la2una in this dialogue1 Aaha-*otthita should ha;e asked (a7i3utta one Cuestion1 +hat is heat M LF1 +hat ans5e7 (a7i3utta 5ould ha;e gi;en it is not easy to imagine1 But the7e 2an 6e no dou6t that heat means ene7gy1 K-H

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> LH1 "hus am3li<ied, the 7eal ans5e7 to the Cuestion ' +hat ha33ens 5hen the 6ody dies M is ' "he 6ody 2eases to 37odu2e ene7gy1 L-1 But this is only a 3a7t o< the ans5e71 Be2ause death also means that 5hate;e7 ene7gy that had es2a3ed <7om the 6ody ?oins the gene7al mass o< ene7gy 3laying a6out in the $ni;e7se1 L/1 !nnihilation has the7e<o7e a t5o-<old as3e2t1 )n one o< its as3e2ts it means 2ession o< 37odu2tion o< ene7gy1 )n anothe7 as3e2t it means a ne5 addition to the sto2k o< gene7al <loating mass o< ene7gy1 .01 )t is 37o6a6ly 6e2ause o< this t5o-<old as3e2t o< annihilation that the Buddha said that he 5as not an a6solute annihilationist1 He 5as an annihilationist so <a7 as soul 5as 2on2e7ned1 He 5as not an annihilationist so <a7 as matte7 5as 2on2e7ned1

. D 1 (o inte737eted it is easy to unde7stand 5hy the Buddha said that he 5as not an annihilationist1 He 6elie;ed in the 7egene7ation o< matte7 and not in the 7e6i7th o< the soul1 .K1 (o inte737eted, the Buddha:s ;ie5 is in 2onsonan2e 5ith s2ien2e1 .L1 )t is only in this sense that the Buddha 2ould 6e said to ha;e 6elie;ed in 7e6i7th1 ..1 Ene7gy is ne;e7 lost1 "hat is 5hat s2ien2e a<<i7ms1 !nnihilation in the sense that a<te7 death nothing is le<t 5ould 6e 2ont7a7y to s2ien2e1 Fo7 it 5ould mean that ene7gy is not 2onstant in ;olume1 .E1 "his is the only 5ay 6y 5hi2h the dilemma 2ould 6e sol;ed1 L1 e6i7th o< +homM

D 1 "he most di<<i2ult Cuestion is

e6i7th o< +hom1

K1 Does the same dead 3e7son take a ne5 6i7th M L1 Did the Buddha 6elie;e in this thesis M "he ans5e7 is 8 Aost im37o6a6le18 .1 "he ans5e7 de3ends u3on the elements o< existen2e o< the dead man meeting togethe7 and <o7ming a ne5 6ody then the 3ossi6ility o< the e6i7th o< the same (entient 6eing is 3ossi6le1 K--

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> E1 )< a ne5 6ody is <o7med a<te7 a mixtu7e o7 the di<<e7ent elements o< the di<<e7ent men 5ho a7e dead then the7e is 7e6i7th 6ut not the 7e6i7th o< the same sentient 6eing1 F1 "his 3oint has 6een 5ell ex3lained 6y siste7 *hema to *ing Pasenadi1 H1 On2e the Exalted One 5as staying nea7 (a;atthi at Peta I7o;e in !natha3indika:s !7am1 -1 #o5 on that o22asion the siste7 *hema, a<te7 going he7 7ounds among the *osalana, took u3 he7 Cua7te7s at "o7ana;atthu, 6et5een (h7a;asti and

(aketa1 /1 #o5 the a?ah Pasenadi o< *osala 5as ?ou7neying <7om (aketa to (h7a;asti, and mid5ay 6et5een (aketa and (h7a;asti he 3ut u3 <o7 one night at "o7ana;atthu1 D01 "he a?ah Pasenadi o< *osala 2alled a 2e7tain man and said ' 8 Come thou, good <ello5 ) Find out some 7e2luse o7 67ahmin su2h that ) 2an 5ait u3on him today18 DD18 E;en so, you7 ma?esty,8 said that man in 7e3ly to the a?ah Pasenadi o< *osala, and a<te7 5ande7ing th7ough all "o7ana;atthu he sa5 not any one, eithe7 7e2luse o7 67ahmin, on 5hom the a?ah Pasenadi might 5ait1 DK1 "hen that man sa5 the siste7 *hema, 5ho had 2ome to 7eside at "o7ana;atthu1 !nd on seeing he7 he 5ent 6a2k to the a?ah Pasenadi o< *osala, and said' N DL1 8&ou7 Aa?esty, the7e is no 7e2luse o7 67ahmin in "o7ana;atthu su2h that you7 ma?esty 2an 5ait u3on him1 But, you7 ma?esty, the7e is a siste7 named *hema, a 5oman-dis2i3le o< that Exalted One1 #o5 o< this lady a lo;ely 7umou7 has gone a67oad, that she is sage, a22om3lished, sh7e5d, 5idely lea7ned, a 67illiant talke7, o< goodly 7eady 5it1 %et you7 ma?esty 5ait u3on he718 D.1 (o the a?ah Pasenadi o< *osala 5ent to ;isit the siste7 *hema, and on 2oming to he7 saluted and sat do5n at one side1 (o seated he said to he7' N DE18 Ho5 say you, lady M Does the "athagata exist a<te7 death M 8 DF1 8 "hat also, maha7a?ah is not 7e;ealed 6y the Exalted One18

K-/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D H1 8 Ho5 then, lady M +hen asked : Does the "athagata exist a<te7 deathM: you 7e3ly, 8"hat is not 7e;ealed 6y the Exalted One,: and, 5hen ) ask 1 1 1 the othe7 Cuestions, you make the same 7e3ly1 P7ay, lady, 5hat is the 7eason,

5hat is the 2ause, 5hy this thing is not 7e;ealed 6y the Exalted One M 8 D-1 8#o5 in this matte7, maha7a?ah, ) 5ill Cuestion you1 Do you 7e3ly as you think <it1 #o5 ho5 say you, maha7a?ah M Ha;e you some a22ountant, some 7eady 7e2kone7 o7 2al2ulato7, a6le to 2ount the sand in Ianges, thus ' "he7e a7e so many hund7ed g7ains, o7 so many thousand g7ains, o7 so many hund7eds o< thousands o< g7ains o< sand M 8 D/1 8#o, indeed, lady18 K01 8 "hen ha;e you some a22ountant, 7eady 7e2kone7 o7 2al2ulato7 a6le to 7e2kon the 5ate7 in the mighty o2ean, thus ' "he7e a7e so many gallons o< 5ate7, so many hund7eds, so many thousands, so many hund7eds o< thousand gallons o< 5ate7 M 8 KD1 8#o, indeed, lady18 KK1 8 Ho5 is that M 8 KL1 8 Aighty is the o2ean, lady, dee3, 6oundless, un<athoma6le18 K.1 8 E;en so, maha7a?ah, i< one should t7y to de<ine the "athagata 6y his 6odily <o7m, that 6odily <o7m o< the "athagata is1 a6andoned, 2ut do5n at the 7oot, made like a 3alm-t7ee stum3, made some thing that is not, made o< a natu7e not to s37ing u3 again in <utu7e time1 (et <7ee <7om 7e2koning as 6ody, maha7a?ah, is the "athagata1 He is dee3, 6oundless un<athoma6le, ?ust like the mighty o2ean1 "o say, : "he "athagata exists a<te7 death : does not a33ly1 "o say, : "he "athagata exists not a<te7 death,: does not a33ly1 "o say, : "he "athagata 6oth exists and exists not, neithe7 exists no7 not exists a<te7 death,: does not a33ly1 KE1 8)< one should t7y to de<ine the "athagata 6y <eeling, N that <eeling o< the "athagata is a6andoned, 2ut do5n at the 7oot 1 1 1 &et <7ee <7om 7e2koning as <eeling is the "athagata, maha7a?ah, dee3, 6oundless, un<athoma6le like the mighty o2ean1 "o say, : "he "athagata exists a<te7 death 1 1 1 exists not a<te7 death,: does not a33ly1 KF1 8 (o also i< one should t7y to de<ine the "athagata 6y 3e72e3tion, 6y the

a2ti;ities, 6y 2ons2iousness 111 set <7ee <7om 7e2koning 6y 2ons2iousness is K/0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> the "athagata, dee3, 6oundless, un<athoma6le as the mighty o2ean1 "o say, : "he "athagata exists a<te7 death 1 1 1 exists not a<te7 death,: does not a33ly18 KH1 "hen the a?ah Pasenadi o< *osala 5as delighted 5ith the 5o7ds o< the siste7 *hema, and took 3leasu7e the7ein1 !nd he 7ose <7om his seat, saluted he7 6y the 7ight and 5ent a5ay1 K-1 #o5 on anothe7 o22asion the a?ah 5ent to ;isit the Exalted One, and on 2oming to him saluted him and sat do5n at one side1 (o seated he said to the Exalted One' K/1 8 P7ay, %o7d, does the "athagata -exist a<te7 death M8 L01 8 #ot 7e;ealed 6y me, maha7a?ah, is this matte718 LD1 8"hen %o7d, the "athagata does not exist a<te7 death18 LK1 8 "hat also, maha7a?ah, is not 7e;ealed 6y N me18 me1 LL1 He then asks the othe7 Cuestions and gets the same 7e3ly1 L.1 8 Ho5 then1 %o7d M +hen ) ask the Cuestion, : Does the "athagata exist M 1 1 1 does he not exist a<te7 death M : you 7e3ly, : )t is not 7e;ealed 6y me1: P7ay, %o7d, 5hat is the 7eason, 5hat is the 2ause 5hy this thing is not 7e;ealed 6y the Exalted One M 8 LE1 8 #o5, maha7a?ah, ) 5ill Cuestion you1 Do you 7e3ly as you think <it1 #o5 5hat say you, maha7a?ahM Ha;e you some a22ountant 1 1 1 @the 7est is exa2tly as 6e<o7eB1: LF1 8 +onde7<ul, %o7d! (t7ange it is, %o7d, ho5 the ex3lanation 6oth o< Aaste7 and dis2i3le, 6oth in s3i7it and in lette7, 5ill ag7ee, 5ill ha7monise, 5ill not 6e in2onsistent, that is, in any 5o7d a6out the highest1

LH1 8 On a 2e7tain o22asion1 %o7d, ) 5ent to ;isit the siste7 *hema, and asked he7 the meaning o< this matte7, and she ga;e me the meaning in the ;e7y 5o7ds, in the ;e7y sylla6les used 6y the Exalted One1 +onde7<ul, %o7d! (t7ange it is1 %o7d, ho5 the ex3lanation 6oth o< Aaste7 and dis2i3le 5ill ag7ee, 5ill ha7monise, in s3i7it and in lette7, ho5 they 5ill not 6e in2onsistent, N that is, in any 5o7d a6out the highest1 L-1 8 +ell, %o7d, no5 5e must 6e going1 +e a7e 6usy <olk1 +e ha;e many things to do1 K/D

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L/1 8 Do no5 5hat you think it is time <o7, maha7a?ah18 .01 "he7eu3on the a?ah Pasenadi o< *osala 5as delighted 5ith the 5o7ds o< the Exalted One and 5el2omed them1 !nd he 7ose <7om his seat, saluted the Exalted One 6y the 7ight and 5ent a5ay1 '' (e2tion )) N *a7ma1 ''

D1 )s the Buddhist do2t7ine o< *a7ma the same as the B7ahmini2 do2t7ine M

D 1 "he7e is no do2t7ine in the Buddha:s Dhamma 5hi2h has 27eated so mu2h 2on<usion as this do2t7ine o< *a7ma1 K1 +hat is its 3la2e in the Buddha:s Dhamma and 5hat is its signi<i2an2e 5hi2h has al7eady 6een told1 L1 )gno7ant Hindus out o< shee7 5ant o< unde7standing say 6y 2om3a7ing me7ely the simila7ity o< 5o7ds that Buddhism is the same as B7ahmanism o7 Hinduism1 .1 "he edu2ated and o7thodox se2tion o< the B7ahmins also do the same1 "hey do so deli6e7ately to mislead the igno7ant masses1

E1 "he edu2ated B7ahmins kno5 <ull 5ell that the Buddhist %a5 o< *a7ma is

Cuite di<<e7ent <7om the B7ahmini2 %a5 o< *a7ma1 &et they kee3 on saying that Buddhism is the same as B7ahmanism and Hinduism1 F1 "he simila7ity in te7minology gi;es them an easy handle <o7 thei7 <alse and mali2ious 37o3aganda1 H1 )t is, the7e<o7e, ne2essa7y to examine the 3osition 2losely1 -1 "he Buddha:s %a5 o< *a7ma, ho5e;e7 mu2h may 6e simila7ity o< 5o7ds 2annot 6e the same in its 2onnotation as the B7ahmini2 %a5 o< *a7ma1 /1 "he 37emises o< the t5o a7e so 5idely di<<e7ent, indeed so 5idely o33osed that the 7esult o< the t5o 2annot 6e the same1 "hey must 6e di<<e7ent1

K/K

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D01 "he 37in2i3les o< the Hindu %a5 o< *a7ma may 6e stated se7iatim <o7 2on;enien2e1 D D 1 "he Hindu %a5 o< *a7ma is 6ased on the soul1 "he Buddhist is not1 )n <a2t the7e is no soul in Buddhism1 DK1 "he B7ahmini2 %a5 o< *a7ma is he7edita7y1 DL1 )t goes on <7om li<e to li<e1 "his is so 6e2ause o< the t7ansmig7ation o< the soul1 D.1 "his 2annot 6e t7ue o< the Buddhist %a5 o< *a7ma1 "his is also 6e2ause the7e is no soul1 DE1 "he Hindu %a5 o< *a7ma is 6ased on the existen2e o< a soul 5hi2h is distin2t <7om the 6ody1 +hen the 6ody dies the soul does not die1 "he soul <lies a5ay1 DF1 "his is not t7ue o< the Buddhist %a5 o< *a7ma1 D H1 !22o7ding to the Hindu %a5 o< *a7ma 5hat ha33ens 5hen a man does a ka7ma is this1 His a2t 37odu2es t5o-<old 7esults1 )t a<<e2ts the doe7 and se2ondly it 37odu2es an im37ess u3on his soul1 D-1 Ea2h a2t he does 37odu2es an im37ess u3on his soul1

D/1 +hen a man dies and 5hen his soul es2a3es, the soul is <ull o< su2h im37essions1 K01 )t is these im37essions 5hi2h dete7mine his 6i7th and status in his <utu7e li<e1 KD1 "his Hindu theo7y is in2onsistent 5ith the Buddhist theo7y o< nosoul1 KK1 Fo7 these 7easons the Buddhist do2t7ine o< *a7ma 2annot 6e and is not the same as the Hindu do2t7ine o< *a7ma1 KL1 )t is the7e<o7e sim3ly <oolish to talk a6out the Buddhist do2t7ine o< *a7ma 6eing the same as the B7ahmini2 do2t7ine o< *a7ma1 K.1 !ll that one 2an say is 6e5a7e o< this ?uggle7y1 K1 Did the Buddha 6elie;e in 3ast *a7ma ha;ing e<<e2t on <utu7e li<e M

K/L

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D 1 "he %a5 o< *a7ma 5as enun2iated 6y the Buddha1 He 5as the <i7st to say' 8 ea3 as you so518 K1 He 5as so em3hati2 a6out the %a5 o< *a7ma that he maintained that the7e 2ould 6e no mo7al o7de7 unless the7e 5as a ste7n o6se7;an2e o< the %a5 o< *a7ma1 L1 "he Buddha:s %a5 o< *a7ma a33lied only to *a7ma and its e<<e2t on 37esent li<e1 .1 "he7e is, ho5e;e7,: an extended do2t7ine o< *a7ma1 !22o7ding to it *a7ma in2ludes *a7ma done in 3ast li<e o7 li;es1 E1 )< a man is 6o7n in a 3oo7 <amily it is 6e2ause o< his 3ast 6ad ka7ma1 )< a man is 6o7n in a 7i2h <amily it is 6e2ause o< his 3ast good ka7ma1 F1 )< a man is 6o7n 5ith a 2ongenital de<e2t it is 6e2ause o< his 3ast 6ad ka7ma1

H1 "his is a ;e7y 3e7ni2ious do2t7ine1 Fo7 in this inte737etation o< ka7ma the7e is no 7oom le<t <o7 human e<<o7t1 E;e7ything is 37edete7mined <o7 him 6y his 3ast ka7ma1 -1 "his extended do2t7ine is o<ten <ound to 6e att7i6uted to the Buddha1 /1 Did the Buddha 6elie;e in su2h a do2t7ineM D01 "o examine this extended do2t7ine 37o3e7ly it is 6ette7 to 2hange the language in 5hi2h it is usually ex37essed1 D D 1 )nstead o< saying that 3ast ka7ma is t7ansmitted it should 6e 6ette7 i< it 5as said that 3ast ka7ma is inhe7ited1 DK1 "his 2hange o< language ena6les us to test it 6y the la5 o< he7edity1 !t the same time it does no ha7m to the do2t7ine eithe7 to its de ?u7e o7 de <a2to 2onnotation1 DL1 "his 7estatement makes it 3ossi6le to 3ose the t5o Cuestions 5hi2h 2ould not othe75ise 6e 3osed and 5ithout ans5e7ing 5hi2h the matte7 2ould not 6e made 2lea71 D.1 "he <i7st Cuestion is ho5 is 3ast ka7ma inhe7ited M +hat is the 37o2ess M

K/.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DE1 "he se2ond Cuestion is 5hat is the natu7e o< 3ast ka7ma in te7ms o< he7edity M )s it an inhe7ent 2ha7a2te7isti2 o7 a2Cui7ed 2ha7a2te7isti2 M DF1 +hat do 5e inhe7it <7om ou7 3a7ents M D H1 (ta7ting 5ith s2ien2e the ne5 indi;idual 6egins 5hen a s3e7m ente7s the egg1 Fe7tilisation 2onsists in <usion o< the head o< the s3e7m 5ith the nu2leus o< the egg1 D-1 Ea2h human 6eing takes its o7igin <7om the union o< t5o 6its o< li;ing

matte7, an egg <7om the mothe7 5hi2h has 6een <e7tilised 6y a single s3e7m <7om the <athe71 D/1 "hat human 6i7th is geneti2 is told 6y the Buddha to a &akkha 5ho 2ame to dis2uss the matte7 5ith him1 K01 "he Exalted One 5as then staying nea7 lnd7a:s Peak1 a<ag7aha, on the hill 2alled

KD1 #o5 that &akkha d7e5 nea7 to the Exalted One and add7essed him as <ollo5s' : Aate7ial <o7m is not the li;ing soul : (o says th: Enlightened One1 "hen ho5 doth soul 3ossess this 6ody M +hen2e to soul doth 2ome Ou7 6un2h o< 6ones and 6o5els M Ho5 doth soul 5ithin the mothe7 -2a;e sus3ended 6ideM KK1 "o this the Exalted One 7e3lied' !t <i7st the *alala takes 6i7th, and then2e the a6udde1 "he7e<7om the 3esi g7o5s, De;elo3ing as ghana in its tu7n1 #o5 in the ghana doth a33ea7 the hai7, "he do5n, the nails1 !nd 5hatsoe;e7 <ood and d7ink the mothe7 o< him takes, the7e6y the man in mothe7:s 5om6 doth li;e and g7o51 KL1 But the Hindu do2t7ine di<<e7s1 K.1 )t says that the 6ody is geneti21 But the soul is not1 )t is im3lanted into the 6ody <7om outside N the do2t7ine is una6le to s3e2i<y the sou72e1 KE1 "u7ning to the se2ond Cuestion as to 5hat is the natu7e o< 3ast ka7ma, it must 6e dete7mined 5hethe7 it is an inhe7ent 2ha7a2te7isti2 o7 an a2Cui7ed 2ha7a2te7isti21

K/E

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KF1 $nless an ans5e7 to this Cuestion is <o7th2oming it 2annot 6e tested 6y the s2ienti<i2 theo7y o< he7edity1 KH1 But assuming the7e is an ans5e7 one 5ay o7 the othe7 to this Cuestion

ho5 is it 3ossi6le to get any hel3 <7om s2ien2e 5hethe7 it is a sensi6le theo7y o7 senseless theo7y1 K-1 !22o7ding to s2ien2e a 2hild inhe7its the 2ha7a2te7isti2s o< his 3a7ents1 K/1 )n the Hindu do2t7ine o< ka7ma a 2hild inhe7its nothing <7om its 3a7ents ex2e3t the 6ody1 "he 3ast ka7ma in the Hindu do2t7ine is the inhe7itan2e o< the 2hild 6y the 2hild and <o7 the 2hild1 L01 "he 3a7ents 2ont7i6utes nothing1 "he 2hild 67ings e;e7ything1 L D 1 (u2h a do2t7ine is nothing sho7t o< an a6su7dity1 LK1 !s sho5n a6o;e the Buddha did not 6elie;e in su2h an a6su7dity1 LL1 8 &es, i< it 5e7e not 7e6o7nJ 6ut i< it 5e7e, no18 no1 L.1 8 Ii;e me an illust7ation1 8 LE1 8 (u33ose, king, a man 5e7e to steal anothe7 man:s mangoes, 5ould the thie< dese7;e 3unishment M 8 LF1 8&es8 LH1 8 But he 5ould not ha;e stolen the mangoes the othe7 set in the g7ound1 +hy 5ould he dese7;e 3unishment M 8 L-1 8 Be2ause those he stole 5e7e the 7esult o< those that 5e7e 3lanted18 L/1 8Pust so, g7eat king, this name-and-<o7m 2ommits deeds, eithe7 3u7e o7 im3u7e, and 6y that ka7ma anothe7 name-and-<o7m is 7e6o7n1 !nd the7e<o7e is it not set <7ee <7om its e;il deeds M 8 .01 8 Ge7y good, #agasena ) 8 .D1 "he king said ' 8 +hen deeds a7e 2ommitted, #agasena 6y one nameand-<o7m, 5hat 6e2omes o< those deeds M 8 .K1 8 "he deeds 5ould <ollo5 it, O king, like a shado5 that ne;e7 lea;es it18

K/F

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

.L1 8 Can any one 3oint out those deeds, saying' : He7e a7e those deeds o7 the7e M : ..1 8 #o1 8 .E1 8 Ii;e me an illust7ation18 .F1 8 #o5 5hat do you think, king M Can any one 3oint out the <7uits 5hi2h a t7ee has not yet 37odu2ed, saying' .H1 : He7e they a7e, o7 the7e M : 8 .-1 8 Ce7tainly not, si7,8 ./1 8 Pust so, g7eat king, so long as the 2ontinuity o< li<e is not 2ut o<<, it is im3ossi6le to 3oint out the deeds that a7e done18 E01 8 Ge7y good, #agasena18 L1 Did the Buddha 6elie;e in 3ast *a7ma ha;ing e<<e2t on <utu7e li<e M N 2on2luded1 D 1 "he Buddha:s do2t7ine o< Past *a7ma is thus in kee3ing 5ith s2ien2e1 K1 He did not 6elie;e in the inhe7itan2e o< Past *a7ma1 L1 Ho5 2an he, ha;ing held to the ;ie5 that 6i7th is geneti2 and 5hate;e7 inhe7itan2e 2omes to the 2hild it 2omes th7ough its 3a7ents M .1 !3a7t <7om logi2 the7e is mo7e di7e2t e;iden2e on the 3oint 2ontained in a sutta 2alled the Cula N Dukkha N *handa N (utta 5hi2h 2ontains a dialogue 6et5een the Buddha and the Pains1 E1 )n this dialogue this is 5hat the Buddha says ' N 8 #iganthas, you ha;e done e;il in the 3ast J exti73ate it 6y these se;e7e auste7ities1 E;e7y 37esent 7est7aint on 6ody, :s3ee2h and mind 5ill he7ea<te7 undo the e;il doings o< the 3ast1 Hen2e, 6y ex3elling th7ough 3enan2e all 3ast misdeeds, and 6y not 2ommitting <7esh misdeeds, the <utu7e 6e2omes 2lea7edJ 5ith the <utu7e 2lea7ed, the 3ast is 5i3ed out J 5ith the 3ast 5i3ed out,is no mo7e J 5ithno mo7e @Pain<ulB -<eelings a7e no mo7eJ and, 5ith 3ain<ul <eelings no5 no mo7e, all 5ill 6e out5o7n1 N "his tea2hing 2ommends and a337o;es itsel< to us, and 5e 7e?oi2e in it18

K/H

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> F1 "he7eu3on, ) said to those #iganthas ' N 8 Do you kno5, 7e;e7end si7s, 5hethe7 you had an existen2e 6e<o7e this o7 you 5e7e not nonexistent M8 H1 8 #o, (i71 8 -1 8 Do you kno5 that, in a <o7me7 existen2e, you 5e7e guilty, and not guiltless, o< misdeeds M 8 /1 8 #o1 8 D01 D01 8Do you kno5 that @in that <o7me7 existen2eB you 5e7e guilty, and not guiltless, o< this o7 that s3e2i<i2 misdeed M 8 DD1 8#o DK1 (e2ondly the Buddha asse7ts that the status o< a man may 6e go;e7ned not so mu2h 6y he7edity as 6y his en;i7onment1 DL1 )n the De;adaha N (utta this is 5hat the Buddha says ' (ome 7e2luses and B7ahmins the7e a7e 5ho a<<i7m and hold the ;ie5 that, 5hatsoe;e7 the indi;idual ex3e7ien2es N 6e it 3leasant o7 un3leasant o7 neithe7 N all 2omes <7om <o7me7 a2tions1 Hen2e, 6y ex3iation and 3u7ge o< <o7me7 misdeeds and 6y not 2ommitting <7esh misdeeds, nothing a227ues <o7 the <utu7e, the misdeeds die a5ay J as misdeeds die a5ay,dies a5ay J:as dies a5ay, <eelings die a5ay J and as <eelings die a5ay, all 5ill 5ea7 out and 3ass1 "his is 5hat the #iganthas a<<i7m1 D.1 )< it is 6e2ause o< thei7 6i7th:s en;i7onment that 27eatu7es ex3e7ien2e 3leasu7e and 3ain, the #iganthas a7e 6lame5o7thy, and they a7e also 6lame5o7thy, i< en;i7onment is not the 2ause1 DE1 #o5 these statements o< the Buddha a7e ;e7y 7ele;ant1 Ho5 2ould the Buddha th7o5 dou6t on 3ast ka7ma i< he 6elie;ed in it M Ho5 2ould the Buddha maintain 3ain and 3leasu7e in 37esent li<e 6eing due to en;i7onment i< he 6elie;ed that it 5as due to 3ast ka7ma M

D F1 "he do2t7ine o< 3ast ka7ma is a 3u7ely B7ahmini2 do2t7ine1 Past ka7ma taking e<<e2t in 37esent li<e is Cuite 2onsistent 5ith the B7ahmini2 do2t7ine o< soul, the e<<e2t o< ka7ma on soul1 But it is Cuite in2onsistent 5ith the Buddhist do2t7ine o< non-soul1

K/-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D H1 )t has 6een 6odily int7odu2ed into Buddhism 6y some one 5ho 5anted to make Buddhism akin to Hinduism o7 5ho did not kno5 5hat the Buddhist do2t7ine 5as1 D-1 "his is one 7eason 5hy it must 6e held that the Buddha 2ould not ha;e 37ea2hed su2h a do2t7ine1 D/1 "he7e is anothe7 and a mo7e gene7al 7eason 5hy it must 6e held that the Buddha 2ould not ha;e 37ea2hed su2h a do2t7ine1 K01 "he 6asis o< the Hindu do2t7ine o< 3ast ka7ma as the 7egulato7 o< <utu7e li<e is an iniCuitous do2t7ine1 +hat 2ould ha;e 6een the 3u73ose o< in;enting su2h a do2t7ine M K D 1 "he only 3u73ose one 2an think o< is to ena6le the state o7 the so2iety to es2a3e 7es3onsi6ility <o7 the 2ondition o< the 3oo7 and the lo5ly1 KK1 Othe75ise su2h an inhuman and a6su7d do2t7ine 2ould ne;e7 ha;e 6een in;ented1 KL1 )t is im3ossi6le to imagine that the Buddha 5ho 5as kno5n as the Aaha *a7unika 2ould ha;e su33o7ted su2h a do2t7ine1 '' (e2tion ))) N !himsa ''

D1 "he di<<e7ent 5ays in 5hi2h it is inte737eted and <ollo5ed1

D1 !himsa o7 non-killing <o7ms a ;e7y im3o7tant 3a7t o< the Buddha:s tea2hings1 K1 )t is intimately 2onne2ted 5ith *a7una and Aait7i1

L1 "he Cuestion has, ho5e;e7, 6een 7aised 5hethe7 His !himsa 5as a6solute in its o6ligation o7 only 7elati;e1 +as it only a 37in2i3le M O7 5as it a 7uleM .1 Peo3le 5ho a22e3t the Buddha:s tea2hings <ind it di<<i2ult to a22e3t !himsa as an a6solute o6ligation1 "hey say that su2h a de<inition o< !himsa in;ol;es the sa27i<i2e o< good <o7 e;il, the sa27i<i2e o< ;i7tue <o7 ;i2e1 E1 "his Cuestion 7eCui7es to 6e 2la7i<ied1 "he7e is no su6?e2t 5hi2h is a matte7 o< g7eate7 2on<usion than this su6?e2t o< !himsa1 K//

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> F1 Ho5 ha;e the 3eo3le o< Buddhist 2ount7ies unde7stood and a2tised !himsa M H1 "his is an im3o7tant Cuestion 5hi2h must 6e taken into a22ount1 -1 "he monks o< Ceylon <ought against and asked the 3eo3le o< Ceylon to <ight against the <o7eign in;ade7s1 /1 On the othe7 hand the monks o< Bu7ma 7e<used to <ight against the <o7eign in;ade7s and asked the Bu7mese 3eo3le not to <ight1 D01 "he Bu7mese 3eo3le eat eggs 6ut not <ish1 D D 1 "his is ho5 !himsa is unde7stood and <ollo5ed1 DK1 e2ently the Ie7man Buddhist !sso2iation 3assed a 7esolution 6y 5hi2h they a22e3ted all the Pan2h (ilas ex2e3t the <i7st 5hi2h deals 5ith !himsa1 DL1 "his is the 3osition a6out the Do2t7ine o< !himsa1 K1 "he t7ue meaning o< !himsa1 D 1 +hat does !himsa mean M K1 "he Buddha has no5he7e gi;en any de<inition o< !himsa1 )n <a2t he has ;e7y seldom, i< at all, 7e<e77ed to the su6?e2t in s3e2i<i2 te7ms1 L1 One has, the7e<o7e to s3ell out his intention <7om 2i72umstantial e;iden2e1

.1 "he <i7st 2i72umstantial e;iden2e on the 3oint is that the Buddha had no o6?e2tion to eating meat i< it 5as o<<e7ed to him as 3a7t o< his alms1 E1 "he monk 2an eat meat o<<e7ed to him 37o;ided he 5as not a 3a7ty to the killing o< it1 F1 He 7esisted the o33osition o< De;adatta 5ho insisted that the monks should 6e 37ohi6ited <7om eating meat gi;en to them 6y 5ay o< alms1 H1 "he next 3ie2e o< e;iden2e on the 3oint is that he 5as only o33osed to the killing o< animals in ya?na @sa27i<i2eB 1 "his he has himsel< said1 -1 !himsa Pe7moDha7ma is an ext7eme Do2t7ine, )t is a Pain Do2t7ine1 )t is not a Buddhist Do2t7ine1 L00

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> /1 "he7e is anothe7 3ie2e o< e;iden2e 5hi2h is mo7e di7e2t than 2i72umstantial 5hi2h almost amounts to a de<inition o< !hintsa1 He has said' 8%o;e all so that you may not 5ish to kill any18 "his is a 3ositi;e 5ay o< stating the 37in2i3le o< !himsa1 D01 F7om this it a33ea7s that the do2t7ine o< !himsa does not say 8 *ill not1 )t says lo;e all18 DD1 )n the light o< these statements it is Cuite easy to ha;e a 2lea7 unde7standing o< 5hat the Buddha meant 6y !himsa1 DK1 )t is Cuite 2lea7 that Buddha meant to make a distin2tion 6et5een 5ill to kill and need to kill1 D L1 He did not 6an killing 5he7e the7e 5as need to kill1 D.1 +hat he 6anned 5as killing 5he7e the7e 5as nothing 6ut the 5ill to kill1 D E1 (o unde7stood the7e is no 2on<usion in the Buddhist do2t7ine o< !himsa1 DF1 )t is a 3e7<e2tly sound o7 mo7al do2t7ine 5hi2h e;e7yone must 7es3e2t1 D H1 #o dou6t he lea;es it to e;e7y indi;idual to de2ide 5hethe7 the need to

kill is the7e1 But 5ith 5hom else 2ould it 6e le<t1 Aan has P7adnya and he must use it1 D-1 ! mo7al man may 6e t7usted to d7a5 the line at the 7ight 3oint1 D/1 B7ahminism has in it the 5ill to kill1 K01 Painism has in it the 5ill ne;e7 to kill1 K D 1 "he Buddha:s !himsa is Cuite in kee3ing 5ith his middle 3ath1 KK1 "o 3ut it di<<e7ently the Buddha made a distin2tion 6et5een P7in2i3le and ule1 He did not make !himsa a matte7 o< ule1 He enun2iated it as a matte7 o< P7in2i3le o7 5ay o< li<e1 KL1 )n this he no dou6t a2ted ;e7y 5isely1 K.1 ! 37in2i3le lea;es you <7eedom to a2t1 ! 7ule does not1 67eaks you o7 you 67eak the 7ule1 ule eithe7

L0D

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> '' (e2tion )G N "7ansmig7ation '' D1 "he Blessed %o7d 37ea2hed that the7e 5as 7e6i7th1 But the Blessed %o7d also 37ea2hed that the7e 5as no t7ansmig7ation1 K1 "he7e 5e7e not 5anting 3eo3le 5ho 27iti2ise the %o7d <o7 37ea2hing 5hat they 7ega7ded as t5o su2h 2ont7adi2to7y do2t7ines1 L1 Ho5 2an the7e 6e 7e6i7th unless the7e is t7ansmig7ation M asked the 27iti2s1 .1 "he7e is he7e a 2ase o< 7e6i7th 5ithout t7ansmig7ation, they said1 Can this 6eM E1 "he7e is no 2ont7adi2tion1 "he7e 2an 6e 7e6i7th although the7e is no t7ansmig7ation1 F1 "his has 6een 5ell ex3lained 6y #agasena in his 7e3lies to the Cuestions o< *ing Ailinda1

H1 Ailinda, *ing o< Ba2t7ia, asked #agasena N 8 Did the Buddha 6elie;e in e6i7th @"7ansmig7ationB M 8 -1 His 7e3ly 5as 8&es8 /1 8)s this not a 2ont7adi2tionM8 D01 #agasena 7e3lied, 8#o18 DD18 Can the7e 6e 7e6i7th 5ithout a soul M8 DK1 #agasena said, 8O< 2ou7se, yes, the7e 2an 6e18 D L1 8 Ex3lain ho5 it 2an 6e18 D.1 "he king said ' 8 +he7e the7e is no t7ansmig7ation, #agasena, 2an the7e 6e 7e6i7th M 8 DE1 8&es, the7e 2an18 DF1 8 But ho5 2an that 6e M Ii;e me an illust7ation18 D H1 8 (u33ose a man, king, 5e7e to light a lam3 <7om anothe7 lam3, 2an it 6e said that the one t7ansmig7ates <7om, o7 to, the othe7 M 8 L0K

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D-1 8Ce7tainly not18 D/1 8Pust so, g7eat king, is 7e6i7th 5ithout t7ansmig7ation18 K01 8 Ii;e me a <u7the7 illust7ation18 KD1 8Do you 7e2olle2t, g7eat king, ha;ing lea7nt, 5hen you 5e7e a 6oy, some ;e7se o7 othe7 <7om you7 tea2he7M8 KK1 8 &es1 ) 7e2olle2t that18 KL1 8 +ell then, did that ;e7se t7ansmig7ate <7om you7 tea2he7 M 8 K.1 8 Ce7tainly not18 K E1 8Pust so, g7eat king, is 7e6i7th 5ithout t7ansmig7ation18 KF1 8 Ge7y good, #agasena ) 8 KH1 "he king said ' 8)s the7e su2h a thing, #agasena, as the soul M 8

K-1 8 )n the highest sense, king, the7e is no su2h thing18 K/1 8 Ge7y good, #agasena ) 8 '' (e2tion G N Causes o< "his Aisunde7standing ''

D1 +hat the Buddha 37ea2hed 5as hea7d 6y his audien2e, 5hi2h la7gely 2onsisted o< the Bhikkus1 K1 )t is the Bhikkus 5ho 7e3o7ted to the 3eo3le at la7ge 5hat the Buddha had said on any 3a7ti2ula7 matte71 L1 "he a7t o< 57iting had not yet de;elo3ed1 "he Bhikkus had the7e<o7e to memo7ise 5hat they had hea7d1 #ot e;e7y Bhikku 2a7ed to memo7ise 5hat he hea7d1 But the7e 5e7e some that had made it thei7 37o<ession to memo7ise1 "hey 5e7e 2alled Bhanakas1 .1 "he Buddhist 2anoni2al lite7atu7e is as ;ast as o2ean1 "o memo7ise all this 5as indeed a g7eat <eat1 E1 )n 7e3o7ting the Buddha it has o<ten 6een <ound that he has 6een mis7e3o7ted1 L0L

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> F1 Aany 2ases o< mis7e3o7ting had 6een 67ought to the kno5ledge o< the Buddha 5hile he 5as ali;e1 H1 e<e7en2e may 6e made 6y 5ay o< illust7ation to <i;e su2h 2ases1 One is mentioned in the !lagaddu3ama (utta and the othe7 in the Aaha-*ammaGi6hanga (utta, a thi7d in the *annakatthala (utta, <ou7th in the Aaha"anha-(ankhya (utta and <i<th in the Pi;aka (utta1 -1 "he7e 5e7e 3e7ha3s many mo7e su2h 2ases o< mis7e3o7ting1 Fo7 5e <ind that e;en the Bhikkus going to the Buddha asking him to tell them 5hat they should do in su2h 2ontingen2ies1 /1 "he 2ases o< mis7e3o7ting a7e 2ommon 5ith 7ega7d to ka7ma and 7e6i7th1 D01 "hese do2t7ines ha;e also a 3la2e in the B7ahmini2 7eligion 2onseCuently it 5as easy <o7 the Bhanakas to in2o73o7ate the B7ahmini2 tenets into the Buddhist eligion1

DD1 One has the7e<o7e to 6e ;e7y 2a7e<ul in a22e3ting 5hat is said in the Buddhist 2anoni2al lite7atu7e as 6eing the 5o7d o< the Buddha1 DK1 "he7e is ho5e;e7 one test 5hi2h is a;aila6le1 DL1 )< the7e is anything 5hi2h 2ould 6e said 5ith 2on<iden2e it is ' He 5as nothing i< not 7ational, i< not logi2al1 !nything the7e<o7e 5hi2h is 7ational and logi2al, othe7 things 6eing eCual, may 6e taken to 6e the 5o7d o< the Buddha1 D.1 "he se2ond thing is that the Buddha ne;e7 2a7ed to ente7 into a dis2ussion 5hi2h 5as not 37o<ita6le <o7 man:s 5el<a7e1 "he7e<o7e anything att7i6uted to the Buddha 5hi2h did not 7elate to man:s 5el<a7e 2annot 6e a22e3ted to 6e the 5o7d, o< the Buddha1 DE1 "he7e is a thi7d test1 )t is that the Buddha di;ided all matte7s into t5o 2lasses1 "hose a6out 5hi2h he 5as 2e7tain and those a6out 5hi2h he 5as not 2e7tain1 On matte7s 5hi2h <ell into 2lass ), he has stated his ;ie5s de<initely and 2on2lusi;ely1 On matte7s 5hi2h <ell into 2lass )), he has ex37essed his ;ie5s1 But they a7e only tentati;e ;ie5s1 DF1 )n dis2ussing the th7ee Cuestions a6out 5hi2h the7e is dou6t and di<<e7en2e it is ne2essa7y to 6ea7 these tests in mind 6e<o7e de2iding 5hat the ;ie5 o< the Buddha 5as the7eon1 L0.

@/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> Pa7t )))N "he Buddhist +ay o< %i<e1 D1 On good, e;il and sin1 ''

K1 On 27a;ing and lust1

L1 On hu7t and ill-5ill1

.1 On ange7 and enmity1

E1 On man, mind and im3u7ities1

F1 On sel< and sel< -2onCuest1

H1 On 5isdom, ?usti2e and good 2om3any1

-1 On thought<ulness and mind<ulness1

/1 On ;igilan2e, ea7nestness and 6oldness1

D01 On so77o5 and ha33inessJ On Cha7ity and *indness1

D D 1 On hy3o27isy1

D K1 On <ollo5ing the

ight +ay1

D L1 Aix not t7ue Dhamma 5ith <alse Dhamma1

'' D1 On good, e;il and sin1 '' D 1 Do good1 Be no 3a7ty to e;il1 Commit no sin1 K1 "his is the Buddhist 5ay o< li<e1 L1 )< a man should do that 5hi2h is good, let him do it again and again, let him tu7n the desi7es o< his hea7t the7eto1 Ha33y is the hea3ing o< good1

.1 "hink not 2asually o< the good saying, 8)t 5ill not 2ome to me18 D7o3 6y d7o3 is the 5ate7 3ot <illed1 By little added to little does good g7o51 E1 But 5ell done is that deed 5hi2h 67ings one no 7eg7ets, the <7uit 5he7eo< is 7e2ei;ed 5ith delight and satis<a2tion1 F1 +ell done is the deed 5hi2h done 67ings no 7eg7ets, the <7uit 5he7eo< is 7e2ei;ed 5ith delight and satis<a2tion1 H1 )< a man does 5hat is good, let him do it again J let him delight in itJ the a22umulation o< good is delight<ul1 -1 E;en a good man sees, e;il days so long as his good deed does not 7i3enJ 6ut 5hen his good deed 7i3ens, then does the good man see good things1

L0E

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> /1 %et no man think lightly o< good, saying in his hea7t, it 5ill not 2ome 7ight unto me1 E;en 6y the <alling o< 5ate7 d7o3s a 5ate7-3ot is <illed N the 5ise man 6e2omes <ull o< good, e;en i< he gathe7s it little 6y little1 D01 Fa7 su73assing the <7ag7an2e o< sandal o7 in2ense o7 lotus o7 ?asmine, is the <7ag7an2e o< ;i7tue1 D D 1 Faint is this <7ag7an2e o< in2ense and sandal, 6ut the <7ag7an2e o< ;i7tue as2ends to the highest 3la2e1 DK1 "7eat not lightly o< e;il, saying it 5ill not 2ome to me1 D7o3 6y d7o3 is the 5ate7 3ot <illed1 By little added to little e;il a22umulates1 DL1 )t is not 5ell to do a deed 5hi2h done 67ings 7eg7ets, the <7uit 5he7eo< is 7e2ei;ed 5ith tea7s and lamentations1 D.1 )< a man s3eaks o7 a2ts e;il o< mind, su<<e7ing <ollo5s him 2lose as the 5heel the hoo< o< the 6east that d7a5s the 2a7t1 DE1 Follo5 not a<te7 things e;il1 D5ell not in negligen2e1 Che7ish not <alse

ideas1 DF1 Hasten to5a7ds the ex2ellent, su337ess all e;il thoughts1 +ho so is 6a2k5a7d in doing good, his mind delights in e;il1 D H1 )t is not 5ell to do that deed 5hi2h done 67ings 7eg7ets, the <7uit 5he7eo< is 7e2ei;ed 5ith tea7s and lamentations1 D-1 E;en an e;il-doe7 sees ha33iness so long as his e;il deed does not 7i3enJ 6ut 5hen his e;il deed 7i3ens, then does the e;il-doe7 see e;il1 D/1 %et no man think lightly o< e;il saying in his hea7t : )t 5ill not 2ome 7ight unto me1: E;en 6y the <illing o< 5ate7 d7o3s a 5ate7 -3ot is <illed J the <ool 6e2omes <ull o< e;il, e;en i< he gathe7s it little 6y little1 K01 ! man should hasten to5a7ds the good, and should kee3 his thought a5ay <7om e;ilJ i< a man does 5hat is good sloth<ully, his mind delights in e;il1 KD1 )< a man 2ommits a sin, let him not do it again, let him not delight in sin J the a22umulation o< e;il is 3ain<ul1 KK1 Follo5 the la5 o< ;i7tueJ do not <ollo5 that o< sin1 "he ;i7tuous 7ests in 6liss in this 5o7ld1 L0F

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KL1 F7om lust is 6o7n so77o5, <7om lust is 6o7n <ea71 "o him 5ho is 5holly <7ee <7om lust the7e is neithe7 so77o5 no7 <ea71 K.1 Hunge7 is the 5o7st o< diseases @2om3onentB, existen2e the 5o7st o< dist7ess1 "his kno5ing in a22o7dan2e 5ith t7uth and <a2t, #i66ana 6e2omes the highest ha33iness1 KE1 "he e;il done 6y onesel<, sel< -6egotten, sel< -67ed, 27ushes the doe7 as a diamond 67eaks e;en a 37e2ious stone1 KF1 He 5hose 5i2kedness is ;e7y g7eat 67ings himsel< do5n to that state 5he7e his enemy 5ishes him to 6e, as a 27ee3e7 does 5ith the t7ee 5hi2h it su77ounds1

KH1 Bad deeds, and deeds hu7t<ul to ou7sel;es, a7e easy to do J di<<i2ult to do 5hat is 6ene<i2ial and good1 '' K1 On 27a;ing and lust1 '' D 1 Do not 6e 3ossessed 6y C7a;ing no7 6y %ust1 K1 "his is the Buddhist 5ay o< li<e1 L1 #ot in a 7ain o< 7i2hes is satis<a2tion o< desi7e to 6e <ound1 8$nsatis<ying, g7ie;ous a7e desi7es,8 so the 5ise man 5ell kno5s1 1 .1 E;en in the 3leasu7es o< the hea;en-5o7lds he takes no delightJ his delight is in the ending o< 27a;ing, he is the dis2i3le o< the (u37emely !5akened One, the Buddha1 E1 F7om 27a;ing is 6o7n so77o5, <7om 27a;ing is 6o7n <ea71 "o him 5ho is 5holly <7ee <7om 27a;ing the7e is neithe7 so77o5 no7 <ea71 F1 F7om 27a;ing is 6o7n so77o5, <7om 27a;ing is 6o7n <ea71 "o him 5ho is 5holly <7ee <7om 27a;ing the7e is neithe7 so77o5 no7 <ea71 H1 He 5ho gi;es himsel< to ;anity, <o7getting @the 7eal aim o< li<eB and g7as3ing at 3leasu7e, 5ill in time en;y him 5ho has exe7ted himsel< in meditation1 -1 %et no man ha;e atta2hment to anythingJ loss o< it gi;es 3ain1 "hose 5ho lo;e nothing, and hate nothing ha;e no <ette7s1 L0H

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> /1 F7om 3leasu7e 2omes g7ie<, <7om 3leasu7e 2omes <ea7J he 5ho is <7ee <7om 3leasu7e kno5s neithe7 g7ie< no7 <ea71 D01 F7om atta2hment 2omes g7ie<, <7om atta2hment 2omes <ea7J he 5ho is <7ee <7om atta2hment kno5s neithe7 g7ie< no7 <ea71 D D 1 F7om lust 2omes g7ie<, <7om lust 2omes <ea7J he 5ho is <7ee <7om lust kno5s neithe7 g7ie< no7 <ea71 DK1 F7om g7eed 2omes g7ie<, <7om g7eed 2omes <ea7J he 5ho is <7ee <7om g7eed kno5s neithe7 g7ie< no7 <ea71

DL1 He 5ho 3ossesses ;i7tue and intelligen2e, 5ho is ?ust, s3eaks the t7uth, and does 5hat is his o5n 6usiness, him the 5o7ld 5ill hold dea71 D.1 *insmen, <7iends and lo;e7s salute a man 5ho has 6een long a5ay, and 7etu7ns sa<e <7om a<a71 DE1 )n like manne7 his good 5o7ks 7e2ei;e him 5ho has done good, and has gone <7om this 5o7ld as kinsmen 7e2ei;e a <7iend on his 7etu7n1 '' L1 On hu7t and ill-5ill1 ''

D1 Cause no hu7t J Che7ish no ill-5ill, K1 "his is the Buddhist +ay o< %i<e1 L1 )s the7e in all the 5o7ld a man so 6lameless that he gi;es no o22asion <o7 7e37oa2h, as a s3i7ited ho7se gi;es no o22asion <o7 the st7oke o< the lash M .1 By 2on<iden2e, 6y ;i7tue, 6y ene7gy, 6y meditation, 6y in;estigation into the "7uth, 6y 3e7<e2tion in kno5ledge and 2ondu2t, 6y 7e2olle2tedness, lea;e ye this g7eat su<<e7ing 6ehind E1 "he most ex2ellent o< as2eti2 37a2ti2es is the 37a2ti2e o< <o76ea7an2e, o< long su<<e7ing J 8 most ex2ellent o< all is #i66ana 8 J so says the Buddha1 He is no as2eti2 5ho does hu7t to othe7s J he is no dis2i3le 5ho 5o7ks anothe7:s 5oe1 F1 "o s3eak no ill, to do no ha7m, to 37a2tise 7est7aint in 2on<o7mity 5ith the dis2i3line, this is the 2ounsel o< the Buddha1 H1 *ill, no7 2ause slaughte71 L0-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> -1 He 5ho seeking his o5n ha33iness does not 3unish o7 kill 6eings 5ho also long <o7 ha33iness, 5ill <ind ha33iness1

/1 )<, like a shatte7ed, metal 3late @gongB, thou utte7 nothing, then thou has 7ea2hed #i66ana J ange7 is not kno5n to thee1 D01 He 5ho in<li2ts 3ain on inno2ent and ha7mless 3e7son, 5ill soon 2ome to g7ie<1 DD1 He 5ho, d7essed in <ine a33a7el o< t7anCuillity, is Cuiet, su6dued, 7est7ained, 2haste, and has 2eased to <ind <ault 5ith all othe7 6eings, he indeed is an as2eti2 @(amanaB, a <7ia7 @BhikkuB1 DK1 )s the7e in this 5o7ld any man so 7est7ained 6y shame that he does not 37o;oke 7e37oo<, as a no6le ho7se the 5hi3M D L1 )< a man o<<end a ha7mless, 3u7e, and inno2ent 3e7son, the e;il <alls 6a2k u3on that <ool, like light dust th7o5n u3 against the 5ind1

'' .1 On ange7 and enmity1 '' D 1 Che7ish no ange71 Fo7get you7 enmities1 +in you7 enemies 6y lo;e1 K1 "his is the Buddhist +ay o< %i<e11 L1 "he <i7e o< ange7 should 6e stilled1 .1 One 5ho ha76ou7s the thought ' 8 He 7e;iled me, malt7eated me, o;e73o5e7ed me, 7o66ed me,8 in him ange7 is ne;e7 stilled18 E1 He 5ho ha76ou7s not su2h a thought, in him ange7 is stilled1 F1 Enemy 5o7ks e;il to enemy, hate7 to hate7, 6ut 5hose is the e;il1 H1 %et a man o;e72ome ange7 6y lo;e, let him o;e72ome e;il 6y good J let him o;e72ome the g7eedy 6y li6e7ality, the lia7 6y t7uth1 -1 (3eak the t7uth, do not yield to ange7 J gi;e, i< thou a7t asked <o7 little1 /1 %et a man lea;e ange7, let him <o7sake 37ide, let him o;e72ome all 6ondage J no su<<e7ings 6e<all the man 5ho is not atta2hed to name and <o7m, and 5ho 2alls nothing his o5n1 L0/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

D01 He 5ho holds 6a2k 7ising ange7 like a 7olling 2ha7iot, him ) 2all a 7eal d7i;e7, othe7 3eo3le a7e 6ut holding the 7eins1 DD1 ConCuest 6egets enmityJ the 2onCue7ed lie do5n in dist7ess1 "he t7anCuillised lies do5n in ha33iness, dismissing alike ;i2to7y and de<eat1 DK1 "he7e is no <i7e like lust, no ill-<o7tune like hat7ed1 "he7e is no mise7y like the 2onstituents o< existen2e, no ha33iness highe7 than the Pea2e o< #i66ana1 DL1 Fo7 hat7ed does not 2ease 6y hat7ed at any time ' hat7ed 2eases 6y lo;e, this is an old 7ule1 '' E1 On man1, mind and im3u7ities1 ''

D 1 Aan is 5hat his mind makes him1 K1 "he t7aining o< the mind to seek the good, is the <i7st ste3 in the 3ath o< ighteousness1 L1 "his is the main tea2hing in the Buddhist +ay o< %i<e1 .1 )n e;e7ything the 37imal element is mind1 Aind is 37e-eminent1 E1 )< a man s3eaks o7 does e;il su<<e7ing <ollo5s him, 2lose as the 5heel o< the hoo< o< the 6east that d7a5s the 2a7t1 F1 )< a man s3eaks o7 a2ts <7om u37ightness o< mind, ha33iness <ollo5s him, 2lose like his ne;e7-de3a7ting shado51 H1 "his <i2kle, unsteady mind, di<<i2ult to gua7d, di<<i2ult to guide N the 5ise man makes it st7aight as the <let2he7 makes st7aight the a77o51 -1 !s Cui;e7s and th7o6s the 5ate7-d5elling <ish, 5hen th7o5n u3 out o< the 5ate7 on to the land, so Cui;e7s and th7o6s the mind <o7saking /1 Ha7d to 2ont7ol, unsta6le is this mind, e;e7 in Cuest o< delight1 Iood is it to su6due the mind1 ! mind su6dued 67ings ha33iness1 D01 Aake thysel< an island, 5o7k ha7d, 5hen thy im3u7ities a7e 6lo5n a5ay, and thou a7t <7ee <7om guilt, thou 5ilt ente7 into the hea;enly 5o7ld o< the ele2t1

LD0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D D 1 %et a 5ise man 6lo5 o<< the im3u7ities o< himsel<, as a smith 6lo5s o<< the im3u7ities o< sil;e7, one 6y one, little 6y little, and <7om time to time1 DK1 !s the im3u7ity 5hi2h s37ings <7om the i7on, 5hen it s37ings <7om it, dest7oys it J thus to a t7ansg7esso7:s o5n 5o7ks, lead him to the e;il 3ath1 DL1 But the7e is a taint 5o7se than all taints1 )gno7an2e is the g7eatest taint1 O ) mendi2ants, th7o5 o<< that taint, and 6e2ome taintless1 D.1 %i<e is easy to li;e <o7 a man 5ho is 5ithout shame, a 27o5 he7e, a mis2hie< make7, an insulting, 6old and 57et2hed <ello51 DE1 But li<e is ha7d to li;e <o7 a modest man, 5ho al5ays looks <o7 5hat is 3u7e, 5ho is disinte7ested, Cuiet, s3otless and intelligent1 DF1 He 5ho dest7oys li<e, 5ho s3eaks unt7uth, 5ho in the 5o7ld takes 5hat is not gi;en him, 5ho goes to anothe7 man:s 5i<e1 D H1 !nd the man 5ho gi;es himsel< to d7inking intoxi2ating liCuo7s, he e;en in this 5o7ld, digs u3 his o5n g7a;e1 D-1 man, kno5 this, that the un7est7ained a7e in a 6ad stateJ take 2a7e that g7eediness and ;i2e do not 67ing thee to g7ie< <o7 a long time1 D/1 "he 5o7ld gi;es a22o7ding to its <aith o7 a22o7ding to its 3leasu7eJ i< a man <7ets a6out the <ood and the d7ink gi;en to othe7s, he 5ill <ind no 7est eithe7 6y day o7 6y night1 K01 He in 5hom that <eeling is dest7oyed, and taken out 5ith the ;e7y 7oot, <inds 7est 6y day and 6y night1 K D 1 "he7e is no <i7e like 3assion, the7e is no to77ent like g7eed1 KK1 "he <ault o< othe7s is easily 3e72ei;ed, 6ut that o< onesel< is di<<i2ult to 3e72ei;eJ a man 5inno5s his neigh6ou7:s <aults like 2ha<< 6ut his o5n <aults

he hides, as a 2heat hides the 6ad di2e <7om the 3laye71 KL1 )< a man looks a<te7 the <aults o< othe7s, and is al5ays in2lined to 6e o<<ended, his o5n 3assions 5ill g7o5, and he is <a7 <7om the dest7u2tion o< 3assions1 K.1 e<7ain <7om all e;ilJ 2ulti;ate the good J 2leanse you7 o5n thoughtsJ this is the tea2hing o< the Buddha1

LDD

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> '' F1 On sel< and sel< -2onCuest1 '' D 1 )< one has sel<, let him 37a2tise sel< -2onCuest1 K1 "his is the Buddhist +ay o< %i<e1 L1 (el< is the lo7d o< sel<, 5ho else 2ould 6e the lo7d M +ith sel< 5ell su6dued, a man <inds a lo7d su2h as <e5 2an <ind1 .1 "he <oolish man 5ho s2o7ns the 7ule o< the ;ene7a6le @a7ahatB, o< the ele2t @a7iyaB, o< the ;i7tuous and <ollo5s a <alse do2t7ine, he 6ea7s <7uit to his o5n dest7u2tion, like the <7uits o< the *atthaka 7eed1 E1 By onesel< the e;il is done, 6y onesel< one su<<e7sJ 6y onesel< e;il is le<t undone, 6y onesel< one is 3u7i<ied1 "he 3u7e and the im3u7e @stand and <allB 6y themsel;es, no one 2an 3u7i<y anothe71 F1 He 5ho lo;es looking <o7 senses un2ont7olled, immode7ate in his <ood, idle and 5eak, 5ill 2e7tainly 6e o;e7th7o5n 6y his o5n o;e7doing as the 5ind th7o5s do5n a 5eak t7ee1 H1 He 5ho li;es 5ithout looking <o7 3leasu7es, his senses 5ell 2ont7olled, mode7ate in his <ood, <aith<ul and st7ong, he 5ill not 6e o;e7th7o5n any mo7e than the 5ind th7o5s do5n a 7o2ky mountain1 -1 )< to himsel< a man is dea7, let him kee3 2lose 5at2h u3on himsel<1 /1 Fi7st esta6lish thysel< in the 7ight then thou mayest 2ounsel othe7s1 %et not the 5ise man gi;e o22asion <o7 7e37oa2h1

D01 Onesel<, they say is ha7d to 2ont7ol1 )< one sha3es onesel< a22o7ding as one 2ounsels othe7s, thus 5ell 2ont7olled one 5ill ha;e 2ont7ol o;e7 othe7s1 DD1 ! man 3ays in himsel< <o7 the e;il he has done and in himsel< is 3u7i<ied1 "he good and e;il a7e 3u7i<ied se;e7ally, no one 3u7i<ies anothe71 DK1 "hough one should 2onCue7 in 6attle thousands and thousands o< men, 5ho shall 2onCue7 himsel<, he is the g7eatest o< 5a77io7s1 DL1 Fi7st esta6lish thysel< in the 7ight, then thou mayest 2ounsel othe7s1 %et not the 5ise man gi;e o22asion <o7 7e37oa2h1 D.1 )< one sha3es onesel< a22o7ding as one 2ounsels othe7s, thus 5ell 2ont7olled, one 5ill ha;e 2ont7ol o;e7 othe7s1 Onesel< they say, is ha7d to 2ont7ol1 LDK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DE1 Ge7ily onesel< is the gua7dian o< onesel<1 +hat othe7 gua7dian should the7e 6e1 Iua7ded 6y onesel<, one gets a gua7dian the like o< 5hi2h is not likely gotten1 DF1 )< to himsel< a man is dea7, let him kee3 2lose 5at2h u3on himsel<1 DH1 ! man 3ays in himsel< <o7 the e;il he has done, and in himsel< is 3u7i<ied1 "he good and e;il a7e 3u7i<ied se;e7ally, no one 3u7i<ies anothe71 D-1 Ge7ily onesel< is the gua7dian o< onesel<J 5hat othe7 gua7dian should the7e 6eM Iua7ded 6y onesel<, one gets a gua7dian the like o< 5hi2h is not easily gotten1 '' H1 On 5isdom1, ?usti2e and good 2om3any1 ''

D 1 Be 5ise, 6e ?ust and 2hoose good 2om3any1 K1 "his is the Buddhist +ay o< %i<e1 L1 )< you see a man 5ho sho5s you 5hat is to 6e a;oided, 5ho administe7s

7e37oo<s, and is intelligent, <ollo5 that 5ise man as you 5ould one 5ho tells o< hidden t7easu7es J it 5ill 6e 6ette7, not 5o7se, <o7 him 5ho <ollo5s him1 .1 %et him admonish, let him tea2h, let him <o76id 5hat is im37o3e7 N he 5ill 6e 6elo;ed o< the good, 6y the 6ad he 5ill 6e hated1 E1 Do not ha;e e;il-doe7s <o7 <7iends, do not ha;e lo5 3eo3le <o7 <7iends J ha;e ;i7tuous 3eo3le <o7 <7iends, ha;e <o7 <7iends the 6est o< men1 F1 He 5ho d7inks in the Dhamma li;es ha33ily 5ith a se7ene mindJ the sage 7e?oi2es al5ays in the Dhamma as 37ea2hed 6y the ele2t1 H1 +ell-make7s lead the 5ate7 @5he7e;e7 they likeB, <let2he7s 6end the a77o5 J 2a73ente7s 6end a log o< 5ood J 5ise 3eo3le <ashion themsel;es1 -1 !s a solid 7o2k is not shaken 6y the 5ind, the 5ise 3eo3le <alte7 not amidst 6lame and 37aise1 /1 +ise 3eo3le, a<te7 they ha;e listened to the Dhamma 6e2ome se7ene, like a dee3, smooth and still lake1

LDL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D01 Iood men indeed 5alk @5a7ilyB unde7 all 2i72umstan2esJ good men s3eak not out o< a desi7e <o7 sensual g7ati<i2ationJ 5hethe7 tou2hed 6y ha33iness o7 so77o5 5ise 3eo3le ne;e7 a33ea7 elated o7 de37essed1 DD1 )t is s5eet as honey, so thinks the <ool, 5hile as yet the e;il has not 7i3ened1 But 5hen the e;il 7i3ens the <ool 2omes to g7ie<1 DK1 ! <ool does not kno5 5hen he 2ommits his e;il deeds J 6ut a 5i2ked man 6u7ns 6y his o5n deeds, as i< 6u7nt 6y <i7e1 D L1 %ong is the night to him 5ho is is ti7ed J long is li<e to the <oolish 5ho do t7a;elle7 does not meet 5ith one 5ho him <i7mly kee3 to his solita7y ?ou7neyJ <ool1 a5ake J long is a mile to him 5ho not kno5 the t7ue Dhamma1 D.1 )< a is his 6ette7, o7 his eCual, let the7e is no 2om3anionshi3 5ith a

DE1 8 "hese sons 6elong to me, and this 5ealth 6elongs to me,8 5ith su2h thoughts a <ool is to7mented1 He himsel< does not 6elong to himsel< J ho5 mu2h less sons and 5ealth M D F1 "he <ool 5ho kno5s his <oolishness, is 5ise at least so <a71 But a <ool 5ho thinks himsel< 5ise, he is 2alled a <ool indeed1 DH1 )< a <ool 6e asso2iated 5ith a 5ise man e;en all his li<e, he 5ill 3e72ei;e the t7uth as little as a s3oon 3e72ei;es the taste o< sou31 D-1 )< an intelligent man 6e asso2iated <o7 one minute only 5ith a 5ise man, he 5ill soon 3e72ei;e the t7uth, as the tongue 3e72ei;es the taste o< sou31 D/1 Fools o< 3oo7 unde7standing ha;e themsel;es <o7 thei7 g7eatest enemies, <o7 they do e;il deeds 5hi2h 6ea7 6itte7 <7uits1 K01 "hat deed is not 5ell done o< 5hi2h a man must 7e3ent and the 7e5a7d o< 5hi2h he 7e2ei;es 27ying and 5ith a tea7<ul <a2e1 K D 1 *no5, that deed is 5ell done o< 5hi2h a man does not 7e3ent and the 7e5a7d o< 5hi2h he 7e2ei;es gladly and 2hee7<ully1 KK1 !s long as the e;il deed done does not 6ea7 <7uit, the <ool thinks it is like honey, 6ut 5hen it 7i3ens, then the <ool su<<e7s g7ie<1 KL1 !nd 5hen the e;il deed, a<te7 it has 6e2ome kno5n, tu7ns to so77o5 <o7 the <ool, then it dest7oys his 67ight lot, nay, it 2lea;es his head1

LD.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K.1 %et the <ool 5ish <o7 a <alse 7e3utation, <o7 37e2eden2e among the Bhikkus, <o7 lo7dshi3s in the 2on;ents, <o7 5o7shi3 among othe7 3eo3le1 KE1 ! man is not an elde7 6e2ause his head is g7ey J his age may 6e 7i3e, 6ut he is 2alled 8 old-and- ;ain18 KF1 He in 5hom the7e is t7uth, ;i7tue, 3ity, 7est7aint, mode7ation, he 5ho is

<7ee <7om im3u7ity and is 5ise, he is 2alled an elde71 KH1 !n en;ious, stingy, dishonest man does not 6e2ome 7es3e2ta6le 6y means o< mu2h talking only, o7 6y the 6eauty o< his 2om3lexion1 K-1 He in 5hom all this is dest7oyed, and taken out 5ith the ;e7y 7oot, he 5hen <7eed <7om hat7ed and 5ise, is 2alled 7es3e2ta6le1 K/1 ! man is not ?ust i< he 2a77ies a matte7 6y ;iolen2eJ no, he 5ho distinguishes 6oth 7ight and 57ong, 5ho is lea7ned and guides othe7s, not 6y ;iolen2e, 6ut 6y the same Dhamma, 6eing a gua7dian o< the Dhamma and intelligent, he is 2alled ?ust1 L01 ! man is not lea7ned sim3ly 6e2ause he talks mu2h J he 5ho is 3atient, <7ee <7om hat7ed and <ea7, is 2alled lea7ned1 L D 1 ! man is not a su33o7te7 o< the Dhamma 6e2ause he talks mu2h J e;en i< a man has lea7nt little, 6ut sees the Dhamma 6odily, he is su33o7te7 o< the Dhamma, a man 5ho ne;e7 negle2ts the Dhamma1 LK1 )< a man <ind a 37udent 2om3anion 5ho 5alks 5ith him, is 5ise, and li;es so6e7ly, he may 5alk 5ith him, o;e72oming all dange7s, ha33y, 6ut 2onside7ate1 LL1 )< a man <inds no 37udent 2om3anion to 5alk 5ith him, is 5ise, and li;es so6e7ly, let him 5alk alone, like a king 5ho has le<t his 2onCue7ed 2ount7y 6ehind, like an ele3hant in the <o7est1 L.1 )t is 6ette7 to li;e alone, the7e is no 2om3anionshi3 5ith a <ool J let a man 5alk alone, let him 2ommit no sin, 5ith <e5 5ishes, like an ele3hant in the <o7est1 LE1 )< the o22asion a7ises, <7iends a7e 3leasant J en?oyment is 3leasant, 5hate;e7 6e the 2auseJ a good 5o7k is 3leasant, 5hate;e7 6e the 2ause J a good 5o7k is 3leasant in the hou7 o< death J the gi;ing u3 o< all g7ie< is 3leasant1 LDE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> LF1 Pleasant in the 5o7ld is the state o< a mothe7, 3leasant the state o< a

<athe7, 3leasant the state o< a (amana1 LH1 Pleasant is ;i7tue lasting to old age, 3leasant is a <aith <i7mly 7ooted J 3leasant is attainment o< intelligen2e, 3leasant is a;oiding o< sins1 L-1 He 5ho 5alks in the 2om3any o< <ools su<<e7s a long 5ay J 2om3any 5ith <ools as 5ith an enemy, is al5ays 3ain<ul J 2om3any 5ith the 5ise is 3leasu7e, like meeting 5ith kins<olk1 L/1 "he7e<o7e, one ought to <ollo5 the 5ise, the intelligent, the lea7ned, the mu2h endu7ing, the duti<ul, the ele2t, one ought to <ollo5 su2h a good and 5ise man, as the moon <ollo5s the 3ath o< the sta7s1 .01 Follo5 not a<te7 ;anity, no7 a<te7 the en?oyment o< lo;e and lust1 He 5ho is ea7nest o6tains am3le ?oy1 . D 1 +hen the lea7ned man d7i;es a5ay ;anity 6y ea7nestness, he, the 5ise, 2lim6ing the te77a2ed heights o< 5isdom, looks do5n u3on the <ools, <7ee <7om so77o5 he looks u3on the so77o5ing 27o5d, as one that stands on a mountain looks do5n u3on thenB that stand u3on the 3lain .K1 Ea7nest among the thoughtless, a5ake among the slee3e7s, the 5ise man ad;an2es like a 7i2he7, lea;ing 6ehind the ha2k1 '' -1 On thought<ulness and mind<ulness1 ''

D1 )n e;e7ything 6e thought<ulJ in e;e7ything 6e mind<ul J in all things 6e ea7nest and 6old1 K1 "his is the Buddhist +ay o< %i<e1 L1 !ll that 5e a7e is the 7esult o< 5hat 5e ha;e thought J it is <ounded on ou7 thoughts, it is made u3 o< you7 thoughts1 )< a man s3eaks o7 a2ts 5ith an e;il thought, 3ain <ollo5s him1 )< a man s3eaks o7 a2ts 5ith a 3u7e thought, ha33iness <ollo5s him1 "he7e<o7e 3u7e thoughts a7e im3o7tant1 .1 Be not thoughtless, 5at2h you7 thought! D7a5 you7sel< out o< the e;il 5ay, like an ele3hant sunk in mud1

LDF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> E1 %et the 5ise man gua7d his thoughts, <o7 they a7e di<<i2ult to 3e72ei;e, ;e7y a7t<ul, and they 7ush 5hene;e7 they listJ thoughts 5ell -gua7ded 67ing ha33iness1 F1 !s 7ain 67eaks th7ough an ill-that2hed house, 3assion 5ill 67eak th7ough an un7e<le2ting mind1 H1 !s 7ain does not 67eak th7ough a 5ell-that2hed house, 3assion 5ill not 67eak th7ough a 5ell-7e<le2ting mind1 -1 "his mind o< mine 5ent <o7me7ly 5ande7ing a6out as it liked, as it listed, as it 3leased J 6ut ) shall no5 hold it in tho7oughly, as the Elde7 5ho holds the hook holds the <u7ious ele3hant1 /1 )t is good to tame the mind, 5hi2h is di<<i2ult to hold in and tightly, 7ushing 5he7e;e7 it listethJ a tamed mind 67ings ha33iness1 D01 "hose 5ho 67idle thei7 mind 5hi2h t7a;els <a7, 5ill 6e <7ee <7om the 6onds o< tem3tation1 D D 1 )< a man:s <aith is unsteady, i< he does not kno5 the t7ue Dhamma, i< his 3ea2e o< mind is t7ou6led, his kno5ledge 5ill ne;e7 6e 3e7<e2t1 DK1 +hate;e7 a hate7 may do to a hate7, o7 an enemy to an enemy, a 57ongly di7e2ted mind 5ill do him g7eate7 mis2hie<1 DL1 #ot a mothe7, not a <athe7 5ill do so mu2h, no7 any othe7 7elati;es as a 5ell di7e2ted mind 5ill do us1 '' /1 On ;igilan2e1, ea7nestness and 6oldness1 ''

D1 +hen, ;igilant, the 5ise man 3uts <7om him negligen2e, as2ending the to5e7 o< 5isdom he looks do5n, <7ee <7om so77o5, u3on the so77o5- laden 7a2e o< mankind1 !s <7om a mountain to3, the 5ise man looks u3on the <ools in the ;alley1 K1 Gigilant among the negligent, a5ake among those aslee3, as a <leet 2ou7se7 lea;es 6ehind a so77y nag, so go the 5ise1

L1 Ii;e not you7sel;es unto negligen2e1 Ha;e naught to do 5ith the lust o< the <lesh1 "he ;igilant is gi;en to meditation1 LDH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> .1 Ea7nestness leads to 5he7e death is not:J heedlessness is the 5ay to death1 "hose 5ho 2ontinue in ea7nestness do not die, 6ut the heedless a7e as i< al7eady dead1 E1 Fall not a5ay <7om you7 3u73ose <o7 the sake o< anothe7, ho5e;e7 g7eat this latte7 may 6e1 +hen on2e you ha;e seen you7 goal, hold it <i7m and <ast1 F1 Be 5at2h<ul! Ha;e done 5ith indolen2e! "7a;el the "7ue Path ! +hoso 5alks the7eon ha33y he li;es in the 5o7ld1 H1 )dleness is a disg7a2eJ 2onstant sloth is de<ilement1 By st7enuous st7i;ing and 5ith the hel3 o< insight you should 3ull out the 3oisoned a77o5 o< indolen2e1 -1 Ii;e not you7sel;es unto negligen2e1 Ha;e not to do 5ith the lust o< the <lesh1 "he ;igilant, the gi;en to meditation, these attain an o;e7<lo5ing ha33iness1 /1 )< an ea7nest 3e7son has 7oused himsel<, i< he is not <o7get<ul, i< his deeds a7e 3u7e, i< he a2ts 5ith 2onside7ation, i< he 7est7ains himsel<, and li;es a22o7ding to Dhamma, his glo7y 5ill in27ease1 '' D01 On so77o5 and ha33inessJ On Cha7ity and *indness1 '' D 1 Po;e7ty gi;es 7ise to so77o51 K1 But 7emo;al o< 3o;e7ty does not ne2essa7ily gi;e 7ise to ha33iness1 L1 #ot high standa7d o< li;ing 6ut a high standa7d o< 2ultu7e is 5hat gi;es ha33iness1 .1 "his is the Buddhist +ay o< %i<e1 E1 Hunge7 is the 5o7st o< diseases1

F1 Health is the g7eatest o< gi<ts, 2ontentedness the 6est 7i2hesJ t7ust is the 6est o< 7elationshi3s, #i66ana the highest ha33iness1 H1 +e must lea7n to li;e ha33ily indeed, not hating those 5ho hate us ! -1 +e must lea7n to li;e ha33ily indeed, <7ee <7om ailments among the ailing men1 /1 +e must lea7n to li;e ha33ily indeed, <7ee <7om g7eed among the g7eedy1 LD-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D01 Aankind is 7uined 6y 3assion, ?ust as <ields a7e damaged 6y 5eeds ' the7e<o7e 2ha7ity done to the 3assionless 67ings g7eat 7e5a7d1 D D 1 Aankind is damaged 6y ;anity, ?ust as <ields a7e damaged 6y 5eeds1 "he7e<o7e 2ha7ity done to those 5ho a7e <7ee <7om ;anity 67ings g7eat 7e5a7d1 DK1 Aankind is 7uined 6y lust, ?ust as <ields a7e damaged 6y 5eeds1 "he7e<o7e 2ha7ity done to those 5ho a7e <7ee <7om Pust 67ings g7eat 7e5a7d1 DL1 Cha7ity to Dhamma ex2eeds all gi<ts1 "he s5eetness o< the Dhamma ex2eeds the Dhamma1 "he delight in the Dhamma ex2eeds all delights1 D.1 Gi2to7y 67eeds hat7ed, <o7 the 2onCue7ed is unha33y1 He 5ho has gi;en u3 6oth ;i2to7y and de<eat, he, the 2ontented, is ha33y1 D E1 "he7e is no <i7e like 3assion J the7e is no losing th7o5 like hat7edJ the7e is no 3ain like this 6odyJ the7e is no ha33iness highe7 than the 7est1 DF1 Fix not you7 gaOe u3on the ill-5o7ds and ill-deeds o< othe7s, u3on 5hat othe7s do o7 lea;e undone1 %ook 7athe7 at 5hat 6y you7sel< ha;e done o7 le<t undone1 D H1 Ha7d al5ays is li<e <o7 the modest, the seeke7 a<te7 3u7ity, the deta2hed, the 7eti7ing, the 2leanly o< li<e, the dis2e7ning1 D-1 )s the7e in the 5o7ld a man so 6lameless that he gi;es no o22asion <o7 7e37oa2h, as a s3i7ited ho7se gi;es no o22asion <o7 the st7oke o< the lash M

%ike a s3i7ited ho7se that needs not the lash 6e <ie7y, 6e <leet1 D/1 Do not s3eak ha7shly to any6ody' those 5ho a7e s3oken to 5ill ans5e7 thee in the same 5ay1 !ng7y s3ee2h is 3ain<ul, 6lo5s <o7 6lo5s 5ill tou2h thee1 K01 %i6e7ty, 2ou7tesy, good-5ill and unsel<ishness N these a7e to the 5o7ld 5hat the lyn2h-3in to the Cha7iot1 K D 1 "his is the Buddhist +ay o< %i<e1

LD/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> ''DD1 On hy3o27isy1 '' D1 %et not anyone s3eak <alsely1 %et not anyone lead anothe7 to s3eak <alsely, no7 yet a337o;e o< the a2tion o< one 5ho s3eaks <alsely1 %et e;e7y kind o< lying and <alse s3ee2h 6e 3ut a5ay <7om among you1 K1 !s the Pe7<e2t One s3eaks, so He a2ts1 !s the Pe7<e2t One a2ts, so He s3eaks1 !nd 6e2ause He s3eaks as He !2ts and a2ts as He s3eaks, the7e<o7e is He Called the Pe7<e2t One1 L1 "his is the Buddhist +ay o< %i<e1

'' DK1 On <ollo5ing the D 1 Choose the

ight +ay1 ''

ight +ay1 De3a7t not <7om it1 ight +ay1

K1 "he7e a7e many 3aths J not all lead to the L1 "he

ight Path is <o7 the ha33iness not o< the <e5 6ut o< all1

.1 )t must 6e good at the 6eginning, good in the middle and good at the end1 E1 "o <ollo5 the 7ight 5ay is to lead the Buddhist +ay o< %i<e1 F1 "he 6est 5ay is the eight<old 5ay J the 6est o< t7uths the <ou7 5o7ds J the 6est o< ;i7tues 3assionlessnessJ the 6est o< men he 5ho has eyes to see1

H1 "his is the 5ay, the7e is no othe7 that leads to the 3u7i<ying o< intelligen2e1 Io on this 3ath1 -1 )< you so on this 5ay, you 5ill make an end o< 3ain ) "he 5ay 5as 37ea2hed 6y me, 5hen ) had unde7stood the 7emo;al o< the tho7ns @in the <leshB1 /1 &ou you7sel< must make an e<<o7t1 "he "athagatas a7e only 37ea2he7s1 D01: !ll 27eated things 3e7ish,: he 5ho kno5s and sees this 6e2omes 3assi;e in 3ain1

LK0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D D 1 :!ll <o7ms a7e un7eal,8 he 5ho kno5s and sees this 6e2omes 3assi;e in 3ain1 DK1 He 5ho does not 7ouse himsel< 5hen it is time to 7ise, 5ho, though young and st7ong, is <ull o< sloth, 5hose 5ill and thought a7e 5eak, that laOy and idle man ne;e7 <inds the 5ay to kno5ledge1 DL1 +at2hing his s3ee2h, 5ell 7est7ained in mind, let a man ne;e7 2ommit any 57ong 5ith his 6ody ) %et a man 6ut kee3 these th7ee 7oads o< a2tion 2lea7, and he 5ill a2hie;e the 5ay 5hi2h is taught 6y the 5ise1 D.1 "h7ough 7eal kno5ledge is gotten, th7ough la2k o< 7eal kno5ledge is lost J let a man 5ho kno5s this dou6le 3ath o< gain and loss thus 3la2e himsel< that kno5ledge may g7o51 D E1 Cut out the lo;e o< sel<, like an autumn lotus, 5ith thy hand! Che7ish the 7oad o< 3ea2e1 #i7;ana has 6een sho5n 6y the (ugata DF1 Do not <ollo5 the e;il la5 ) Do not li;e on in thoughtlessness ) Do not <ollo5 <alse do2t7ine ) D H1 ouse thysel<! Do not 6e idle! Follo5 the la5 o< ;i7tue ! "he ;i7tuous 7ests in 6liss in this 5o7ld1

D-1 He 5ho <o7me7ly 5as 7e2kless and a<te75a7ds 6e2ame so6e7 67ightens u3 this 5o7ld, like the moon 5hen <7eed <7om 2louds1 D/1 He 5hose e;il deeds a7e 2o;e7ed 6y good deeds, 67ightens u3 this 5o7ld, like the moon 5hen <7eed <7om 2louds1 K01 )< a man has t7ansg7essed the one la5, and s3eaks lies, the7e is no e;il he 5ill not do1 K D 1 "hose 5ho a7e e;e7 5at2h<ul, 5ho study day and night, and 5ho st7i;e a<te7 #i7;ana, thei7 3assions 5ill 2ome to an end1 KK1 "his is an old saying1 W "hey 6lame him 5ho sits silent, they 6lame him 5ho s3eaks mu2h, they also 6lame him 5ho says little : J the7e is no one on ea7th 5ho is not 6lamed1 KL1 "he7e ne;e7 5as, the7e ne;e7 5ill 6e, no7 is the7e no5, a man 5ho is al5ays 6lamed, o7 a man 5ho is al5ays 37aised1

LKD

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K.1 Be5a7e o< the ange7 o< the tongue, and 2ont7ol thy tongue1 %ea;e the sins o< the mind, and 37a2tise ;i7tue 5ith thy mind1 KE1 Ea7nestness is the 3ath o< #i7;ana, thoughtlessness the 3ath o< death1 "hose 5ho a7e in ea7nest do not die, those 5ho :a7e thoughtless a7e as i< dead al7eady1 '' D L1 Aix not t7ue Dhamma 5ith <alse Dhamma1 ''

D1 "hose 5ho mistake <alse <o7 t7ue and t7ue <o7 <alse, the7e a6ides 57ongmindedness N they a77i;e not at the t7uth1 K1 "hose 5ho mistake <alse <o7 t7ue and t7ue <o7 <alse, the7e a6ides 57ongminde<ulness N they a77i;e not at the t7uth1 L1 "hose 5ho kno5 t7ue as t7ue and <alse as <alse, the7e a6ides 7ight-

mindedness-these a77i;e at the t7uth1 .1 !s 7ain gets into an ill-that2hed house, so 27a;ing gets into an ill-t7ained mind1 E1 !s 7ain gets not into a 5ell-that2hed house, so 27a;ing gets not into a 5ell-t7ained mind1 F1 !7ise! Be not negligent! +alk the Iood +ay o< the "ea2hing! +ho 5alks in the 5ay o< the tea2hing, ha33y is he in this and in all 5o7lds1 H1 +alk the Iood +ay o< the tea2hingJ 5alk not in 5ays that a7e e;il1 +ho 5alks in the 5ay o< the tea2hing, ha33y he li;es in this and in all 5o7lds1

LKK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> Pa7t )G N ' His (e7mons1 '' (e2tion ) N (e7mons <o7 Householde7s1 '' R D 1 "he Ha33y Householde71 :Y4 K1 Daughte7 may 6e 6ette7 than a son1 / L1 Hus6and and 5i<e1 '' (e2tion )) N (e7mons on the need <o7 maintaining 2ha7a2te7 '' Z D 1 +hat 2onstitutes the do5n<all o< man1 R K1 "he 5i2ked man1 JJ B L1 "he 6est man1

@; .1 "he enlightened man1 R E1 Aan N ?ust and good1 / F1 #eed <o7 doing good deeds1 R H1 #eed <o7 making good 7esolutions1 '' (e2tion ))) - (e7mons on X: D 1 +hat is ighteousness1 ighteousness1 ''

; K1 #eed <o7 XB L1

ighteousness1

ighteousness and the 2laims o< the 5o7ld1 ighteous Condu2t1

WB .1 Ho5 to 7ea2h 3e7<e2tion in

; E1 One need not 5ait <o7 a 2om3anion to t7ead on the 3ath o< ighteousness1 '' (e2tion )G-(e7mons on #i66ana ''

E D 1 +hat is #i66ana1 :YWB K1 "he 7oots o< #i66ana1 '' (e2tion G N (e7mons on Dhamma1 '' ; D 1 +hy 7ight ;ie5s 7ank <i7st1 -B K1 +hy 6othe7 a6out li<e a<te7 death1 WB L1 P7aye7s and in;o2ations to Iod a7e a <utility1 X .1 )t is not 5hat you eat that makes you holy1 WB E1 #ot <ood 6ut e;il a2tions that matte71 -'J F1 #ot enough is out5a7d 5ashing1 @D H1 +hat is holy li<eM '' (e2tion G) -(e7mons on (o2io3oliti2al Cuestions1 '' ^ D 1 Do not de3end on the <a;ou7 o< 37in2es1 GJ K1 )< the king is 7ighteous his su6?e2ts 5ill 6e 7ighteous1 JU B L1 )t is the so2ial system on 5hi2h de3ends 3oliti2al and milita7y st7ength1 iU .1 +a7 is 57ong1 \ E1 "he duties o< a ;i2to7, 5ho has 5on 3ea2e1

LKL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> '' (e2tion ) N (e7mons <o7 Householde7s1 '' D1 "he Ha33y Householde71

D1 On2e !natha3indika 2ame to 5he7e the Exalted One 5as, made o6eisan2e to the Exalted One and took a seat at one side1 K1 !natha3indika 5as anxious to kno5 5he7ein lay the ha33iness o< a householde71 L1 !22o7dingly !natha3indika asked the %o7d to ex3lain to him the se27et o< the householde7:s ha33iness1 .1 "he %o7d said <i7st is the ha33iness o< 3ossession1 ! householde7 is 3ossessed o< 5ealth, ?ustly and 7ighteously a2Cui7ed 6y g7eat indust7y, amassed 6y st7ength o< the a7m, and ea7ned 6y s5eat @o< the 67o5B 1 !t the thought : ) am 3ossessed o< 5ealth ?ustly gained : he gains ha33iness1 E1 (e2ond is the ha33iness o< en?oyment1 ! householde7 is 3ossessed o< 5ealth ?ustly and 7ighteously a2Cui7ed 6y g7eat indust7y amassed 6y st7ength o< the a7m, and ea7ned 6y s5eat @o< the 67o5B, en?oys his 5ealth and 3e7<o7ms a2ts o< me7it1 "hus at the thought : ) am doing me7ito7ious deeds 5ith my 5ealth 5hi2h 5as ?ustly gained : and so <o7th he gains ha33iness1 F1 "hi7d is the ha33iness o< <7eedom <7om de6t1 ! householde7, o5es no one any de6t g7eat o7 small, thus he gains ha33iness, thus he at the thought o< : ) o5e no man anything: and so <o7th, gains ha33iness1 H1 Fou7th is the ha33iness o< 6lamelessness1 ! householde7, 5ho is endo5ed 5ith 6lameless a2tion o< 6ody, 6lameless s3ee2h and 6lameless thinking, gains ha33iness o< 6lamelessness1 -1 Ge7ily, !natha3indika, these <ou7 kinds: o< ha33iness a7e 2onstantly o6taina6le 6y the householde7, i< he st7i;es <o7 them1

LK.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K1 Daughte7 may 6e 6ette7 than a son1

D1 +hen the Exalted One 5as on2e at (h7a;asti, the king o< the *osalas, Pasendi, had 2ome to ;isit him1 K1 +hile the king 5as engaged in a 2on;e7sation 5ith the Blessed %o7d a messenge7 <7om the Pala2e a77i;ed and a337oa2hing the king, announ2ed to

his 37i;ate ea7 that ]ueen Aallika had gi;en 6i7th to a daughte71 L1 "he king a33ea7ed ;e7y sad and de37essed1 "he Blessed %o7d asked the king the 7eason o< his sadness1 .1 "he king 7e3lied that he had ?ust 7e2ei;ed the sad ne5s that ]ueen Aallika had gi;en 6i7th to a daughte71 E1 "he7eu3on the Exalted One, dis2e7ning the matte7 said ' : ! 5oman 2hild, lo7d o< man, may 37o;e e;en a 6ette7 o<<s37ing than a male1 Fo7 she may g7o5 u3 5ise and ;i7tuous, he7 hus6and:s mothe7 7e;e7en2ing t7ue 5i<e, a daughte71 F1 "he 6oy that she may 6ea7 may do g7eat deeds and 7ule g7eat 7ealms, yea, su2h a son o< a no6le 5i<e 6e2omes his 2ount7y:s guide1 L1 Hus6and and 5i<e1

D 1 !t one time, the Exalted One had ente7ed the high 7oad 6et5een Aadhu7a and #e7an?a1 !lso many householde7s and thei7 5i;es had ?oined the high 7oad 6et5een Aadhu7a and #e7an?a1 K1 "hen the Exalted One ha;ing le<t the 7oad took a seat unde7 a 2e7tain t7ee, and these householde7s and thei7 5i;es sa5 the Exalted One seated unde7 it1 L1 (o seeing they 2ame to 5he7e the Exalted One :5as1 Ha;ing 2ome they made o6eisan2e to the Exalted One and sat at one side and asked the Blessed One the 7ight 7elations 6et5een the hus6and and 5i<e1 "o the householde7s and thei7 5i;es so seated the Exalted One s3ake thus ' .1 8 Householde7s, the7e a7e <ou7 5ays <o7 a hus6and and 5i<e, o< li;ing togethe71 ! ;ile man li;es 5ith a ;ile 5oman, a;ile man li;es 5ith a goddess, LKE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> a god li;es 5ith a ;ile 5oman and a god li;es 5ith a goddess1 E1 8 Household7s" a hus6and kills, stealsJ 2ommits im3u7ity, lies and indulges in

<e7mented liCuo7, is 5i2ked and sin<ul, 5ith his hea7t 3ossessed 6y a;a7i2e he li;es the li<e o< a householde7 and a6uses and 7e;iles ;i7tuous 3eo3le1 !lso his 5i<e kills J 1 steals, 2ommits im3u7ity, lies, and indulges in <e7mented liCuo7, is 5i2ked and sin<ul, 5ith he7 hea7t 3ossessed 6y a;a7i2e she li;es the li<e o< the <amily and a6uses and 7e;iles ;i7tuous 3eo3le1 "hus indeed, householde7s, a ;ile man li;es 5ith a ;ile 5oman1 F1 8 Householde7s! ! hus6and kills, steals, 2ommits im3u7ity, lies and indulges in <e7mented liCuo7, is 5i2ked and sin<ul, 5ith his hea7t 3ossessed 6y a;a7i2e, he li;es the li<e o< a householde7 and a6uses and 7e;iles ;i7tuous 3eo3le1 But his 5i<e a6stains <7om killing, thie;ing, sexual im3u7ity, lying and indulgen2e in <e7mented liCuo71 His 5i<e is ;i7tuous and o< good 6eha;iou7 , 5ith he7 hea7t <7eed <7om the taint o< a;a7i2e she li;es the <amily li<e and a6uses not no7 7e;iles ;i7tuous 3eo3le1 "hus indeed, house -holde7s, a ;ile man li;es 5ith a goddess1 H1 8 Householde7s ) ! hus6and a6stains <7om killing, thie;ing, im3u7ity, lying and indulgen2e in <e7mented liCuo7, is ;i7tuous and o< good 6eha;iou7J 5ith his mind <7eed <7om the stains o< a;a7i2e, he li;es the <amily li<e and a6uses not no7 7e;ile ;i7tuous 3eo3le1 But his 5i<e kills, steals, 2ommits im3u7ity, lies and indulges in <e7mented liCuo7, is 5i2ked and sin<ul J 5ith he7 hea7t 3ossessed 6y a;a7i2e she li;es the <amily li<e and a6uses and 7e;iles ;i7tuous 3eo3le1 "hus indeed, householde7s, a god li;es 5ith a ;ile 5oman1 -1 8 Householde7s! He7ein, a hus6and and a 5i<e 6oth a6stain <7om killing, thie;ing, im3u7ity, lying and indulgen2e in <e7mented liCuo7, a7e ;i7tuous and o< good 6eha;iou7, 5ith mind <7eed <7om taints o< a;a7i2e they li;e the <amily li<e and a6use not no7 7e;ile ;i7tuous 3eo3le1 "hus indeed, householde7s, a god li;es 5ith a goddess1 /1 8 "hese, householde7s, a7e the <ou7 5ays o< li;ing togethe718

LKF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> '' (e2tion )) N (e7mons on the need <o7 maintaining 2ha7a2te7 '' D1 +hat 2onstitutes the do5n<all o< man1 D1 On one o22asion the Blessed One 5as d5elling in the monaste7y o< !natha3indika, in the Peta I7o;e, nea7 (h7a;asti1 K1 #o5 5hen the night 5as <a7 s3ent a 2e7tain De;a 5hose s3lendou7 illuminated the 5hole Peta I7o;e, 2ame to the 37esen2e o< the Blessed One, and, d7a5ing nea7, 7es3e2t<ully saluted Him and stood at one side1 (tanding thus, he add7essed the Blessed One in ;e7se' L1 8 Ha;ing 2ome to inte77ogate the Blessed One, ) ask thee, O Iotama, a6out the <alling man1 P7ay, tell me the 2ause o< one:s do5n<all18 "he Blessed One 2onsented to ex3lain the 2auses o< man:s do5n<all1 .1 8 Easily kno5n is the 37og7essi;e one, easily kno5n is the de2lining one1 ! lo;e7 o< the Dhamma is the 37og7essi;e one, a hate7 o< the Dhamma is the de2lining one1 E1 8 "he ;i2ious a7e dea7 to him, in the ;i7tuous he <inds nothing 3leasingJ he <a;ou7s the 27eeds o< the ;i2ious N this is the se2ond 2ause o< one:s do5n<all1 F1 8 "he man 5ho is d7o5sy, <ond o< so2iety, not indust7ious, indolent, and 5ho mani<ests ange7 N this is the thi7d 2ause o< one:s do5n<all1 H1 8 +hosoe;e7, 6eing 7i2h, does, not su33o7t his aged mothe7 and <athe7, 5ho ha;e 3assed thei7 youth N this is the <ou7th 2ause o< one:s do5n<all1 -1 8He 5ho, 6y <alsehood, de2ei;es a B7ahmana o7 an as2eti2 o7 any othe7 medi2ant N this is the <i<th 2ause o< one:s do5n<all1 /1 8"he man 5ho o5ns mu2h 37o3e7ty, 5ho has gold and <ood, 6ut alone en?oys his deli2a2ies N this is the sixth 2ause o< one:s do5n<all1 D01 8"he man 5ho 37ides in 6i7th o7 5ealth o7 2lan, and des3ises his o5n kinsmen N this is the se;enth 2ause o< one:s do5n<all1 DD18 "he man 5ho is a de6au2hee, d7unka7d, a gam6le7, 5ho sCuande7s

5hate;e7 he 3ossesses N this is the eighth 2ause o< one:s do5n<all1

LKH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DK1 8 #ot 2ontented 5ith one:s o5n 5i;es, i< one is seen amongst 2ou7tesans and the 5i;es o< othe7s N this is the ninth 2ause o< one:s do5n<all1 DL1 8 He 5ho 3la2es in autho7ity an intem3e7ate s3end-th7i<t 5oman, o7 a man o< simila7 natu7e N this is the ele;enth 2ause o< one:s do5n<all1 D.1 8 He 5ho, o< slende7 means, 6ut ;ast am6ition, o< 5a77io7 6i7th, as3i7es to so;e7eignty N this is the t5el<th 2ause o< one:s do5n<all1 DE1 8*no5 these 2auses o< do5n<all, ye no6le De;a, and i< ye su22eed in o;e72oming them ye 5ill 6e sa;ed18 K1 "he 5i2ked man1

D1 "he Blessed %o7d 5hile he 5as on ?ou7ney ga;e as 5as his usual 37a2ti2e the <ollo5ing dis2ou7se to the Bhikkhus 5ho 5e7e a22om3anying him1 K1 !dd7essing the Bhikkhus the %o7d said' 8 Do you kno5 ho5 to 7e2ognise a 5i2ked man M8 8 #o, %o7d 8 7e3lied the Bhikkhus1 L1 8 ) 5ill tell you the 2ha7a2te7isti2s o< a 5i2ked man1 .1 8 "he7e is a man 5ho sho5s u3 the <aults o< anothe7 e;en 5hen unasked, not to say 5hen asked1 Being indeed asked and 3lied 5ith uestions, he s3eaks ill o< anothe7 5ithout su337essing o7 2on2ealing, 6ut 5ith <ull details1 B7eth7en, su2h a man is a 5i2ked man1 E1 8 "he7e is a man 5ho, 6eing asked, does not 3oint out the good Cualities o< anothe7, not to say 5hen unasked1 Being indeed asked and 3lied 5ith Cuestions, he s3eaks, 5ell o< anothe71 F1 :8 "he7e is a man 5ho, 6eing asked, does not dis2lose his o5n 6ad Cualities, not to say 5hen unasked1 Being indeed asked and 3lied 5ith Cuestions, he 3oints out his o5n 6ad Cualities, 6ut su337esses and 2on2eals

them and does not gi;e <ull details1 B7eth7en, su2h a man is a 5i2ked man1 H1 8 "hen again, 67eth7en, the7e is a man 5ho, e;en unasked, dis2loses his good Cualities, not to say 5hen asked1 B7eth7en, 6eing asked and 3lied 5ith Cuestions, 6e 3oints out his o5n good Cualities 5ithout su337essing o7 2on2ealing them and gi;ing <ull details1 B7eth7en, su2h a man is a 5i2ked man18 LK-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L1 "he 6est man1

D 1 "he Blessed One 5hile he 5as on ?ou7ney ga;e as 5as his 37a2ti2e the <ollo5ing dis2ou7se to the Bhikkhus 5ho 5e7e a22om3anying him ' K1 !dd7essing the Bhikkhus the %o7d said' 8 "he7e a7e <ou7 2lasses o< 3e7sons, 67eth7en, to 6e <ound in the 5o7ld1 L1 8He 5ho has not st7i;en <o7 his o5n 5el<a7e no7 that o< othe7sJ he 5ho has st7i;en <o7 othe7s: 5el<a7e, 6ut not his o5nJ he 5ho has st7i;en <o7 his o5n 5el<a7e 6ut not othe7s:J he 5ho has st7i;en <o7 6oth his o5n 5el<a7e and that o< othe7s1 .1 8 One 5ho has st7i;en neithe7 <o7 his o5n 5el<a7e no7 <o7 that o< othe7s is like a to72h <7om a <une7al 3y7e, lit at 6oth ends, and in the middle smea7ed 5ith dung1 He kindles no <uel eithe7 in ;illage o7 in <o7est1 He is useless to the 5o7ld1 !nd he is useless to himsel<1 E1 8 One 5ho has st7i;en <o7 the 5el<a7e o< othe7s at the 2ost o< his o5n is 6oth ex2ellent and eminent o< the t5o1 F1 8 "hen again, 67eth7en, in the 2ase o< the 3e7son 5ho has st7i;en 6oth <o7 his o5n 5el<a7e and <o7 that o< othe7s N o< these <ou7 3e7sons this is 6est and 2hie<, to3most and highest and su37eme18

.1 "he enlightened man1

D 1 !t one time, the Exalted One had 7ea2hed the high 7oad 6et5een @the t5o to5ns o<B $kkattha and (eta66ya1 "hen the B7ahmin named Dona had also 7ea2hed the high 7oad 6et5een $kkattha and (eta66ya1 K1 Pust then the Exalted One le<t the 7oad and sat do5n at the <oot o< a t7ee 27oss-legged1 "hen Dona the B7ahman, <ollo5ing the <ootste3s o< the Exalted One, sa5 Him seated at the <oot o< that t7ee 7es3lendent and o< a 2omely 33ea7an2e, 5ith sense, 2ont7olled, 5ith mind a33eased, su37emely tamed, 7est7ained and 3o5e7<ul1 (o seeing he a337oa2hed 5he7e the Exalted One 5as1

LK/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L1 Ha;ing 2ome he said thus to Him ' 8 )s not the Gene7a6le One a De;a M 8 8 B7ahman, ) am indeed not a De;a18 8 )s not the Gene7a6le One then a Iandha66aM8 8 B7ahman, ) am indeed not a Iandha66a18 8 )s not the Gene7a6le One then a &akkha M 8 8 B7ahman, ) am indeed not a &akkha18 8 )s not the Gene7a6le One then a man M 8 8 B7ahman, ) am indeed not a man18 .1 Ha;ing hea7d the Blessed One 7e3ly thus, the B7ahman Dona said' 8+hen "hou a7t asked' !7e ye a De;a M "hou sayest' #o1 +hen "hou a7t Cuestioned ' !7e ye ha66a M "hou sayest ' #o1 +hen "hou a7t asked' !7e "hou sayest' #o1 +hen "hou a7t Cuestioned ' !7e ye man M "hou sayest ' #o1 +ho then 2an the Gene7a6le a Iandye a &akkha M then a One 6e M 8

E1 8 B7ahman, ;e7ily ) 5as a De;a, a Iandha66a, &akkha, a man, so long as ) had not 3u7ged mysel< o< the intoxi2ants1 "hese ;e7y intoxi2ants ha;e ) no5 gi;en u3 5ith 7oots 2ut out like unto a 3alm-t7ee, 5ith its 6ase dest7oyed and 7ende7ed una6le to s37out again, so that in <utu7e they do not 2ome into existen2e1 F1 8 Pust as a lotus o7 a 5ate7-lily 6o7n o< the 5ate7, g7o5n in the 5ate7,

7isen out o< the 5ate7, stands unstained 6y the 5ate7 e;en so, B7ahman, 6eing 6o7n o< the 5o7ld, g7o5n in the 5o7ld, ha;ing o;e72ome the 5o7ld ) a6ide unstained 6y the 5o7ld1 H1 8 "he7e<o7e, B7ahman, 2onside7 me as the Enlightened One18 E1 Aan N ?ust and good1 D 1 !dd7essing the B7eth7en, the %o7d said, 8 "he7e a7e <ou7 2lasses o< 3e7sons 5hom you must lea7n to distinguish i< you 5ish to as2e7tain 5ho a7e good and ?ust1 K1 8 B7eth7en, the7e is a 2lass o< 3e7sons 5ho st7i;e <o7 thei7 o5n 5el<a7e 6ut not that o<9othe7s1 L1 8 B7eth7en, he7ein a 2e7tain 3e7son 37a2tises the exti73ation o< lust inhimsel<, 6ut does not u7ge the exti73ation o< lust in othe7s ' 37a2tises the LL0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> exti73ation o< ill-5ill in himsel< 6ut does not u7ge the exti73ation o< ill-5ill in othe7s J and also 37a2tises the exti73ation o< igno7an2e in himsel< 6ut does not u7ge the exti73ation o< igno7an2e in othe7s1 .1 8 )ndeed, B7eth7en, this is the 3e7son 5ho 3u7sues his o5n 5el<a7e, 6ut not the 5el<a7e o< othe7s1 E1 8 B7eth7en, the7e is a 2lass o< 3e7sons 5ho ha;e st7i;en <o7 othe7s: 5el<a7e, 6ut not thei7 o5n1 F1 8 B7eth7en, he7ein a 2e7tain 3e7son does not 37a2tise the exti73ation o< lust, ill-5ill and igno7an2e in himsel<, 6ut u7ges the exti73ation o< lust, ill5ill and igno7an2e in othe7s1 H1 8 )ndeed, B7eth7en, this is the 3e7son 5ho has1 st7i;en <o7 othe7s: 5el<a7e, 6ut not his o5n1 -1 8 B7eth7en, the7e is a 2lass o< 3e7sons 5ho st7i;e not, neithe7 <o7 thei7 o5n

5el<a7e no7 that o< othe7s1 /1 8 B7eth7en, he7ein a 2e7tain 3e7son 37a2tises not the exti73ation o< lust, ill5ill and igno7an2e in himsel< no7 u7ges the exti73ation o< lust, ill5ill and igno7an2e in othe7s1 D01 8 B7eth7en, this is the 3e7son that has not st7i;en <o7 his o5n 5el<a7e no7 that o< othe7s1 DD18 B7eth7en, the7e is a 2lass o< 3e7sons 5ho st7i;e <o7 thei7 o5n 5el<a7e as 5ell as that o< othe7s1 DK1 8 B7eth7en, he7ein a 2e7tain 3e7son 6oth 37a2tises the exti73ation o< lust, ill-5ill and igno7an2e in himsel< and also u7ges the exti73ation o< lust, ill5ill and igno7an2e in othe7s1 DL1 8 B7eth7en, this is the 3e7son 5ho has st7i;en <o7 his o5n 5el<a7e as 5ell as that o< othe7s1 D.1 8 "his last 3e7son is to 6e deemed ?ust and good18 F1 #eed <o7 doing good deeds1 D 1 On one o22asion, thus s3ake the Exalted One, to the B7eth7en1 LLD

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K1 8Be not a<7aid o< good 5o7ks, 67eth7en1 )t is anothe7 name <o7 ha33iness, <o7 5hat is desi7ed, 6elo;ed, dea7 and delight<ul, this 5o7d : good 5o7ks:1 ) mysel< 67eth7en 2an 6ea7 5itness to ha;ing 7ea3ed <o7 many a long day the 37o<it o< good 5o7ks a thing desi7ed, 6elo;ed, dea7 and delight<ul1 L1 8 ) o<ten ask : O< 5hat deeds is all this the <7uit M O< 5hat deed is it the 7i3ening, in that ) am no5 thus ha33y and 2ontented1: .1 8"he ans5e7 that 2omes to me is' :O< th7ee deeds this is the <7uit1 O< th7ee deeds this is the 7i3ening, the deeds o< Cha7ity, (el<-taming, and (el<2ont7ol1:

E1 8 !us3i2ious, <esti;e, ha33y, 6lessed da5n ) Fai7 day, glad time is that 5hen alms a7e gi;en to 5o7thy ones ' 5hen goodly a2ts, 5o7ds, thoughts, 7ight as3i7ations, 67ing aus3i2ious gain to those that 37a2tise them1 F1 8 Ha33y a7e they that 5in su2h gain, and 37os3e7ous in the 5ay ) (o 6e ye also 37os3e7ous in the 5ay <7ee <7om disease and ha33y 5ith you7 kin18 H1 #eed <o7 making good 7esolutions1 D 1 On2e 5hen he 5as at (h7a;asti in Peta:s I7o;e the Exalted One said to the B7eth7en ' K1 8 B7eth7en, the7e is a g7eat need o< good 7esolutions to 6e made and o6se7;ed <o7 a 3u7e and ha33y li<e1 L1 8) 5ill tell you 5hat you7 7esolutions should 6e1 .1 8 esol;e that, :all my li<e long may ) su33o7t my 3a7ents1 Aay ) 7es3e2t the head o< my 2an1 Aay ) 6e o< gentle s3ee2h1 Aay ) s3eak e;il o< none1 Clea7ing my hea7t o< the stain o< sel<ishness, may ) d5ell at home gene7ous 3u7e-handed, delighting in gi;ing u3, may ) 6e a 37o3e7 man to ask a 6oon o<, delighting in sha7ing gi<ts 5ith othe7s1 E1 :8!ll my li<e long, may ) 6e ange7 less, and, i< ange7 a7ise, may ) Cui2kly 2he2k it 8 F1 (u2h a7e the se;en 7esolutions B7eth7en, 6y unde7taking and 3e7<o7ming 5hi2h you 5ill attain the state o< ha33iness and 3u7ity1

LLK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> ' (e2tion ))) 9 (e7mons on D1 +hat is ighteousness1 ighteousness1 ''

D1 On2e 5hen the %o7d 5as on an alms -3ilg7image in *osala, 5ith a g7eat t7ain o< almsmen, he 2ame to a B7ahmin ;illage o< the *osalans named (ala1

K1 )t 2ame to the ea7s o< the B7ahmin heads o< <amilies in (ala that the Blessed %o7d had 2ome to thei7 ;illage in the 2ou7se o< an alms -3ilg7image in *osala1 L1 "hey <elt it 5as good to go and ;isit him1 (o the B7ahmins o< (ala 5ent to the %o7d and, a<te7 ex2hanging 2i;il g7eetings, took thei7 seats on one side1 .1 "hey asked the Blessed One i< he 5ould ex3lain to them 5hat he meant 6y 7ighteousness1 E1 (o to the attenti;e B7ahmins the %o7d said ' 8"he7e a7e th7ee <o7ms o< un7ighteousness and 5i2kedness <o7 the 6ody J <ou7 <o7 s3ee2h J and th7ee <o7 thoughts1 F1 8!s 7ega7ds 6odily un7ighteousness, a man @iB may take li<e, as a hunte7 5ith hands 6athed in 6lood, gi;en to killing and slaying, me72iless to li;ing 27eatu7es J o7 @iiB may take 5hat is not his, 6y a337o37iating to himsel< in thie;ish <ashion the 6elongings o< othe7 3eo3le in ;illage and ?ungle J o7 @inB may 6e a <o7ni2ato7, ha;ing inte72ou7se 5ith gi7ls unde7 the 2ha7ge o< mothe7 o7 <athe7 o7 67othe7 o7 siste7 o7 7elations, yes, 5ith gi7ls a<<ian2ed and 3lighted and e;en 5ea7ing the ;e7y ga7lands o< 6et7othal1 H1 8!s 7ega7ds un7ighteousness o< s3ee2h a man @iB may 6e a lia7J 5hen 2ited to gi;e testimony 6e<o7e assem6ly o7 ;illage -meeting o7 <amily 2oun2il o7 7oyal household o7 his guild, he may say that he kno5s 5hen he does not kno5, o7 that he does not kno5 5hen he does kno5, o7 that he sa5 5hen he did not see, o7 that he did not see 5hen he did see, deli6e7ately lying in the inte7ests eithe7 o< himsel< o7 o< othe7 3eo3le o7 <o7 some t7i<ling gain1 O7 @iiB he may 6e a slande7e7J 7e3eating he7e 5hat he has hea7d else5he7e so as to set one set o< 3eo3le 6y the ea7s, and 7e3eating else5he7e 5hat he has hea7d he7e so as to set anothe7 set o< 3eo3le 6y the ea7s J he is a dissol;e7 o< ha7mony and a omente7 o< st7i<eJ dis2o7ds 37om3ts his utte7an2es, dis2o7d 6eing his 3leasu7e, his ?oy, and his delight1 O7 @iiiB he may 6e 6itte7 o<

LLL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> tongueJ 5hat he says is 7ough and ha7sh, hu7t<ul and 5ounding to othe7s, 37o;o2ati;e o< ange7, and leading to dist7a2tion1 O7 @i;B he may 6e a tattle7 talking out o< season, 5ithout heed to <a2t, al5ays talking o< the un37o<ita6le, ne;e7 o< the Do2t7ine, ne;e7 o< the ule, 6ut e;e7 o< the t7i;ial, o< the ill-timed o< the <7i;olous, o< things leading no5he7e, and un37o<ita6le1 -1 8 !s 7ega7ds un7ighteousness o< thought, a man @iB may 6e 2o;etous, 2o;eting othe7 3eo3le:s gea7 5ith the yea7ning that it 5e7e all his o5n1 O7 @iiB he may 6e male;olent and 5i2ked o< hea7t, N 5ishing that 27eatu7es a7ound him might 6e killed, dest7oyed, annihilated, o7 2ease to 6e1 O7 @iiiB he may 6e 57ong in outlook and e77oneous in his 2on2e3tions N holding that the7e a7e no su2h things as alms o7 sa27i<i2e o7 o6lations, that the7e is no su2h things as the <7uit and ha7;est o< deeds good and 6ad, that the7e is no su2h thing as this 5o7ld o7 any othe7, that the7e a7e no su2h things as eithe7 3a7ents o7 7elations else5he7e, that the7e a7e no su2h things in the 5o7ld as 7e2luse and B7ahmins 5ho, ha;ing t7odden the 7ight 3ath and 5alked a7ight, ha;e, o< and 6y themsel;es, 2om37ehended and 7ealiOed this and othe7 5o7lds and made it all kno5n to othe7s too1 /1 8Cont7a7i5ise, the7e a7e th7ee <o7ms o< 7ighteousness and goodness <o7 the 6odyJ <ou7 <o7 s3ee2h and th7ee <o7 thoughts1 D01 8!s 7ega7ds 6odily 7ighteousness, a man @0 3uts <7om him all killing and a6stains <7om killing anythingJ laying aside 2udgel and s5o7d, he li;es a li<e o< inno2en2e and me72y, <ull o< kindliness and 2om3assion <o7 e;e7ything that li;es, @iiB "he<t he 3uts <7om him and es2he5s taking <7om othe7s ex2e3t 5hat is gi;en to him 6y them, he li;es an honest li<e, @iiiB Putting <7om him all sensual mis2ondu2t, he a6stains <7om <o7ni2ationJ he has no inte72ou7se 5ith gi7ls unde7 the 2ha7ge o< mothe7 o7 <athe7 o7 67othe7 o7 siste7 o7 7elations, no inte72ou7se 5ith gi7ls a<<ian2ed and 3lighted and 5ith the ga7lands o< 6et7othal u3on them1

DD1 8!s 7ega7ds 7ighteousness in s3ee2h, @iB a man 3uts lying <7om him and a6stains <7om liesJ 5hen 2ited to gi;e testimony 6e<o7e assem6ly o7 ;illagemeeting o7 <amily 2oun2il o7 7oyal household o7 his guild he says that he does not kno5 5hen he does not, and that he does kno5 5hen he does, says that he did not see 5hen he did not see and that he sa5 5hen he did see, ne;e7 deli6e7ately lying in the inte7ests o< himsel< o7 o< othe7 3eo3le o7 <o7 some t7i<ling gain, @iiB !ll slande7 he 3uts <7om him and <7om slande7ing he a6stainsJ 5hat he hea7s he7e he does not 7e3eat else5he7e so to set one set o< LL.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> 3eo3le 6y the ea7s, no7 does he 7e3eat he7e 5hat he hea7s else5he7e so as to set anothe7 set o< 3eo3le 6y the ea7s, he is a 37omote7 < ha7mony and a 7esto7e7 o< amity, <o7 2on2o7d is his 3leasu7e, his ?oy, and his delight, @iiiB "he7e is no 6itte7ness in his tongue and he a6stains <7om 6itte7 s3ee2hJ 5hat he says is 5ithout gall, 3leasant, <7iendly hea7ty, u76ane, ag7eea6le, and 5el2ome to all1 @i;B #o tattle7, he a6stains <7om tattle, s3eaking in season, a22o7ding to <a2t, al5ays o< the 37o<ita6le, o< the Do2t7ine and ule, in s3ee2h 5hi2h is seasona6le and memo7a6le, illuminating, 5ell -ma7shalled, and o< g7eat 37o<it1 DK1 8 !s 7ega7ds 7ighteousness in thoughts, @iB a man is de;oid o< 2o;etousness, ne;e7 2o;eting othe7 3eo3le:s gea7 5ith the yea7ning that it 5e7e all his o5n1 @iiB He ha76ou7s no male;olen2e o7 5i2kedness o< thoughtJ his 5ish is that 27eatu7es a7ound him may li;e on in 3ea2e and ha33iness, sa<e, <7om all enmity and o337ession, @iiiB He is 7ight in outlook and 2o77e2t in his 2on2e3tions1 DL1 8 "his is 5hat ) mean 6y 7ighteousness and un7ighteousness18 K1 #eed <o7 ighteousness1

D 1 "hen the Exalted One add7essed the lay 67eth7en o< Pataligama' K1 8 "he7e a7e losses, householde7s, 5hi2h attend the 5i2ked and immo7al man1 L1 8 "he 5i2ked, immo7al man, as the 7esult o< sloth, 2omes to g7eat loss o< 5ealth1 .1 8 "hen again, an e;il 7e3o7t 37e;ails a6out him 5hi2h de<ames him in the eyes o< the 5o7ld1 E1 8 +hate;e7 2om3any he may ente7, 6e it a 2om3any o< the no6les, o7 the B7ahmins, o7 the house<athe7s, o7 a 2om3any o< 7e2luses, he ente7s shyly and 2on<used in mind1 He is not <ea7less1 "his is the thi7d loss1 F1 8 !gain, he has no 3ea2e o< mind and is t7ou6led in mind 5hen he dies1 "his is the <ou7th loss1 H1 8 (u2h, householde7s, a7e the losses that attend the 5i2ked and immo7al man1 LLE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> -1 8 Conside7 the 37o<its 5hi2h attend the 7ighteous man 5ho li;es ;i7tuously1 /1 : : "he 7ighteous man 5ho li;es ;i7tuously 2omes 6y a g7eat mass o< 5ealth, due to his o5n exe7tions1 D01 8 "hen, again, a good 7e3utation 37e;ails a6out him1 He is honou7ed e;e7y5he7e1 DD18 )nto 5hatsoe;e7 2om3any he ente7s, 6e it o< the no6les o7 the B7ahmins o7 the house<athe7s o7 the 7e2luses, he ente7s 6old and 2on<ident1 DK1 8 !gain, he en?oys 3ea2e o< mind and makes an end 5ith mind unt7ou6led1 DL1 8 "he <ool in doing ill kno5s not his <olly' His o5n deeds like a <i7e, the <ool 2onsume1 D.1 He 5ho o<<ends the ha7mless inno2ent soon 7ea2hes g7ie;ous disaste7, o7

a mind dist7aught, loss o< 7elations, loss o< all his 5ealth1 L1 ighteousness and the 2laims o< the 5o7ld1

D1 On2e 5hen the %o7d 5as staying at a?ag7aha in the Bam6oo g7o;e 5he7e the sCui77els 5e7e <ed, the 7e;e7end (a7i3utta 5as making an alms 3ilg7image 5ith a g7eat t7ain o< almsmen among the (outhe7n Hills: K1 On his 5ay he met an almsman 5ho had s3ent the 7ainy season at a?ag7aha1 !<te7 inte72hange o< g7eetings o< <7iendliness and 2i;ility, (a7i3utta enCui7ed a<te7 the Aaste7:s health and 5as told he 5as 5ell, as too 5as the Con<7ate7nity, and also the B7ahmin Dhanan?ani o< "andula3ala Iate in a?ag7aha 2on2e7ning 5hose health too (a7i3utta had made enCui7ies1 L1 : !nd is the B7ahmin, Dhanan?ani, Oealous and ea7nest M : asked (a7i3utta <u7the7 o< the !lmsman1 .1 : Ho5 2ould ea7nest Oeal 3ossi6ly d5ell in Dhanan?ani M : 7e3lied the!lmsman1 : He uses the king to <lee2e the B7ahmins and householde7s, and uses them to <lee2e the king1 !lso, his 3ious 5i<e 5ho 2ame o< a 3ious

LLF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> sto2k is dead no5 J and he has taken to himsel< anothe7 5i<e 5ho is not 3ious and 2omes o< no 3ious sto2k1: E1 : "his is 6ad ne5s, ;e7y 6ad ne5s to hea7 o< Dhanan?ani:s la2k o< Oeal,: said (a7i3utta1 :Pe7ha3s, ho5e;e7, at some time and 3la2e ) may meet him ) should like to ha;e a talk 5ith him1: F1 !<te7 staying as1 long as he 5anted in the (outhe7n Hills, (a7i3utta 37o2eeded on his alms 3ilg7image till he 7ea2hed a?ag7aha, 5he7e he took u3 his a6ode in the Bam6oo I7o;e1 H1 Ea7ly in the mo7ning, 6o5l in hand and duly 7o6ed, he 5ent into a?ag7aha <o7 alms, at a time 5hen the B7ahmin Dhanan?ani 5as out o< the 2ity seeing his 2o5s milked in the 6y7e1

-1 On his 7etu7n a<te7 his 7ound and meal, (a7i3utta sought out the B7ahmin1 (eeing him 2oming, the B7ahmin 2ame to meet him 5ith the 7ema7k that they had time <o7 a d7aught o< milk 6e<o7e meal-time1 /1 #ot so1 B7ahmin, ) ha;e had my meal today, and shall 6e 7esting unde7 the shade o< a t7ee du7ing the noontide1 Come to me the7e1 D01 Dhanan?ani ag7eed and a<te7 his o5n meal ?oined (a7i3utta seating himsel< 6y him a<te7 <7iendly g7eetings1 DD1 (aid (a7i3utta' 8Aay ) 7est assu7ed, Dhanan-?ani, that Oeal and ea7nestness and 7ighteousness a7e you7s M DK1 8 Ho5 2an that 6e, 5hen ) ha;e to su33o7t my 3a7ents, my 5i<e and <amily, and my sla;es and se7;ing <olk and ha;e to ente7tain my 2Cuaintan2es and <7iends, my kith and kin, and guests, and ha;e also to 37o;ide <o7 my kins<olk dead and gone, and <o7 the deities, and <o7 the king not to s3eak o< su33o7ting mysel< in meat and d7ink M : : DL1 8+hat think you, Dhanan?aniM )< 5e su33ose a man 5ho, <o7 his 3a7ents: sake, has de3a7ted <7om 7ighteousness and eCuity and is 6eing hauled u3 5ould it a;ail him eithe7 to 3lead on his o5n 6ehal< that it 5as <o7 his 3a7ents: sake that he had de3a7ted <7om 7ighteousness and eCuity and that the7e<o7e he should not 6e hauled u3 M 8 D.1 8 #o J des3ite all a33eals, the 5a7dens 5ould 2ast him into 37ison18

LLH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DE1 8 +ould it a;ail him eithe7 to 3lead on his o5n 6ehal<, o7 to ha;e his 5i<e and <amily 3lead <o7 him, that it 5as <o7 thei7 sake he had de3a7ted <7om 7ighteousness and eCuity M 8 DF1 8#o18 DH18 +ould it a;ail him i< his sla;es and se7;ing <olk 3leaded <o7 him M 8 D-1 8#ot a 5hit8 D/1 8 O7 i< his <7iends and a2Cuaintan2es 3leaded <o7 him M 8

K01 8 #ot a 5hit18 K D 1 8O7 i< his kith and kin, o7 his guests 3leaded <o7 him M 8 KK1 8 #ot a 5hit18 KL1 8 O7 i< his kins<olk dead and gone, 3leaded the 2laims o< his deities, o7 his mona72h:s 2laims on him M 8 K.1 8 #ot a 5hit18 KE1 8 +ould it a;ail him to 3lead on his o5n 6ehal< o7 to ha;e othe7s 3leading <o7 him that it 5as to su33o7t himsel< in meat and d7ink that he de3a7ted <7om 7ighteousness and eCuity M 8 KF1 8 #o18 KH1 8+hat think you,Dhanan?aniM +hi2h is the 6ette7 man M He that <o7 the sake o< his 3a7ents de3a7ts <7om 7ighteousness and eCuity o7 he that no matte7 5hat ha33ens to them 5alks in 7ighteousness and eCuity M 8 K-1 8"he latte7,8 7e3lied Dhanan?ani, 8<o7 to 5alk in 7ighteousness and eCuity is 6ette7 than to de3a7t the7e<7om18 K/1 8 Ao7eo;e7, Dhanan?ani, the7e a7e othe7 2ou7ses o< a2tion 5hi2h a7e ?usti<ied and 7ighteous in themsel;es, 5he7e6y he 2an su33o7t his 3a7ents and yet a;oid e;ildoing and 5alk u37ightly1 #o5, does the same 7easoning a33ly to the su33o7t o< 5i<e and <amily and e;e7ything elseM8 L01 8 )t does, (a7i3utta18 LD1 8He7eu3on the B7ahmin 7e?oi2ing in 5hat the 7e;e7end (a7i3utta had said, thanked him, 7ose u3 and 5ent his 5ay18 LL-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> .1 Ho5 to 7ea2h 3e7<e2tion in ighteous Condu2t1

D 1 On2e 5hile the %o7d 5as staying at (h7a;asti in Peta:s I7o;e the7e 2ame to him <i;e hund7ed lay-<ollo5e7s1 One o< them 5as Dhammika1 K1 Dhammika asked the %o7d ' 8 +hat 37in2i3les make you7 <ollo5e7s 7ea2h

3e7<e2tion in 7ighteous 2ondu2t1 L1 8 ) ask thee this Cuestion 6e2ause thou a7t the most mat2hless ?udge o< the 5eal o< men1 .1 8 "7ained Pains and Aendi2ants all <ailed to ;anCuish thee1 "7ained B7ahmins, 7i3e in yea7s N 5ith othe7s keen to ai7 thei7 3oint o< ;ie5 N a7e led to em67a2e thy sa;ing t7uth1 Fo7, :tis thy sa;ing "7uth, N su6tle, 6ut 37ea2hed so 5ell <o7 5hi2h all yea7n1 Gou2hsa<e an ans5e7, %o7d, to us ) E1 8 %et the lay-<ollo5e7s lea7n <7om thy li3s thy %o7e imma2ulate ) 8 F1 "he Blessed %o7d in 2om3assion <o7 his lay-<ollo5e7s said ' 8 Ii;e me you7 ea71 ) 5ill ex3lain the 37in2i3les o< 7ighteous 2ondu2t1 Hea7 and <ollo5 them1 8 (lay not, no7 doom to death, no7 san2tion slaughte71 Do no ;iolen2e to aught that li;es N st7ong o7 5eak1 -1 8#o layman, 5ittingly, should thie;e, o7 o7de7 the<t, o7 san2tion any the<t, N take 6ut 5hat othe7s gi;e1 /1 8 !nd shun in2ontinen2e as :t5e7e a 3it o< <i7e, o7, <ailing 2ontinen2e, de6au2h no 5edded 5i<e1 D01 8 )n 2on2la;es, 2ou7ts, o7 talk let him not lieJ let him not 37om3t o7 san2tion lies N let him 7enoun2e unt7uth1 DD18 %ayman, o6se7;e this la5' (hun d7inkJ make no man d7inkJ san2tion no d7inking1 Aa7k ho5 d7ink to madness leads1 DK1 8 "h7ough d7ink <ools sin, and egg lax 67eth7en on to sin1 (o <lee this maddening ;i2e, this <olly, 6liss o< <ools1 DL1 8 (lay not, no7 steal, no7 lieJ <7om st7ong d7ink kee3 a5ayJ 7e<7ain <7om le2he7yJ tou2h not 57ong meals at night ) LL/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D.1 8Es2he5 6oth s2ents and 57eathsJ s37ead on the g7ound thy 6edJ so

make thy sa66ath ;o5s as 5eek su22eeds to 5eek, and kee3 5ith 3ious hea7ts this eight<old <esti;al1 D E1 8!t mo7n, these ;o5s 3e7<o7med, 5ith 3ious, thank<ul hea7t 6e 5ise and o< thy means gi;e !lmsmen <ood and d7ink1 DF1 8 Che7ish thy 3a7ents 5ellJ <ollo5 a 7ighteous t7ade1 "hus shall the layman staun2h 7ea2h 7ealms o< light a6o;e1 E1 One need not 5ait <o7 a 2om3anion to t7ead on the 3ath o< ighteousness1 D 1 !n ele3hant in 6attle 6ea7s the a77o5 at him 6u7ied, ) must 6ea7 men:s 6itte7 tongues <o7 e;e7y e;il in the 5o7ld1 K1 "amed, they lead him into 6attleJ tamed, the king his 6a2k as2endsJ tamed, is he the 6est o< 6eings 5hen no 6itte7 s3ee2h o<<ends1 L1 Iood a7e 5ell-tamed mules, and good a7e Cindian steeds o< lineage <amed, good indeed the mighty tuske7J 6est o< all the men sel< -tamed1 .1 &et su2h mounts 2an naught a;ail us, 2annot 6e #i66ana:s guide1 +e 2an only 7ea2h the Path on the sel<-tamed sel<- 7ide E1 "ake delight in Ea7nestnessJ 5at2h thy thoughts and ne;e7 ti7e1 %i<t thee <7om the Path o< E;il, take the "uske7 out o< mi7e1 F1 Hast thou <ound a <ello5-t7a;elle7, u37ight, <i7m, intelligentM %ea;ing all thy 2a7es 6ehind thee, gladly 5alk 5ith him intent1 H1 Hast thou <ound no <ello5-t7a;elle7, u37ight, intelligentM !s a *ing dese7ts his 6o7de7s, 6y the enemy 3u7sued, like the tuske7W in the <o7est, so go thy 5ay in solitude1 -1 Bette7 is the lonely li<e, <o7 <ools 2om3anions 2annot 6e1 %i;e alone and do no e;il, li;e alone 5ith s2anty needs, lonely, as the1 mighty tuske7 in the <o7est lonely <eeds1 /1 Ex3unge all 6ad thoughts1 D01 He7e is the 5ay to ex3unge1 D D 1 &ou a7e to ex3unge 6y 7esol;ing that, though othe7s may 6e ha7m<ul, you 5ill 6e ha7mless1 L.0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DK1 "hat, though othe7s may kill, you 5ill ne;e7 kill1 D L1 "hat, though othe7s may steal, you 5ill not1 D.1 "hat, though othe7s may not lead the highe7 li<e, you 5ill1 D E1 "hat, though othe7s may lie, t7adu2e, denoun2e, o7 37attle, you 5ill not1 DF1 "hat, though othe7s may 6e 2o;etous, you 5ill 2o;et not1 D H1 "hat, though othe7s may 6e malignant, you 5ill 6e 6enignant1 D-1 "hat, though othe7s may 6e gi;en o;e7 to 57ong ;ie5s, 57ong aims, 57ong s3ee2h, a2tions, 57ong modes o< li;elihood, 57ong e<<o7t, 57ong mind<ulness and 57ong 2on2ent7ation you must <ollo5 the #o6le Eight<old Path in 7ight outlook, 7ight aims, 7ight s3ee2h, 7ight a2tions, 7ight mode o< li;elihood, 7ight e<<o7ts, 7ight mind<ulness and 7ight 2on2ent7ation1 D/1 "hat, though othe7s a7e 57ong a6out the t7uth and 57ong a6out Deli;e7an2e, you 5ill 6e 7ight a6out t7uth and 7ight a6out Deli;e7an2e1 K01 "hat, though othe7s may 6e 3ossessed 6y sloth and to73o7, you 5ill <7ee you7sel< the7e<7om1 KD1 "hat, though othe7s may 6e 3u<<ed u3, you 5ill 6e hum6le -minded1 KK1 "hat, though othe7s may 6e 3e73lexed 6y dou6ts, you 5ill 6e <7ee <7om them1 KL1 "hat, though othe7s may ha76ou7 57ath, male;olen2e, en;y, ?ealousy, nigga7dliness, a;a7i2e, hy3o27isy, de2eit, im3e7;iousness, a77ogan2e, <o75a7dness, uns27u3ulousness, la2k o< inst7u2tion, ine7tness, 6e5ilde7ment, and un5isdom N you 5ill 6e the 7e;e7se o< all these things1

'' (e2tion )G9(e7mons on #i66ana ''

D1 +hat is #i66ana1

D 1 On2e the Blessed %o7d 5as staying at (h7a;asti in !natha3indika:s !7ama

5he7e (a7i3utta 5as also staying1

L.D

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K1 "he %o7d add7essing the B7eth7en said' 8 !lmsmen, 6e ye 3a7take7s not o< the 5o7ld:s goods 6ut o< my do2t7ineJ in my 2om3assion <o7 you all ) am anxious to ensu7e this18 L1 "hus s3oke the %o7d, 5ho the7eu3on 7ose and 3assed to his o5n 2ell1 .1 (a7i3utta 7emained 6ehind and the B7eth7en asked him to ex3lain 5hat is #i66ana1 E1 "hen (a7i3utta in 7e3ly to the B7eth7en said' 8 B7eth7en, kno5 you that g7eed is ;ile, and ;ile is 7esentment1 F1 8 "o shed this g7eed and this 7esentment, the7e is the Aiddle +ay 5hi2h gi;es us eyes to see and makes us kno5, leading us on to 3ea2e, insight, enlightenment and #i66ana1 H1 8 +hat is this Aiddle +ay M )t is naught 6ut the #o6le Eight-<old Path o< 7ight outlook, 7ight aims, 7ight s3ee2h, 7ight a2tion, 7ight means o< li;elihood, 7ight e<<o7t, 7ight mind<ulness and 7ight 2on2ent7ationJ this1 !lmsmen is the Aiddle +ay1 -1 8&es, si7sJ ange7 is ;ile and male;olen2e is ;ile, en;y and ?ealousy a7e ;ile, nigga7dliness and a;a7i2e a7e ;ile, hy3o27isy and de2eit and a77ogan2e a7e ;ile, in<lation is ;ile, and indolen2e is ;ile1 /1 8 Fo7 the shedding o< in<lation and indolen2e the7e is the Aiddle +ay N gi;ing us eyes to see, making us kno5, and leading us on to 3ea2e, insight, enlightenment1 D01 8 #i66ana 5hi2h is naught 6ut that #o6le Eight-<old Path18 D D 1 "hus s3oke the 7e;e7end (a7i3utta N glad at hea7t, the !lmsmen 7e?oi2ed at 5hat he had said1

K1 "he 7oots o< #i66ana1 @iB D1 On2e the ;ene7a6le adha 2ame to the Exalted One1 Ha;ing done so he saluted the Exalted One and sat do5n on one side1 (o seated the ;ene7a6le adha thus add7essed the Exalted One' 8 P7ay, %o7d, 5hat <o7 is #i66ana18 K1 8 #i66ana means 7elease <7om 3assion,8 7e3lied the %o7d1 L.K

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L1 8 But #i66ana, %o7d, N 5hat is the aim o< it M 8 .1 8 ooted in #i66ana, its goal1 #i66ana is its end18 @iiB D1 On2e the Exalted One 5as d5elling at (h7a;asti, in Peta:s I7o;e, at !natha3indika:s Pa7k1 "hen the Exalted One 2alled the 67eth7en, saying, ! B7eth7en1: W &es, %o7d,: 7e3lied those 67eth7en to the Exalted One1 "he Exalted One thus s3ake1 K1 8Do ye 6ea7 in mind, 67eth7en, the Fi;e Fette7s that 6ind to the lo5e7 5o7ld, as taught 6y me M8 L1 +he7eu3on the ;ene7a6le Aalunkya3utta said this to the Exalted One ' .1 8), %o7d, 6ea7 in mind those Fi;e Fette7s18 E1 8!nd ho5, Aalunkya3utta, do you 6ea7 them in mind M8 F1 8 ) 6ea7 in mind1 %o7d, the ;ie5 o< 6odyhood, as taught 6y the Exalted One, and 5a;e7ing, and the mo7al taint o< de3enden2e on 7ite and 7itual, the ex2itement o< sensual delight, and male;olen2e, taught 6y the Exalted One as <ette7s that 6ind to the lo5e7 5o7ld1 "hese a7e the Fi;e Fette7s that ) 6ea7 in mind1 %o7d18 H1 8!s taught <o7 5hom, Aalunkya3utta, do you 6ea7 in mind these Fi;e Fette7sM +ill not the 5ande7e7s o< othe7 ;ie5s 7e37oa2h you, using the 3a7a6le o< a tende7 6a6y <o7 thei7 7e37oa2h and saying thus' adha, the 7ighteous li<e is li;ed1 #i66ana is

-1 8 But, Aalunkya3utta, the7e 2an 6e no 6odyhood <o7 a tende7 6a6y6oy, dull o< 5its and lying on his 6a2k1 Ho5, then, 2an the7e a7ise in him any ;ie5 o< 6odyhood M &et the7e is indeed latent in him a tenden2y to the ;ie5 o< 6odyhood1: /1 ! %ike5ise, Aalunkya3utta, the7e 2an 6e, no mental 2onditions <o7 a tende7 6a6y-6oy, dull o< 5its ana lying on his 6a2k1 Ho5, then, 2an the7e 6e in him any 5a;e7ing o< mental 2onditions M &et the7e is in him a latent tenden2y to 5a;e7ing1:

L.L

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D01 8 : (o also, Aalunkya3utta, he 2an ha;e no mo7al 37a2ti2e1 Ho5, then, 2an the7e 6e in him any mo7al taint o< de3enden2e on 7ite and 7itualM &et he has a latent tenden2y the7eto1: DD18 !gain, Aalunkya3utta, that tende7 6a6e has no sensual 3assions1 Ho5, then, 2an 6e kno5n the ex2itement o< sensual delight M But the tenden2y is the7e1: DK1 :8%astly, Aalunkya3utta, <o7 that tende7 6a6e 6eings do not exist1 Ho5 then 2an it ha76ou7 male;olen2e against 6eings M &et the tenden2y the7eto is in him1: DL1 8#o5, Aalunkya3utta, 5ill not those 5ande7e7s o< othe7 ;ie5s thus 7e37oa2h you, using <o7 thei7 7e37oa2h the 3a7a6le o< that tende7 6a6y6oy M ii D.1 +hen this 5as said, the ;ene7a6le !nanda thus add7essed the Exalted One ' 8 #o5 is the time, Exalted One1 O +ay<a7e7, no5 is the time <o7 the Exalted One to set18 '' (e2tion G N (e7mons on Dhamma1 ''

D1 +hy 7ight ;ie5s 7ank <i7st1

D 1 O< the no6le Eight<old 3ath the no6lest is

ight Outlook1

K1 ight thinking is the 37e<a2e and the key to e;e7y thing else in the highe7 li<e, and igno7an2e1 L1 "he la2k o< unde7standing is the 7oot o< all e;il1 .1 Fo7 de;elo3ing 7ight outlook one must see all 3henomena o< li<e as a 37o2ess o< 2ausal la51 "o ha;e 7ight outlook is to 7e2ognise the la5 o< 2ause and e<<e2t1 E1 8 +hatsoe;e7 indi;idual, 67eth7en, <ollo5s 3e7;e7ted ;ie5s, 3e7;e7ted aim, 3e7;e7ted s3ee2h o7 a2ts o7 li;ing, 3e7;e7ted e<<o7t, attention, and 2ontem3lation ' 5hose kno5ledge and eman2i3ation a7e 3e7;e7ted, <o7 him e;e7y a2tion o< deed, 5o7d o7 thought, 3e7<o7med and a2hie;ed a22o7ding to L..

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> su2h 3e7;e7ted ;ie5s J e;e7y 5illed a2t, e;e7y as3i7ation, e;e7y 7esol;e, all his a2ti;ities, these things one and all 2ondu2e to 5hat is distaste<ul, un3leasing, 7e3ulsi;e, un37o<ita6le, and 3ain<ul1 !nd 5hy so M Be2ause o< his e;il ;ie518 F1 "o 6e 7ight is not enough1 ! 6a6y may 6e 7ight 6ut that does not mean that a 6a6y kno5s 5hat is 7ight1 "o 6e 7ight one must kno5 5hat is 7ight1 H1 8 !na7da, 5ho 2an 6e 7ightly des27i6ed as an almsmanM Only he 5ho has maste7ed 5hat is 7ationally 3ossi6le and 5hat is 7ationally im3ossi6le18 K1 +hy 6othe7 a6out li<e a<te7 death1 D 1 On a 2e7tain o22asion the ;ene7a6le *assa3a the I7eat and the ;ene7a6le (a7i3utta 5e7e staying nea7 Bena7es at )si3atana in the Dee7 Pa7k1 K1 "hen the ;ene7a6le (a7i3utta 7ising u3 at e;entide <7om solitude, 5ent to

the ;ene7a6le *assa3a the I7eat and sat do5n on one side1 L1 (o seated, the ;ene7a6le (a7i3utta said to the ;ene7a6le *assa3a the I7eat1 8Ho5 no5 <7iend *assa3a M Does the "athagata exist 6eyond deathM .1 8 $nde2la7ed is it, <7iend, 6y the Exalted One that the "athagata exists 6eyond death, E1 8+hat then <7iendM Does the "athagata 6oth exist and not exist 6eyond death M F1 8 "his also, <7iend, is unde2la7ed 6y the Exalted One1 H1 8Ho5 then, <7iendM Does the "athagata neithe7 not exist 6eyond death M "hat also, <7iend, is not de2la7ed 6y the Exalted One1 -1 8 But 5hy, <7iend, has it not 6een de2la7ed 6y the Exalted One M 8 /1 8 "his is a Cuestion not 2on2e7ned 5ith 37o<it to humanity o7 5ith the <i7st 37in2i3les o< holy li<e1 )t does not lead to 3e7<e2t 5isdom no7 to #i66ana1 "hat, <7iend, is 5hy it is not de2la7ed 6y the Exalted One18 L1 P7aye7s and in;o2ations to Iod a7e a <utility1

L.E

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D 1 On2e the Blessed %o7d s3eaking to Gasettha said' K1 8 )< this 7i;e7 !2hi7a;ati 5e7e <ull o< 5ate7 e;en to the 67im and o;e7<lo5ing, and a man 5ith 6usiness to 6e done on the <u7the7 6ank o< it should 2ome u3, and 5ant to 27oss o;e7 ' L1 8 !nd standing on that 6ank, he should in;oke the <u7the7 6ank and say ' : Come hithe7, <u7the7 6ank ) Come o;e7 to this side ) : .1 8 #o5 5hat think you, Gasettha M +ould the <u7the7 6ank o< the 7i;e7 !2hi7a;ati, 6y that man:s in;oking and 37aying, and ho3ing, and 37aising, 2ome o;e7 to this sideM E1 8)n ?ust the same 5ay, Gasettha, do the B7ahmins, ;e7sed in the th7ee

Gedas, omitting the 37a2ti2e o< those Cualities 5hi2h 7eally make a man a B7ahmin, and ado3ting the 37a2ti2e o< those Cualities 5hi2h 7eally make men non- B7ahmins say thus ' F1 8 : )nd7a 5e 2all u3on, B7ahma 5e 2all u3on, )sana 5e 2all u3on, P7a?a3ati 5e 2all u3on, B7ahma, 5e 2all u3on, 5e 2all, 5e 2all: H1 8 Ge7ily, Gasettha, that these B7ahmins, 6y 7eason o< thei7 in;oking 1and 37aying and ho3ing and 37aising, should a<te7 death 6e2ome united 5ith B7ahma N ;e7ily su2h a 2ondition o< things 2an in no5ise 6e18 .1 )t is not 5hat you eat that makes you holy1

D1 ! B7ahmin ha33ened to meet the %o7d and 7aised the Cuestion o< the e<<e2t o< <ood on a man:s 2ha7a2te71 K1 "he B7ahmin said ' 8 "he millet-g7ain, 3alm-nuts, 3ulse, 6ul6s, and 5ilding shoots N this diet 7ightly got, e;e7 37om3ts the good li<e1 "is eating 2a77ion that is 6ad18 L1 "he Blessed One 7e3lied' 8 "hough you @%o7dB say you tou2h no 2a77ion, you eat 2hoi2e dishes made 5ith <lesh o< 6i7ds N D ask 5hat you te7m :2a77ion18 .1 8 *illing and maiming, st7i3es, 6onds, the<t, lies, <7aud, de2eit, adulte7y N not meats, 6ut these a7e 2a77ion1

L.F

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> E1 8 Pu7suit o< 3leasu7e, lust <o7 guOOlings, li<e un2lean, 6latant dissent N not meats, 6ut these a7e 2a77ion1 F1 8 Ba2k6iting, 27uelty, 6et7ayals, 7uthless 37ide, mean stinginess N not meats, 6ut these a7e 2a77ion1 H1 8 !nge7, 2on2eit, 7e;olt, guile, en;y, 6luste7, 37ide, lo5 2om3any N not meats, 6ut these a7e 2a77ion1

-1 8 Base li;ing, slande7, <7aud, 2heating, the t7i2kste7:s 5iles, <oul in<amies N not meats, 6ut these a7e 2a77ion1 /1 8 "his 7age to slay and steal, these 27imes, a7e <7aught 5ith doom and end in hell N not meats, 6ut these a7e 2a77ion1 D01 8 #o a6stinen2e <7om meat and <ish, no nudity, no to3knots, sha;en 27o5ns, o7 ga76 o< 3elt, no 2ult o< sa27ed <i7e, no sta7k auste7ities to 3u72hase <utu7e 6liss, no 7insing, 6u7nt-o<<e7ing, 7ites,: 2an 2leanse the man 5ho dou6ts1 DD1 8 Cont7ol thy sense, 7ule thy 3o5e7s, hold to "7uth, 6e kind1 "he saint 5ho lea;es all ties and ;anCuishes all ills, is stained 6y naught he eithe7 sees o7 hea7s18 DK1 Hea7ing the %o7d 37ea2h these lo<ty, sa;ing t7uths, denoun2ing :2a77ion:, and s5ee3ing ills a5ay, the B7ahmin meekly knelt and asked to 6e en7olled as !lmsman then and the7e1 E1 #ot <ood 6ut e;il a2tions that matte71

D 1 ! B7ahmin 6y name !magandha 5as an as2eti2 5ho li;ed in the 7egion o< Himalayas 5ith his 3u3ils1 K1 "hey ate neithe7 <ish no7 <lesh1 E;e7y yea7 they 2ame do5n <7om thei7 he7mitage in sea72h o< salt and a2ids1 "he inha6itants o< the ;illage 7e2ei;ed them 5ith honou7 and ga;e them hos3itality <o7 <ou7 months1 L1 "hen the Blessed %o7d 5ith his monks ;isited the same ;illage1 "he 3eo3le on hea7ing the %o7d 37ea2h his Dhamma 6e2ame his <ollo5e7s1

L.H

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> .1 "hat yea7 e;en !magandha and his dis2i3les as usual 5ent to the ;illage7s 6ut the ;illage7s did not sho5 the same enthusiasm1

E1 !magandha 5as disa33ointed to hea7 that the %o7d did not <o76id eating <ish and <lesh1 +ishing to ha;e the matte7 2on<i7med he 5ent to Peta Gana at (h7a;asti 5he7e the Blessed %o7d 5as then staying and said' F1 8 Aillet, 2ingula-6eans and 3eas, edi6le lea;es and 7oots, the <7uit o< any 27ee3e7 J the 7ighteous 5ho eat these, o6tained ?ustly, do not tell lies <o7 the sake o< 3leasu7es1 H1 8 "hou eatest 5hate;e7 <ood is gi;en 6y othe7s, 5hi2h is 5ell 37e3a7ed, ni2ely got u3, 3u7e and ex2ellent1 He 5ho en?oys su2h <ood made o< 7i2e, he eats, !magandha1 &ou say that the 2ha7ge o< !magandha, does not a33ly to me, 5hile eating 7i2e 5ith 5ell 37e3a7ed 6i7d:s <lesh1 -1 8 ) inCui7e the meaning o< this <7om you, o< : 5hat kind is you7 !magandha M 8 /1 "he %o7d 7e3lied' 8 "aking li<e, 6eating, 2utting, 6inding, stealing, lying, <7aud, de2ei;ing, 5o7thless kno5ledge, adulte7y J this is !magandha and not the eating o< <lesh1 D01 8 )n this 5o7ld those indi;iduals, 5ho a7e un7est7ained in sensual 3leasu7es, 5ho a7e g7eedy <o7 s5eet things, 5ho a7e asso2iated 5ith im3u7e a2tions, 5ho a7e o< #ihilisti2 ;ie5s, 27ooked, di<<i2ult to <ollo5J this is !magandha and not the eating o< <lesh1 DD1 8)n this 5o7ld those 5ho a7e 7ude, ha7sh, 6a2k6iting, t7ea2he7ous, unkind, ex2essi;ely egoisti2, ungene7ous, and do not gi;e anything to any6odyJ this is !magandha, and not the eating o< <lesh1 DK1 8 !nge7, 37ide, o6stina2y, antagonism, de2eit, en;y, 6oasting, ex2essi;e egoism, asso2iation 5ith the un7ighteousJ this is !magandha, and not eating o< <lesh1 DL1 8 "hose 5ho a7e o< 6ad mo7als, 7e<use to 3ay thei7 de6t, slande7e7s, de2eit<ul in thei7 dealings, 37etende7s, those 5ho in this 5o7ld 6eing the ;ilest o< men, 2ommit su2h 57ongdoings, this is !magandha and not the eating o< <lesh1 D.1 8 "hose 3e7sons 5ho, in this 5o7ld, a7e un2ont7olled to5a7ds li;ing 6eings, 5ho a7e 6ent on in?u7ing othe7s, ha;ing taken thei7 6elongingsJ

L.-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> immo7al, 27uel, ha7sh, dis7es3e2t<ulJ this is !magandha and not the eating o< <lesh1 DE1 8 "hose 5ho atta2k these li;ing 6eings eithe7 6e2ause o< g7eed o7 o< hostility, and al5ays 6ent u3on @e;ilB, they go to da7kness a<te7 death and <all into hell headlong J this is !magandha and not the eating o< <lesh1 DF1 8!6staining <7om <ish o7 <lesh, nakedness, sha;ing o< the head, matted hai7, 2o;e7ing 5ith ashes, 5ea7ing 7ough dee7 skins, attending the sa27i<i2ial <i7e, no7 all these ;a7ious 3enan2es in the 5o7ld @3e7<o7medB <o7 immo7tality, neithe7 in2antations, o6lations, sa27i<i2es no7 seasonal o6se7;an2es, 3u7i<ies a 3e7son 5ho has not o;e72ome his dou6t1 D H1 8He 5ho li;es 5ith his senses gua7ded and 2onCue7ed and is esta6lished in the Dhamma, delights in u37ightness and gentleness, 5ho has gone 6eyond atta2hments and has o;e72ome all so77o5sJ that 5ise man does not 2ling to 5hat is seen and hea7d1 D-1 8)t is e;il a2tions 5hi2h 2onstitute !ma-gandha and not the eating o< <ish o7 <lesh18 F1 #ot enough is out5a7d 5ashing1

D1 On2e the Exalted One 5as d5elling at (h7a;at9si1 !nd the B7ahmin (anga7a;a also d5elt the7e1 #o5 he 5as a 2leanse7 6y 5ate7, and 37a2tised 2leansing 6y 5ate71 #ight and day he a6ode gi;en to the ha6it o< going do5n to 6athe1 K1 #o5 the ;ene7a6le !nanda, 7o6ing himsel< at an ea7ly hou7 and taking oute7 7o6e and 6o5l, 5ent <o7th to (h7a;atsi to 6eg1 !nd 5hen he had gone his 7ounds in (h7a;atsi and had eaten his meal, u3on his 7etu7n, he 5ent to the Exalted One, saluted Him, and sat do5n on one side1 (o seated, the ;ene7a6le !nanda said' L1 8%o7d, the7e is he7e one (anga7a;a, a B7ahmin, d5elling at (h7a;atsi, a

2leanse7 6y 5ate7, one 5ho 37a2tises 2leansing 6y 5ate71 #ight and day does he a6ide gi;en to the ha6it o< going do5n to 6athe1 +ell 5e7e it1 %o7d, i< the Exalted One 5ould 3ay a ;isit to the B7ahmin (anga7a;a, out o< 2om3assion <o7 him18

L./

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> .1 !nd the Exalted One 2onsented 6y His silen2e1 E1 (o next day at an ea7ly hou7, the Exalted One 7o6ed Himsel< and taking oute7 7o6e and 6o5l 5ent to the d5elling o< the B7ahmin (anga7a;a, and 5hen He got the7e He sat do5n on a seat made 7eady1 F1 "hen the B7ahmin (anga7a;a 2ame to the Exalted One and g7eeted Him, and a<te7 the ex2hange o< mutual 2ou7tesies sat do5n on one side1 H1 !s he thus sat, the Exalted One said this to the B7ahmin (anga7a;a ' 8 )s it t7ue1 B7ahmin, as they say, that thou a7t a 2leanse7 6y 5ate7, that thou dost 37a2tise 2leansing 6y 5ate7, a6iding night and day gi;en to the ha6it o< going do5n to 6athe M 8 -1 8 "7ue it is1 Aaste7 Iotama18 /1 8 #o5, B7ahmin, seeking 5hat 37o<it dost thou so 37a2tise the ha6it o< going do5n to 6athe, and so <o7th M : : D01 8)t is in this 5ay1 Aaste7 Iotama1 +hatsoe;e7 e;il ) do 6y day, ) get it 5ashed a5ay that ;e7y e;ening 6y my 6athing1 +hatsoe;e7 e;il ) do 6y night ) get it 5ashed a5ay next mo7ning 6y my 6athing1 "hat is the 37o<it ) am looking <o7 in 6eing a 2leanse7 6y 5ate7 and so <o7th18 D D 1 "hen said the Exalted One ' DK1 8 "he #o7m is the 3ool1 )t is 2lea7 and unde<iled18 DL1 8 Hithe7 5hen they ha;e 2ome to 6athe, the maste7s o< the lo7e, a7e 2leansed in e;e7y lim6, and 3ass unto the Fu7the7 (ho7e18 D.1 +he7eu3on the B7ahmin (anga7a;a said to the Exalted One ' 8 Ex2ellent

it is1 Aaste7 Iotama1 Aay the Aaste7 Iotama a22e3t me as His <ollo5e7, <7om this day <o7th so long as li<e doth last, as one 5ho has taken 7e<uge in Him18 H1 +hat is holy li<eM

D 1 On2e 5hile the Blessed %o7d 5as on ?ou7ney he ga;e, as 5as his 37a2ti2e, the <ollo5ing dis2ou7se to the Bhikkhus 5ho 5e7e a22om3anying him1

LE0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K1 !dd7essing the Bhikkhus the %o7d said' 8 67eth7en, this holy li<e is not 37a2tised 5ith a ;ie5 to de2ei;e 3eo3le, no7 to seek thei7 <a;ou7, no7 <o7 the 3u73ose o< gain, 6ene<it, o7 <ame, no7 5ith the intention o< getting out o< di<<i2ulties in 2ont7o;e7sy, no7 that one may 6e kno5n as su2h and su2h 6y men1 )ndeed, 67eth7en, this holy li<e is 37a2tised <o7 the 2ont7olling @o< 6ody and s3ee2hB, the 2leansing @o< 2o77u3tionsB and the deta2hment @<7omB and 2essation @o< 27a;ingB18

(e2tion G) -(e7mons on (o2io:3oliti2al Cuestions1 '' D1 Do not de3end on the <a;ou7 o< 37in2es1

D1 On2e the Exalted One 5as staying at the (Cui77els: Feeding g7ound1

a?ag7aha in the Bam6oo I7o;e in

K1 !t that time P7in2e !?atasat7u5as su33o7ting De;adatta 5ho had tu7ned hostile to the Blessed %o7d1 L1 He 5as maintaining the su33o7te7s o< De;adatta, late and ea7ly 5ith <i;e hund7ed 2a7ts, 2on;eying the7ein <ood 67ought in <i;e hund7ed 2ooking3ots1

.1 "hen a num6e7 o< the 67eth7en 2ame 6e<o7e the Exalted One, saluted Him, and sat do5n on one side, and [the7e sitting they told all o< these things to the Exalted One1 E1 "hen the Blessed %o7d add7essing the 67eth7en said ' 8 Do ye not long <o7 gains, <a;ou7s and <latte7y <7om the kings1 (o long, 67eth7en, as P7in2e !?atasat7u thus su33o7ts De;adatta late and ea7ly, 5ith <i;e hund7ed 2a7ts, 2on;eying the7ein <ood 67ought in <i;e hund7ed 2ooking -3ots, it is 7uin, 67eth7en, that may 6e ex3e2ted o< De;adatta, and not g7o5th in good 2onditions1 F1 8 Pust as i<, 67eth7en, one 5e7e to 27um6le li;e7 on a mad dog:s nose, the dog 5ould only get the madde7, e;en so, 67eth7en, so long as P7in2e !?atasat7u thus su33o7ts De;adatta it is 7uin that may 6e ex3e2ted o< De;adatta, and not g7o5th in good 2onditions1 "hus te77i6le, 67eth7en, a7e gains, <a;ou7s, and <latte7y o< the 37in2es1 LED

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> H1 8 "hey a7e a 6itte7, 3ain<ul hind7an2e to the attainment o< the su7e 3ea2e that 3asseth all1 -1 8 +he7e<o7e, 67eth7en, thus must you t7ain you7sel;es' : +hen gains, <a;ou7s and <latte7y 6e<all us, 5e 5ill 7e?e2t them, and 5hen they do 6e<all us, they shall not "ay hold o< and 6e esta6lished in ou7 hea7ts: and make us sla;es o< the 37in2e1: 8 K1 )< the king is 7ighteous his su6?e2ts 5ill 6e 7ighteous1 D 1 On2e the %o7d add7essing the !lmsmen said ' K1 8 B7eth7en du7ing su2h time as kings a7e un7ighteous thei7 ministe7s and o<<i2e7s also 6e2ome un7ighteous1 "he ministe7s and o<<i2e7s, 67eth7en, 6eing un7ighteous1 B7ahmins and householde7s also 6e2ome un7ighteous1 "he B7ahmins and householde7s, 67eth7en, 6eing un7ighteous, the to5n-<olk and ;illage7s 6e2ome un7ighteous1

L1 8 But 5hene;e7, 67eth7en, kings a7e 7ighteous, then kings: ministe7s and o<<i2e7s also 6e2ome 7ighteous1 +hene;e7 kings: ministe7s and o<<i2e7s 6e2ome 7ighteous the B7ahmins and householde7s also 6e2ome 7ighteous1 +hene;e7 B7ahmins and householde7s 6e2ome 7ighteous, the to5n -<olk and ;illage7s also 6e2ome 7ighteous1 .1 8+hen kine a7e 27ossing, i< the old 6ull s5e7;es, they all go s5e7;ing, <ollo5ing his lead1 (o among men, i< he 5ho is 7e2koned 2hie< 5alks 27ookedly, the othe7s 27ooked go1 E1 8 (imila7ly, the 5hole 7ealm su<<e7s 5hen the king goes 57ong1 +hen kine a7e 27ossing, i< the 6ull goes st7aight they all go st7aight 6e2ause his 2ou7se is st7aight1 (o among men, i< he 5ho:s 7e2koned 2hie< 5alks 7ighteously, the othe7s li;e a7ight1 "he 5hole 7ealm lead ha33y li;es 5hen kings a7e good18 L1 )t is the so2ial system on 5hi2h de3ends 3oliti2al and milita7y st7ength1

D1 "he Blessed One 5as on2e d5elling in the Gultu7es: Peak1 LEK

a?ag7aha, on the hill 2alled

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K1 #o5 at that time, !?atasat7u, the son o< the Cueen 2onso7t o< Gideha o7igin, the king o< Aagadha, 5as desi7ous o< atta2king the Ga??ins, and he said to himsel<, 8 ) 5ill 7oot out these Ga??ins, mighty and 3o5e7<ul though they 6e, ) 5ill dest7oy these Ga??ins, ) 5ill 67ing these Ga??ins to utte7 7uin ) 8 L1 (o he s3oke to the B7ahmin Gasaka7a, the P7ime Ainiste7 o< Aagadha, and said ' .1 8 Come no5, B7ahmin, do you go to the Blessed One, and 6o5 do5n in ado7ation at his <eet on my 6ehal< and enCui7e on my 6ehal< 5hethe7 he is <7ee <7om illness and su<<e7ing and in the en?oyment o< ease and 2om<o7t and ;igo7ous health1 E1 8 "hen tell him that !?atasat7u,: son o< Gidehi, the *ing o< Aagadha, is

eage7 to atta2k the Ga??ins, mighty and 3o5e7<ul though they 6e, ) 5ill dest7oy these Ga??ins, ) 5ill 67ing these Ga??ins to utte7 7uin ) F1 8 !nd 6ea7 2a7e<ully in mind 5hate;e7 the Blessed One may 37edi2t and 7e3eat it to me1 Fo7 the Buddha s3eaks nothing unt7ue18 H1 "hen the B7ahmin Gasaka7a hea7kened to the 5o7ds o< the king, saying, 8 Be it as you say18 !nd o7de7ing a num6e7 o< magni<i2ent 2a77iages to 6e 7eady he 5ent to the Gultu7es: Peak1 -1 On a77i;ing the7e he ex2hanged 5ith the Blessed One the g7eetings and 2om3liments and then deli;e7ed to him the message e;en as the king had 2ommanded1 /1 #o5 at that time the ;ene7a6le !nanda 5as standing 6ehind the Blessed One1 !nd the Blessed One said to him' 8 Ha;e you hea7d, !nanda, that the Ga??ins hold <ull and <7eCuent 3u6li2 assem6liesM D01 8 %o7d, so ) ha;e hea7d,8 7e3lied he1 DD1 8(o long, !nanda,8 7e?oined the Blessed One, 8as the Ga??ins hold these <ull and <7eCuent 3u6li2 assem6liesJ so long may they 6e ex3e2ted not to de2line, 6ut to 37os3e71 DK1 8(o long, !nanda, as the Ga??ins meet togethe7 in 2on2o7d, and 7ise in 2on2o7d, and 2a77y out thei7 unde7takings in 2on2o7d1 DL1 8(o long as they ena2t nothing not al7eady esta6lished, a67ogate nothing that has 6een al7eady ena2ted and a2t in a22o7dan2e 5ith the an2ient LEL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> institutions o< the Ga??ins as esta6lished in <o7me7 days1 D.1 8(o long as they honou7 and esteem and 7e;e7e and su33o7t the Ga??in Elde7s, and make it a 3oint o< duty to hea7ken to thei7 5o7ds1 DE1 8 (o long as no 5omen o7 gi7ls 6elonging to thei7 2lans a7e detained among them 6y <o72e o7 a6du2tion1 DF1 8 (o long as the Ga??ins 7es3e2t and <ollo5 7eligion1

DH1 8(o long, !nanda, the Ga??ins may 6e ex3e2ted not to de2line 6ut to 37os3e7 and no one 2an dest7oy them18 D-1 )n sho7t, the Blessed %o7d de2la7ed that so long as the Ga??ins 6elie;e in demo27a2y and 37a2tise demo27a2y the7e is no dange7 to thei7 (tate1 D/1 "hen the Blessed One add7essed Gasaka7a and said' K01 8 +hen ) 5as on2e staying, B7ahmin, at Gaishali ) taught the Ga??ins these 2onditions o< 5el<a7e1 K D 1 8+e may ex3e2t then,8 ans5e7ed the B7ahmin, 8the 5el<a7e and not the de2line o< the Ga??ins, so long as they o6se7;e these 2onditions1 (o, Iotama, the Ga??ins 2annot 6e o;e72ome 6y the king o< Aagadha18 KK1 (o Gasaka7a hea7d the 5o7ds o< the Blessed One, 7ose <7om his seat and 5ent 6a2k to a?ag7aha to in<o7m the king o< 5hat the %o7d had said1 .1 +a7 is 57ong1

D1 )t so ha33ened that !?atasat7u, the king o< Aagadha, muste7ing an a7my o< 2a;al7y and in<ant7y, in;aded *asi, a 3a7t o< the kingdom o< king Pasenadi1 !nd Pasenadi, hea7ing o< the ex3edition, also muste7ed a simila7 a7my and 5ent to meet him1 K1 "he t5o <ought 5ith one anothe7 and !?atasat7u de<eated the king Pasenadi, 5ho 7et7eated to his o5n 2a3ital (h7a;asti1 L1 "he Bhikkhus 5ho 5e7e in (h7a;asti 7etu7ning <7om thei7 alms 7ound 2ame and told the Exalted One o< the 6attle and the 7et7eat1

LE.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> .1 8 !lmsmen, the king o< Aagadha, !?atasat7u, is a <7iend o< 5hate;e7 is e;il1 *ing Pasenadi is a <7iend o< 5hate;e7 is good1 Fo7 the 37esent, Pasenadi 5ill 3ass the night in mise7y, a de<eated man1 E1 8 ConCuest engende7s hateJ the 2onCue7ed li;es in mise7y1 But 5hoso is at

3ea2e and 3assionless, ha33ily doth he li;e J 2onCuest hath he a6andoned and de<eat18 F1 !gain it so ha33ened these t5o kings met in 6attle a se2ond time1 But in that 6attle, the *osala king Pasenadi de<eated !?atasat7u and 2a3tu7ed him ali;e1 "hen king Pasenadi thought' 8 !lthough this king in?u7es me 5ho 5as not in?u7ing him, yet is he my ne3he51 +hat i< ) 5e7e no5 to 2on<is2ate his enti7e a7my, ele3hants, ho7ses, 2ha7iots and in<ant7y and lea;e him only his li<e M 8 !nd he did so1 H1 !nd almsmen 7etu7ning <7om thei7 alms tou7 in (h7a;asti 67ought 5o7d o< this to the Exalted One1 "he7eu3on the Exalted One said' 8 ! man may s3oil anothe7, ?ust so <a7 as it may se7;e his ends, 6ut 5hen he:s s3oiled 6y othe7s, he, des3oiled, s3oils yet again1 -1 8 (o long as e;il:s <7uit is not matu7ed, the <ool doth <an2y no5:s the hou7, the 2han2el : But 5hen the deed 6ea7s <7uit, he <a7eth ill1 /1 8 "he slaye7 gets a slaye7 in his tu7n J the 2onCue7o7 gets one 5ho 2onCue7s him J the a6use7 5ins a6use <7om anothe71 D01 8 "hus 6y the e;olution o< the deed, a man 5ho s3oils is s3oiled in his tu7n18

E1 "he duties o< a ;i2to7, 5ho has 5on 3ea2e1

D 1 +hen the Gi2to7 in 5a7 has 5on the Pea2e he 2laims the 7ight <u7the7 to deg7ade the ;anCuished i< not to ensla;e him1 "he Buddha had a totally di<<e7ent ;ie5 on the matte71 )n His ;ie5 i< Pea2e had any meaning it means that the Gi2to7 has a duty to use his ;i2to7y <o7 the se7;i2e o< the ;anCuished1 "his is 5hat he said to the Bhikkhus on this su6?e2t ' K1 8 +hen Pea2e is 5on, the ade3t in 5a7<a7e needs to 37o;e an a6le, u37ight man, o< g7a2ious s3ee2h, kind mood, de;oid o< a77ogan2e, an easy, g7ate<ul guest, no 6usy6ody 5ants 6ut <e5 sens -dis2i3lined, Cui2k-5itted, 6luste7LEE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> <7ee, ne;e7 im3o7tunateJ and let him ne;e7 stoo3 to 2ondu2t mean o7 lo5, e;oking g7a;e 7e6uke1 L1 8 Aay 27eatu7es all a6ound, in 5eal and 3ea2eJ may all 6e 6lessed 5ith 3ea2e al5ays, all 27eatu7es 5eak o7 st7ong, all 27eatu7es g7eat and small J 27eatu7es unseen o7 seen d5elling a<a7 o7 nea7, 6o7n o7 a5aiting 6i7th, may all 6e 6lessed 5ith 3ea2e ) .1 8%et none 2a?ole o7 <lout his <ello5s any5he7e J let none 5ish othe7s ha7m in dudgeon o7 in hate1 E1 8 Pust as 5ith he7 o5n li<e a mothe7 shields <7om hu7t he7 o5n, he7 only 2hild, let all-em67a2ing thoughts <o7 all that li;es 6e thine, an allem67a2ing lo;e <o7 all the uni;e7se in all its heights and de3ths and 67eadths, unstinted lo;e, unma77ed 6y hate 5ithin, not 7ousing enmity1 F18 (o, as you stand o7 5alk, o7 sit, o7 lie, 7e<le2t 5ith all you7 might on this ' : "is deemed a state di;ine1: 8

LEF

@D

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

8''BOO* G''8 "HE (!#IH Pa7t )N "he (angh

D1 "he (angh and its O7ganisation1 ''

K1 !dmission to the (angh1

L1 "he Bhikkhu and His Go5s1

.1 "he Bhikkhu and E22lesiasti2al O<<en2es1

E1 "he Bhikkhu and

est7aints1

F1 "he Bhikkhu and Iood Condu2t

ules1

H1 "he Bhikkhu and the "7ial o< O<<en2es1

-1 "he Bhikkhu and Con<ession1

'' D1 "he (angh and its O7ganisation1 ''

D 1 "he <ollo5e7s o< the Blessed %o7d 5e7e di;ided into t5o 2lasses' 6hikkhus and %ay Follo5e7s 2alled u3asakas1 K1 "he Bhikkhus 5e7e o7ganised into a (angh ; 5hile the $3asakas 5e7e not1 L1 "he Buddhist Bhikkhu is 37ima7ily a Pa7i;-7a?aka1 "his institution o< Pa7i;7a?aka is olde7 than that o< the Buddhist Bhikkhu1 .1 "he old Pa7i;7a?akas 5e7e 3e7sons 5ho had a6andoned <amily li<e and 5e7e a me7e <loating 6ody o< 5ande7e7s1 E1 "hey 7oamed a6out 5ith a ;ie5 to as2e7tain the t7uth 6y 2oming into 2onta2t 5ith ;a7ious tea2he7s and 3hiloso3he7s, listening to thei7 dis2ou7ses, ente7ing into dis2ussion on matte7s o< ethi2s, 3hiloso3hy, natu7e, mysti2ism, et21

F1 (ome o< the old ty3e o< Pa7i;7a?akas li;ed unde7 a tea2he7 until they <ound anothe71 Othe7s li;ed singly 5ithout a2kno5ledging any maste71 H1 !mong these olde7 ty3e o< Pa7i;7a?akas the7e 5e7e also 5omen 5ande7e7s1 "he <emale Pa7i;7a?akas sometimes li;ed 5ith men Pa7i;7a?akasJ sometimes they li;ed alone and 6y themsel;es1 LEH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> -1 "hese old ty3e o< Pa7i;7a?akas had no (angh, had no 7ules o< dis2i3line and had no ideal to st7i;e <o71 /1 )t 5as <o7 the <i7st time that the Blessed %o7d o7ganised his <ollo5e7s into a (angh o7 <7ate7nity, and ga;e them 7ules o< dis2i3line and set 6e<o7e them an ideal to 3u7sue and 7ealise1 '' K1 !dmission to the (angh1 '' D 1 "he (angh 5as o3en to all1 K1 "he7e 5as no 6a7 o< 2aste1 L1 "he7e 5as no 6a7 o< sex1 .1 "he7e 5as no 6a7 o< status1 E1 Caste had no 3la2e in the (angh1 F1 (o2ial status had no 3la2e in the (angh1 H1 )nside the (angh all 5e7e eCual1 -1 )nside the (angh 7ank 5as 7egulated 6y 5o7th and not 6y 6i7th1 /1 !s the Blessed %o7d said the (angh 5as like the o2ean and the Bhikkhus 5e7e like the 7i;e7s that <ell into the o2ean1 D01 "he 7i;e7 has its se3a7ate name and se3a7ate existen2e1 DD1 But on2e the 7i;e7 ente7ed the o2ean it lost its se3a7ate name and se3a7ate existen2e1 DK1 )t 6e2omes one 5ith the 7est1 DL1 (ame is the 2ase 5ith the (angh1 +hen a Bhikkhu ente7ed the (angh he

6e2ame one 5ith the 7est like the 5ate7 o< the o2ean1 D.1 He lost his 2aste1 He lost his status' so said the %o7d1 DE1 "he only distin2tion o6se7;ed inside the (angh 5as that o< sex1 "he Bhikkhu (angh 5as se3a7ate in its o7ganisation <7om the Bhikkhuni (angh1

LE-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D F1 "he ent7ants into the (angh 5e7e di;ided into t5o 2lasses' sh7amane7as and 6hikkhus1 D H1 !nyone 6elo5 t5enty 2ould 6e2ome a (h7amane7a1 D-1 By taking the t7isa7anas and 6y taking the ten 37e2e3ts a 6oy 6e2omes a (h7amane7a1 D/1 8) <ollo5 the BuddhaJ ) <ollo5 the DhammaJ and ) <ollo5 the (angh8 N a7e the "7isa7anas1 K01 8) shall a6stain <7om killingJ ) shall not 2ommit the<tJ ) shall <ollo5 B7ahma2ha7yaJ ) shall not tell unt7uthJ ) shall a6stain <7om d7ink18 KD1 8) shall a6stain <7om taking <ood at an untimely hou7J ) shall a6stain <7om inde2ent and immo7al a2tsJ ) shall a6stain <7om o7namenting and de2o7ating mysel<J ) shall a6stain <7om luxu7iesJ ) shall a6stain <7om the lo;e o< gold and sil;e718 KK1 "hese a7e the ten 37e2e3ts1 KL1 ! (h7amane7a 2an lea;e the (angh at any time and 6e2ome a layman1 ! (h7amane7a is atta2hed Bhikkhu and s3ends his time in the se7;i2e o< the Bhikkhu1 He is not a 3e7son 5ho has taken Pa7i;7a?a1 K.1 "he status o< a Bhikkhu has to 6e 7ea2hed in t5o stages1 "he <i7st stage is 2alled Pa7i;7a?a and the se2ond stage is 2alled $3asam3ada1 )t is a<te7 $3asam3ada that he 6e2omes a Bhikkhu1 KE1 ! 2andidate 5ho 5ishes to take Pa7i;7a?a 5ith a ;ie5 ultimately to 6e2ome a Bhikkhu has to seek a Bhikkhu 5ho has the 7ight to a2t as an $33adhya1 ! Bhikkhu 2an 6e2ome an $33adhya only a<te7 he has s3ent at

least D0 yea7s as a Bhikkhu1 KF1 (u2h a 2andidate i< a22e3ted 6y the $33adhya is 2alled a Pa7i;7a?aka and has to 7emain in the se7;i2e and tutelage o< the $33adhya1 KH1 !<te7 the 3e7iod o< tutelage ends it is his $33adhya 5ho has to 37o3ose the name o< his student to a meeting o< the (angh s3e2ially 2alled <o7 the 3u73ose <o7 $3asam3ada and the student must 7eCuest the (angh <o7 $3asam3ada1

LE/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K-1 "he (angh must 6e satis<ied that he is a <it and a 37o3e7 3e7son to 6e made a Bhikkhu1 Fo7 this 3u73ose the7e is a set o< Cuestions 5hi2h the 2andidate has to ans5e71 K/1 Only 5hen the (angh g7ants 3e7mission that $3asam3ada is g7anted and the 3e7son 6e2omes a Bhikkhu1 L01 "he 7ules 7egulating ent7y into the Bhikkhuni (angh a7e mo7e o7 less the same as the 7ules 7egulating the ent7y into the Bhikkhu (angh1 '' L1 "he Bhikkhu and His Go5s1 ''

D1 ! layman o7 a (h7amane7a takes 37e2e3ts1 His o6ligation is to <ollo5 them1 K1 ! Bhikkhu 6esides taking 37e2e3ts takes them also as ;o5s 5hi2h he must not 67eak1 )< he 67eaks them he 6e2omes lia6le to 3unishment1 L1 ! Bhikkhu ;o5s to 7emain 2ele6ate1 .1 ! Bhikkhu ;o5s not to 2ommit the<t1 E1 ! Bhikkhu ;o5s not to 6oast1 F1 ! Bhikkhu ;o5s not to kill o7 take li<e1 H1 ! Bhikkhu ;o5s not to o5n anything ex2e3t 5hat the 7ules allo51 -1 #o Bhikkhu is to 3ossess mo7e than the <ollo5ing eight a7ti2les' N

@DB "h7ee 3ie2es o< 2loth to 2o;e7 his 6ody' @iB lo5e7 ga7ment 2alled !nta7;aska1 @iiB u33e7 ga7ment 2alled $tta7asang1 @iiiB 2o;e7ing ga7ment against 2old 2alled (anghati1 @KB ! gi7dle <o7 the loins1 @LB !n alms-6o5l1 @.B ! 7aOo71 LF0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> @EB ! needle1 @FB ! 5ate7-st7aine71 /1 ! Bhikkhu takes the ;o5 o< 3o;e7ty1 He must 6eg <o7 his <ood1 He must li;e on alms1 He must sustain himsel< only on one meal a day1 +he7e the7e is no Giha7 6uilt <o7 the (angh, he must li;e unde7 a t7ee1 D01 ! Bhikkhu does not take a ;o5 o< o6edien2e1 Out5a7d 7es3e2t and 2ou7tesy to his su3e7io7s is ex3e2ted <7om the no;i2e1 His o5n sal;ation and his use<ulness as a tea2he7 de3end on his sel<-2ultu7e1 He is to o6ey not his su3e7io7 6ut the Dhamma1 His su3e7io7 :has no su3e7natu7al gi<t o< 5isdom o7 o< a6solution1 He must stand o7 <all 6y himsel<1 Fo7 that he must ha;e <7eedom o< thought1 DD1 !ny 67ea2h o< a ;o5 taken 6y a Bhikkhu 7esults in an o<<en2e o< Pa7a?ika1 "he 3unishment <o7 Pa7a?ika is ex3ulsion <7om the (angh1

'' .1 "he Bhikkhu and E22lesiasti2al O<<en2es1 '' D1 !ny 67ea2h o< the ;o5s taken 6y a Bhikkhu is an o<<en2e against the Dhamma1 K1 )n addition to these o<<en2es the7e 5e7e 2e7tain othe7 o<<en2es to 5hi2h he 5as also lia6le1 "hey 5e7e 2alled (anghadisesa N e22lesiasti2al o<<en2es1 L1 "he list o< su2h o<<en2es in2luded in the Ginaya Pitaka a7e thi7teen1

.1 "hey a7e allied to the Pa7a?ika1 '' E1 "he Bhikkhu and est7aints1 ''

D1 Besides sailing 2lea7 o< o<<en2es a Bhikkhu must o6se7;e 2e7tain 7est7i2tions and 2annot 6e as <7ee as othe7s1 K1 One set o< su2h 7est7i2tions a7e 2alled #)((!I)&!-P!C)"")&!1 )t 2ontains KF 7est7i2tions to 6e o6se7;ed 6y the Bhikkhu1 LFD

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L1 "hey 7elate to a22e3ting gi<ts o< 7o6es, 5oollen mats, 6o5l and medi2al 7eCuisites1 .1 "hey also 7elate to the a22e3tan2e o< gold and sil;e71 Engagement o< a monk in 6uying and selling and a337o37iation o< 37o3e7ty gi;en to the (angh to himsel<1 E1 "he 3unishment <o7 67ea2h o< these 7est7i2tions is 7esto7ation @nissagiyaB and ex37ession o< 7e3entan2e @3a2ittiyaB 1 F1 Besides these 7est7i2tions the7e a7e othe7 7est7i2tions 5hi2h a Bhikkhu has to o6se7;e1 "hey a7e 2alled 3a2ittiya1 they num6e7 ninety-t5o1 '' F1 "he Bhikkhu and Iood Condu2t ules1''

D 1 ! Bhikkhu must 6eha;e 5ell1 He should 6e a model 3e7son in his mode and manne7 o< 6eha;iou71 K1 )n o7de7 to se2u7e this 3u73ose the Blessed %o7d <7amed a num6e7 o< Condu2t ules1 L1 "hese Iood Condu2t se;enty-<i;e1 ules 5e7e 2alled (ekhiya Dhamma1 "hey num6e7

'' H1 "he Bhikkhu and the "7ial o< O<<en2es1 ''

D1 "he ena2tment o< these a2ts and omissions 5e7e not a me7e <o7mality1 "hey 5e7e legal in su6stan2e in;ol;ing a de<inite 2ha7ge, t7ial and 3unishment1

K1 #o Bhikkhu 2ould 6e 3unished 5ithout a t7ial 6y a 7egula7ly 2onstituted Cou7t1 L1 "he Cou7t 5as to 6e 2onstituted 6y the Bhikkhus 7esident at the 3la2e 5he7e an o<<en2e had taken 3la2e1 .1 #o t7ial 2ould take 3la2e 5ithout a 37o3e7 num6e7 o< Bhikkhus 7eCui7ed to 2onstitute a Cou7t1

LFK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> E1 #o t7ial 5ould 6e legal 5ithout a de<inite 2ha7ge1 F1 #o t7ial 2ould 6e legal i< it did not take 3la2e in the 37esen2e o< the a22used1 H1 #o t7ial 2ould 6e legal i< the a22used had not 6een gi;en the <ullesto33o7tunity to de<end himsel<1 -1 "he <ollo5ing 3unishments 2ould 6e a5a7ded against a guilty Bhikkhu' @iB "a7?aniya *a7ma @5a7n and dis2ha7geB1 @iiB #iyasha *a7ma @de2la7ing insaneB 1 @iiiB P7a;7a?niya *a7ma @ex3ulsion <7om the (anghB 1 @i;B $tskhe3niya *a7ma @6oy2ottB 1 @;B Pa7i;asa *a7ma @ex3ulsion <7om Giha7B 1 /1 Ex3ulsion may 6e <ollo5ed 6y a66ana ka7ma 1 !66ana *a7ma means annulment o< dismem6e7ment1 )t may 6e <ollo5ed a<te7 g7anting o< Pa7don g7anted 6y the (angh a<te7 6eing satis<ied 5ith the 37o3e7 3e7<o7man2e o< Pa7i;asa *a7ma1

'' -1 "he Bhikkhu and Con<ession1 ''

D1 "he most o7iginal and uniCue institution 27eated 6y the Blessed %o7d in

2onne2tion 5ith the o7ganisation o< the Bhikkhus 5as the int7odu2tion o< Con<ession, 2alled u3osath1 K1 "he Blessed %o7d 7ealiOed that it 5as 3ossi6le to en<o72e 5hat he had laid do5n as o<<en2es1 But he had laid do5n 2e7tain 7est7i2tions 5hi2h 5e7e not o<<en2es1 He said that the 7est7i2tions 5e7e most intimately 2onne2ted 5ith 6uilding u3 o< 2ha7a2te7 and maintaining 2ha7a2te7J and that the7e 5as eCual ne2essity to see that they 5e7e o6se7;ed1 L1 But the %o7d 2ould <ind no e<<e2ti;e 5ay o< en<o72ing them1 He the7e<o7e thought o< Con<ession in o3en as a means o< o7ganising the Bhikkhu:s 2ons2ien2e and making it a2t as a sentinel to gua7d him against taking a 57ong o7 <alse ste31 .1 "he Con<ession 5as 2on<ined to the t7ansg7essions o< 7est7i2tions @5hi2h 5e7e 2alled PatimokhaB 1 LFL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> E1 Fo7 a Con<ession the7e 5as to 6e a meeting o< the Bhikkhus o< a gi;en lo2ality1 "he7e 5e7e to 6e th7ee su2h meetings in a <o7tnight, one ea2h on 2hatu7dashi, 3an2hadasi and ashataml on that day the Bhikkhus may <ast1 "hat is 5hy the day is also 2alled u3osath1 F1 !t the meeting a Bhikkhu 7eads the 7est7i2tions one 6y one 2ontained in the Patimokha1 !<te7 7eading a 7est7i2tion he says to the assem6led Bhikkhus, 8) take it that none o< you ha;e t7ansg7essed this ule, that is 5hy you a7e silent18 He says this th7ee times1 "hen deals 5ith the next 7est7i2tion1 H1 ! simila7 Con<essional meeting is 7eCui7ed o< the Bhikhhuni (angh1 -1 On a Con<ession a 2ha7ge and t7ial may <ollo51 /1 On a <ailu7e to Con<ess, any Bhikkhu may 7e3o7t a t7ansg7ession i< he 5as a 5itness to it and then a 2ha7ge and t7ial may <ollo51 Pa7t )) N "he Bhikkhu N "he Buddha:s Con2e3tion o< him1 D1 Buddha:s 2on2e3tion o< 5hat a Bhikkhu should 6e1 ''

K1 "he Bhikkhu and the !s2eti21

L1 "he Bhikkhu and the B7ahmin1

.1 "he Bhikkhu and the $3asaka1

'' D1 Buddha:s 2on2e3tion o< 5hat a Bhikkhu should 6e1 ''

D1 "he Buddha has himsel< told the Bhikkhus 5hat he ex3e2ted o< them as Bhikkhus1 "his is 5hat he has said1 K1 8 He 5ho 5ishes to 3ut on the yello5 d7ess 5ithout ha;ing 2leansed himsel< <7om sin, 5ho dis7ega7ds also tem3e7an2e and t7uth, is un5o7thy o< the yello5 d7ess1 L1 8 But he 5ho has 2leansed himsel< <7om sin, is 5ell g7ounded in all ;i7tues, and endo5ed also 5ith tem3e7an2e and t7uth, he is indeed 5o7thy o< the yello5 d7ess1 .1 8! man is not a mendi2ant @BhikkhuB sim3ly 6e2ause he asks othe7s <o7 almsJ he 5ho ado3ts the 5hole la5 is a Bhikkhu, not he 5ho only 6egs1

LF.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> E1 8He 5ho is a6o;e e;il, 5ho is 2haste, 5ho 5ith 2a7e 3asses th7ough the 5o7ld, he indeed is 2alled a Bhikkhu1 F1 8 #ot only ente7ing into o< 7elease 5hi2h extin2tion o< 6y dis2i3line and ;o5s, not only 6y mu2h lea7ning, not 6y a t7an2e not 6y slee3ing alone, do ) ea7n the ha33iness no 5o7ldling 2an kno51 Bhikkhu, he 5ho has o6tained the desi7es, has o6tained 2on<iden2e1

H1 8 "he Bhikkhu 5ho 2ont7ols his mouth, 5ho s3eaks 5isely and 2almly, 5ho tea2hes the meaning o< the la5, his 5o7d is s5eet1 -1 8 He 5ho d5ells in the1 la5, delights in the la5, meditates on the la5, 7e2olle2ts the la5, that Bhikkhu 5ill ne;e7 <all a5ay <7om the t7ue la51 /1 8 %et him not des3ise 5hat he has 7e2ei;ed, no7 e;e7 en;y othe7sJ a mendi2ant 5ho en;ies othe7s does not o6tain 3ea2e o< mind1 D01 8! Bhikkhu 5ho, though he 7e2ei;es little, does not des3ise 5hat he has 7e2ei;ed, e;en the gods 5ill 37aise him, i< his li<e is 3u7e, and i< he is not sloth<ul1 ))1 8He 5ho ne;e7 identi<ies himsel< 5ith name and <o7m, and does not g7ie;e o;e7 5hat is no mo7e, he indeed is 2alled a Bhikkhu1 DK1 8 "he Bhikkhu 5ho 6eha;es 5ith kindness, 5ho is ha33y in the do2t7ine o< Buddha, 5ill 7ea2h #i66ana N ha33iness a7ising <7om the 2essation o< natu7al in2linations1 DL1 8 Bhikkhu, em3ty this 6oat ) )< em3tied, it 5ill go Cui2kly, ha;ing 2ut o<< 3assion and hat7ed, thou 5ilt go to #i66ana1 D.1 8 Cut o<< the <i;e @<ette7sB, lea;e the <i;e, 7ise a6o;e the <i;e1 ! Bhikkhu 5ho has es2a3ed <7om the <i;e <ette7s, he is 2alled Oghatinna, : sa;ed <7om the <lood1: DE18 Aeditate, Bhikkhu, and 6e not heedless ) Do not di7e2t thy thought to 5hat gi;es 3leasu7e1 DF1 8+ithout kno5ledge the7e is no medi-tation, 5ithout meditation the7e is no kno5ledge' he 5ho has kno5ledge and meditation is nea7 unto #i66ana1 DH1 8! Bhikkhu 5ho has ente7ed his em3ty house, and 5hose mind is t7anCuil, <eels a mo7e than human delight 5hen he sees the Dhamma 2lea7ly1

LFE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

D-1 8 !nd this is the 6eginning he7e <o7 a 5ise BhikkuJ 5at2h<ulness o;e7 the senses, 2ontentedness, 7est7aint unde7 the DhammaJ kee3 no6le <7iends 5hose li<e is 3u7e, and 5ho a7e not sloth<ul1 D/1 8 %et him li;e on 2ha7ity, let him 6e 3e7<e2t in his dutiesJ then in the <ulness o< delight he 5ill make an end o< su<<e7ing1 K01 8 ouse thysel< 6y thysel<, examine thysel< 6y thysel<, thus sel<37ote2ted and attenti;e 5ilt thou li;e ha33ily, Bhikkhu1 KD18 Fo7 sel< is the lo7d o< sel<, sel< is the 7e<uge o< sel<J the7e<o7e 2u76 thysel< as the me72hant 2u76s a no6le ho7se1 KK1 8! Bhikkhu @mendi2antB 5ho delights in ea7nestness, 5ho looks 5ith <ea7 on thoughtlessness, mo;es a6out like <i7e, 6u7ning all his <ette7s, small o7la7ge1 KL1 8! Bhikkhu @mendi2antB 5ho delights in 7e<le2tion, 5ho looks 5ith <ea7 on thoughtlessness, 2annot <all a5ay @<7om his 3e7<e2t stateB N he is 2lose u3on #i66ana18 K.1 "he dis2i3les o< Iotama @BuddhaB a7e al5ays 5ell a5ake, and thei7 thoughts day and night a7e al5ays set on Buddha, KE1 "he dis2i3les o< Iotama a7e al5ays 5ell a5ake and thei7 thoughts day and night a7e al5ays set on the 2hu72h1 KF1 "he dis2i3les o< Iotama a7e al5ays 5ell a5ake, and thei7 thoughts day and night a7e al5ays set on the Dhamma1 KH1 "he dis2i3les o< Iotama a7e al5ays 5ell a5ake and thei7 thoughts day and night a7e al5ays set on thei7 6ody1 K-1 "he dis2i3les o< Iotama a7e al5ays 5ell a5ake, and thei7 minds day and night al5ays delight in 2om3assion1 K/1 "he dis2i3les o< Iotama a7e al5ays 5ell a5ake, and thei7 minds day and night al5ays delight in meditation1 L01 )t is ha7d to lea;e the 5o7ld @to 6e2ome a <7ia7B, it is ha7d to en?oy the 5o7ldJ ha7d is the monaste7y, 3ain<ul a7e the housesJ 3ain<ul it is to d5ell 5ith eCuals @to sha7e e;e7ything in 2ommonB, and the itine7ant mendi2ant is

6eset 5ith 3ain1 LFF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> LD1 ! man <ull o< <aith, i< endo5ed 5ith ;i7tue and glo7y, is 7es3e2ted, 5hate;e7 3la2e he may 2hoose1 '' K1 "he Bhikkhu and the !s2eti21 '' D 1 )s the Bhikkhu an as2eti2M "he ans5e7 is in the negati;e1 K1 "his negati;e ans5e7 has 6een gi;en 6y the Blessed %o7d himsel< in a dis2ussion 5ith#ig7odha the 5ande7e71 L1 "he Exalted One 5as on2e staying nea7 a?ag7aha, on the Gultu7e:s Peak1 #o5 at that time the7e 5as so?ou7ning in ]ueen $dum6a7ika:s Pa7k assigned to the 5ande7e7s, the 5ande7e7 #ig7odha, togethe7 5ith a g7eat 2om3any o< 5ande7e7s1 .1 #o5 the Exalted One des2ending <7om the Gultu7e:s Peak 2ame to the Pea2o2k:s Feeding-I7ound on the 6ank o< the (umagadha and the7e 5alked to and <7o in the o3en ai71 "hen #ig7odha sa5 him thus 5alking, and on seeing him he 2alled his 2om3any to o7de7, saying' 8Be still, si7s, and make no noise1 "he (amana Iotama is 6y the 6ank o< the (umagadha18 +hen he had said this the 5ande7e7s ke3t silen2e1 E1 "hen the Exalted One 5ent u3 to #ig7odha the 5ande7e7, and #ig7odha s3ake thus to him' 8 %et the %o7d, the Exalted One, a337oa2h1 +el2ome is the %o7d, the Exalted One! %ong has the %o7d, the Exalted One, taken e7e de2iding on this ste3 o< 2oming hithe71 Aay it 3lease the %o7d, the Exalted One, to take a seat1 He7e is one 7eady18 F1 "he Exalted One sat do5n on the seat made 7eady, and #ig7odha, taking a lo5 seat, sat 6eside him1 H1 "he7eu3on #ig7odha said to the Exalted One' 8 !s the (amana Iotama has 2ome to out assem6ly, 5e 5ould like to ask him this Cuestion' :+hat, %o7d, is this 7eligion o< the Exalted One, 5he7ein he t7ains his dis2i3les, and 5hi2h those dis2i3les, so t7ained 6y the Exalted One as to 5in 2om<o7t, a2kno5ledge to 6e thei7 utmost su33o7t and the <undamental 37in2i3les o< 7ighteousness M :8

-1 8 Di<<i2ult is it, #ig7odha, <o7 one o< anothe7 ;ie5, o< anothe7 3e7suasion, o< anothe7 2on<ession, 5ithout 37a2ti2e and 5ithout tea2hing, to unde7stand that 5he7ein ) t7ain my dis2i3les, and 5hi2h they, so t7ained as to 5in LFH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> 2om<o7t, a2kno5ledge to 6e thei7 utmost su33o7t and the <undamental 37in2i3le o< 7ighteousness1 /1 8But ask me, #ig7odha, a Cuestion a6out you7 o5n do2t7ine, a6out auste7e s27u3ulousness o< li<e' in 5hat does the <ul<ilment, in 5hat does the non<ul<ilment o< these sel< -mo7ti<i2ations 2onsist M 8 D01 "hen #ig7odha s3ake thus to the Exalted One' 8+e, %o7d, 37o<ess sel<mo7ti<ying auste7itiesJ 5e hold them to 6e essentialJ 5e 2lea;e to them1 )n 5hat does the <ul<ilment, in 5hat does the non<ul<ilment o< them 2onsist M 8 DD1 8 (u33ose, #ig7odha, that an as2eti2 goes naked, is o< 2e7tain loose ha6its, li2ks his hands, 7es3e2ts no a337oa2h, si7, no7 sto3, si7J a22e3ts nothing ex37essly 67ought, no7 ex37essly 37e3a7ed, no7 any in;itations1 He a22e3ts nothing taken <7om mouth o< 2ooking-3ot, no7 3la2ed 5ithin the th7eshold, no7 5ithin a mo7ta7, no7 among sti2ks, no7 5ithin a Cue7nJ no7 anything <7om t5o eating togethe7, no7 <7om a 37egnant 5oman' no7 <7om a nu7sing mothe7J no7 <7om a 5oman in inte72ou7se 5ith a manJ no7 <ood 2olle2ted in d7oughtJ no7 <7om 5he7e a dog isJ no7 <7om 5he7e <lies a7e s5a7mingJ no7 5ill he a22e3t <ish o7 meatJ no7 d7ink st7ong d7ink, 8no7 intoxi2ants, no7 g7uel1 He is eithe7 a one-house7, a one-mouth<ul manJ o7 a t5o house7, a t5o-mouth<ul manJ o7 a se;en-house7, a se;en-mouth<ul man1 He maintains himsel< on one alms, on t5o, o7 on se;en1 He takes <ood on2e a day, o7 on2e e;e7y t5o days, o7 on2e e;e7y se;en days1 "hus does he d5ell addi2ted to the the 37a2ti2e o< taking <ood a22o7ding to 7ule, at 7egula7 inte7;als, u3to e;en hal< a month1 He <eeds eithe7 on 3ot-he76s, o7 5ild 7i2e, o7 ni;a7a seeds, o7 leathe7 3a7ings, o7 on hata, o7 on the 3o5de7 in 7i2e

7usks, on 7i2e -s2um, on <lou7 o7 oil -seeds, on g7asses, on 2o5dung, o7 <7uits and 7oots <7om the 5ood o7 on 5ind<alls1 He 5ea7s 2oa7se hem3en 2loth, 2oa7se mixtu7e 2loth, dis2a7ded 2o73s-2loths, dis2a7ded 7ags, o7 ti7ita-6a7k 2lothJ o7 again he 5ea7s antelo3e-hide, o7 st7i3s o< the same netted, o7 kusa <i67e, o7 6a7k ga7ments, o7 shale 2loth, o7 a human-hai7 6lanket, o7 a ho7sehai7 6lanket, o7 an o5l:s -<eathe7 ga7ment1 He is a hai7-and-6ea7d 3lu2ke7, addi2ted to the 37a2ti2e o< 3lu2king out 6othJ a stande79u3J a 27ou2he7 on heels, addi2ted to exe7ting himsel< @to mo;e <o75a7dB 5hen thus sCuattingJ a 6ed9o<9tho7ns man, 3utting i7on s3ikes o7 tho7ns on his 2ou2hJ he uses a 3lank-6edJ slee3s on the g7oundJ slee3s only on one sideJ is a dustand-di7t 5ea7e7 and an o3en-ai7manJ a 5he7e-you-5ill sitte7J a <ilth-eate7, addi2ted to the 37a2ti2e o< eating su2hJ a non-d7inke7, addi2ted to the 37a2ti2e o< d7inking @2old 5ate7BJ and e;en9<o79thi7d9time9man1 LF-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DK1 8!<te7 ha;ing done this, #ig7odha,8 Blessed %o7d said, 8+hat think you, #ig7odhaM )< these things 6e so, is the auste7ity o< sel< -mo7ti<i2ation 2a77ied out, o7 is it notM8 8 "7uly, %o7d, i< these things 6e so, the auste7ity o< sel<mo7ti<i2ation is 2a77ied out18 DL1 8 #o5 ), #ig7odha, a<<i7m that auste7ity 6y sel<- mo7ti<i2ation thus 2a77ied out, in;ol;es 6lemish in se;e7al 5ays18 D.1 8)n 5hat 5ay1 %o7d, do you a<<i7m that 6lemish is in;ol;edM8 DE1 8)n 2ase, #ig7odha, 5hen an as2eti2 unde7takes a 2ou7se o< auste7ity, he th7ough that 2ou7se, 6e2omes sel<-2om3la2ent, his aim is satis<ied1 #o5 this, #ig7odha, 6e2omes a 6lemish in the as2eti21 DF1 8 !nd then again, #ig7odha, 5hen an as2eti2 unde7takes a 2ou7se o< auste7ity, he, th7ough that unde7taking exalts himsel< and des3ises othe7s1 "his, too, 6e2omes a 6lemish in the as2eti21

D H1 8!nd again, #ig7odha, 5hen an as2eti2 unde7takes a 2ou7se o< auste7ity, he, th7ough that unde7taking 6e2omes ine67iated and in<atuated, and g7o5s 2a7eless1 "his, too, 6e2omes a 6lemish in the as2eti21 D-1 8!nd again, #ig7odha, 5hen an as2eti2 unde7takes a 2ou7se o< auste7ity, it 37o2u7es <o7 him gi<ts, attention and <ame1 "he7e6y he 6e2omes 2om3la2ent and his aim is satis<ied1 "his, too, 6e2omes a 6lemish in the as2eti21 D/1 8 !nd again, #ig7odha, 6y the 5inning o< gi<ts, attention and <ame, the as2eti2 exalts himsel< and des3ises othe7s1 "his, too, 6e2omes a 6lemish in the as2eti21 K01 8!nd again, #ig7odha, 6y the 5inning o< gi<ts, attention and <ame, he 6e2omes ine67iated and in<atuated, and-g7o5s 2a7eless1 "his, too, 6e2omes a 6lemish in the as2eti21 K D 1 8!nd again, #ig7odha, 5hen an as2eti2 unde7takes a 2ou7se o< auste7ity, he 2omes to make a distin2tion in <oods, saying' "his suits meJ this doesn:t suit me1 "he latte7 kind he deli6e7ately 7e?e2ts1 O;e7 the <o7me7 he 5axes g7eedy and in<atuated, and 2lea;es to them, seeing not the dange7 in them, dis2e7n-ing them not as unsa<e, and so en?oys them1 "his, too, 6e2omes a 6lemish in the as2eti21

LF/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KK1 8!nd again, #ig7odha, 6e2ause o< his longing <o7 gi<ts, attentions and <ame, he thinks' : a?as 5ill 3ay me attentions, and so 5ill thei7 o<<i2ialsJ so too, 5ill no6les1 B7ahmins, house-holde7s and <ounde7s o< s2hools "his, too, 6e2omes a 6lemish in the as2eti21 KL1 8 !nd again, #ig7odha, an ase2ti2 gets g7um6ling at some 7e2luse o7 B7ahmin, saying' : "hat man li;es on all so7ts o< things' things g7o5n <7om

tu6e7s, o7 shoots, o7 6e77ies, o7 ?oints, o7 <i<thly, <7om seeds, mun2hing them all u3 togethe7 5ith that 5heel-less thunde76olt o< a ?a56one N and they 2all him a holy man ) : "his, too 6e2omes a 6lemish in the as2eti21 K.1 8 !nd again, #ig7odha, an as2eti2 sees a 2e7tain 7e2luse o7 B7ahmin 7e2ei;ing attentions, 6eing 7e;e7ed, honou7ed and 37esented 5ith o<<e7ings 6y the 2itiOens1 !nd seeing this he thinks' "he 2itiOens 3ay attention to this <ello5 5ho li;es in luxu7yJ they 7e;e7e and honou7 him, and 37esent him 5ith o<<e7ings, 5hile to me 5ho, as as2eti2, li;es a 7eally auste7e li<e, they 3ay no attentions, no7 7e;e7en2e, no7 honou7, no7 o<<e7ings1: !nd so he 2he7ishes en;y and g7udging at the 2itiOens1 "his, too, 6e2omes a 6lemish in the as2eti21 KE1 8!nd again, #ig7odha, the as2eti2 a<<e2ts the myste7ious1 +hen asked' :Do you a337o;e o< this M : He, not a337o;ing, says' : ) do,: o7 a337o;ing, says, : ) do not1: 1 "hus he 2ons2iously tells unt7uths1 "his, too, 6e2omes a 6lemish in the as2eti21 KF1 8 !nd again, #ig7odha, the as2eti2 is lia6le to lose his tem3e7 and 6ea7 enmity1 "his, too, 6e2omes a 6lemish in the as2eti21 KH1 8 !nd again, #ig7odha, the as2eti2 is lia6le to 6e hy3o27iti2al and de2eit<ul, as 5ell as en;ious and g7udgingJ he 6e2omes 2unning and 27a<ty, ha7d-hea7ted and ;ain, he ente7tains e;il 5ishes and 6e2omes 2a3ti;e to themJ he ente7tains <alse o3inions, 6e2omes 3ossessed o< metem3i7i2al dogmaJ misinte737ets his ex3e7ien2eJ is a;a7i2ious and ad;e7se <7om 7enun2iation1 "his, too, 6e2omes a 6lemish in the as2eti21 K-1 8 +hat think you o< this, #ig7odha M !7e these things 6lemishes in the auste7ities o< sel< -mo7ti<i2ation, o7 a7e they not M 8 K/1 8 Ge7ily, %o7d, these things a7e 6lemishes in the auste7ities o< sel<mo7ti<i2ation1 )t is 3ossi6le, %o7d, that an as2eti2 may 6e 3ossessed e;en o< all these 6lemishes, mu2h mo7e 6y one o7 othe7 o< them18 LH0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L01 "he Bhikkhus a7e not to 6e guilty o< these 6lemishes1

'' L1 "he Bhikkhu and the B7ahmin1 ''

D 1 )s the Bhikkhu the same as the B7ahmin M "he ans5e7 to this Cuestion is also in the negati;e1 K1 "he dis2ussion o< the su6?e2t has not 6een 2on2ent7ated at any one 3la2e1 )t is s2atte7ed all o;e71 But the 3oints o< distin2tion 2an 6e easily summed u31 L1 ! B7ahmin is a 37iest1 His main <un2tion is to 3e7<o7m 2e7tain 2e7emonies 2onne2ted 5ith 6i7th, ma77iage and death1 .1 "hese 2e7emonies 6e2ome ne2essa7y 6e2ause o< the do2t7ines o< o7iginal sin 5hi2h 7eCui7es 2e7emonies to 5ash it o<<, and 6e2ause o< the 6elie< in Iod and in (oul1 E1 Fo7 these 2e7emonies a 37iest is ne2essa7y1 ! Bhikkhu does not 6elie;e in o7iginal sin, in Iod and (oul1 "he7e a7e, the7e<o7e, no 2e7emonies to 6e 3e7<o7med1 He is, the7e<o7e, not a 37iest1 F1 ! B7ahmin is 6o7n1 ! Bhikkhu is made1 H1 ! B7ahmin has a 2aste1 ! Bhikkhu has no 2aste1 -1 On2e a B7ahmin al5ays a B7ahmin1 #o sin, no 27ime 2an unmake a B7ahmin1 /1 But on2e a Bhikkhu is not al5ays a Bhikkhu1 ! Bhikkhu is made1 (o he 2an 6e unmade i< 6y his 2ondu2t he makes himsel< un5o7thy o< 7emaining a Bhikkhu1 D01 #o mental o7 mo7al t7aining is ne2essa7y <o7 6eing a B7ahmin1 !ll that is ex3e2ted @only ex3e2tedB o< him is to kno5 his 7eligious lo7e1 D D 1 ]uite di<<e7ent is the 2ase o< the Bhikkhu, mental and mo7al t7aining is his li<e-6lood1 DK1 ! B7ahmin is <7ee to a2Cui7e unlimited amount o< 37o3e7ty <o7 himsel<1 ! Bhikkhu on the othe7 hand 2annot,

LHD

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DL1 "his is no small di<<e7en2e1 P7o3e7ty is the se;e7est limitation u3on the mental and mo7al inde3enden2e o< man 6oth in 7es3e2t o< thought and a2tion1 )t 37odu2es a 2on<li2t 6et5een the t5o1 "hat is 5hy the B7ahmin is al5ays o33osed to 2hange1 Fo7, to him a 2hange means loss o< 3o5e7 and loss o< 3el<1 D.1 ! Bhikkhu ha;ing no 37o3e7ty is mentally and mo7ally <7ee1 )n his 2ase the7e a7e no 3e7sonal inte7ests 5hi2h 2an stand in the 5ay o< honesty and integ7ity1 DE1 "hey a7e B7ahmins1 #one the less ea2h B7ahmin is an indi;idual 6y himsel<1 "he7e is no 7eligious o7ganisation to 5hi2h he is su6o7dinate1 ! B7ahmin is a la5 unto himsel<1 "hey a7e 6ound 6y 2ommon inte7ests 5hi2h a7e mate7ial1 DF1 ! Bhikkhu on the othe7 hand is al5ays a mem6e7 o< the (angh1 )t is in2on2ei;a6le that the7e 2ould 6e a Bhikkhu 5ithout his 6eing a mem6e7 o< the (angh1 ! Bhikkhu is not a la5 unto himsel<1 He is su6o7dinateW to the (angh1 "he (angh is a s3i7itual o7ganisation1 '' .1 "he Bhikkhu and the $3asaka1 ''

D 1 )n the Dhamma the7e is a ma7ked distin2tion 6et5een the Dhamma o< the Bhikku and the Dhamma o< the $3asaka o7 the layman1 K1 "he Bhikkhu is 6ound to 2eli6a2y1 #ot so the $3asaka1 He 2an ma77y1 L1 "he Bhikkhu 2an ha;e no home1 He 2an ha;e no <amily1 #ot so the $3asaka1 "he $3asaka 2an ha;e a home and 2an ha;e a <amily1 .1 "he Bhikkhu is not to ha;e any 37o3e7ty1 But an $3asaka 2an ha;e 37o3e7ty1 E1 "he Bhikkhu is <o76idden <7om taking li<e1 #ot so the $3asaka1 He may1 F1 "he Pan2hasilas a7e 2ommon to 6oth1 But to the Bhikkhu they a7e ;o5s1 He 2annot 67eak them 5ithout in2u77ing 3enalty1 "o the $3asa?ka they a7e 37e2e3ts to 6e <ollo5ed1

H1 "he Bhikkhu:s o6se7;an2e o< the Pan2hasilas is 2om3ulso7y1 "hei7 o6se7;an2e 6y the $3asakas is ;olunta7y1 LHK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> -1 +hy did the Blessed %o7d make su2h a distin2tion M "he7e must 6e some good 7eason <o7 it1 Fo7 the Blessed %o7d 5ould not do anything unless the7e 5as some good 7eason <o7 it1 /1 "he 7eason <o7 this distin2tion is no5he7e ex3li2itly stated 6y the Blessed %o7d1 )t is le<t to 6e in<e77ed1 !ll the same it is ne2essa7y to kno5 the 7eason <o7 this distin2tion1 D01 "he7e is no dou6t that the Blessed %o7d 5anted th7ough his Dhamma to lay the <oundation o< a kingdom o< 7ighteousness on ea7th1 "hat is 5hy he 37ea2hed his Dhanmia to all 5ithout distin2tion, to Bhikkus as 5ell as to laymen1 D D 1 But the Blessed %o7d also kne5 that me7ely 37ea2hing the Dhamma to the 2ommon men 5ould not 7esult in the 27eation o< that ideal so2iety 6ased on 7ighteousness1 DK1 !n ideal must 6e 37a2ti2al and must 6e sho5n to 6e 37a2ti2a6le1 "hen and then only 3eo3le st7i;e a<te7 it and t7y to 7ealise it1 DL1 "o 27eate this st7i;ing it is ne2essa7y to ha;e a 3i2tu7e o< a so2iety 5o7king on the 6asis o< the ideal and the7e6y 37o;ing to the 2ommon man that the ideal 5as not im37a2ti2a6le 6ut on the othe7 hand 7ealisa6le1 D.1 "he (angh is a model o< a so2iety 7ealising the Dhamma 37ea2hed 6y the Blessed %o7d1 DE1 "his is the 7eason 5hy the Blessed %o7d made this distin2tion 6et5een the Bhikkhu and the $3asaka1 "he Bhikkhu 5as the to72h -6ea7e7 o< the Buddha:s ideal so2iety and the $3asaka 5as to <ollo5 the Bhikkhu as 2losely as he 2ould1

DF1 "he7e is also anothe7 Cuestion that 7eCui7es an ans5e71 +hat is the <un2tion o< the Bhikkhu M DH1 )s the Bhikkhu to de;ote himsel< to sel<-2ultu7e o7 is he to se7;e the 3eo3le and guide them M D-1 He must dis2ha7ge 6oth the <un2tions1 D/1 +ithout sel< -2ultu7e he is not <it to guide1 "he7e<o7e he must himsel< 6e a 3e7<e2t, 6est man, 7ighteous man and an enlightened man1 Fo7 this he must 37a2ti2e sel<-2ultu7e1 LHL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K01 ! Bhikkhu lea;es his home1 But he does not 7eti7e <7om the 5o7ld1 He lea;es home so that he may ha;e the <7eedom and the o33o7tunity to se7;e those 5ho a7e atta2hed to thei7 homes 6ut 5hose li<e is <ull o< so77o5, mise7y and unha33iness and 5ho 2annot hel3 themsel;es1 K D 1 Com3assion 5hi2h is the essen2e o< the Dhamma 7eCui7es that e;e7y one shall lo;e and se7;e and the Bhikkhu is not exem3t <7om it1 KK1 ! Bhikkhu 5ho is indi<<e7ent to the 5oes o< mankind, ho5e;e7 3e7<e2t in sel<-2ultu7e, is not at all a Bhikkhu1 He may 6e something else 6ut he is not a Bhikkhu1 Pa7t )))N "he Duties o< the Bhikkhu1 D1 "he Bhikkhu:s Duty to Con;e7t1 ''

@/

K1 Con;e7sion #ot to 6e 6y Ai7a2les1

L1 Con;e7sion #ot to 6e 6y Fo72e1

.1 ! Bhikkhu Aust Fight to (37ead Gi7tue @DhammaB1

'' D1 "he Bhikkhu:s Duty to Con;e7t1 ''

D 1 "he ne5s o< the 2on;e7sion o< &asa and his <ou7 <7iends to the Dhamma s37ead <a7 and 5ide1 "he 7esult 5as that lay 3e7sons 6elonging to the highest <amilies in the 2ount7y and to those next to the highest 2ame to 6e inst7u2ted in the do2t7ine o< the Blessed One and to take 7e<uge in Him and in His Dhamma1 K1 Aany 3eo3le 5e7e 2oming to Him to 7e2ei;e inst7u2tion in the Dhamma1 "he %o7d kne5 that it 5as di<<i2ult <o7 Him 3e7sonally to gi;e inst7u2tion to ea2h one1 He also <elt the ne2essity o< o7ganising Pa7i;7a?akas 5hose num6e7 5as s5elling e;e7y day into a 7eligious o7de7 5hi2h He 2alled the (angh1 L1 He a22o7dingly made the Pa7i;7a?akas the mem6e7s o< the (angh and <7amed 7ules o< dis2i3line 2alled ;inaya and made them 6inding u3on the mem6e7s o< the (angh1 .1 "he Blessed %o7d late7 on laid do5n t5o stages to 6e unde7gone 6y a dis2i3le 6e<o7e he 6e2ame a Bhikkhu1 Fi7st a dis2i3le 6e2ame a Pa7i;7a?aka and 7emained a Pa7i;7a?aka <o7 a 2e7tain num6e7 o< yea7s atta2hed to a Bhikkhu and 7emaining in t7aining unde7 him1 !<te7 his t7aining 3e7iod 5as LH.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> o;e7 he 5as allo5ed to take $3asam3ada i< he satis<ied a 6ody o< examine7s that he 5as <it <o7 it1 )t is only then that he 5as allo5ed to 6e2ome a Bhikkhu and a mem6e7 o< the (angh1 E1 "he7e 5as no time in the ea7ly stages o< the Dhamma to make su2h a77angements1 "he %o7d, the7e<o7e, made them Bhikkhus and sent them out as Aissiona7ies to s37ead His 7eligion to any5he7e and e;e7y5he7e1 F1 !nd 6e<o7e sending them out the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus' 8 ) am deli;e7ed, Bhikkhus, <7om all <ette7s, human and di;ine1 &ou, Bhikkhus,

<7om all <ette7s, human and di;ine1 Io ye no5, and 5ande7 <o7 the gain o< the many, <o7 the 5el<a7e o< the many, out o< 2om3assion <o7 the 5o7ldJ <o7 the good, <o7 the gain and <o7 the 5el<a7e o< gods and men1 H1 8 %et not t5o o< you go the same 5ay1 P7ea2h, Bhikkhus, the do2t7ine 5hi2h is glo7ious in the 6eginning, glo7ious in the middle, 8glo7ious at the end, in the s3i7it and in the lette7J 37o2laim a 2onsummate, 3e7<e2t and 3u7e li<e o< holiness1 -18 Io then th7ough e;e7y 2ount7y, 2on;e7t those not yet 2on;e7tedJ th7oughout the 5o7ld that lies 6u7nt u3 5ith so77o5, tea2h e;e7y5he7eJ @inst7u2tB those la2king: 7ight inst7u2tionJ /1 8Io 5he7e the7e a7e g7eat ishis, 7oyal ishis, B7ahman ishis too, these all d5ell the7e, in<luen2ing men a22o7ding to thei7 s2hoolsJ D01 8 Io, the7e<o7e, ea2h one t7a;elling 6y himsel<J <illed 5ith 2om3assion, go! 7es2ue and 7e2ei;e18 D D 1 "he Blessed %o7d also told them' DK1 8 "hat the gi<t o< the Dhamma ex2eeds all gi<tsJ the s5eetness o< the Dhamma ex2eeds all s5eetnessJ the delight in the Dhamma ex2eeds all delightsJ DL1 8"he <ields a7e damaged 6y 5eeds, mankind is damaged 6y 3assion' the7e<o7e a gi<t o< Dhamma 67ings g7eat 7e5a7d1 D.1 8"he <ields a7e damaged 6y 5eeds, mankind is damaged 6y hat7ed' the7e<o7e a gi<t o< Dhamma 67ings g7eat 7e5a7d1 DE1 8"he <ields a7e damaged 6y 5eedsJ mankind is damaged 6y ;anity' the7e<o7e the gi<t o< Dhamma 67ings g7eat 7e5a7d1 LHE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DF1 8"he <ields a7e damaged 6y 5eeds, mankind is damaged 6y lust' the7e<o7e a gi<t o< Dhamma 67ings g7eat 7e5a7d18 DH1 "hen the sixty Bhikkhus 7e2ei;ing o7de7s to 2a77y on the mission to 37o3agate the Dhamma 5ent th7ough e;e7y land1 D-1 "he %o7d ga;e them <u7the7 inst7u2tion in the matte7 o< 2on;e7sions1

'' K1 Con;e7sion #ot to 6e 6y Ai7a2les1 ''

D1 "he Exalted One 5as on2e staying among the Aallas, at !na3iya, one o< thei7 to5ns1 K1 #o5 the Exalted One, ha;ing 7o6ed himsel<, 3ut on his 2loak, and took his 6o5l, and ente7ed the to5n <o7 alms1 L1 "he Blessed One thought' 8 )t is too ea7ly <o7 me no5 to go th7ough !na3iya <o7 alms1 ) might go to the 3leasan2e 5he7e Bhagga;a, the 5ande7e7 d5ells, and 2all u3on him18 .1 (o the Exalted One 5ent to the 3leasan2e and to the 3la2e 5he7e Bhagga;a, the 5ande7e7 5as1 E1 "hen Bhagga;a s3ake thus to the Exalted One' 8 %et my %o7d, the Exalted One 2ome nea71 +el2ome to the Exalted One! )t is long sin2e the Exalted One has taken the o33o7tunity to 2ome ou7 5ay1 Aay it 3lease &ou, (i7, to 6e seatedJ he7e is a seat made 7eady18 F1 "he Exalted One sat do5n the7eon, and Bhagga;a taking a 2e7tain lo5 stool, sat do5n 6eside him1 (o seated, Bhagga;a, the 5ande7e7 s3ake thus to the Exalted One' H1 8 (ome days ago, %o7d, (unakkhatta o< the %i22ha;is 2alled on me and s3ake thus' : ) ha;e no5 gi;en u3 the Exalted One, Bhagga;a1 ) am 7emaining no longe7 unde7 him as my tea2he71: )s the <a2t 7eally so M8 -1 8 )t is ?ust so, Bhagga;a, as (unakkhatta o< the %i22ha;is said1 /1 8 (ome days ago, Bhagga;a, a good many days ago, (unakkhatta, the %i22ha;i, 2ame to 2all on me, and s3ake thus' : (i7, ) no5 gi;e u3 the Exalted One, ) 5ill hen2e<o7th 7emain no longe7 unde7 him as my tea2he71: +hen he LHF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> told me this, ) said to him' :But, no5, (unakkhatta, ha;e ) e;e7 said to you' : Come (unakkhatta, li;e unde7 me as my 3u3il M: D01 8 :#o, (i7, you ha;e not,: 7e3lied (unakkhatta1

DD1 8O7 ha;e you e;e7 said to me' : (i7, ) 5ould <ain d5ell unde7 the Exalted One @as my tea2he7B M : DK1 8 : #o, (i7, ) ha;e not,: said (unakkhatta1 DL18: But i< ) said not the one, and you said not the othe7, 5hat a7e you and 5hat am ) that you talk o< gi;ing u3 M : D.1 8 : +ell, 6ut1 (i7, the Exalted One 5o7ks me no mysti2 5onde7s su73assing the 3o5e7 o< o7dina7y men1: D E1 8+hy, no5, (unakkhatta, ha;e le;e7 said to you : Come, take me as you7 tea2he7, (unakkhatta, and ) 5ill 5o7k <o7 you mysti2 5onde7s su73assing the 3o5e7 o< o7dina7y men M : DF1 8: &ou ha;e not1 (i71: D H1 8O7 ha;e you e;e7 said to me' : (i7, ) 5ould <ain take the Exalted One as my tea2he7 <o7 he 5ill 5o7k <o7 me mysti2 5onde7s 6eyond the 3o5e7s o< o7dina7y men M : D-1 8:)ha;enot1 (i71: D/1 8 : But i< ) said not the one, and you said not the othe7, 5hat a7e you and 5hat am ), <oolish man, that you talk o< gi;ing u3 M +hat think you, (unakkhatta M: K01 8+hethe7 mysti2 5onde7s 6eyond the 3o5e7 o< o7dina7y men a7e 57ought, o7 5hethe7 they a7e not, is not the o6?e2t <o7 5hi2h ) tea2h the Dhamma this' that it leads to the tho7ough dest7u2tion o< ill <o7 the doe7 the7eo< M : KD1 8 : +hethe7, (i7, they a7e 57ought o7 not, that is indeed the o6?e2t <o7 5hi2h the #o7m is taught 6y the Exalted One1: KK1 8But Bhagga;a, (unakkhatta 5ent on saying to me, : (i7, the Exalted One does not 7e;eal to me the 6eginning o< things1:

LHH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

KL1 8 +hy no5, (unakkhatta, ha;e ) e;e7 said to you' : Come, (unakkhatta, 6e my dis2i3le and ) 5ill 7e;eal to you the 6eginning o< thingsM: K.1 8 : (i7, you ha;e not1: KE1 8O7 ha;e you e;e7 said to me' :) 5ill 6e2ome the Exalted One:s 3u3il, <o7 he 5ill 7e;eal to me the 6eginning o< things M : KF1 8 :(i7, ) ha;e not1: KH1 8 :But i< ) ha;e not said the one and you ha;e not said the othe7, 5hat a7e you and 5hat am ), <oolish man, that you talk o< gi;ing u3 on that a22ountM +hat you, (unakkhatta M +hethe7 the 6eginning o< things 6e 7e;ealed, o7 5hethe7 it 6e not, is the o6?e2t <o7 5hi2h ) tea2h the Dhamma this' that it leads to the tho7ough dest7u2tion o< ill <o7 the doe7 the7eo<M : K,-1 :8+hethe7, (i7, they a7e 7e;ealed o7 not, that is indeed the o6?e2t <o7 5hi2h the Dhamma is taught 6y the Exalted One18 K/1 8 : )< then, (unakkhatta, it matte7s not to that o6?e2t 5hethe7 the 6eginning o< things 6e 7e;ealed, o7 5hethe7 it 6e not, o< 5hat use to you 5ould it 6e to ha;e the 6eginning o< things 7e;ealed M : L01 :8)n many 5ays ha;e you, (unakkhatta, s3oken my 37aises among the Ga??ins1: LD1 :8)n many 5ays ha;e you, (unakkhatta, s3oken the 37aises o< the Dhamma among the Ga??ins1: LK1 :8)n many 5ays ha;e you, (unakkhatta, s3oken the 37aises o< the O7de7 among the Ga??ins1: LL1 8) tell you, (unakkhatta, ) make kno5n to you, that the7e 5ill 6e those that shall say 2on2e7ning you thus' :(unakkhatta o< the %i22ha;is 5as not a6le to li;e the holy li<e unde7 Iotama the 7e2luse1 !nd he, not 6eing a6le to adhe7e to it, hath 7enoun2ed the dis2i3line and tu7ned to lo5e7 things1: L.1 8 "hus, Bhagga;a, did (unakkhatta o< the %i22hayis, add7essed 6y me, de3a7t <7om this Do2t7ine and Dis2i3line, as one doomed to disaste718 LE1 !nd soon a<te7, lea;ing the Do2t7ine and Dis2i3line o< the Buddha, (unakkhatta sta7ted telling 3eo3le that the7e 5as nothing su3e7human a6out the Buddha:s enno6ling gi<ts o< kno5ledge and insightJ that it 5as his

LH-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> o5n 7easoning 5hi2h had hamme7ed out a do2t7ine o< his o5n e;ol;ing and o< his 3e7sonal in;ention, su2h that 5hoso hea7s it 37ea2hed <o7 his good has only to a2t u3 to it to 6e guided to the utte7 ending o< ill1 LF1 !lthough, (unakkhatta 5as slande7ing the Buddha, 5hat he 5as telling 3eo3le 5as t7ue1 Fo7, the Buddha ne;e7 7eso7ted to the su3e7human o7 the mi7a2ulous in 37o3agating his Do2t7ine1 '' L1 Con;e7sion #ot to 6e 6y Fo72e1 ''

D1 "he Blessed One 5as on2e going along the high 7oad 6et5een a?ag7aha and #alanda 5ith a g7eat 2om3any o< the 67eth7en, N 5ith a6out <i;e hund7ed 67eth7en1 !nd (u33iya the mendi2ant, too, 5as going along the high 7oad 6et5een a?ag7aha and #alanda 5ith his dis2i3le, the youth B7ahmadatta1 K1 #o5, ?ust then, (u33iya the mendi2ant 5as s3eaking in many 5ays indis37aiseo< the Buddha, in dis37aise o< the Do2t7ine, in dis37aise o< the O7de71 But young B7ahmadatta, his 3u3il, ga;e utte7an2e, in many 5ays, to 37aise o< the Buddha, to 37aise o< the Do2t7ine, to 37aise o< the O7de71 L1 "hus they t5o, tea2he7 and 3u3il, holding o3inions in di7e2t 2ont7adi2tion one to the othe7, 5e7e <ollo5ing, ste3 6y ste3, a<te7 the Blessed One and the 2omany o< the 67eth7en1 .1 #o5 the Blessed One 3ut u3 at the 7oyal 7est-house in the !m6alatthika 3leasan2e to 3ass the night, and 5ith him the 2om3any o< the 67eth7en1 !nd so also did (u33iya the mendi2ant, and 5ith him his young dis2i3le B7ahmadatta1 !nd the7e, at the 7est-house, these t5o 2a77ied on the same dis2ussion as 6e<o7e1 E1 !nd in the ea7ly da5n a num6e7 o< the 67eth7en, assem6led, as they 7ose u3, in the 3a;ilionJ and the su6?e2t o< the talk that s37ang u3 among them 5as the 2on;e7sation 6et5een (u33iya and B7amhadatta1

F1 #o5 the Blessed One, on 7ealising 5hat 5as the d7i<t o< thei7 talk, 5ent to the 3a;ilion, and took his seat on the mat s37ead out <o7 him1 !nd 5hen he had sat do5n he said' 8 +hat is the talk on 5hi2h you a7e engaged sitting

LH/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> he7e, and 5hat is the su6?e2t o< the 2on;e7sation 6et5een youM8 !nd they told him all1 !nd he said' H1 8 B7eth7en, i< outside7s should s3eak against me o7 against the Do2t7ine, o7 against the O7de7, you should not on that a22ount eithe7 6ea7 mali2e, o7 su<<e7 hea7t-6u7ning, o7 <eel ill-5ill1 -1 8)< you, on that a22ount, should 6e ang7y and hu7t, that 5ould stand in the 5ay o< you7 o5n sel<-2onCuest1 )<, 5hen othe7s s3eak against us, you <eel ang7y at that, and dis3leased, 5ould you then 6e a6le to ?udge ho5 <a7 that s3ee2h o< thei7:s is 5ell said o7 illM8 /1 8 "hat 5ould not 6e so1 (i718 D01 8 But 5hen outside7s s3eak in dis37aise o< me, o7 o< the Do2t7ine, o7 o< the O7de7, you should un7a;el 5hat is <alse and 3oint it out as 57ong, saying' : Fo7 this o7 that 7eason this is not the <a2t, that is not so, su2h a thing is not <ound among us, is not in us1: DD18 But also, 67eth7en, outside7s may s3eak in 37aise o< me, in 37aise o< the Do2t7ine, in 37aise o< the O7de71 +hat a7e the things 5hen they 5ould say 37aising me you 5ould say M DK1 8He may say :Putting a5ay the killing o< li;ing things, Iotama the 7e2luse holds aloo< <7om the dest7u2tion o< li<e1 He has laid the 2udgel and the s5o7d aside, and ashamed o< 7oughness, and <ull o< me72y, he d5ells 2om3assionate and kind to all 27eatu7es that ha;e li<e1: )t is thus that the

un2on-;e7ted man, 5hen s3eaking in 37aise o< the "athagata, might s3eak1 DL1 8O7 he might say' : Putting a5ay the taking o< 5hat has not 6een gi;en, Iotama the 7e2luse li;ed aloo< <7om g7as3ing 5hat is not his o5n1 He takes only 5hat is gi;en, and ex3e2ting that gi<ts 5ill 2ome1 He 3asses his li<e in honesty and 3u7ity o< hea7t1: D.1 8O7 he might say' : Putting a5ay un2hastity, Iotama the 7e2luse is 2haste1 He holds himsel< aloo<, <a7 o<<, <7om the ;ulga7 37a2ti2e, <7om the sexual a2t1: DE1 8O7 he might say' W Putting a5ay lying 5o7ds, Iotama the 7e2luse holds himsel< aloo< <7om <alsehood1 He s3eaks t7uth, <7om the t7uth he ne;e7 s5e7;esJ <aith<ul and t7ust5o7thy, he 67eaks not his 5o7d to the 5o7ld18

L-0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DF1 8O7 he might say' :Putting a5ay slande7, Iotama the 7e2luse holds himsel< aloo< <7om 2alumny1 +hat he hea7s he7e he 7e3eats not else5he7e to 7aise a Cua77el against the 3eo3le he7eJ 5hat he hea7s else5he7e he 7e3eats not he7e to 7aise a Cua77el against the 3eo3le the7e1 "hus does he li;e as a 6inde7 togethe7 o< those 5ho a7e di;ided, an en2ou7age7 o< those 5ho a7e <7iends, a 3ea2emake7, a lo;e7 o< 3ea2e, im3assioned <o7 3ea2e, a s3eake7 o< 5o7ds that make <o7 3ea2e1: DH1 8 O7 he might say1' : Putting a5ay 7udeness o< s3ee2h, Iotama the 7e2luse holds himsel< aloo< <7om ha7sh language1 +hatso;e7 5o7d is 6lameless, 3leasant to the ea7, lo;ely, 7ea2hing to the hea7t, u76ane, 3leasing to the 3eo3le, 6elo;ed o< the 3eo3le N su2h a7e 5o7ds he s3eaks1: D-1 8O7 he might say ' : Putting a5ay <7i;olous talk, Iotama the 7e2luse holds himsel< aloo< <7om ;ain 2on;e7sation1 )n season he s3eaks, in a22o7dan2e 5ith the <a2ts, 5o7ds <ull o< meaning, on 7eligion, on the dis2i3line o< the O7de71 He s3eaks, and at the 7ight time, 5o7ds 5o7thy to 6e

laid u3 in one:s hea7t, <itly illust7ated, 2lea7ly di;ided, to the 3oint1: D/1 8O7 he might say' :Iotama the 7e2luse holds himsel< aloo< <7om 2ausing in?u7y to seeds o7 3lants1 : He takes 6ut one meal a day, no eating at night, 7e<7aining <7om <ood a<te7 hou7s @a<te7 middayB 1 : He 7e<7ains <7om 6eing a s3e2tato7 at sho5s, at <ai7s, 5ith naut2h dan2es, singing, and musi21 : He a6stains <7om 5ea7ing, ado7ning o7 o7namenting himsel<, 5ith ga7lands, s2ents, and unguents1 : He a6stains <7om the use o< la7ge and lo<ty 6eds1 : : He a6stains <7om a22e3ting sil;e7 o7 gold1 : : He a6stains <7om a22e3ting un2ooked g7ain1 : : He a6stains <7om a22e3ting 5omen o7 gi7ls1 : : He a6stains <7om a22e3ting 6ond-men o7 6ond5omen1 : He a6stains <7om a22e3ting shee3 o7 goats1 : : He a6stains <7om a22e3ting <o5ls o7 s5ine1 L-D

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> : He a6stains <7om a22e3ting ele3hants, 2attle, ho7ses and ma7es1 : : He a6stains <7om a22e3ting 2ulti;ated <ields o7 5aste1 : : He a6stains <7om a2ting as a go-6et5een o7 messenge71 : : He a6stains <7om 6uying and selling1 : He a6stains <7om 2heating 5ith s2ales o7 67onOes o7 measu7es1 : He a6stains <7om the 27ooked 5ays o< 67i6e7y, 2heating and <7aud1 : : He a6stains <7om maiming, mu7de7, 3utting in 6onds, high5ay 7o66e7y, da2oity and ;iolen2e1: K01 8 (u2h a7e the things, 67eth7en, 5hi2h an un2on;e7ted man, 5hen

s3eaking in 37aise o< the "athagata, might say1 But you should not e;en on that a22ount, 6e <illed 5ith 3leasu7e o7 gladness, o7 6e li<ted u3 in hea7t1 +e7e you to 6e so, that also 5ould stand in the 5ay o< you7 sel<2onCuest1 +hen outside7s s3eak in 37aise o< me, o7 o< the Do2t7ine, o7 o< the O7de7, you should a2kno5ledge 5hat is 7ight to 6e the <a2t, saying' : Fo7 this o7 that 7eason this is the <a2t, that is so, su2h a thing is <ound among us, is in us1: 8 '' .1 ! Bhikkhu Aust Fight to (37ead Gi7tue @DhammaB1 '' D 1 !dd7essing the Bhikkhus the %o7d on2e said' K1 8)t is not D,0 dis2i3les, that Cua77el 5ith the 5o7ld,8 said the %o7d, 8 6ut the 5o7ld that Cua77els 5ith me1 ! tea2he7 o< the t7uth does not Cua77el 5ith anyone in the 5o7ld18 L1 8 +a77io7s, 5a77io7s, %o7d, 5e 2all ou7sel;es1 )n 5hat 5ay then a7e 5e 5a77io7s M 8 .1 8 +e 5age 5a7, O dis2i3les, the7e<o7e 5e a7e 2alled 5a77io7s18 E1 8 +he7e<o7e, %o7d, do 5e 5age 5a7 M 8 F1 8 Fo7 lo<ty ;i7tues, <o7 high endea;ou7, <o7 su6lime 5isdom N <o7 these things do 5e 5age 5a7' the7e<o7e 5e a7e 2alled 5a77io7s18

L-K

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> H1 +he7e ;i7tue is in dange7 do not a;oid <ighting, do not 6e mealymouthed1

Pa7t )GN "he Bhikkhu and the %aity1 D1 "he Bond o< !lms1 ''

K1 Autual )n<luen2e1

L1 Dhamma o< the Bhikkhu and the Dhamma o< the

$3asaka1 '' '' D1 "he Bond o< !lms1 ''

D 1 "he (angh 5as an o7ganised 6ody the mem6e7shi3 o< 5hi2h 5as not o3en to all1 K1 "o 6e a me7e Pa7i;7a?aka 5as not enough to gi;e the Pa7i;7a?aka a mem6e7shi3 o< the (angh1 L1 )t is only a<te7 the Pa7i;7a?aka had o6tained $3asam3ada that he 2ould 6e2ome a mem6e7 o< the (angh1 .1 "he (angh 5as an inde3endent 6ody1 )t 5as inde3endent e;en o< its <ounde71 E1 )t 5as autonomous1 )t 2ould admit anyone it liked to its mem6e7shi31 )t 2ould dismem6e7 any mem6e7 37o;ided it a2ted in a22o7dan2e 5ith the 7ules o< the Ginaya Pitaka1 F1 "he only 2o7d 5hi2h 6ound the Bhikkhu to the %aity 5as alms1 H1 "he Bhikkhu de3ended u3on alms and it is the laity 5ho ga;e alms1 -1 "he laity 5as not o7ganised1 /1 "he7e 5as a (angha-Diksha o7 a 2e7emony <o7 ma7king the initiation o< a 3e7son in the (angh1 D01 (angha-Diksha in2luded 6oth initiation into the (angh as 5ell as into the Dhamma1 DD1 But the7e 5as no se3a7ate Dhamma- Diksha <o7 those 5ho 5anted to 6e initiated into the Dhamma 6ut did not 5ish to 6e2ome mem6e7s o< the L-L

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> (angh, one o< the 2onseCuen2es o< 5hi2h 5as to go <7om home into homelessness1 DK1 "his 5as a g7a;e omission1 )t 5as one o< the 2auses 5hi2h ultimatelyled to the do5n<all o< Buddhism in )ndia1 DL1 Fo7, this a6sen2e o< the initiation 2e7emony le<t the laity <7ee to 5ande7 <7om one 7eligion to anothe7 and, 5o7se still, <ollo5 at one and the same time1

'' K1 Autual )n<luen2e1 ''

D Ho5e;e7, the 6ond o< alms 5as enough <o7 a Bhikkhu to 7e<o7m an e77ing mem6e7 o< the laity1 K1 )n this 2onne2tion the <ollo5ing 7ules mentioned in the !ngutta7a #ikaya a7e 5o7thy o< attention1 L1 )n addition to these 37es27i3tions, the laity had a gene7al 7ight to 2om3lain against a Bhikkhu to othe7 Bhikkhus, against any mis2hie< o7 mis2ondu2t1 .1 "he moment the 2om3laint 7ea2hed the Buddha and he had ;e7i<ied it, the 7ele;ant 7ule in the Ginaya Pithaka 5as amended to make the 7e3etition o< su2h a 2ondu2t, an o<<en2e against the (angh1 E1 "he Ginaya Pithaka is nothing 6ut 7ed7ess o< the 2om3laints o< the laity1 F1 (u2h 5as the 7elation 6et5een the Bhikkhu and the %aity1 '' L1 Dhamma o< the Bhikkhu and the Dhamma o< the

$3asaka1 ''

D 1 (ome 27iti2s o< Buddhism allege that Buddhism is not a 7eligion1

L-.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K1 #o attention should 6e 3aid to su2h 27iti2ism1 But i< any 7e3ly is to 6e gi;en, it is that Buddhism is the only 7eal 7eligion and those 5ho do not a22e3t this must 7e;ise thei7 de<inition o< eligion1 L1 Othe7 27iti2s do not go so <a7 as this1 +hat they say is that Buddhism as a 7eligion is 2on2e7ned only 5ith the Bhikkhu1 )t does not 2on2e7n itsel< 5ith the 2ommon man1 Buddhism ke3t the 2ommon man outside its 3ale1 .1 "he 7e<e7en2es to the Bhikkhu o22u7 so o<ten in the dialogues o< the Buddha that they go to st7engthen the 27iti2ism1 E1 )t, the7e<o7e, 6e2omes ne2essa7y to make the matte7 2lea71 F1 +as the Dhamma 2ommon to 6othM O7 is the7e any 3a7t o< the Dhamma 5hi2h is 6inding on the Bhikkhu 6ut not so on the laity M H1 Ae7ely 6e2ause the se7mons 5e7e add7essed to the gathe7ing o< the Bhikkhus it must not 6e su33osed that 5hat 5as 37ea2hed 5as intended to a33ly to them only1 +hat 5as 37ea2hed a33lied to 6oth1 -1 "hat the Buddha had the laity in mind 5hen he 37ea2hed' @DB "he Pan2hasila, @KB "he !shtanga Aa7ga, and @LB "he Pa7amitas, is Cuite 2lea7 <7om the ;e7y natu7e o< things and no a7gument, 7eally s3eaking, is ne2essa7y1 /1 )t is those 5ho ha;e not le<t thei7 homes and 5ho a7e engaged in a2ti;e li<e that Pan2hasila, !shtanga Aa7ga, and Pa7amitas a7e essential1 )t is they 5ho a7e likely to t7ansg7ess them and not the Bhikkhu 5ho has le<t home, 5ho is not engaged in a2ti;e li<e and 5ho is not likely to t7ansg7ess them1 D01 +hen the Buddha, the7e<o7e, sta7ted 37ea2h -ing his Dhamma it must 6e 37in2i3ally <o7 the laity1 DD1 )t is not, ho5e;e7, ne2essa7y to 7ely me7ely on in<e7en2e1 "he7e is di7e2t e;iden2e to dis37o;e the 27iti2ism1

DK1

e<e7en2e may 6e made to the <ollo5ing se7mon1

DL1 On2e 5hile the %o7d 5as staying at (h7a-;asti in Peta:s I7o;e in !natha3indika:s 3leasan2e, the7e 2ame to him the lay <ollo5e7 Dhammika, L-E

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> 5ith othe7 <i;e hund7ed lay <ollo5e7s, 5ho a<te7 due salutations, took his seat to one side and add7essed the %o7d as <ollo5s ' D.1 8+hat 2ondu2t1 Oh %o7d, 3e7<e2ts, 6oth those that a7e Bhikkhus and those that a7e only $3asakas, i1e1, those 5ho a7e homeless and those 5ho a7e not1 DE1 8%et the almsmen seated 7ound 5ith these lay <ollo5e7s lea7n the sa;ing t7uth18 DF1 "he Blessed %o7d said' 8Ii;e ea7, almsmen1 Hea7, and kee3 the7ules 37es27i6ed1 D H1 8Io not thy 7ound 5hen noon is 3astJ 6etime seek alms1 (na7es g7eet the untimely guest1 D-1 8 Be<o7e thou seek thy meal, 2lea7 thou thy mind o< Oest <o7 <o7ms, sounds, 1odou7s, taste and lu2k1 D/1 8"hine alms 7e2ei;ed, 7etu7n alone, to sit a3a7t and think, 5ith <ixed mind that ne;e7 stays a67oad K01 8 )n talk 5ith 3ious <olk, almsmen, let thy theme 6e the Do2t7ine1 KD1 8"7eat alms, 2ell, 6ed, 5ate7 and 7insings ?ust as means and nothing mo7e1 KK1 8 (u2h 7easoned use 5ill lea;e an almsman as unstained as lotus lea< 5he7eon no d7o3 o< 5ate7 7ests1 KL1 8 ) no5 3ass to the 2ondu2t 5hi2h 3e7<e2ts the lay <ollo5e7s1 "o them ) say' K.1 8 (lay not, no7 doom to death, no7 san2tion slaughte71 Do no ;iolen2e to aught that li;es, st7ong o7 5eak1 %o;e all li;ing 6eings1

KE1 8#o layman 5ittingly should thie;e o7 o7de7 the<t J take 6ut 5hat othe7s gi;e1 KF1 8 (hun in2ontinen2e as it 5e7e a 3it o< <i7e, on <ailing 2ontinen2e, de6au2h no 5edded 5i<e1 KH1 8)n 2on2la;es, 2ou7ts, let him not 6e, let him not 37om3t o7 san2tion liesJ let him 7enoun2e unt7uth1 L-F

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K-1 8 O6se7;e this la5 ' (hun d7ink, make no man d7ink J san2tion no d7inking1 Aa7k ho5 d7ink to madness leads1 K/1 8"h7ough d7ink, <ools sin, and egg lax 67eth7en on to sin1 (o <lee this maddening ;i2e, this <olly, 6liss o< <ools1 L01 8 (lay not, steal not, lie not J <7om st7ong d7ink kee3 a5ay J 7e<7ain <7om le2he7y1 LD1 8(o make thy sa66ath ;o5s as 5eek su22eeds 5eek, and kee3 5ith 3ious hea7ts this eight-<old <esti;al1 LK1 8 !t mo7n, these ;o5s 3e7<o7med, 5ith 3ious, thank<ul hea7t, 6e 5ise and o< thy means gi;e almsmen <ood and d7ink1 LL1 8Che7ish thy 3a7ents 5ellJ <ollo5 a 7ighteous t7ade1 L.1 8 "hus shall the layman, staun2h, 7ea2h 7ealms o< light a6o;e18 LE1 )t 5ill thus 6e seen that the Dha7nma 5as the same <o7 6oth1 LF1 "he7e a7e o< 2ou7se di<<e7en2es in the 2all made u3on the t5o1 LH1 ! Bhikkhu must take <i;e ;o5s1 L-1 He must take the ;o5 that he shall not kill1 L/1 He must take the ;o5 that he shall not a337o37iate to himsel< 37o3e7ty o< anothe7 5hi2h has not 6een gi;en to him1 .01 He must take the ;o5 that he shall ne;e7 tell a lie1

. D 1 He must take the ;o5 that he shall not t7y to ha;e 2a7nal kno5ledge o< a 5oman1 .K1 He must take the ;o5 that he shall ne;e7 d7ink any intoxi2ating d7ink1 .L1 !ll these 7ules a7e 6inding also u3on the layman1 ..1 "he only di<<e7en2e lies in this1 +ith the Bhikkhu they a7e ;o5s 5hi2h a7e not to 6e t7ans -g7essed, 5ith the layman they a7e mo7al o6ligations to 6e ;olunta7ily honou7ed1 .E1 Besides, the7e a7e t5o othe7 di<<e7en2es 5hi2h a7e note5o7thy1 .F1 ! Bhikkhu 2annot ha;e 37i;ate 37o3e7ty1 ! layman 2an ha;e1 L-H

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> .H1 ! Bhikkhu is <7ee to ente7 3a7ni66an1 #i66ana is enough <o7 a layman1 .-1 "hese a7e the simila7ities and di<<e7en2es 6et5een a Bhikkhu and the layman1 ./1 Dhamma, ho5e;e7, is the same <o7 6oth1 Pa7t G N Ginaya <o7 the %aity1 D1 Ginaya <o7 the +ealthy1 ''

K1 Ginaya <o7 the Householde71

L1 Ginaya <o7 Child7en1

.1 Ginaya <o7 Pu3il1

E1 Ginaya <o7 Hus6and and +ile1

F1 Ginaya <o7 Aaste7 and (e7;ant1

H1 Con2lusions1

-1Ginaya <o7 Ii7ls1

'' D1 Ginaya <o7 the +ealthy1 '' @iB D 1 "he Blessed %o7d did not ele;ate 3o;e7ty 6y 2alling it a 6lessed state o< li<e1 K1 #o7 did he tell the 3oo7 that they may 7emain 2ontent <o7 they 5ill inhe7it the ea7th1 L1 On the 2ont7a7y, he said 7i2hes a7e 5el2ome1 +hat he insisted u3on is that the a2Cuisition o< 7i2hes must 6e su6?e2t to Ginaya1 @iiB D 1 On2e !natha3indika 2ame to 5he7e the Exalted One 5as1 Ha;ing 2ome, he made o6eisan2e to the Exalted One and took a seat at one side and asked, 8 +ill the Enlightened One tell 5hat things a7e 5el2ome, 3leasant, ag7eea6le, to the householde7 6ut 5hi2h a7e ha7d to gain18 K1 "he Enlightened One ha;ing hea7d the Cuestion 3ut to him said, N 8O< su2h things the <i7st is to a2Cui7e 5ealth la5<ully1 L1 8 "he se2ond is to see that you7 7elations also get thei7 5ealth la5<ully1 .1 8 "he thi7d is to li;e long and 7ea2h g7eat age1 L--

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> E1 :8Fo7 a t7ue householde7 <o7 the attainment o< these th7ee things, 5hi2h in the 5o7ld a7e 5el2ome, 3leasant, ag7eea6le 6ut ha7d to gain, the7e a7e also <ou7 2onditions 37e2edent1 "hey a7e the 6lessing o< <aith, the 6lessing o<

;i7tuous 2ondu2t, the 6lessing o< li6e7ality and the 6lessing o< 5isdom1 F1 8 "he 6lessing o< <aith and 6elie< 2onsist in the su37eme kno5ledge o< the "athagata 5hi2h tea2hes : "his is He, the Exalted One, the Holy One, the (u37emely !5akened One, the 3e7<e2t in *no5ledge and in Condu2t, the !us3i2ious, the *no5e7 o< all the 5o7lds, the )n2om3a7a6le "7aine7 o< men, the "ea2he7 o< De;as and men1: H1 8"he 6lessing o< ;i7tuous 2ondu2t 5hi2h a6stains <7om taking li<e, thie;ing, un2hastity, lying and 3a7taking o< <e7mented liCuo71 -1 8 "he 6lessing o< li6e7ality 2onsists in the householde7 li;ing 5ith mind <7eed <7om the taint o< a;a7i2e, gene7ous, o3en-handed, delighting in gi<ts, a good one to 6e asked and de;oted to the dist7i6ution o< gi<ts1 /1 8+he7ein 2onsists the 6lessing o< +isdomM &e kno5 that a householde7 5ho d5ells 5ith mind o;e72ome 6y g7eed, a;a7i2e, ill-5ill, sloth, d7o5siness, dist7a2tion and <lu77y, 2ommits 57ong<ul deeds and negle2ts that 5hi2h ought to 6e done, and 6y so doing is de37i;ed o< ha33iness and honou71 D01 8 I7eed, a;a7i2e, ill-5ill, sloth and d7o5-siness, dist7a2tion and <lu77y and dou6t a7e stains o< the mind1 ! householde7 5ho gets 7id o< su2h stains o< the mind a2Cui7es g7eat 5isdom, a6undant 5isdom, 2lea7 ;ision and 3e7<e2t 5isdom1 D D 1 "hus, to a2Cui7e 5ealth legitimately and ?ustly, ea7ned 6y g7eat indust7y, amassed 6y st7ength o< the a7m and gained 6y s5eat @o< the 67o5B is a g7eat 6lessing1 "he householde7 makes himsel< ha33y and 2hee7<ul and 37ese7;es himsel< <ull o< ha33inessJ also make 3a7ents, 5i<e and 2hild7en, se7;ants and la6ou7e7s, <7iends and 2om3anions ha33y and 2hee7<ul, and 37ese7;es them <ull o< ha33iness18

L-/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> '' K1 Ginaya <o7 the Householde71 ''

On this matte7 the Buddha:s thoughts a7e em6odied in his dis2ou7se 5ith (igala1 D 1 !t one time the Exalted One 5as in the (Cui77els: Feeding-g7ound in Gelu Gana in a?ag7aha1 K1 #o5 at this time young (igala, a householde7:s son, 7ising 6etimes, 5ent <o7th <7om a?ag7aha, and 5ith 5et hai7 and 5et ga7ments and 2las3ed hands u3li<ted, 3aid 5o7shi3 to the se;e7al Cua7te7s o< ea7th and sky N to the east, south, 5est and no7th, to the nadi7 and the Oenith1 L1 !nd the Exalted One ea7ly that mo7ning d7essed himsel<, took his 6o5l and 7o6e and ente7ed a?ag7aha seeking alms1 He sa5 young (igala 5o7shi33ing and asked him, 8+hy do you 5o7shi3 the se;e7al Cua7te7s o< ea7th and sky M 8 .1 8 Ay <athe7, 5hen he 5as dying, said to me ' : Dea7 son, you should 5o7shi3 the Cua7te7s o< ea7th and sky1 (o ), si7, honou7ing my <athe7:s 5o7d 5o7shi3 in this 5ise1: 8 E1 8 But ho5 2an this 6e the t7ue 7eligion o< a man o< the 5o7ld 8 asked the Blessed One1 8 +hat else 2an 6e the 7eligion o< man,8 7e3lied (igala1 8 )< the7e is, it 5ould 6e an ex2ellent thing i< the Exalted One 5ould tell me 5hat it is18 F1 8 Hea7 then young householde7, gi;e ea7 to my 5o7ds and ) 5ill tell you 5hat it is18 8 (o 6e it, (i7,8 7es3onded young (igala1 !nd the Exalted One said' H1 8! 7eligion to 6e a 7eligion o< man must tea2h him to shun 6ad 2ondu2t1 "he dest7u2tion o< li<e, the taking o< 5hat is not gi;en, li2entiousness and lying s3ee2h a7e the <ou7 ;i2es o< 2ondu2t 5hi2h he must a;oid1 -1 8 *no5 ye, (igala, e;il deeds a7e done <7om moti;es o< 3a7tiality, enmity, stu3idity and <ea71 )< he is not led a5ay 6y these moti;es, he 5ill do no e;il deed1 /1 8 ! 7eligion to 6e 7eligion o< man must tea2h him not to dissi3ate his 5ealth1 Dissi3ation o< 5ealth 7esults <7om 6eing addi2ted to intoxi2ating

liCuo7s, <7eCuenting the st7eets at unseemly hou7s, haunting <ai7s, 6eing

L/0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> in<atuated 6y gam6ling, asso2iating 5ith e;il 2om3anions, the ha6it o< idleness1 D01 8 "he7e a7e, (igala, six dange7s 5hi2h <ollo5 <7om 6eing addi2ted to intoxi2ating liCuo7s, a2tual loss o< 5ealth, in27ease o< Cua77els, sus2e3ti6ility to disease, loss o< good 2ha7a2te7, inde2ent ex3osu7e, im3ai7ed intelligen2e1 D D 1 8(ix a7e the 3e7ils <7om <7eCuenting the st7eets at unseemly hou7s ' he himsel< is 5ithout gua7d o7 37ote2tion and so also a7e his 5i<e and 2hild7en, so also is his 37o3e7ty, he, mo7eo;e7, 6e2omes sus3e2ted as the doe7 o< undis2o;e7ed 27imes, and <alse 7umou7s <ix on him, and many a7e the t7ou6les he goes out to meet1 DK1 8 (ix a7e the 3e7ils <7om the haunting o<<ai7s' he is e;e7 thinking 5he7e is the7e dan2ing M +he7e is the7e singing M 5he7e is the7e musi2 M 5he7e is 7e2itation M 5he7e a7e the 2ym6als M 5he7e the tam-tams M DL1 8 (ix a7e the 3e7ils <o7 him 5ho is in<atuated 5ith gam6ling ' as 5inne7 he 6egets hat7ed, 5hen 6eaten he mou7ns his lost 5ealth, his a2tual su6stan2e is 5asted, his 5o7d has no 5eight in a 2ou7t o< la5, he is des3ised 6y <7iends and o<<i2ials, he is not sought a<te7 6y those 5ho 5ould gi;e o7 take in ma77iage, <o7 they 5ould say that a man 5ho is a gam6le7 2annot a<<o7d to kee3 a 5i<e1 D.1 8 (ix a7e the 3e7ils <7om asso2iating 5ith e;il 2om3anions ' any gam6le7, any li6e7tine, any ti33le7, any 2heat, any s5indle7, any man o< ;iolen2e is his <7iend and 2om3anion1 DE18 (ix 2old and no 5o7k, ea7ly o7 a7e the 3e7ils o< the ha6it o< idleness ' he says it is too does he says it is too hot and does no 5o7k, he says it is too too

late and does no 5o7k, he says ) am too hung7y and does no 5o7k, he says ) am too <ull and does no 5o7k1 !nd 5hile all that he should do 7emains undone, ne5 5ealth he does not get, and su2h 5ealth as he has d5indles a5ay1 DF1 8! 7eligion to 6e a 7eligion o< man must tea2h him to kno5 5ho is a t7ue <7iend1 DH18 Fou7 a7e they 5ho should 6e 7e2koned as <oes in the likeness o< <7iends J to 5it, a 7a3a2ious 3e7son, the man o< 5o7ds not deeds, the <latte7e7, and the <ello5-5aste71

L/D

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D-1 8O< these the <i7st is to 6e 7e2koned as a <oe in the likeness o< a <7iend' <o7, he is 7a3a2ious, he gi;es little and asks mu2h J he does his duty out o< <ea7, he 3u7sues his o5n inte7ests1 D/1 8! man o< 5o7ds 5ho is not a man o< deeds is to 6e 7e2koned as a <oe in the likeness o< a <7iend ' Fo7, he makes a <7iendly 37o<ession as 7ega7ds the 3ast, he makes <7iendly 37o<ession as 7ega7ds the <utu7e, he t7ies to gain you7 <a;ou7 6y em3ty sayings, 5hen the o33o7tunity <o7 se7;i2e has a7isen he a;o5s his disa6ility1 K01 8 "he <latte7e7 is to 6e 7e2koned as a <oe in the likeness o< a <7iend' <o7, he 6oth 2onsents to do 57ong, and dissents <7om doing 7ight J he 37aises to you7 <a2e J he s3eaks ill o< you to othe7s1 KD1 8(o also the <ello5-5aste7 2om3anion is to 6e 7e2koned as a <oe in the likeness o< a <7iend J <o7, he is you7 2om3anion 5hen you <7eCuent the st7eets at untimely hou7s, he is you7 2om3anion 5hen you haunt sho5s and <ai7s, he is you7 2om3anion 5hen you a7e in<atuated 5ith gam6ling1 KK1 8Fou7 a7e the <7iends 5ho should 6e 7e2koned as sound at hea7t' the hel3e7 J the <7iend 5ho is the same in ha33iness and ad;e7sityJ the <7iend o< good 2ounsel J the <7iend 5ho sym3athises1

KL1 8 "he <7iend 5ho is a hel3e7 is to 6e 7e2koned as sound at hea7t ' 6e2ause, he gua7ds you 5hen you a7e o<< you7 gua7d, he gua7ds you7 37o3e7ty 5hen you a7e o<< you7 gua7d, he is a 7e<uge to you 5hen you a7e a<7aid, 5hen you ha;e tasks to 3e7<o7m he 37o;ides a dou6le su33ly o< 5hat you may need1 K.1 8 "he <7iend 5ho is the same in ha33iness and ad;e7sity is to 6e 7e2koned as sound o< hea7t' 6e2ause, he tells you his se27ets, he kee3s se27et you7 se27ets, in you7 t7ou6les he does not <o7esake you, he lays do5n e;en his li<e <o7 you7 sake1 KE1 8 "he <7iend 5ho de2la7es 5hat you need to do is sound o< hea7tJ 6e2ause, he 7est7ains you <7om doing 57ong, he en?oins you to do 5hat is 7ight, he in<o7ms you o< 5hat you had not hea7d 6e<o7e, he 7e;eals to you the 5ay o< hea;en1 KF1 8"he <7iend 5ho sym3athises is to 6e 7e2koned as sound at hea7tJ 6e2ause, he does not 7e?oi2e o;e7 you7 mis<o7tunes, he 7e?oi2es o;e7 you7

L/K

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> 37os3e7ity, he 7est7ains anyone 5ho is s3eaking ill o< you, he 2ommends anyone 5ho is 37aising you18 "hus s3eaks the Exalted One1 KH1 8 )nstead o< tea2hing him to 5o7shi3 the six Cua7te7s, a 7eligion 5hi2h is a 7eligion o< man must tea2h him to 7es3e2t and 7e;e7e his 3a7ents, his tea2he7s, his 5i<e and 2hild7en, his <7iends and 2om3anions, his se7;ants and 5o7kmen and his 7eligious tea2he7s18 '' L1 Ginaya <o7 Child7en1 '' D 1 8! 2hild should ministe7 to his 3a7ents saying' :On2e su33o7ted 6y them ) 5ill no5 6e thei7 su33o7t, ) 5ill 3e7<o7m duties in2um6ent on themJ ) 5ill kee3 u3 the lineage and t7adition o< my <amily, ) 5ill make mysel< 5o7thy o< my he7itage1: Fo7, the 3a7ents sho5 thei7 lo;e <o7 him, they 7est7ain him

<7om ;i2e, they exho7t him to ;i7tue, they t7ain him to a 37o<ession, they 2ont7a2t a suita6le ma77iage <o7 him, and in due time they hand o;e7 his inhe7itan2e18 '' .1 Ginaya <o7 Pu3il1 '' D1 8! 3u3il should ministe7 to his tea2he7s 6y 7ising <7om his seat, in salutation 6y 5aiting u3on them, 6y eage7ness to lea7n, 6y 3e7sonal se7;i2e, and 6y attention 5hen 7e2ei;ing thei7 tea2hing1 Fo7, tea2he7s lo;e thei7 3u3il, they t7ain him in that 5he7ein he has 6een 5ell t7ained, they make him hold <ast that 5hi2h is 5ell held, they tho7oughly inst7u2t him in the lo7e o< e;e7y a7t, they s3eak 5ell o< him among his <7iends and 2om3anions1 "hey 37o;ide <o7 his sa<ety in e;e7y Cua7te718 '' E1 Ginaya <o7 Hus6and and +ile1 ''

D 1 8! hus6and should ministe7 to his 5i<e 6y sho5ing 7es3e2t, 6y 2ou7tesy, 6y <aith<ulness, 6y handing o;e7 autho7ity to he7, 6y 37o;iding he7 5ith ado7nment1 Fo7, the 5i<e lo;es him, he7 duties a7e 5ell 3e7<o7med, 6y hos3itality to the kin o< 6oth, 6y <aith<ulness, 6y 5at2hing o;e7 the goods he 67ings, and 6y skill and indust7y in dis2ha7ging all he7 6usiness1 K1 8 ! 2lansman should ministe7 to his <7iends and 2om3anions 6ygene7osity, 2ou7tesy and 6ene;olen2e, 6y t7eating them as he t7eats himsel<, and 6y L/L

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> 6eing as good as his 5o7d1 Fo7, his <7iends and <amilia7s lo;e him, they 37ote2t him 5hen he is o<< his gua7d, and on su2h o22asion gua7d his 37o3e7ty, they 6e2ome a 7e<uge in dange7, they do not <o7sake him in his t7ou6le and they sho5 2onside7ation <o7 his <amily18 '' F1 Ginaya <o7 Aaste7 and (e7;ant1 ''

D1 8! maste7 should ministe7 to his se7;ants and em3loyees 6y assigning

them 5o7k a22o7ding to thei7 st7ength, 6y su33lying them 5ith <ood and 5ages, 6y tending them in si2kness, 6y sha7ing 5ith them unusual deli2a2ies, 6y g7anting lea;e at times1 Fo7, se7;ants and em3loyees lo;e thei7 maste7, they 7ise 6e<o7e him, they lie do5n to 7est a<te7 him, they a7e 2ontent 5ith 5hat is gi;en to them, they do thei7 5o7k 5ell, and they 2a77y a6out his 37aise and good <ame1 K1 8! 2lansman should ministe7 to 7eligious tea2he7s 6y a<<e2tion in a2t and s3ee2h and mind, 6y kee3ing o3en house to them, 6y su33lying thei7 tem3o7al needs1 Fo7, 7eligious tea2he7s 7est7ain him <7om e;il, they exho7t him to good, they lo;e him 5ith kindly thoughts, they tea2h him 5hat he had not hea7d, they 2o77e2t and 3u7i<y 5hat he has hea7d18

'' H1 Con2lusions1 ''

D1 +hen the Exalted One had thus s3oken (igala, the young householde7 said this' 8 Beauti<ul, %o7d, 6eauti<ul! !s i< one should set u3 again that 5hi2h had 6een o;e7th7o5n, o7 7e;eal that 5hi2h had 6een hidden, o7 should dis2lose the 7oad to one that 5as ast7ay, o7 should 2a77y a lam3 into da7kness, saying' "hey that ha;e eyes 5ill seel E;en so hath the "7uth 6een mani<ested 6y the Exalted One in many 5ays1 K1 8 !nd ), e;en ), do go to him as my 7e<uge, and to the "7uth and to the O7de71 Aay the Exalted One 7e2ei;e me as his lay-dis2i3le, as one 5ho has taken his 7e<uge in him <7om this day <o7th as long as li<e endu7es18

L/.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> '' -1Ginaya <o7 Ii7ls1 ''

D1 On2e the Exalted One d5elt nea7 Bhaddiya in Patiya +oodJ and the7e $ggaha, Aendaka:s g7andson, 3aid him a ;isit and, a<te7 saluting, sat do5n at one side1 (o seated, he said to the Exalted One'

K1 8 %o7d let the Exalted One a22e3t a meal at my house tomo77o5, he as <ou7th @5ith us th7eeB18 L1 "he Exalted One a22e3ted 6y his silen2e1 .1 "hen $ggaha, seeing the Exalted One had a22e3ted, 7ose <7om his seat, saluted, and took his lea;e, kee3ing the Exalted One on his 7ight1 E1 #o5 5hen the night 5as o;e7, the Exalted One, 7o6ing himsel< in the mo7ning, took his 6o5l and 2loak and 5ent to $ggaha:s house, and the7e sat do5n on the seat made 7eady1 !nd $ggaha se7;ed 5ith his o5n hand and satis<ied the Exalted One 5ith 3lenty o< <ood1 F1 !nd 5hen the Exalted One had 7emo;ed his hand <7om his 6o5l, he sat do5n at one side1 "hus seated, he said' H1 8 %o7d, these gi7ls o< 1mine 5ill 6e going to thei7 hus6ands: <amiliesJ %o7d, let the Exalted One 2ounsel them, let the Exalted One ad;ise them, <o7 thei7 good and ha33iness <o7 many a day ) 8 -1 "hen the Exalted One s3oke to them and said' 8+he7e<o7, gi7ls, t7ain you7sel;es in this 5ay' "o 5hatsoe;e7 hus6and ou7 3a7ents shall gi;e us N 5ishing ou7 5eal, seeking ou7 ha33iness, 2om3assionate N 6e2ause o< 2om3assion <o7 him 5e 5ill 7ise u3 ea7ly, 6e the last to 7eti7e, 6e 5illing 5o7ke7s, o7de7 all things s5eetly and 6e gentle ;oi2ed1 "7ain you7sel;es thus, gi7ls1: /1 8 !nd in this 5ay also, gi7ls' : +e 5ill honou7, 7e;e7e, esteem and 7es3e2t all 5ho a7e ou7 hus6and:s 7elati;es, 5hethe7 mothe7 o7 <athe7, 7e2luse o7 godly man, and on thei7 a77i;al 5ill o<<e7 them a seat and 5ate71 "7ain you7sel;es thus, gi7ls1: D01 8!nd in this 5ay also gi7ls' :+e 5ill 6e de<t and nim6le at ou7 hus6and:s home-27a<ts, 5hethe7 they 6e o< 5ool o7 2otton, making it ou7 6usiness to unde7stand the 5o7k so as to do and get it done1 "7ain you7sel;es thus, gi7ls1 L/E

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

D D 1 8!nd in this 5ay also, gi7ls' kno5 the 5o7k o< ea2h 6y 5hat has 6een done, 6een doneJ 5e 5ill kno5 the st7ength and di;ide the ha7d and so<t <ood, ea2h you7sel;es thus, gi7ls1:

: Aessenge7s and 5o7k<olk 5e 5ill thei7 7emissness, 6y 5hat has not the 5eakness o< the si2kJ 5e 5ill a22o7ding to his sha7e1 "7ain

DK1 8!nd in this 5ay also, gi7ls' :"he money, 2o7n, sil;e7 and :gold that ou7 hus6and 67ings home, 5e 5ill kee3 sa<e, 5at2h and 5a7d o;e7 it, and a2t as no 7o66e7, thie<, 2a7ouse7, 5ast7el the7ein1 "7ain you7sel;es thus, gi7ls1:8 DL1 On hea7ing this ad;i2e, the daughte7s o< $ggaha <elt ex2eedingly ha33y and 5e7e g7ate<ul to the %o7d1

L/F

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

8'' BOO* G) ''8 HE !#D H)( CO#"EAPO ! )E( Pa7t ) N His Bene<a2to7s1 D1 Ii<t <7om Bim6isa7a1 ''

K1 Ii<t <7om !natha3indika1

L1 Ii<t <7om "ee;aka1

.1 Ii<t <7om !m67a3ali1

E1 Auni<i2en2e o< Gishakha1

'' D1 Ii<t <7om Bim6isa7a1 ''

D 1 *ing Bim6isa7a 5as not me7ely a <ollo5e7 o< the Blessed %o7d' he 5as also a g7eat de;otee and a g7eat su33o7te7 o< his Dhamma1 K1 !<te7 his 6e2oming a lay dis2i3le Bim6isa7a asked' 8Aight the Blessed %o7d 2onsent to take his meal 5ith me tomo77o5 togethe7 5ith the <7ate7nity o< the monks M 8 L1 "he Blessed One ex37essed his 2onsent 6y 7emaining silent1 .1 "hen *ing Bim6isa7a, 5hen he unde7stood that the Blessed One had a22e3ted his in;itation, 7ose <7om his seat, 7es3e2t<ully saluted the Blessed One, and, 3assing 7ound him 5ith his 7ight side to5a7ds him, 5ent a5ay1 E1 !nd 5hen the night had ela3sed, Bim6isa7a o7de7ed ex2ellent <ood to 6e 37e3a7ed, and at time announ2ed to the Blessed One in the 5o7ds' 8 )t is time1 %o7d, the meal is 7eady18 F1 !nd in the <o7enoon the Blessed One, ha;ing 3ut on his unde7-7o6e, took his alms -6o5l, and 5ith his 7o6e on, ente7ed the 2ity o< a?ag7aha a22om3anied 6y monks 5ho had all 6een Patilas 6e<o7e1 H1 !nd the Blessed One 5ent to the 3ala2e o< *ing Bim6isa7a1 Ha;ing gone the7e, he sat do5n 5ith the monks 5ho <ollo5ed him, on seats laid out <o7 them1 "hen *ing Bim6isa7a 5ith his o5n hands se7;ed the <7ate7nity o< L/H

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> monks 5ith the Buddha at its headJ and 5hen the Blessed One had <inished his meal and 2leaned his 6o5l and his hands, he sat do5n nea7 him1 -1 (itting nea7 him *ing Bim6isa7a thought' 8 +he7e may ) <ind a 3la2e <o7 the Blessed One to li;e in, not too <a7 <7om the ;illage and not too nea7, suita6le <o7 going and 2oming, easily a22essi6le <o7 3eo3le 5ho kee3 on

seeking him, 6y day not too 27o5ded, 5he7e the7e is little sound, little noise 6y night, seCueste7ed, hidden <7om men, 5ell <itted <o7 a 7eti7ed li<e M 8 /1 !nd *ing Bim6isa7a thought' 8 "he7e is the Gelu;ana, my 3leasu7e ga7den, 5hi2h is not too <a7 <7om the to5n and not too nea7, suita6le <o7 going and 2oming1 +hat i< ) 5e7e to make an o<<e7ing o< the Gelu;ana 3leasu7e ga7den to the <7ate7nity o< monks, 5ith the Buddha at its head M 8 D01 !nd *ing Bim6isa7a took a golden ;essel 5ith 5ate7 in it, to 6e 3ou7ed o;e7 the Buddha:s handJ and made a gi<t to the Blessed One, saying, 8) gi;e this Gelu;ana 3leasu7e ga7den, %o7d, to the <7ate7nity o< monks 5ith the Buddha at its head18 "he Blessed One a22e3ted the 3a7k1 DD1 "hen the Blessed One, a<te7 ha;ing taught, in2ited, animated, and gladdened *ing Bim6isa7a 6y 7eligious dis2ou7se, 7ose <7om his seat and 5ent a5ay1 DK1 !nd in 2onseCuen2e o< this e;ent the Blessed One, a<te7 ha;ing deli;e7ed a 7eligious dis2ou7se, add7essed the monks' : ) allo5 you monks, to 7e2ei;e this donation o< a 3a7k18 '' K1 Ii<t <7om !natha3indika1 ''

D 1 !<te7 his 2on;e7sion !natha3indika on2e 5ent to the Blessed %o7d1 "aking his seat on his 7ight side, he said' K1 8"he %o7d kno5s that ) d5ell in (h7a;asti, a land 7i2h in 37odu2e, and en?oying 3ea2eJ Pasendi is the g7eat king the7eo<1 L1 8#o5 am ) 5ish<ul to <ound a Giha7 the7e, ) 37ay you, o< you7 tende7ness 2ome to (h7a;asti and a22e3t it <7om me18 .1 "he Blessed %o7d ke3t silent and the7e6y sho5ed his 5illingness to a22e3t the gi<t81 L/-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

E1 !natha3indika, the <7iend o< the destitute and the su33o7te7 o< o73hans, ha;ing 7etu7ned home, sa5 the ga7den o< the hei7 -a33a7ent, Peta, 5ith its g7een g7o;es and lim3id 7i;ulets, and thought' 8"his is the 3la2e 5hi2h 5ill 6e most suita6le as a Giha7a <o7 the <7ate7nity o< the Blessed One18 !nd he 5ent to the 37in2e and asked lea;e to 6uy the g7ound1 F1 "he 37in2e 5as not in2lined to sell the ga7den <o7 he ;alued it highly1 He at <i7st 7e<used 6ut said at last' 8 )< you 2an 2o;e7 it 5ith gold, then, and <o7 no othe7 37i2e, shall you ha;e it18 H1 !natha3indika 7e?oi2ed and 6egan to s37ead his goldJ 6ut Peta said' 8 (3a7e you7sel< t7ou6le <o7 ) 5ill not sell18 But !natha3indika insisted1 "hus they di<<e7ed and 2ontended until they 7eso7ted to the magist7ate1 -1 Aean5hile the 3eo3le 6egan to talk o< the un5onted 37o2eeding and the 37in2e hea7ing mo7e o< the details, and kno5ing that !natha3indika 5as not only ;e7y 5ealthy, 6ut also st7aight<o75a7d and sin2e7e, inCui7ed into his 3lans1 On hea7ing the name o< the Blessed One, the 37in2e 6e2ame anxious to sha7e in the <oundation and he a22e3ted only one-hal< o< the gold, saying' 8 &ou7s is the land 6ut mine a7e the t7ees1 ) 5ill gi;e the t7ees as my sha7e o< the o<<e7ing to the %o7d18 /1 Ha;ing made the <oundation, they 6egan to 6uild the hall 5hi2h 7ose lo<tily in due 37o3o7tions a22o7ding to the di7e2tions 5hi2h the Blessed One had gi;enJ and it 5as 6eauti<ully de2o7ated 5ith a337o37iate 2a7;ings1 D01 "his Giha7a 5as 2alled Peta;ana and the <7iend o< the o73hans in;ited the %o7d to 2ome to (h7a;asti and 7e2ei;e the gi<t1 !nd the Blessed One le<t *a3ila;astu and 2ame to (h7a;asti1 DD1 +hile the Blessed One ente7ed Peta;ana, !natha3indika s2atte7ed <lo5e7s and 6u7ned in2ense, and as a sign o< the gi<t he 3ou7ed 5ate7 <7om a golden d7agon 3it2he7, saying, 8"his Peta;ana Giha7a ) gi;e <o7 the use o< the 67othe7hood th7oughout the 5o7ld18 DK1 "he Blessed One 7e2ei;ed the gi<t and 7e3lied' 8 Aay all e;il in<luen2es 6e o;e72omeJ may the o<<e7ing 37omote the kingdom o< 7ighteousness and

6e a 3e7manent 6lessing to mankind in gene7al and es3e2ially also to the gi;e718 DL1 !natha3indika 5as one o< the eighty 2hie< dis2i3les 5ho 6o7e the title o< Chie< !i7nsgi;e71 L//

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> '' L1 Ii<t <7om Pee;aka1 '' D 1 Pee;aka the 3hysi2ian ;isited the Blessed One t5i2e a day 5hene;e7 the Blessed One ha33ened to 6e in a?ag7aha1 K1 Pee;aka <ound the Gelu;ana gi<ted a5ay to the Blessed One 6y *ing Bim6isa7a too <a7 a5ay1 L1 Pee;aka had his o5n 3a7k in a?ag7aha, kno5n as !m6a;ana, 5hi2h 5as mu2h nea7e7 <7om his 3la2e1 .1 He thought o< 6uilding a Giha7a 5ith all its ad?un2ts and 37esent the !m6a;ana and the Giha7a to the Blessed One1 E1 +ith this idea in his mind he a337oa2hed the Blessed One and 7eCuested him to let him <ul<il his 5ishes1 F1 "he Blessed %o7d sho5ed his a22e3tan2e 6y 7emaining silent1 '' .1 Ii<t <7om !m67a3ali1 ''

D1 #o5 the Exalted One 5as staying at #adika and 5as 5ishing <o7 a 2hange1 He add7essed !nanda, and said' 8 Come, !nanda, let us go on to Gesali18 K1 8(o 6e it1 %o7d,8 said !nanda, in assent, to the Exalted One1 L1 "hen the Exalted One 37o2eeded, 5ith a g7eat 2om3any o< the 67eth7en, to Gesali, and the7e at Gesali, the Exalted One stayed at !m67a3ali:s g7o;e1 .1 #o5 the 2ou7tesan !m67a3ali hea7d that the Exalted One had a77i;ed at Gesali and 5as staying the7e at he7 mango g7o;e1 !nd o7de7ing a num6e7 o< state ;ehi2les to 6e made 7eady, she mounted one o< them, and 5ent <o7th

5ith he7 t7ain <7om Gesali to5a7ds he7 ga7den1 (he 5ent in the 2a77iage as <a7 as the g7ound 5as 3assa6le <o7 2a77iagesJ the7e she alighted and she 37o2eeded on <oot to the 3la2e 5he7e the Exalted One 5as, and took he7 seat 7es3e2t<ully on one side1 !nd 5hen she 5as thus seated the Exalted One inst7u2ted he7 5ith 7eligious dis2ou7se1

.00

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> E1 "hen she add7essed the Exalted One, and said' 8 Aay the Exalted One do me the honou7 o< taking his meal, togethe7 5ith the 67eth7en, at my house tomo77o5 M 8 F1 !nd the Exalted One ga;e, 6y silen2e, his 2onsent1 "hen 5hen !m67a3ali the 2ou7tesan sa5 that the Exalted One had 2onsented, she 7ose <7om he7 seat and 6o5ed do5n 6e<o7e him, and kee3ing him on he7 7ight hand as she 3assed him, she de3a7ted then2e1 H1 #o5 the %i22ha;is o< Gesali hea7d that the Exalted One had a77i;ed at Gesali, and 5as staying at !m67a3ali:s g7o;e1 "hey too 5anted to in;ite the Buddha to thei7 3la2e <o7 a meal1 !nd o7de7ing a num6e7 o< state 2a77iages to 6e made 7eady, they ea2h mounted one o< them and 5ent <o7th 5ith thei7 t7ain <7om Gesali1 -1 "hey and !m67a3ali 27ossed on the 5ay1 /1 !nd !m67a3ali d7o;e u3 against the young %i22ha;is, axle to axle, 5heel to 5heel, and yoke to yoke, and the %i22ha;is said to !m67a3ali the 2ou7tesan, 8 Ho5 is it, !m67a3ali, that thou d7i;est u3 against us thus M 8 D01 8 Ay %o7ds, ) ha;e ?ust in;ited the Exalted One and his 67eth7en <o7 thei7 mo77o5:s meal,8 said !m67a3ali1 D D 1 8!m67a3ali, sell this honou7 to us <o7a hund7ed thousand,8 said they1

DK1 8 Ay %o7ds, 5e7e you to o<<e7 all Gesali 5ith its su6?e2t te77ito7y, ) 5ould not gi;e it u318 DL1 "he %i22ha;is 2ast u3 thei7 hands, ex2laiming' 8+e a7e outdone 6y this mango gi7l1 +e a7e out-7ea2hed 6y this mango gi7l,8 and they 5ent on to !m67a3ali:s g7o;e1 D.1 *no5ing that they 5e7e outdone they still thought o< a337oa2hing the Blessed One in the ho3e that he might 7e2onside7 and gi;e thei7 in;itation <i7st 37e<e7en2e1 (o they 5ent on to !m67a3ali:s g7o;e1 D E1 +hen the Exalted One sa5 the %i22ha;is a337oa2hing in the distan2e, he add7essed the 67eth7en and said' 8B7eth7en, let those o< the 67eth7en 5ho ha;e ne;e7 seen the de;as, gaOe u3on this 2om3any o< the %i22ha;is, 6ehold this 2om3any o< the %i22ha;is, 2om3a7e this 2om3any o< the %i22ha;is N <o7 they a7e e;en a 2om3any o< next-5o7ld de;as18 .0D

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DF1 !nd 5hen they had 7idden as <a7 as the g7ound 5as 3assa6le <o7 2a77iages the %i22ha;is alighted the7e, and then 5ent on <oot to the 3la2e 5he7e the Exalted One 5as, and took thei7 seats 7es3e2t<ully 6y his side1 D H1 "hen they add7essed the Exalted One, and said ' 8 Aay the Exalted One do us the honou7 o< taking his meal, togethe7 5ith the 67eth7en, at ou7 house tomo77o5 M 8 D-1 8) ha;e 37omised, %i22ha;is, to dine tomo77o5 5ith !m67a3ali,8 5as the 7e3ly1 D/1 "hen the %i22ha;is kne5 that they had <ailed1 !nd a<te7 ex37essing thei7 thanks and a337o;al o< the 5o7ds o< the Exalted One, they 7ose <7om thei7 seats and 6o5ed do5n 6e<o7e the Exalted One, and kee3ing him on thei7 7ight hand as they 3assed him, de3a7ted then2e1 K01 !nd at the end o< the night !m67a3ali the 2ou7tesan made 7eady in he7

mansion s5eet 7i2e and 2akes, and announ2ed the time to the Exalted One, saying' 8"he hou71 %o7d, has 2ome, and the meal is 7eady18 K D 1 !nd the Exalted One 5ho had d7essed himsel< ea7ly in the mo7ning, took his 6o5l, and his 7o6e and 5ent 5ith the 67eth7en to the 3la2e 5he7e !m67a3ali:s mansion 5as J and 5hen he had 2ome the7e he seated himsel< on the seat 37e3a7ed <o7 him1 !nd !m67a3ali, the 2ou7tesan, set the s5eet 7i2e and 2akes 6e<o7e the o7de7, 5ith the Buddha at thei7 head, and 5aited u3on them till they 7e<used any mo7e1 KK1 !nd 5hen the Blessed One had Cuite <inished his meal and had 2leansed the 6o5l and his hands, the 2ou7tesan had a lo5 stool 67ought, and sat do5n9at his side, and add7essed the Exalted One, and said ' KL1 8 %o7d, ) 37esent my 3leasan2e to you and to the o7de718 !nd the Exalted One a22e3ted the gi<tJ and a<te7 gi;ing a 7eligious dis2ou7se he 7ose <7om his seat and took he7 lea;e1 '' E1 Auni<i2en2e o< Gishakha1''

D 1 Gishakha 5as a 5ealthy 5oman o< (h7a;asti1 (he had many 2hild7en and g7and2hild7en1

.0K

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> K1 +hen the Blessed One stayed at (h7a;asti, Gishakha 5ent u3 to the 3la2e 5he7e the Blessed One 5as, and tende7ed Him an in;itation to take his meal at he7 house, 5hi2h the Blessed One a22e3ted1 L1 !nd hea;y 7ain <ell du7ing the night and the next mo7ningJ and the 6hikkhus do<<ed thei7 7o6es to kee3 themsel;es d7y and let the 7ain <all u3on thei7 6odies1 .1 +hen the next day the Blessed One had <inished his meal, she took he7 seat at his side and s3oke thusJ 8 Eight a7e the 6oons, %o7d, 5hi2h ) 6eg o< the

Blessed One18 E1 "hen the Blessed One said' 8 "he "athagatas, Gishakha, g7ant no 6oons unless they kno5 5hat they a7e18 F1 Gishakha 7e3lied' 8P7o3e7, %o7d, and uno6?e2tiona6le a7e the 6oons ) ask18 H1 Ha;ing 7e2ei;ed 3e7mission to ask the 6oons, Gishakha said' 8 ) desi7e1 %o7d, th7ough all my li<e to 6esto5 7o6es <o7 the 7ainy season on the (angha, and <ood <o7 in2oming 6hikkhus, and <ood <o7 outgoing 6hikkhus and <ood <o7 the si2k, and <ood <o7 those 5ho 5ait u3on the si2k, and medi2ine <o7 the si2k, and a 2onstant su33ly o< 7i2e-milk <o7 the (angha, and 6athing 7o6es <o7 the 6hikkhunis, the siste7s18 -1 8But,8 said the %o7d, 8+hat, Gishakha, ha;e you in ;ie5 in asking these eight 6oons o< the "athagata M8 /1 !nd Gishakha 7e3lied' 8) ga;e 2ommand, %o7d, to my maid -se7;ant, saying, : Io thou and announ2e to the <7ate7nity that the meal is 7eady,: and my maid 5ent, 6ut 5hen she 2ame to the ;iha7a, she o6se7;ed that the 6hikkhus had de<ied thei7 7o6es, 5hile it 5as 7aining, and she thought' : "hese a7e not 6hikkhus, 6ut naked as2eti2s letting the 7ain <all on them1: (o she 7etu7ned to me and 7e3o7ted a22o7dingly and ) had to send he7 a se2ond time1 D01 8 )m3u7e, %o7d, is nakedness, and 7e;olting1 )t 5as this 2i72umstan2e, %o7d, that ) had in ;ie5 in desi7ing to 37o;ide the (angha th7oughout my li<e 5ith s3e2ial ga7ments <o7 use in the 7ainy season1 D D 1 8!s to my se2ond 5ish1 %o7d, an in2oming 6hikku, not 6eing a6le to take the di7e2t 7oads, and not kno5ing the 3la2es 5he7e <ood 2an 6e 37o2u7ed, 2omes on his 5ay 5ea7ied out 6y seeking <o7 alms1 )t 5as this 2i72umstan2e, .0L

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

%o7d, that ) had in ;ie5 in desi7ing to 37o;ide the (angha th7oughout my li<e 5ith <ood <o7 in2oming 6hikkhus1 DK1 8 "hi7dly, %o7d, an outgoing 6hikkhu, 5hile seeking a6out <o7 alms, may 6e le<t 6ehind, o7 may a77i;e too late at the 3la2e 5hithe7 he desi7es to go, and 5ill set out on the 7oad in 5ea7iness1 DL1 8 Fou7thly, %o7d, i< a si2k 6hikkhu does not o6tain suita6le <ood, his si2kness may in27ease u3on him, and he may die1 D.1 8Fi<thy, %o7d, a 6hikkhu 5ho is 5aiting u3on the si2k 5ill lose his o33o7tunity o< going out to seek <ood <o7 himsel<1 DE1 8 (ixthly, %o7d, i< a si2k 6hikkhu does not o6tain suita6le medi2ines, his si2kness may in27ease u3on him, and he may die1 DF1 8 (e;enthly, %o7d, ) ha;e hea7d that the Blessed One has 37aised 7i2emilk, 6e2ause it gi;es 7eadiness o< mind, dis3els hunge7 and thi7stJ it is 5holesome nou7ishment <o7 the healthy and <o7 the si2k as a medi2ine1 "he7e<o7e ) desi7e to 37o;ide the (angha th7oughout my li<e 5ith 2onstant su33ly o< 7i2e-milk1 DH18 Finally, %o7d, the 6hikkhunis a7e in the ha6it o< 6athing in the 7i;e7 !72hi7a;ati 5ith the 2ou7tesans, at the same landing-3la2e, and naked1 !nd the 2ou7tesans1 %o7d, 7idi2ule the 6hikkhtmis, saying, :+hat is the good, ladies, o< you7 maintaining 2hastity 5hen you a7e youngM +hen you a7e old, maintain 2hastity thenJ thus 5ill you 6e o6taine7s o< 6oth ends1: )m3u7e, %o7d, is nakedness <o7 a 5oman, disgusting, and 7e;olting1 D-1 8 "hese a7e the 2i72umstan2es, %o7d, that ) had in ;ie518 D/1 "he Blessed One said' 8 But 5hat 5as the ad;antage you had in ;ie5 <o7 you7sel<, Gishakha, in asking these eight 6oons o< the "athagatha M8 K01 Gishakha 7e3lied' 8Bhikkhus 5ho ha;e s3ent the 7ainy season in ;a7ious 3la2es 5ill 2ome, %o7d, to (h7a;asti to ;isit the Blessed One1 !nd on 2oming to the Blessed One they 5ill ask, saying' W (u2h and su2h a 6hikkhu1 %o7d, has died1 +hat, no5, is his destinyM: "hen 5ill the Blessed One ex3lain that

he has attained the <7uits o< 2on;e7sionJ that he has ente7ed #i7;ana o7 attained a7hantshi3, as the 2ase may 6e1 KD18 !nd ), going u3 to them, shall ask, : +as that 67othe7, si7s, one o< those 5ho had <o7me7ly 6een at (h7a;asti,: then shall ) a77i;e at the 2on2lusion, .0.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> "o7 a 2e7tainty did that 67othe7 en?oy season, o7 the <ood <o7 the in2oming 6hikkhus, 6hikkhus, o7 the <ood <o7 the si2k, o7 u3on the si2k, o7 the medi2ine <o7 the si2k, o7 -milk1: eithe7 the 7o6es <o7 the 7ainy o7 the <ood <o7 the outgoing the <ood <o7 those that 5ait the 2onstant su33ly o< 7i2e

KK1 8"hen 5ill gladness s37ing u3 5ithin meJ thus gladdend ?oy 5ill 2ome to meJ and so 7e?oi2ing all my <7ame 5ill 6e at 3ea2e1 Being thus at 3ea2e ) shall ex3e7ien2e a 6liss<ul <eeling o< 2ontentJ and in that 6liss my hea7t 5ill 6e at 7est1 "hat 5ill 6e to me an exe72ise o< my mo7al 3o5e7s, an exe72ise o< the se;en kinds o< 5isdom ) "his, %o7d, 5as the ad;antage ) had in ;ie5 <o7 mysel< in asking those eight 6oons o< the Blessed One18 KL1 "hen the Blessed One said' 8 )t is 5ell, it is 5ell, Gishakha1 "hou hast done 5ell in asking these eight 6oons o< the "athagata 5ith su2h ad;antage in ;ie51 Cha7ity 6esto5ed u3on those 5ho a7e 5o7thy o< it is like good seeds so5n in good soil that yields an a6undan2e o< <7uits1 But alms gi;en to those 5ho a7e yet unde7 the ty7anni2al yoke o< the 3assions a7e like a seed de3osited in 6ad soil1 "he 3assions o< the 7e2ei;e7 o< the alms 2hoke, as it 5e7e, the g7o5th o< me7its18 K.1 !nd the Blessed One ga;e thanks to Gishakha ;i in these ;e7ses J 8 +hatsoe;e7 donation a 5oman u37ight in li<e, a dis2i3le o< the Blessed One, may 6esto5 in gladness o< hea7t and 5ithout stint, he7 gi<t is hea;enly, dest7u2ti;e o< so77o5, and 37odu2ti;e o< 6liss18 8 ! 6liss<ul li<e does she attain ente7ing u3on the 3ath that is <7om 2o77u3tion and im3u7ity18 8!iming at

good, ha33y does she 6e2omeJ and she 7e?oi2es in he7 2ha7ita6le a2tions18 KE1 Gishakha ga;e to the O7de7 the Pu7;a-!7am o7 Easte7n Ia7den, and 5as the <i7st to 6e2ome a mat7on o< the lay-siste7s1

.0E

@/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> Pa7t )) N His Enemies1 D1 Cha7ge o< Con;e7sion 6y Ilamou71 ''

K1 Cha7ge o< 6eing a Pa7asite

L1 Cha7ge o< B7eaking Ha33y Households1

.1 Pains and a False Cha7ge o< Au7de71

F1 De;adatta a Cousin and an Enemy1

H1 B7ahmins and the Buddha1

'' D1 Cha7ge o< Con;e7sion 6y Ilamou71 ''

D1 On2e the Exalted One d5elt at Gesali, in the Ia6le -7oo<ed Hall in the I7eat +ood1 #o5 Bhaddiya the %i22ha;i 2ame to the Exalted One and said' 8 %o7d! Peo3le say : Iotama the 7e2luse is a 2ha7me7 and kno5s a t7i2k o< glamou7, 5he7e6y he enti2es the <ollo5e7s o< othe7 se2ts1:

K1 8"hey 5ho say this dis2laim any desi7e to mis7e37esent the Exalted One1 )ndeed, %o7d, 5e %i22ha;is do not 6elie;e in this 2ha7ge1 But 5e 5ould like to kno5 5hat the Exalted One has to say a6out it18 L1 "he %o7d said' 8Come no5, Bhaddiya, a22e3t not on hea7say, no7 6y t7adition, no7 6y 5hat 3eo3le say1 !22e3t not 6e2ause it is in the s27i3tu7es, 6y me7e logi2, no7 6y in<e7en2e, no7 6y 2onside7ation o< a33ea7an2es, no7 6e2ause it a22o7ds 5ith you7 ;ie5, no7 6e2ause you think it must 6e 7ight, no7 out o< 7es3e2t, 5ith the thought that : One must 7e;e7e a 7e2luse18 .1 8But, Bhaddiya, i< at any time you kno5 o< you7sel< 6y examination o< <a2ts that 5hat is 6eing done is sin<ul o7 57ong<ul, that it is 7e37oa2hed 6y the 5ise and the 7esult is loss o7 in?u7y, then, Bhaddiya, es2he5 them1 E1 8#o5 as to you7 Cuestion, Bhaddiya, 5hat think youJ !7e not those 5ho a22use me o< 3e7<o7ming 2on;e7sion 6y glamou7 am6itious 3e7sons M 8 8 "hey a7e1 %o7d,8 7e3lied Bhaddiya1 F1 8+hat think ye, BhaddiyaJ Does not an am6itious 3e7son, o;e72ome 6y a;a7i2e and 5ith mind o;e73o5e7ed, tell lies o7 2ommit 27ime to a2hie;e his am6ition M 8 8 )t is so1 %o7d,8 7e3lied Bhaddiya1 H1 8 +hat think you, Bhaddiya, 5hen thoughts o< ill-5ill and ;indi2ti;eness a7ise in the mind o< su2h a 3e7son, does he not instigate othe7s to le;el .0F

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> a22usations against those 5ho 2ome in the 5ay o< his am6itionM8 8"hat: is so %o7d,8 said Bhaddiya1 -1 8 #o5, Bhaddiya, all ) do is to exho7t my 3u3il thus' : Come you, my dea7 man, d5ell 2ont7olling @thoughts o<B a;a7i2e1 (o d5elling you 5ill not 2ommit a2ts 6o7n o< a;a7i2e, eithe7 6y 6ody, 5o7k o7 thought1 D5ell 2ont7olling ill-5ill and igno7an2e1: /1 8(o, Bhaddiya, those 7e2luses and B7ahmins, 5ho 57ongly 7e37oa2h me 5ith 6eing a tea2he7 and 37o2laime7 o< su2h ;ie5s, a7e <alse, em3ty lia7s, 5hen they say' : "he 7e2luse Iautama is a 2ha7me7 and kno5s a t7i2k o<

glamou7, 5he7e6y He enti2es the <ollo5e7s o< othe7 se2ts1: 8 D01 8! lu2ky thing indeed, %o7d N a <ai7 <ind is this t7i2k o< glamou7 ) %o7d 5ould that my 6elo;ed 6lood-7elations 5e7e enti2ed 6y this same t7i2k o< glamou7 ) )t 5ould indeed 2ondu2e to thei7 ad;antage and ha33iness! %o7d, 5ould that all the 2lasses the B7ahmins, the *hatiyas, the Gessas and the (uddas 5e7e enti2ed 6y this same t7i2k o< glamou7, it 5ould indeed 2ondu2e to thei7 ad;antage and ha33iness <o7 a long time18 D D 1 8)t is so, Bhaddiya ) )t is so Bhaddiya ) )< all the 2lasses enti2ed 6y this t7i2k o< glamou7, 5e7e to es2he5 sin<ul 2onditions, my t7i2k 5ould 7esult in g7eat ad;antage and ha33iness to the 5o7ld1 8 '' K1 Cha7ge o< 6eing a Pa7asite ) ''

D 1 "he Blessed One 5as a22used o< 6eing a 3a7asite, li;ing u3on othe7s and not ea7ning his li;ing 6y 5o7king <o7 it1 "he a22usation and the 7e3ly o< the Blessed %o7d is set out 6elo5 ' K1 On2e the %o7d 5as li;ing among the Aagadha <olk at Dakkhina-gi7i in the B7ahmin ;illage o< Eka-#ala, at a time 5hen the B7ahmin *asiBha7ad;a?a:s <i;e hund7ed 3loughs 5e7e ha7nessed <o7 the so5ing1 L1 )n the mo7ning ea7ly, duly 7o6ed and 6o5l in hand, the %o7d 5ent to 5he7e the B7ahmin 5as 6usy, at an hou7 5hen a meal 5as 67ought <o75a7dJ and stood the7e to one side1

.0H

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> .1 O6se7;ing him standing the7e <o7 alms, the B7ahmin said' 8 Be<o7e ) eat, ) 3lough and so5, an2ho7iteJ and you too should 3lough and so5 6e<o7e you eat18 E1 8) too B7ahmin, do 3lough and do so5 6e<o7e ) eat18 F1 8 ) <ail, ho5e;e7, to see the 5o7thy Iautama:s yoke, o7 3lough, o7 3loughsha7e, o7 goad, o7 ox9team N al6eit, he asse7ts that he 3loughs and

so5s 6e<o7e he eats1 H1 8 &ou 2laim to 6e a tille7, though 5e see none o< you7 tillage1 "ell us ho5 you tillJ <o7 o< you7 tilling 5e 5ould <ain hea7 mo7e18 -1 8 Ay seed is <aithJ auste7ity o< li<e my 7ainJ 5isdom my yoke and 3loughJ my 3ole is <ea7 to e77J 5ith thought to (t7a3 the yokeJ and mind<ulness <o7 3lough sha7e and the goad,8 7e3lied the %o7d1 /1 8 +at2h<ul o:e7 5o7d and deed, and tem3e7ate in diet, ) make in sight 5eed my 27o3, no7 7est till <inal 6liss is ha7;ested1 E<<o7t is my stout ox, 5hi2h tu7ns not 6a2k at headlandsJ N st7aight to Pea2e he 6ea7s me on, to that last 6ou7ne 5he7e anguish is no mo7e1 "hus, ) till 5ith Deathlessness <o7 27o31 !nd 5ho tills as ), is <7eed <7om ills18 D01 "he7eu3on the B7ahmin se7;ed u3 milk-7i2e on a g7eat 67onOe dish and o<<e7ed it to the %o7d, saying' 8Eat this, Iautama, a tille7 indeed a7t thou, in that thou tillest a 27o3 that is Deathless18 D D 1 But the %o7d said' 8) take no 2hante7:s <ee1 (ee7s 2ountenan2e it notJ the Enlighten:d s2out su2h <eesJ and 5hile this Do2t7ine lasts, this 37a2ti2e must hold good1 P7o;ided 5ith othe7 <a7e a sage o< holy 2alm, 2onsummate, 2anke7lessJ me7it Co 7ea3, N so5 the7e18 DK1 On hea7ing these 5o7ds the B7ahmin 5ent o;e7 to the %o7d, and, 6o5ing his head at the %o7d:s <eet, 27ied' 8+onde7<ul, IautamaJ Cuite 5onde7<ul1 Pust as a man might set u37ight again 5hat had <allen do5n, o7 7e;eal 5hat had 6een hidden a5ay, o7 tell a man 5ho had <allen do5n, o7 7e;eal 5hat had 6een hidden a5ay, o7 tell a man 5ho had gone ast7ay 5hi2h 5as his 5ay, o7 67ing a lam3 into da7kness so that those 5ith eyes to see might see the things a6out them, N e;en so, in many 5ays has Iautama made his Do2t7ine 2lea7 )

.0-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

DL1 8"o the 7e;e7end Iotama ) 2ome <o7 7e<uge and to his Do2t7ine and to his 2ommunity1 Be it mine to 7e2ei;e admission and 2on<i7mation at the hands o< the %o7d!8 (o the B7ahmin *asi-Bha7ad;a?a 5as admitted and 2on<i7med as an almsman o< the %o7d1 '' L1 Cha7ge o< B7eaking Ha33y Households1 ''

D1 (eeing that many distinguished young Aagadha no6lemen had 6e2ome the dis2i3?es o< the Blessed One, 3eo3le 6e2ame annoyed and ang7y, saying' 8 "he (amana Iautama 2auses 3a7ents to 6e 2hildlessJ the (amana Iautama 2auses 5i;es to 6e2ome 5ido5sJ the (amana Iautama 2auses the u37ooting o< <amilies1 K1 8 #o5 he has o7dained one thousand Patilas, and he has o7dained these t5o hund7ed and <i<ty 5ande7ing as2eti2s 5ho 5e7e <ollo5e7s o< (an?aya, and these many distinguished young Aagadha 2lansmen a7e no5 leading a holy li<e unde7 the (amana Iautama1 +hat 5ill ha33en next M #o one 2an say! 8 L1 !nd, mo7eo;e7, 5hen <ollo5ing te7ms' 8 "he agagahaB o< the Aagadha 3eo3le, 5ho 5ill 6e the next to 6e they sa5 the monks they 2hide them in the g7eat (amana has 2ome to Ii7i6ha?a @i1e1, leading 5ith him all the <ollo5e7s o< (an?aya J led 6y him M8

.1 "he monks hea7d this a22usation and they 7e3o7ted it to the Blessed One1 E1 "he Blessed One 7e3lied' 8"his noise, monks, 5ill not last longJ it 5ill last only se;en daysJ a<te7 se;en days it 5ill 6e o;e71 F1 8!nd i< they 2hide you, monks, you should 7e3ly that it is t7uly 6y a good Dhamma that the g7eat he7oes, the "athagatas, lead1 +ho 5ill mu7mu7 at the 5ise, 5hy g7udge the 5ise leading men 7ighteouslyM "he7e is no 2om3ulsion in my Dhamma1 One is <7ee to lea;e home1 One is <7ee to 7emain atta2hed to his home18 H1 +hen the Bhikkhus 7e3lied to the 7e;ile7s as the Blessed One had di7e2ted, then the 3eo3le unde7 -stood ' 8)t is 6y Dhamma, and not un7ighteously that the (akya3uttiya (amana leads men8J and 2eased to a22use the Blessed One1 .0/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7>

'' .1 Pains and a False Cha7ge o< Au7de71 ''

D1 "he "i7thikas:5e7e 6eginning to <eel that the 3eo3le no longe7 7es3e2ted them 5ith the a33ea7an2e o< (amana Iautama and that e;en some 3eo3le did not kno5 o< thei7 existen2e1 K1 (o, 8let us see 5hethe7 5ith the 2onni;an2e o< some6ody, 5e 2an lo5e7 his 37estige,8 thought the "i7thikas1 8 Pe7ha3s 5ith (unda7i:s hel3 5e might su22eed18 L1 !nd they a337oa2hed (unda7i and said to he7' 8 (iste7, you a7e ext7emely 6eauti<ul and 2ha7ming1 )< you s37ead a s2andal a6out (amana Iautama, the 3eo3le might 6elie;e it, and it 5ould lo5e7 his in<luen2e18 .1 (unda7i used to 2am3ho7, and s5eet and i< any6ody asked he7, ans5e7, 8) am going to (amana *uti7B18 go e;e7y e;ening to5a7ds the Peta;ana 5ith ga7lands, s2ents 5hen the 3eo3le used to 7etu7n to the 2ityJ 8 (unda7i, 5he7e a7e you going M 8 she used to Iautama to stay 5ith in the ga7den house @Iandha

E1 !nd staying the night in some ga7dens o< the "i7thikas, she used to 7etu7n in the mo7ning, and i< any6ody asked he7 5he7e she had s3ent the night, she 5ould say that she had s3ent the night 5ith Iautama1 F1 !<te7 a <e5 days the "i7thikas hi7ed a <e5 assassins and told them' 8 *ill (unda7i and th7o5 he7 6ody on the 7u66ish hea3 nea7 Iautama:s Iandha *uti718 "his the assassins did1 H1 "hen the "i7thikas 67ought it to the noti2e o< the o<<i2e7s o< 3ea2e and ?usti2e that (unda7i used to <7eCuent Peta;ana and she 5as missing1 -1 (o 5ith the assistan2e o< the o<<i2e7s they <ound (unda7i:s 6ody on the 7u66ish hea31 /1 !nd the "i7thikas a22used the dis2i3les o< Iautama to ha;e killed (unda7i in o7de7 to hide the shame o< thei7 leade71 D01 But the assassins 6egan to Cua77el amongst themsel;es in a liCuo7 sho3 a6out the dist7i6ution o< the 37iOe money <o7 ha;ing killed (unda7i1

DD1 "he o<<i2e7s at on2e a77ested them and they admitted thei7 guilt and im3li2ated the "i7thikas at 5hose instigation they had 2ommitted the 27ime1 .D0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DK1 "hus the "i7thikas lost 5hate;e7 in<luen2e 5as le<t <o7 them1 '' E1 Pains and a False Cha7ge o< )mmo7ality1 '' D1 !s 5ith the sun7ise the glo5-5o7ms ;anish, so mise7a6le 6e2ame the situation o< the "i7thikas1 "he 3eo3le 2eased to 3ay them 7es3e2ts o7 37esents1 K1 (tanding on the 3u6li2 st7eets they used to ha7angue' 8 )< (amana Iautama is enlightened @BuddhaB, 5e a7e also1 )< you a2Cui7e ;i7tue 6y sho5e7ing 37esents on the Buddha, you 5ill get the same 6y gi;ing us 37esents1 "he7e<o7e make gi<t to us18 L1 But the 3u6li2 3aid no heed to it1 (o they 2ons3i7ed in se27et ho5 6y s37eading s2andal on the 2ha7a2te7 o< (amana Iautama, they 2ould dis27edit the (angha1 .1 !t that time the7e used to li;e in (h7a;asti a B7ahmani Pa7i;7a?aka, kno5n as Chin2ha1 )n 6odily <o7mation and 3hysi2al 2ha7ms she 5as a sedu2ti;e 6eauty1 (he used to 7adiate ;olu3tuous g7a2e 5ith he7 6odily mo;ements1 E1 One o< the 27a<ty s2heme7s among the "i7thikas said that 5ith the hel3 o< Chin2ha it 5ould 6e easy to s37ead a s2andal a6out Iautama, and the7e6y dis27edit him, to 5hi2h othe7 "i7thikas ga;e thei7 2onsent1 F1 "hen, one day Chin2ha 2ame to the 3a7k o< the "i7thikas and saluting them, sat nea7 them1 But no6ody talked 5ith he71 H1 (u737ised at this she said' 8Ho5 ha;e ) o<<ended you M ) ha;e saluted you th7i2e though you do not say a single 5o7d to me18 -1 8(iste7,8 the "i7thikas said, 8Don:t you kno5 that (amana Iautama is 2ausing us ha7m and loss 6y his 3o3ula7ity18 8 ) do not kno5 that1 !nd ha;e ) got any duty to 3e7<o7m to5a7d its solutionM 8 /1 8 (iste7, i< you mean to do us good, then 6y you7 o5n e<<o7ts, s37ead s2andals a6out Iautama, and thus make him un3o3ula718 8 !ll 7ight J 6e 2ontent J and de3end that on me,8 saying thus she le<t the 3la2e1

D01 Chin2ha 5as an ex3e7t in <eminine 2ha7ms and 2oCuet7y1 +hen the 2itiOens o< (h7a;asti used to 7etu7n <7om the 7eligious dis2ussions at Peta;ana, Chin2ha 5ea7ing a 7ed ga7ment and 5ith 3e7<umes and ga7lands in he7 hands used to go to5a7ds it1 .DD

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D D 1 )< any6ody asked he7' 8 +he7e a7e you going no5 M 8 8 "hat:s none o< you7 6usiness,8 she used to ans5e71 (3ending the night at the 7est house o< the )tine7ants @"i7thika7amaB nea7 Peta;ana, she used to 7etu7n to the 2ity in the mo7ning, 5hen the 2itiOens used to go to the Peta;ana to 3ay 7es3e2t to the Buddha1 DK1 )< any6ody asked he7, 8+he7e did you s3end the night M 8 she used to say, 8 "hat is none o< you7 6usiness1 ) s3ent the night 5ith (amana Iautama in his ga7den house @Iandha *uti7B at Peta;ana18 "he 7ema7k used to 27eate dou6ts in the minds o< some1 DL1 !<te7 <ou7 months she used to in27ease the siOe o< he7 6elly 6y 57a33ing 7ound it some old 7ags, and say that she 6e2ame 37egnant th7ough (amana Iautama1 (ome 6egan to 6elie;e it1 D.1 )n the ninth month, she sus3ending a 5ooden 37otu6e7an2e 7ound he7 6elly and ha;ing a7ms s5ollen th7ough inse2t 6ites, a33ea7ed 6e<o7e the Buddha 5hen he 5as making a 7eligious dis2ou7se 6e<o7e monks and laymen and said' 8 I7eat tea2he7, you gi;e many 3eo3le 7eligious lessons1 &ou7 ;oi2e is s5eet, and you7 li3s a7e ;e7y tende71 "h7ough 2oha6itation 5ith you ) ha;e 6een 37egnant, and my deli;e7y time is nea71 D E1 8&ou ha;e not <ixed any deli;e7y 3la2e <o7 me, no7 ) do see any medi2ine <o7 that eme7gen2y1 )< you 2annot do that you7sel<, 5hy don:t you a33oint one o< you7 dis2i3les, the king o< *osala, !nath3indika o7 Gisakha <o7 that 3u73ose1 DF1 8)t seems you kno5 5ell ho5 to sedu2e a gi7l, 6ut you do not kno5 ho5 to take 2a7e o< the ne5-6o7n 6a6y that is 6o7n out o< the sedu2tion18 "he assem6ly 7emained silent1

D H1 "he Buddha, 67eaking the 2ontinuity o< his le2tu7e, ans5e7ed he7 5ith 7ese7;ed dignity1 8 (iste7, 5hate;e7 you ha;e said, 5hethe7 t7ue o7 <alse, is only kno5n to us 6oth18 D-1 Chin2ha 2oughing loudly, said1 8&es, O "ea2he7, su2h a thing 2an 6e kno5n to us only18 D/1 +ith he7 2oughing the knot 5ith 5hi2h the 5ooden 37otu6e7an2e 5as tied 7ound he7 6elly sla2kened, and it <ell on he7 <eet to he7 dis2om<itu7e1 K01 !nd she 5as tu7ned a5ay 5ith stones and sti2ks1 .DK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> '' F1 De;adatta a Cousin and an Enemy1 ''

D1 De;adatta 5as a 2ousin o< the Buddha1 But <7om the 6eginning he 5as ?ealous o< the Buddha and disliked him intensely1 K1 +hen the Buddha had le<t his home, De;adatta t7ied to make lo;e to &eshodha7a1 L1 On2e 5hen &eshodha7a 5as a6out to 7eti7e, he 5ithout 6eing inte72e3ted 6y any6ody ente7ed into he7 2ham6e7 in the guise o< a monk1 (he asked him, 8 Bhikkhu, 5hat do you 5ant M Ha;e you got any message <o7 me <7om my hus6and M8 .1 8 &ou7 hus6and, he 2a7es a damn <o7 you1 )n you7 house o< ha33iness he 27uelly and 5i2kedly a6andoned you,8 said De;adatta1 E1 8 But he did it <o7 the good o< many,8 7e3lied &eshodha7a1 F1 8 +hate;e7 that 6e, no5 take 7e;enge on his disdain<ul 27uelty to you,8 suggested De;adatta1 H1 8 (to3 it, Aonk ' you7 5o7ds and thoughts a7e im3u7e,8 2ounte7ed &eshodha7a1 -1 8 Don:t you 7e2ogniOe me, &eshodha7a M ) am De;adatta 5ho lo;es you18

/1 8 De;adatta, ) kne5 you to 6e <alse and ;ile1 ) thought you 5ould make a 6ad monk, 6ut did not sus3e2t you to 6e so mean-minded18 D01 8 &eshodha7a, &eshodha7a, ) lo;e you8 3leaded De;adatta1 8!nd you7 hus6and sho5s you nothing 6ut 2ontem3t1 He has 6een 27uel to you1 %o;e me and 7e;enge his 27uelty18 D D 1 &eshodha7a:s 3ale and ema2iated <a2e 6e2ame tinged 5ith a 3u73le hue1 "ea7s 7olled do5n he7 2heeks1 DK1 8De;adatta, it is you 5ho a7e 27uel to me1 E;en i< you7 lo;e 5e7e sin2e7e, it 5ould ha;e 6een an insult to me1 &ou a7e sim3ly lying 5hen you say you lo;e me1

.DL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DL1 8+hen ) 5as young and 37etty you ha7dly looked at me1 #o5 ) am old, 67oken do5n 6y so77o5 and anguish, you ha;e 2ome at night to de2la7e you7 t7ea2he7ous and guilty lo;e1 &ou a7e a 6ase 2o5a7d18 D.1 !nd she shouted' 8 De;adatta, get out <7om the 3la2e,8 and De;adatta le<t the 3la2e1 DE1 De;adatta 5as ;e7y ang7y 5ith the Buddha 5ho did not make him the 2hie< in the (angh and instead made (a7i3utta and Aogallana the 2hie< men in the (angh1 De;adatta made th7ee attem3ts on the Buddha:s li<e, 6ut did not su22eed in any o< them1 DF1 !t one time the Blessed One 5as 5alking u3 and do5n in the shade 6elo5 the hill 2alled the Gultu7es Peak @Ii7dh7a *utaB 1 DH1 De;adatta 2lim6ed it u3 and hu7led do5n a la7ge stone 5ith the intention o< de37i;ing the Blessed One o< his li<e, 6ut it <ell u3on anothe7 7o2k and the7e it 5as entom6edJ only a s3linte7 <alling <7om it made the <oot, o< the Blessed One to 6leed1 D-1 ! se2ond time he made an attem3t to take the li<e o< the Buddha1 D/1 "his time De;adatta 5ent to P7in2e !?ata-sat7u and said' 8 Ii;e me some

men18 !nd !?ata-sat7u, the 37in2e ga;e o7de7s to his men ' 8 +hatsoe;e7 the 5o7thy De;adatta tells you, do that18 K01 "hen to one man De;adatta ga;e 2ommand' 8 Io, my <7iend J the (amana Iautama is staying at su2h a 3la2e1 *ill him18 !nd the man 7etu7ned and said to him ' 8 ) 2annot de37i;e the Blessed One o< his li<e1 K D 1 He made a thi7d attem3t on the li<e o< the Buddha1 KK1 "his time the7e 5as at and a man-slaye71 a?g7aha an ele3hant named #alagi7i, <ie72e

KL1 !nd De;adatta 5ent into a?g7aha and to the ele3hant sta6les, and said to the ele3hant kee3e7s ' 8 ), my <7iends, am a 7elati;e o< the 7a?a, and am a6le to ad;an2e a man o22u3ying a lo5 3osition to a high 3osition, and to o7de7 an in27ease o< his 7ations o7 o< his 3ay18 K.1 "he7e<o7e, my <7iends: 5hen (amana Iautama shall ha;e a77i;ed at this 2a77iage 7oad, then loose the ele3hant #alagi7i and let him go do5n the 7oad1 .D.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KE1 De;adatta engaged a72he7s to kill the Buddha1 He had also let loose on his 5ay the mad ele3hant #alagi7i1 KF1 But he did not su22eed1 +hen these attem3ts 6e2ame kno5n, De;adatta lost all the 3u6li2 endo5ments gi;en to him1 !nd e;en the king @!?atasat7uB sto33ed gi;ing him inte7;ie51 KH1 Fo7 li;ing he had to 6eg <7om house to house1 De;adatta 7e2ei;ed many <a;ou7s <7om !?atasat7u, 5hi2h he 2ould not 7etain long1 De;adatta lost all his in<luen2e a<te7 the #alagi7i in2ident1 K-1 By his a2ts, De;adatta 6e2oming ;e7y un3o3ula7 in Aagadha le<t it <o7 *osala, thinking that P7asen?it might 7e2ei;e him 2o7dially1 But he 5as 2ontem3tuously d7i;en out 6y P7asen?it1 '' H1 B7ahmins and the Buddha1 ''

@iB D1 On2e 5hen the Blessed One 5as t7a;elling a6out in the *osala 2ount7y 5ith a la7ge 2om3any o< the monks, he 5ent do5n to a B7ahmin ;illage named "huna1 K1 "he B7ahmin householde7s o< "huna hea7d the ne5s, 8 "he (amana Iautama, they say, has a77i;ed in the <ield o< ou7 ;illage18 L1 #o5 the B7ahmin householde7s 5e7e non6elie;e7s, holding 57ong ;ie5s and a;a7i2ious 6y natu7e1 .1 "hey said, 8 )< the (amana Iautama should ente7 this ;illage and stay t5o o7 th7ee days, he 5ould 2on;e7t all these 3eo3le1 "hen the B7ahmin 7eligion 5ould ha;e no su33o7t1 +e must, the7e<o7e, 37e;ent his ent7y in ou7 ;illage1 E1 "o 7ea2h the ;illage a 7i;e7 had to 6e 27ossed and the B7ahmins, in o7de7 to 37e;ent the Blessed One <7om ente7ing the ;illage, took the 6oats a5ay <7om the landing 3la2es, and made the 67idges and 2ause5ays unusa6le1 F1 "hey <illed all the 5ells ex2e3t one 5ith 5eeds and the like and 2on2ealed the 5ate7ing-3la2es, 7est-houses and sheds1 H1 "he Blessed One lea7ned o< thei7 misdeeds and ha;ing 2om3assion on them, 27ossed the 7i;e7 5ith his 2om3any o< monks, 5ent on, and in due 2ou7se o< time 7ea2hed the B7ahmin ;illage o< "huna1 .DE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> -1 He le<t the 7oad and sat do5n at the <oot o< a t7ee1 !t that moment many 5omen 5e7e 3assing 6y nea7 the Blessed One 2a77ying 5ate71 /1 !nd in that ;illage an ag7eement had 6een made, 8 )< the (amana Iautama 2omes the7e, the7e is to 6e no 5el2ome o7 the like made <o7 him and 5hen he 2omes to a house, neithe7 to him no7 to his dis2i3les is any <ood o7 5ate7 to 6e gi;en18 D01 "hen a 2e7tain B7ahmin:s sla;e gi7l, going along 5ith a?a7 o< 5ate7, sa5 the Blessed One and the monks, 7ealiOed that they 5e7e 5ea7y and thi7sty, and 6eing o< de;out hea7t, 5anted to gi;e them 5ate71

D D 1 8E;en and though the 3eo3le o< this ;illage ha;e 7esol;ed that nothing at all is to 6e gi;en to the (amana Iautama and not e;en a sho5 o< 7es3e2t is to 6e made,8 she said to he7sel<, 8 yet i< a<te7 ) ha;e <ound these su37eme <ields o< me7it and 5o7thy 7e2i3ients o< me7ito7ious gi;ing, ) do not lay the <oundation <o7 my sal;ation 6y a me7e gi;ing o< 5ate7, 5hen he7ea<te7 shall ) 6e 7eleased <7om 5oe M 8 DK1 8 (o 6e it, my maste7s ) %et e;e7y one 5ho li;es in the ;illage 6eat o7 6ind me, still ) 5ill gi;e a gi<t o< 5ate7 to a <ield o< me7it su2h as this18 DL1 +hen she had made this 7esol;e, though the othe7 5omen 2a77ying 5ate7 t7ied to sto3 he7, 5ithout 7ega7d <o7 he7 li<e, she li<ted do5n the 5ate7 ?a7 <7om he7 head, 3la2ed it on one side, a337oa2hed the Blessed One, and ga;e him 5ate7J he 5ashed his hands and <eet and d7ank the 5ate71 D.1 He7 maste7, the B7ahmin, hea7d o< he7 gi;ing 5ate7 to the Blessed One1 8 (he has 67oken the 7ule o< the ;illage and ) am 6lamed,8 he said, and 6u7ning 5ith 7age and g7inding his teeth he 6u7ied he7 to the g7ound and 6eat he7 5ith hands and <eet1 Be2ause o< that she died1 @iiB D1 #o5 B7ahmin Dona ;isited the Exalted One and g7eeted himJ and a<te7 ex2hanging the 2ustoma7y 5o7ds o< g7eetings, sat do5n at one side1 (o seated, B7ahmin Dona said to the Exalted One ' K1 8 ) ha;e hea7d it said, Aaste7 Iotama, that Aaste7 Iotama does not salute aged, ;ene7a6le B7ahmins, 5ell st7i2ken in yea7s, long on li<e:s 7oad, g7o5n old N no7 7ise u3 <o7 them, no7 o<<e7 them a seat1

.DF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L1 8 Aaste7 Iotama, it is ?ust soJ Aaste7 Iotama does none o< these things 1 1 1 to aged, ;ene7a6le B7ahmins 1 1 1 "his is not 7ight1 Aaste7 Iotama18

8 Do you not 37o<ess to 6e a 67ahmin, Dona

M 8

E1 8)< o< anyone1 Aaste7 Iotama, in s3eaking 7ightly it should 6e said' : "he 67ahmin is 5ell 6o7n on 6oth sides:, 3u7e in des2ent as <a7 6a2k as se;en gene7ations, 6oth o< mothe7 and <athe7, un2hallenged and 5ithout 7e37oa2h in 3oint o< 6i7thJ studious, 2a77ying the mant7as in mind, a 3ast maste7 in the th7ee Gedas 5ith the indi2es and 7itual, in 3honology too, and in the legendsJ an ex3e7t in ;e7se and g7amma7 skilled in 7eading the ma7ks o< a g7eat man, in s3e2ulation on the uni;e7se: to 6e su7e o< me, Aaste7 Iotama, in s3eaking 7ightly that thing should 6e saidJ <o7 ), Aaste7 Iotama, am so 6o7n 111 so skilled 1118 F1 8 Dona, those B7ahmin-sages o< old, mant7a- make7s, mant7a- saye7s, 5hose an2ient 2olle2tion o< mant7a ;e7ses, hymns and sayings1 B7ahmins kno5 e;e7y hymn, e;e7y say, e;e7y 5o7d the 5o7d, e;e7 ha;e the sayings said to 5it' !tthaka, Gamaka, Gamade;a1 Gassamitta, &amadaggi, !ngi7asa, Bha7ad;a?a, ha;e de2la7ed' the B7ahma-like, the de;a-like, the 6ounded, the 67eake7 o< 6ounds, and <i<thly, the B7ahmin out2ast, 5hi2h o< them, Dona, a7e you M 8 H1 8+e kno5 not o< these <i;e B7ahmins, Aaste7 IotamaJ yet 5e kno5 that 5e a7e B7ahmins1 )t 5e7e 5ell <o7 me i< Aaste7 Iotama 5ould tea2h me Dhamma so that ) may kno5 o< them <i;e18 -1 8"hen listen, B7ahma, gi;e heed and ) 5ill s3eak )8 /1 8&es si7,8 7e3lied heJ and the Exalted One said' D01 8!nd ho5, Dona, 6e2omes a B7ahmin B7ahma-like M 8 DD18 "ake the 2ase, Dona, o< a B7ahmin 5ho is 5ell 6o7n on 6oth sides, 3u7e in des2ent as <a7 6a2k as se;en gene7ations, 6oth o< mothe7 and <athe7, un2hallenged and 5ithout 7e37oa2h in 3oint o< 6i7th N he <o7 eight and <o7ty yea7s leads to the B7ahma-li<e o< ;i7ginity, a33lying himsel< to the tea2he7:s <ee <o7 tea2hing a22o7ding to Dhamma, not non- Dhamma1 DK1 8!nd 5hat the7e is Dhamma, DonaM #e;e7 as 3loughman no7 t7ade7 no7

2o5he7d no7 6o5man no7 7a?ah:s man no7 6y any 27a<t @to get his li;ingB, 6ut solely 6y going a6out <o7 alms, des3ising not the 6egga7:s 6o5l1 .DH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DL1 8 !nd he hands o;e7 the tea2he7:s <ee <o7 tea2hing, has his hai7 -6ea7d sha;ed o<<, dons the yello5 7o6e and goes <o7th <7om the home to the homeless li<e1 D.1 8!nd thus gone <o7th, he a6ides in mind 3e7;ading 5ith amity one 5o7ld Cua7te7, so a se2ond, a thi7d, a <ou7thJ then a6o;e, 6elo5, ath5a7t, e;e7y5he7e, the 5hole 5ide 5o7ld he 3e7;ades 5ith thoughts o< amity, <a77ea2hing, ex3ansi;e, measu7eless, 5ithout hat7ed o7 ill-5ill, DE1 8He a6ides in mind 3e7;ading 5ith 3ity 1 1 1 sym3athy 1 1 1 3oise, one 5o7ld Cua7te7, so a se2ond, a thi7d, a <ou7thJ then a6o;e, 6elo5, ath5a7t, e;e7y-5he7e, the 5hole 5ide 5o7ld he 3e7;ades 5ith thoughts o< 3ity, sym3athy and 3oise, <a7-7ea2hing, ex3ansi;e, measu7eless, 5ithout hat7ed o7 ill-5ill1 DF1 8 !nd ha;ing made these <ou7 B7ahma -a6idings 6e2ome, on the 67eaking u3 o< the 6ody a<te7 death, he a7ises in the 5ell -<a7ing B7ahma 5o7ld1 "hus, Dona, B7ahmin 6e2omes B7ahma-like1 DH18 !nd ho5, Dona, 6e2omes a B7ahmin de;a-like M D-1 8"ake the 2ase, Dona, o< a B7ahmin o< simila7 6i7th and 2ondu2t 1111 He does not get a li;ing 6y 3loughing and so <o7th, 6ut 6y going a6out <o7 alms1 111 He hands o;e7 the tea2he7:s <ee <o7 tea2hing and seeks a 5i<e a22o7ding to Dhamma, not non-Dhamma1 D/1 8 !nd 5hat then is DhammaM #ot 5ith one 6ought o7 sold, 6ut only 5ith a B7ahmani on 5hom 5ate7 has 6een 3ou7ed1 !nd he goes only to a B7ahmani, not to the daughte7 o< an out2ast, hunte7, 6am6oo -5o7ke7, 2a7tmake7, o7 a6o7iginal, no7 goes to a 5oman 5ith 2hild, no7 to one gi;ing su2k, no7 to one not in he7 season1

K01 8 !nd 5he7e<o7e, Dona, goes not a B7ahmin to one 5ith 2hild M )< he go, the 6oy o7 gi7l 5ill su7e-ly 6e <oully 6o7n, the7e<o7e he goes not1 !nd 5he7e<o7e goes he not to one gi;ing su2k M )< he go, the 6oy o7 gi7l 5ill su7ely 6e an un2lean su2kling, the7e<o7e he goes not1 KD1 8!nd 5he7e<o7e goes he not to one not in he7 seasonM )<, Dona, a B7ahmin go to one not in he7 season, ne;e7 <o7 him does the B7ahmani 6e2ome a means <o7 lust, <o7 s3o7t, <o7 3leasu7eJ the B7ahmani is <o7 the B7ahmin ?ust as a means to 6eget o<<s37ing1

.D-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KK1 8!nd 5hen in 5edlo2k he has 6egot9ten @a 2hildB, he has his hai76ea7d sha;ed o<<1 1 1 and goes <o7th 1111 KL1 8 !nd 6eing thus gone <o7th, aloo< <7om sensuous a33etites 111 he ente7s and a6ides in the <i7st @to theB <ou7th musing 111 he ente7s and a6ides in the <i7st @to theB <ou7th musing1 K.1 8!nd ha;ing made these <ou7 musings 6e2ome, on the 67eaking u3 o< the 6ody a<te7 death, he a7ises in the 5ell-<a7ing hea;en 5o7ld1 KE1 8 "hus, Dona, a B7ahmin 6e2omes de;a-like1 KF1 8 !nd ho5, Dona, 6e2omes a B7ahmin B7ahmin 6oundedM KH1 8"ake the 2ase, Dona o< a B7ahmin o< simila7 6i7th and 2ondu2t 1 1 1 5ho 5eds in like manne71111 K-1 8 !nd 5hen in 5edlo2k he has 6egotten a 2hild, the <ondness <o7 2hild7en o6sesses him and he settles on the <amily estate, and does not go <o7th <7om the home to the homeless li<e1 K/18 )n the 6ounds o< the B7ahmin o< old he stays no7 t7ansg7esses themJ and it is said' :+ithin 6ounds he kee3s and t7ansg7esses not1: !nd the7e<o7e the B7ahmin is 2alled 6ounded1 L01 8 "hus, Dona, the B7ahmin 6e2omes 6ounded1

L D 1 8!nd ho5, Dona, 6e2omes a B7ahmin:a 67eake7 o< 6ounds M LK1 8"ake the 2ase, Dona, o< a B7ahmin o< simila7 6i7th and 2ondu2t1 111 He hands o;e7 the tea2he7:s <ee and seeks a 5i<e eithe7 a22o7ding to Dhamma o7 non-Dhamma' one 6ought o7 sold o7 B7ahmani on 5hom the 5ate7-3ou7ing 2e7emony has 6een 3e7<o7med1 LL1 8He goes to a B7ahmani o7 to the daughte7 o< a no6le o7 a lo5-2aste man o7 a se7<J to the daughte7 o< an out2ast o7 a hunte7 o7 a 6am6oo -5o7ke7 o7 a 2a7t-make7 o7 an a6o7iginalJ he goes to a 5oman 5ith 2hild, to one gi;ing su2k, to one in he7 season, to one not in he7 seasonJ and <o7 him the B7ahmani 6e2omes ?ust a means <o7 lust, <o7 s3o7t and <o7 3leasu7e o7 to 6eget o<<s37ing1

.D/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> L.1 8!nd he kee3s not 5ithin the an2ient B7ahmin 6ounds, 6ut t7ansg7esses themJ and it is said' :He kee3s not 5ithin 6ounds 6ut t7ansg7esses,: and the7e<o7e he is 2alled a 67eake7 o< 6ounds1 LE1 8"hus, Dona, the B7ahmin 6e2omes a 67eake7 o< 6ounds1 LF1 8!nd ho5, Dona, 6e2omes a B7ahmin a B7ahmin out2astM LH1 8"ake the 2ase, Dona, o< a B7ahmin o< simila7 6i7th, he <o7 eight and <o7ty yea7s leads the B7ahma-li<e o< ;i7ginity, a33lying himsel< to the mant7asJ then, 2om3leting that 2ou7se, he seeks the tea2hing <ee <o7 tea2hingJ @he gets his li;ing a22o7ding to Dhamma o7 non- DhammaB as 3loughman, t7ade7, 2o5he7d, 6o5man, 7a?ah:s man o7 6y some 27a<t o7, des3ising not the 6egga7:s 6o5l, ?ust 6y going a6out <o7 alms1 L-1 8On handing 6a2k the tea2he7:s <ee, he seeks a 5i<e a22o7ding to Dhamma o7 non -DhammaJ one 6ought o7 sold, o7 a B7ahmani on 5hom 5ate7 has 6een 3ou7ed1 He goes to a B7ahmani o7 any othe7 5oman 1 1 1 one 5ith 2hild, gi;ing su2k and so <o7th1 1 1 and she is <o7 him a means <o7 lust 1 1 1 o7 to 6eget o<<s37ing1 He leads a li<e doing all these things1 L/1 8"hen the B7ahmans say thus o< him' :Ho5 is it that an honou7a6le B7ahmin leads this so7t o< li<eM:

.01 8!nd to this he 7e3lies' :Pust as <i7e 6u7ns 2lean things o7 un2lean, 6ut not 6y that is the <i7e de<iled J e;en so, good si7s, t< a B7ahmin lead a li<e doing all these things, not 6y that is a B7ahmin de<iled1: . D 1 !nd it is said' :He leads a li<e doing all these things,: and the7e<o7e he is 2alled a B7ahmin out2ast1 .K1 8"hus, Dona, a B7ahmin 6e2omes a B7ahmin out2ast1 .L1 8 Ge7ily, Dona, those B7ahmin sages o< old, mant7a-make7s, mant7asaye7s, 5hose an2ient 2olle2tion hymn, say, 5o7d ea2h 7est 1 1 1 these <i;e B7ahmins de2la7edJ the B7ahma-like, the de;a-like1 the 6ounded, the 67eake7 o< 6ounds and, <i<thly, the B7ahmin out2ast1 ..1 8 +hi2h o< them Dona, a7e you M 8 .E1 :8 )< su2h the7e a7e, Aaste7 Iotama, 5e at least do not <ul<il @the 5aysB o< the B7ahmin-out2ast M

.K0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> .F1 8 But it is ma7;ellous 5hat you say, Aaste7 Iotama 111 let Aaste7 Iotama take me as a lay-dis2i3le, gone to his 7e<uge, hen2e<o7th as long as li<e lasts18

Pa7t ))) N C7iti2s o< His Do2t7ines1 D1 C7iti2s o< O3en !dmission to the (angh1 ''

K1 C7iti2s o< "he

ule o< Go5s1

L1 C7iti2s o< the Do2t7ine o< !himsa1

.1 Cha7ge o< P7ea2hing Gi7tue and C7eating Iloom1

E1 C7iti2s o< the "heo7y o< (oul and

e6i7th1

F1 Cha7ge o< 6eing an !nnihilationist1

'' D1 C7iti2s o< O3en !dmission to the (angh1 ''

D 1 )t 5as o3en <o7 the (angh to admit a layman 5ho 5as me7ely a dis2i3le1 K1 "he7e 5e7e 3e7sons 5ho 27iti2ised the %o7d <o7 making the (angh a 5ide o3en tem3le <o7 any6ody to ente71 L1 "hey a7gued that unde7 su2h a s2heme it may 5ell ha33en that a<te7 they ha;e 6een admitted into the O7de7 they gi;e it u3, and 7etu7n again to the lo5e7 state and 6y thei7 6a2k- sliding the 3eo3le a7e led to say ' 8 Gain must 6e this 7eligion o< (amana Iotama, 5hi2h these men ha;e gi;en u318 .1 "he 27iti2ism 5as not 5ell <ounded and had altogethe7 missed the intention o< the Blessed %o7d in making su2h a s2heme1 E1 "he Blessed %o7d 7e3lied that in esta6lishing his 7eligion he had 2onst7u2ted a 6athing tank <ull o< the ex2ellent 5ate7s o< eman2i3ation N the 6ath o< good la51 F1 )t 5as the %o7d:s desi7e that 5hosoe;e7 is 3olluted 5ith stains o< sin, he, 6athing in it, 2an 5ash a5ay all his sins1 H1 !nd i< anyone, ha;ing gone to the 6athing tank o< good la5, should not 6athe in it, 6ut tu7n 6a2k 3olluted as 6e<o7e and 7etu7n again to the lo5e7 state, it is he 5ho is to 6e 6lamed and not the 7eligion1 -1 8O7 2ould ),8 said the Blessed %o7d, 8a<te7 2onst7u2ting this 6athing tank <o7 ena6ling 3eo3le to 5ash a5ay thei7 sins, say ' : %et no one 5ho is di7ty go !ll

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> do5n into this tank ) %et only those 5hose dust and di7t ha;e 6een 5ashed a5ay, 5ho a7e 3u7i<ied and stainless go do5n into the tank1: /1 8 On su2h te7ms 5hat good 5ould ha;e 6een my 7eligion M 8 D01 "he 27iti2s <o7got that the Blessed %o7d did not 5ish to 2on<ine the 6ene<it only to a <e51 He 5anted to kee3 it o3en to all, to 6e t7ied 6y all1 '' K1 C7iti2s o< "he ule o< Go5s1 ''

D1 +hy a7e the <i;e 37e2e3ts not enough M +hy ;o5s a7e <elt ne2essa7yM "hese 5e7e the Cuestions that 5e7e o<ten 7aised, K1 )t :5as a7gued that i< diseases 5ould a6ate 5ithout medi2ine, 5hat 2ould 6e the ad;antage -o< 5eakening the 6ody 6y emeti2s, 6y 3u7ges, and othe7 like 7emediesM L1 Pust so, i< laymen, li;ing at home and en?oying the 3leasu7es o< the senses, 2an 7ealiOe in themsel;es the 2onditions o< 3ea2e, the (u37eme Iood, #i66ana, 6y taking 37e2e3ts, 5hat is the need o< the 6hikkhu taking u3on himsel< these ;o5s M .1 "he Blessed %o7d de;ised the ;o5s 6e2ause o< the ;i7tues inhe7ent in them1 E1 ! li<e 2onditioned 6y ;o5s is 2e7tain to 67ing 5ith it g7o5th in goodness, it is itsel< a 37ote2tion against a <all1 F1 "hose 5ho take ;o5s and kee3 them as sel< -de3endents, a7e eman2i3ated1 H1 "he kee3ing o< ;o5s is the 7est7i2tion o< lust, and o< mali2e, o< 37ide, the 2utting o< e;il thoughts1 -1 "hose 5ho take ;o5s and kee3 them, 5ell gua7ded a7e they indeed and altogethe7 3u7e a7e they in manne7s and in mind1 /1 #ot so 5ith me7e taking o< 37e2e3ts1

D01 )n the 2ase o< the 37e2e3ts the7e is no 37ote2tion against mo7al de2line as the7e is in the 2ase o< ;o5s1

.KK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D D 1 ! li<e o< ;o5s is ;e7y di<<i2ult and a li<e o< 37e2e3ts not so1 )t is ne2essa7y <o7 mankind to ha;e some 5ho li;e the li<e o< ;o5s1 (o the Blessed %o7d 37es27i6ed 6oth1 '' L1 C7iti2s o< the Do2t7ine o< !himsa1 ''

D1 "he7e 5e7e 3e7sons 5ho o6?e2ted to the do2t7ine o< !himsa1 "hey said that it in;ol;ed su77ende7 o7 non-7esistan2e to e;il1 K1 "his is a 2om3lete mis7e37esentation o< 5hat the Blessed %o7d taught 6y his do2t7ine o< !himsa1 L1 "he Blessed %o7d has made his 3osition 2lea7 on ;a7ious o22asions so as to lea;e no 7oom <o7 am6iguity o7 misunde7standing1 .1 "he <i7st su2h o22asion to 5hi2h 7e<e7en2e should 6e made is the o22asion 5hen he made a 7ule 7ega7ding the ent7y o< a soldie7 in the (angh1 E1 !t one time the 6o7de7 37o;in2es o< the kingdom o< Aagadha 5e7e agitated1 "hen the Aagadha king (eniya Bim6isa7a ga;e o7de7 to the Commande7 o< the a7my' : +ell no5, go and ask you7 o<<i2e7s to sea72h th7ough the 6o7de7 37o;in2es <o7 the o<<ende7s, 3unish them and 7esto7e 3ea2e18 "he Commande7 a2ted a22o7dingly1 F1 On hea7ing the o7de7s o< the Commande7 the o<<i2e7s <ound themselyes 3la2ed in a dilemma1 "hey kne5 that the "athagatha taught that those 5ho go to 5a7 and <ind delight in <ighting, do e;il and 37odu2e g7eat deme7it1 On the othe7 hand, he7e 5as the king:s o7de7 to 2a3tu7e the o<<ende7s and to kill them1 #o5 5hat shall 5e do, asked the o<<i2e7s to themsel;es1 H1 "hen these o<<i2e7s thought' 8)< 5e 2ould ente7 the o7de7 o< the Buddha 5e 5ould 6e a6le to es2a3e <7om the dilemma18

-1 "hus these o<<i2e7s 5ent to the 6hikkhus and asked them <o7 o7dinationJ the 6hikkhus 2on<e77ed on them the 3a66a??a and u3asam3ada o7dinations and the o<<i2e7s disa33ea7ed <7om the a7my1 /1 "he Commande7 o< the a7my 1<inding that the o<<i2e7s 5e7e not to 6e seen, asked the soldie7s' 8+hy, ho5 is it that the o<<i2e7s a7e no5he7e to 6e seen M8

.KL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> 8 "he o<<i2e7s, lo7d, ha;e em67a2ed 7eligious li<e o< the 6hikkhus,8 7e3lied the soldie7s1 D01 "hen the Commande7 o< the a7my 5as annoyed, and 6e2ame ;e7y ang7y' 8Ho5 2an the 6hikkhus o7dain 3e7sons in the 7oyal a7my M 8 D D 1 "he Commande7 o< the a7my in<o7med the king o< 5hat had ha33ened1 !nd the king asked the o<<i2e7s o< ?usti2e' 8"ell me, my good si7s, 5hat 3unishment does he dese7;e 5ho o7dains a 3e7son in the 7oyal se7;i2e M8 DK1 8"he $3agghaya, &ou7 Aa?esty, should 6e 6eheadedJ to him 5ho 7e2ites @the *amma;akaB, the tongue should 6e to7n outJ to those 5ho <o7m the 2ha3te7, hal< o< thei7 7i6s should 6e 67oken18 DL1 "hen the king 5ent to the 3la2e 5he7e the Blessed One 5asJ and a<te7 o6eisan2e in<o7med him o< 5hat had ha33ened1 D.1 8 "he %o7d 5ell kno5s that the7e a7e kings 5ho a7e against the Dhamma1 "hese hostile kings a7e e;e7 7eady to ha7ass the 6hikkhus e;en <o7 t7i<ling 7easons1 )t is im3ossi6le to imagine the lengths to 5hi2h they might go in thei7 ill-t7eatment o< the 6hikkhus i< they <ind that the 6hikkhus a7e sedu2ing the soldie7s to lea;e the a7my and ?oin the (angh1 P7ay %o7d to do the need<ul to a;e7t the disaste718 D E1 "he %o7d 7e3lied' 8 )t 5as ne;e7 my intention to allo5 soldie7s und<e7 the 2loak o< !himsa o7 in the name o< !himsa to a6andon thei7 duty to the king o7 to thei7 2ount7y18

DF1 !22o7dingly the Blessed One made a 7ule against the admission o< 3e7sons in 7oyal se7;i2e to the (angh and 37o2laimed it to the 6hikkhus, saying' 8%et no one, Bhikkhus, 5ho is in the 7oyal se7;i2e, 7e2ei;e the Pa66a??a o7dination1 He 5ho 2on<e7s the Pa66a??a o7dination on su2h a 3e7son 5ill 6e guilty o< a dukkata o<<en2e18 DH1 ! se2ond time the Blessed One 5as 27ossexamined on the su6?e2t o< !himsa 6y (inha, a Iene7al in the a7my, and 5ho 5as a <ollo5e7 o< Aaha;i71 D-1 (inha asked' 8 One dou6t still lu7ks in my mind 2on2e7ning the do2t7ine o< the Blessed One1 +ill the Blessed One 2onsent to 2lea7 the 2loud a5ay so that ) may unde7stand the Dhamma as the Blessed One tea2hes it18

.K.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D/1 "he "athagata ha;ing gi;en his 2onsent, (inha said' 8) am a soldie7, Blessed One, and am a33ointed 6y the king to en<o72e his la5s and to 5age his 5a7s1 Does the "athagata, 5ho tea2hes kindness 5ithout end and 2om3assion 5ith all su<<e7e7s, 3e7mit the 3unishment o< the 27iminal M !nd <u7the7, does the "athagata de2la7e that it is 57ong to go to 5a7 <o7 the 37ote2tion o< ou7 homes, ou7 5i;es, ou7 2hild7en, and ou7 37o3e7ty M Does the "athagata tea2h the do2t7ine o< a 2om3lete sel<- su77ende7, so that ) should su<<e7 the e;il-doe7 to do 5hat he 3leases and yield su6missi;ely to him 5ho th7eatens to take 6y ;iolen2e 5hat is my o5n M Does the "athagata maintain that all st7i<es, in2luding su2h 5a7<a7e as is 5aged <o7 a 7ighteous 2ause, should 6e <o76iddenM8 K01 "he %o7d 7e3lied ' 8"he "athagata says' : He 5ho dese7;es 3unishment must 6e 3unished, and he 5ho is 5o7thy o< <a;ou7 must 6e <a;ou7ed1 &et at the same time he tea2hes to do no in?u7y to any li;ing 6eing 6ut to 6e <ull o< lo;e and kindness1 "hese in?un2tions a7e not 2ont7adi2to7y, <o7 5hosoe;e7 must 6e 3unished <o7 the 27imes 5hi2h he has 2ommitted su<<e7s his in?u7y

not th7ough the ill-5ill o< the ?udge 6ut on a22ount o< his e;il-doing1 His o5n a2ts ha;e 67ought u3on him the in?u7y that the exe2uto7 o< the la5 in<li2ts1 +hen a magist7ate 3unishes, let him not ha76ou7 hat7ed in his 67east, yet a mu7de7e7, 5hen 3ut to death, should 2onside7 that this is the <7uit o< his o5n a2t1 !s soon as he 5ill unde7stand that the 3unishment 5ill 3u7i<y his soul, he 5ill no longe7 lament his <ate 6ut 7e?oi2e at it1: 8 K D 1 ! 37o3e7 unde7standing o< these instan2es 5ould sho5 that the !himsa taught 6y the Blessed %o7d 5as <undamental1 But it 5as not a6solute1 KK1 He taught that e;il should 6e 2u7ed 6y the 7etu7n o< good1 But he ne;e7 37ea2hed that e;il should 6e allo5ed to o;e73o5e7 good1 KL1 He stood <o7 !himsa1 He denoun2ed Hi7nsa1 But he did not deny that Hi7nsa may 6e the last 7eso7t to sa;e good 6eing dest7oyed 6y e;il1 K.1 "hus it is not that the Blessed %o7d taught a dange7ous do2t7ine1 )t is the 27iti2s 5ho <ailed to unde7stand its signi<i2an2e and its s2o3e1

.KE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> '' .1 Cha7ge o< P7ea2hing Gi7tue and C7eating Iloom1 '' @iB Dukkha as the Cause o< Iloom D1 Dukkha in its o7iginal sense gi;en to it 6y *a3ila means un7est, 2ommotion1 K1 )nitially it had a meta3hysi2al meaning1 L1 %ate7 on it a2Cui7ed the meaning o< su<<e7ing a7id so77o5 .1 "he t5o senses 5e7e not <a7 deta2hed1 "hey 5e7e ;e7y 2lose1 E1 $n7est 67ings so77o5 and su<<e7ing1 F1 (oon it a2Cui7ed the meaning o< so77o5 and su<<e7ing <7om so2ial and e2onomi2 2auses1 H1 )n 5hat sense did the Buddha use the 5o7d so77o5 and su<<e7ingM

-1 "he7e is a se7mon on 7e2o7d <7om 5hi2h it is 2lea7 that the Buddha 5as ;e7y mu2h a5a7e that 3o;e7ty 5as a 2ause o< so77o51 /1 )n that se7mon he says N 8 Aonks, is 3o;e7ty a 5oe<ul thing <o7 a 5o7ldly 5anton M 8 D01 8 (u7ely, %o7d18 DD18 !nd 5hen a man is 3oo7, needy, in st7aits, he gets into de6t, and is that 5oe<ul too M8 DK1 8(u7ely, %o7d18 D L1 8!nd 5hen he gets into de6t, he 6o77o5s, and is that 5oe<ul too M 8 D.1 8 (u7ely, %o7d18 DE1 8!nd 5hen the 6ill <alls due, he 3ays not and they 37ess himJ is that 5oe<ul too M 8 DF1 8(u7ely, %o7d18

.KF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DH18 !nd 5hen 37essed, he 3ays not and they 6eset him J is that 5oe<ul too M ii D-1 8(u7ely, %o7d18 D/1 8!nd 5hen 6eset, he 3ays not and they 6ind himJ is that 5oe<ul tooM8 K01 8 (u7ely, %o7d18 K D 1 8"hus, monks, 3o;e7ty, de6t, 6o77o5ing, 6eing 37essed, 6eset and 6ound a7e all 5oes <o7 the 5o7ldly 5anton1 KK1 8 +oe<ul in the 5o7ld is 3o;e7ty and de6t18 KL1 "hus the Buddha:s 2on2e3tion o< Dukkha is mate7ial1 @KB )m3e7manen2e as the Cause o< Iloom

D1 !nothe7 g7ound <o7 this a22usation a7ises <7om the do2t7ine that e;e7ything 5hi2h is 2om3ound is im3e7manent1 K1 #o6ody Cuestions the t7uth o< the do2t7ine1 L1 E;e7ything is im3e7manent is admitted 6y all1 .1 "he do2t7ine, i< it is t7ue, must 6e told ?ust as t7uth must 6e told ho5e;e7 un3leasant it may 6e1 E1 But 5hy d7a5 a 3essimisti2 2on2lusionM F1 )< li<e is sho7t it is sho7t and one need not 6e gloomy a6out it1 H1 )t is ?ust a matte7 o< inte737etation1 -1 "he Bu7mese inte737etation is ;e7y mu2h di<<e7ent1 /1 "he Bu7mese 2ele67ate the e;ent o< death in a <amily as though it 5as an e;ent o< ?oy1 D01 On the day o< death the householde7 gi;es a 3u6li2 <east and the 3eo3le 7emo;e the dead 6ody to the g7a;eya7d dan2ing1 #o6ody minds the death <o7 it 5as to 2ome1 DD1 )< im3e7manen2e is 3essimisti2 it is only 6e2ause 3e7manen2e 5as assumed to 6e t7ue although it 5as a <alse one1 .KH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DK1 Buddha:s 37ea2hing 2annot, the7e<o7e, 6e 2ha7ged as s37eading gloom1 @LB )s Buddhism Pessimisti2 M D 1 "he Buddha:s Dhamma has 6een a22used o< 27eating 3essimism1 K1 "he a22usation a7ises <7om the <i7st !7yan "7uth 5hi2h says that the7e is Dukkha @so77o5-mise7yB in the 5o7ld1 L1 )t is 7athe7 su737ising that a 7e<e7en2e to Dukkha should gi;e 2ause to su2h an a22usation1 .1 *a7l Aa7x also said that the7e is ex3loitation in the 5o7ld and the 7i2h a7e

6eing made 7i2he7 and the 3oo7 a7e 6eing made 3oo7e71 E1 !nd yet no6ody has said that *a7l Aa7x:s do2t7ine is 3essimism1 F1 +hy then should a di<<e7ent attitude 6e sho5n to the Buddha:s do2t7ineM H1 )t may 6e 6e2ause the Buddha is 7e3o7ted to ha;e said in his <i7st se7mon1 Bi7th is so77o5<ul, old age is so77o5<ul, death is so77o5<ul, that a dee3e7 3essimisti2 2olou7ing has 6een gi;en to his Dhamma1 -1 But those 5ho kno5 7heto7i2 kno5 that this is an a7ti<i2e o< exagge7ation and that it is 37a2tised 6y skilled lite7a7y hands to 37odu2e e<<e2t1 /1 "hat 6i7th is so77o5<ul is an exagge7ation 6y the Buddha 2an 6e 37o;ed 6y 7e<e7en2e to a se7mon o< his in 5hi2h he has 37ea2hed that 6i7th as a human 6eing is a ;e7y 37e2ious thing1 D01 !gain, i< the Buddha had me7ely 7e<e77ed to Dukkha su2h an a22usation 2ould 6e sustaina6le1 D D 1 But the Buddha:s se2ond !7yan "7uth em3hasises that this Dukkha must 6e 7emo;ed1 )n o7de7 to em3hasise the duty o< 7emo;al o< Dukkha he s3oke o< the existen2e o< Dukkha1 DK1 "o the 7emo;al o< Dukkha the Buddha atta2hed g7eat im3o7tan2e1 )t is 6e2ause he <ound that *a3ila me7ely stated that the7e 5as Dukkha and said nothing mo7e a6out it that he <elt dissatis<ied and le<t the !sh7am o< Auni !la7a *alam1 DL1 Ho5 2an this Dhamma 6e 2alled 3essimisti21 M .K-

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D.1 (u7ely a tea2he7 5ho is anxious to 7emo;e Dukkha 2annot 6e 2ha7ged 5ith 3essimism1 '' E1 C7iti2s o< the "heo7y o< (oul and e6i7th1 ''

D1 "he Blessed %o7d 37ea2hed that the7e 5as no (oul1 "he Blessed %o7d also a<<i7med that the7e 5as 7e6i7th1 K1 "he7e 5e7e not 5anting 3eo3le 5ho 27iti2ised the %o7d <o7 37ea2hing 5hat they 7ega7ded as t5o su2h 2ont7adi2to7y do2t7ines1 L1 Ho5 2an the7e 6e 7e6i7th i< the7e is no (oul, they asked1 .1 "he7e is no 2ont7adi2tion1 "he7e 2an 6e 7e6i7th e;en though the7e is no (oul1 E1 "he7e is a mango stone1 "he stone gi;es 7ise to a mango t7ee1 "he mango t7ee 37odu2es mangoes1 F1 He7e is 7e6i7th o< a mango1 H1 But the7e is no (oul1 -1 (o the7e 2an 6e 7e6i7th although the7e is no (oul1 '' F1 Cha7ge o< 6eing an !nnihilationist1 ''

D1 On2e 5hen the %o7d 5as staying at (h7a;asti in Peta:s g7o;e it 5as 7e3o7ted to him that a 2e7tain 6hikkhu 6y name !7ittha had 2ome to 2e7tain ;ie5s a6out the do2t7ines taught 6y the %o7d, as the ;ie5s o< the %o7d although they 5e7e not the ;ie5s o< the %o7d1 K1 One o< the do2t7ines a6out 5hi2h !7ittha 5as mis7e37esenting the %o7d 5as 5hethe7 he 5as an annihilationist1 L1 "he Blessed %o7d sent <o7 !7ittha1 !7ittha 2ame1 On 6eing Cuestioned he sat silent and glum1 .1 "he %o7d then said to him ' 8 (ome 7e2luses and B7ahmins N 57ongly, e77oneously and <alsely N 2ha7ge me in de<ian2e o< <a2ts, 5ith 6eing an .K/

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> annihilationist and 5ith 37ea2hing disinteg7ation, and exti73ation o< existing 27eatu7es1 E1 )t is ?ust 5hat ) am not and 5hat ) do not a<<i7m1 F1 +hat ) ha;e 2onsistently 37ea2hed 6oth in the 3ast and today is the

existen2e o< ill and the ending o< ill1

Pa7t )G N F7iends and !dmi7e7s1

D1 De;otion o< Dhanan?anani N a B7ahmini1

K1 "he !6iding Faith o< Gisakha1

L1 "he De;otion o< Aallika1

.1 "he a7dent +ish o< a P7egnant Aothe71

E1 *eniya:s +el2ome1

F1 Pasendi in P7aise o< the Aaste71

'' D1 De;otion o< Dhanan?anani N a B7ahmini1

D1 "he Blessed %o7d had many <7iends and admi7e7s1 !mong them 5as Dhanan?anani1 K1 (he 5as the 5i<e o< a Bha7ad;a?a B7ahmin1 He7 hus6and hated the %o7d1 But Dhanan?anani 5as a de;otee o< the %o7d1 He7 de;otion is 5o7thy o< mention1 L1 "he Exalted One 5as on2e staying nea7 a?ag7aha in the 6am6oo g7o;e at the Giha7a kno5n as the sCui77els: <eeding g7ound1 .1 #o5 at that time Dhanan?anani, a B7ahmini, the 5i<e o< a 2e7tain B7ahmin o< the Bha7ad;a?a <amily, 5as li;ing 5ith he7 hus6and in a?ag7aha1 E1 +hile he7 hus6and 5as a g7eat o33onent o< the Buddha, Dhanan?anani

5as a <e7;ent 6elie;e7 in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the O7de71 (he 5as in the ha6it o< 37aising, the t7i3le gem1 +hene;e7 she 67oke out in this 5ay in 37aise, he7 hus6and used to 2lose his ea7s1

.L0

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> F1 On the e;e o< his gi;ing a g7eat 6anCuet to many <ello5-B7ahmins, he 6egged he7 to do 5hat she liked, 37o;ided she did not o<<end his guests 6y he7 37aises o< the Buddha1 H1 Dhanan?anani 5ould gi;e no su2h unde7taking and he th7eatened to sli2e he7 like a 3lantain 5ith his dagge71 (he de2la7ed he7sel< 7eady to su<<e7, so she 7etained he7 <7eedom o< s3ee2h and 37o2eeded to 3ou7 <o7th <i;e hund7ed ;e7ses on he7 theme, so that he su77ende7ed un2onditionally1 -1 Bo5l and golden s3oon 5e7e laid do5n and the guests sat do5n <o7 <ood1 +hile se7;ing the guests the dominant im3ulse a7ose1 )n the midst she tu7ned to5a7ds the 6am6oo g7o;e and utte7ed the 37aises o< the t7i3le gem1 /1 "he s2andaliOed guests hu77ied a5ay, s3itting out the <ood de<iled 6y the 37esen2e o< a he7eti2 and the hus6and s2olded he7 amid the 7uins o< his <east1 D01 !nd she, 5hile se7;ing the Bha7ad;a?a 5ith his dinne7, 2ame 6e<o7e him and 37aised the gem1 Ilo7y to that Exalted One, the !7ahant, the Buddha (u37eme! Ilo7y to the #o7m ) Ilo7y to the O7de7! DD1 !nd 5hen she had so ex2laimed' 8"he7e no5 ) that sha;eling <7ia7 at gi;e that tea2he7 o< thine a said the Bha7ad;a?a B7ahmin g7e5 ang7y and &ou 57et2h! Aust you 6e singing the 37aises o< any and e;e7y o33o7tunity M #o5, 57et2h, 5ill ) 3ie2e o< my mind! 8

DK1 8 B7ahmin,8 7e3lied Dhanan?anani, 8 ) kno5 o< no one th7oughout the 5o7ld o< gods, Aa7as, o7 B7ahmas, 7e2luses o7 67ahmins, no one human o7 di;ine, 5ho 2ould so admonish that Exalted One, !7ahant, Buddha (u37eme1 #e;e7theless, go thou, B7ahmin, and then thou 5ilt kno518 DL1 "hen the Bha7ad;a?a, ;exed and dis3leased, 5ent to <ind the Exalted OneJ and 2oming into his 37esen2e, ex2hanged 5ith him g7eetings and 2om3liments, <7iendly and 2ou7teous, and sat do5n at one side1

D.1 (o seated, he asked the Exalted One the <ollo5ing Cuestions ' 8+hat must 5e slay i< 5e 5ould ha33y li;eM +hat must 5e slay i< 5e 2ould 5ee3 no mo7eM +hat is a6o;e all othe7 things, 5he7eo< the slaughte7 thou a337o;est, IotamaM8 DE1 "he Exalted One 7e3lied as <ollo5s' 8+7ath must ye slay i< ye 5ould ha33y li;e J +7ath must ye slay i< ye 5ould 5ee3 no mo71e1 O< ange71 .LD

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> B7ahmin, 5ith its 3oisoned sou72e, and <e;e7ed 2limax, mu7de7 -ously s5eet1 "hat is the slaughte7 6y the !7iyans 37aised1 "hat must ye slay in sooth, to 5ee3 no mo7e18 DF1 ealising the ex2ellen2e o< the 7e3ly gi;en 6y the Exalted One, the Bha7ad;a?a B7ahmin said to him' 8Aost ex2ellent1 %o7d, most ex2ellent! Pust as i< a man 5e7e to set u3 that 5hi2h had 6een th7o5n do5n, o7 5e7e to 7e;eal that 5hi2h 5as hidden a5ay, o7 5e7e to 3oint out the 7ight 7oad to him 5ho had gone ast7ay, o7 5e7e to 67ing a lam3 into the da7kness, so that those 5ho had eyes 2ould see exte7nal o6?e2ts N e;en so1 %o7d, has the %o7d Iotama sho5n me his do2t7ine in ;a7ious 5ays1 ), e;en ), %o7d, 6etake mysel< to the Exalted One as my 7e<uge to the #o7m and to the O7de71 ) 5ould lea;e the 5o7ld unde7 the 7ule o< IotamaJ ) 5ould take o7de7s18 D H1 (o Dhanan?anani 5as not only a de;otee o< the Buddha, she made he7 hus6and also a de;otee o< the Buddha1 '' K1 "he !6iding Faith o< Gisakha1 ''

D 1 Gisakha 5as 6o7n in the 2ity o< Bhadiya in the !nga 2ount7y1 K1 He7 <athe7 5as Dhanan?aya and he7 mothe7:s name 5as (umana1 L1 On2e the Buddha ;isited Bhadiya 5ith a la7ge 2om3any o< monks at the in;itation o< the B7ahmin (ela1 Gisakha his g7anddaughte7 5as then se;en yea7s old1 .1 Gisakha though only se;en ex37essed to he7 g7and<athe7 Aendaka he7 desi7e to see the Buddha1 Aendaka allo5ed he7 to do so and ga;e he7 <i;e hund7ed 2om3anions, <i;e hund7ed sla;es, and <i;e hund7ed 2ha7iots, that

she might ;isit the Buddha1 E1 (he sto33ed the 2ha7iot some distan2e a5ay and a337oa2hed the Buddha on <oot1 F1 He 37ea2hed to he7 the Dhamma and she 6e2ame his lay dis2i3le1 H1 Fo7 the next <o7tnight Aendaka in;ited the Buddha and his <ollo5e7s daily to his house, 5he7e he <ed them,1

.LK

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> -1 %ate7, 5hen at Pasendi:s 7eCuest, Bim6isa7a sent Dhanan?aya to li;e in *osala, Gisakha a22om3anied he7 3a7ents and li;ed in (aketa1 /1 Aiga7a, a 5ealthy 2itiOen o< (h7a;asti, 5anted to get his son Punna;adhana ma77ied1 He had sent a <e5 3eo3le to <ind a suita6le 67ide1 D01 "he 3a7ty in sea72h o< a 67ide ha33ened to 2ome to (h7a;asti1 "hey sa5 Gisakha on he7 5ay to the lake to 6athe on a <east day1 D D 1 !t that moment the7e 5as a g7eat sho5e71 Gisakha:s 2om3anions 7an <o7 shelte71 But Gisakha did not1 (he 5alked at he7 usual 3a2e and 7ea2hed the s3ot 5he7e the messenge7s 5e7e1 DK1 "hey asked he7 5hy she did not 7un <o7 shelte7 and so 37ese7;e he7 2lothes1 (he ans5e7ed that she had 3lenty o< 2lothes, 6ut that i< she 7an she might damage a lim6 5hi2h she 2ould not 7e3la2e1 8 $nma77ied gi7ls,8 she said, 8 a7e like goods a5aiting sale, they must not 6e dis<igu7ed18 D L1 "he 3a7ty 5hi2h 5as al7eady st7u2k 6y he7 6eauty 5as g7eatly im37essed 6y he7 intelligen2e1 "he 3a7ty o<<e7ed he7 a 6ouCuet o< <lo5e7s 5hi2h she a22e3ted as a 37o3osal o< ma77iage1 D.1 !<te7 Gisakha 7etu7ned home the ma77iage 3a7ty <ollo5ed he7 and laid Punna;adhana:s suit 6e<o7e Dhanan?aya1 "he 37o3osal 5as a22e3ted and 2on<i7med 6y an ex2hange o< lette7s1 DE1 +hen Pasendi hea7d o< it, he o<<e7ed to a22om3any Punna;adhana to

(aketa, as a ma7k o< signal honou71 Dhanan?aya 5el2omed the king and his 7etinue, Aiga7a, Punna;adhana and thei7 <ollo5e7s 5ith all 7ega7d, attending 3e7sonally to all the details o< hos3itality1 DF1 Fi;e hund7ed goldsmiths 5e7e engaged to make o7naments <o7 the 67ide1 Dhanan?aya ga;e his daughte7, as do57y, <i;e hund7ed 2a7ts <ull o< money, <i;e hund7ed 5ith ;essels o< gold and 2attle, et21 DH1 +hen the time 2ame <o7 Gisakha to lea;e, Dhanan?aya ga;e he7 ten admonitions, 5hi2h Aiga7a o;e7hea7d <7om the next 7oom1 "hese admonitions 5e7e' #ot to gi;e <i7e <7om the house outside' not to take into the house <i7e <7om 5ithoutJ to gi;e only to those 5ho ga;e in 7etu7n, not to gi;e to those 5ho did not gi;e in 7etu7n, to gi;e him that gi;es and to him that gi;es notJ to seat, eat and eat ha33ilyJ and to tend the <i7e and to honou7 the household deities1 .LL

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> D-1 On the <ollo5ing day Dhanan?aya a33ointed eight householde7s to 6e s3onso7s to his daughte7 and inCui7e into any 2ha7ges that might 6e 67ought against he71 D/1 Aiga7a 5anted that his daughte7-in-la5 should 6e seen 6y the 3u6li2 o< (h7a;asti1 Gisakha ente7ed (h7a;asti standing in he7 2ha7iot 5ith the 3u6li2 lining the 7oad on 6oth sides1 "he 3u6li2 sho5e7ed gi<ts on he7, 6ut these she dist7i6uted among the 3eo3le1 K01 Aiga7a 5as a <ollo5e7 o< the #iganthas and soon a<te7 Gisakha:s a77i;al in his house, he sent <o7 them and told he7 to ministe7 to them1 But Gisakha 7e3ulsed 6y thei7 nudity, 7e<used to 3ay them homage1 K D 1 "he1 #iganthas u7ged that she should 6e sent a5ay, 6ut Aiga7a 6ided his time1 KK1 One day as Aiga7a 5as eating, 5hile Gisakha stood <anning him, a monk 5as seen standing outside the house1 Gisakha stood aside that Aiga7a might see him1 But Aiga7a 2ontinued to eat 5ithout noti2ing the monk1

KL1 (eeing this Gisakha said to the monk, 8 Pass on, si7, my <athe7-inla5 eats stale <a7e18 Aiga7a 5as ang7y and th7eatened to send he7 a5ay, 6ut at he7 7eCuest the matte7 5as 7e<e77ed to he7 s3onso7s1 K.1 "hey inCui7ed into the se;e7al 2ha7ges 67ought against he7 and ad?udged he7 not guilty1 KE1 Gisakha then ga;e o7de7s that 37e3a7ations 6e made <o7 he7 7etu7n to he7 3a7ents1 Both Aiga7a and his 5i<e 6egged <o7 <o7gi;eness 5hi2h she g7anted, on 2ondition that he 5ould in;ite to the house the Buddha and his monks1 KF1 "his he did, 6ut, o5ing to the in<luen2e o< the #iganthas, he le<t Gisakha to ente7tain them, and only 2onsented to hea7 the Buddha:s se7mon at the end o< the meal <7om 6ehind a 2u7tain1 KH1 He 5as, ho5e;e7, so 2on;in2ed 6y the se7mon that he 6e2ame a 2on;e7t1 K-1 His g7atitude to5a7ds Gisakha 5as 6oundless1 Hen2e<o7th he 2onside7ed he7 to 6e his mothe7 dese7;ing all the honou7s due to a mothe71 F7om this time on5a7d she 5as 2alled Aiga7mata1 K/1 (u2h 5as the a6iding <aith o< Gisakha1 .L.

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> '' L1 "he De;otion o< Aallika1 ''

) 1 On2e 5hile the %o7d 5as staying at (h7a;asti in Peta:s g7o;e the da7ling son o< a 2e7tain house-holde7 died, and the loss made the <athe7 negle2t his 6usiness and his meals1 K1 He 5as al5ays going to the 2ha7nel g7ound and 5ailing aloud saying, 8 +he7e a7e you, my son, 5he7e a7e you M 8 L1 "he 6e7ea;ed <athe7 2ame to the Blessed %o7d and a<te7 due salutations sat on one side1

.1 (eeing that his mind 5as a6solutely ;a2ant sho5ing no inte7est in anything, not telling the 3u73ose <o7 5hi2h he had 2ome, the Blessed %o7d, noti2ing his 2ondition, said :8 &ou a7e not you7sel< J you7 mind is all a57y1 8 E1 8Ho5 2ould my mind not 6e a57y, si7, 5hen ) ha;e lost my da7ling and only sonM8 F1 8 &es, householde7J ou7 dea7 ones 67ing so77o5 and lamentation, 3ain, su<<e7ing and t7i6ulation M 8 H1 8+ho si7 2an ente7tain su2h a ;ie5 M 8, said the ang7y householde7, 8 #ay, ou7 dea7 ones a7e a ?oy and ha33iness to us18 -1 !nd 5ith these 5o7ds the householde7, 7e?e2ting the %o7d:s 37onoun2ement, indignantly got u3 and de3a7ted1 /1 Ha7d 6y, the7e 5e7e a num6e7 o< gam6le7s ha;ing a game 5ith di2eJ and to them 2ame the householde7 5ith his sto7y o< ho5 he had 7elated his so77o5s to the 7e2luse Iotama, ho5 he had 6een 7e2ei;ed and ho5 he had indignantly de3a7ted1 D01 &ou 5e7e Cuite 7ight, said the gam6le7s, <o7 ou7 dea7 ones a7e a sou72e o< ?oy and ha33iness to us1 (o the householde7 <elt he had got the gam6le7s on his side1 ) ) 1 #o5 all this, in due 2ou7se, 3enet7ated to the 37i;ate a3a7tments o< the 3ala2e 5he7e the king told ]ueen Aallika that he7 7e2luse Iotama had stated that dea7 ones 67ing so77o5 and lamentation, 3ain, su<<e7ing and t7i6ulation1 .LE

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> DK1 8+ell, si7, i< the %o7d said so, so it is8 DL1 8Pust as a 3u3il a22e3ts all his maste7 tells him, saying, :(o it is, si7J so it is: N ?ust in the same 5ay Aallika, you a22e3t all the 7e2luse Iotama says 5ith you7 : )< the %o7d said so, so it is:J a5ay 5ith you and 6egonel 8 D.1 "hen the Cueen told the B7ahmin #ali Dhyan to go to the %o7d and in he7 name, to 6o5 his head at the %o7d:s <eet and, a<te7 asking a<te7 his

health, to enCui7e 5hethe7 he had 7eally said 5hat 5as att7i6uted to him1 D E1 8!nd 6e 2a7e<ul,8 she added, 8to tell me exa2tly 5hat the %o7d ans5e7s18 DF1 )n o6edien2e to the Cueen:s 2ommands the B7ahmin 5ent o<< and duly asked the %o7d 5hethe7 he had 7eally said so1 DH1 8&es, B7ahminJ ou7 dea7 ones do 67ing so77o5 and lamentation, 3ain, su<<e7ing, and t7i6ulation1 He7e is the 37oo<1 D-1 8 On2e, he7e in (h7a;asti, a 5oman:s mothe7 died and the daughte7, 27aOed and 6eside he7sel<, 5ent a6out <7om st7eet to st7eet, <7om 27oss-7oad to 27oss7oad, saying' :Ha;e you seen my mothe7M Ha;e you seen my mothe7M: D/1 8 !nothe7 37oo< is a 5oman o< (h7a;asti 5ho lost he7 <athe7 N a 67othe7 N a siste7 N a son N a daughte7 N a hus6and1 C7aOed and 6eside he7sel<, the 5oman 5ent a6out <7om st7eet to st7eet and <7om 27oss-7oad to 27oss-7oad, asking i< anyone had seen the dea7 ones she had lost1 K01 8 !nothe7 37oo< is a man o< (h7a;asti 5ho lost his mothe7 N his <athe7 N a 67othe7 N a siste7 N a son N a daughte7 N a 5i<e, 27aOed and 6eside himsel<, the man 5ent a6out <7om st7eet to st7eet and <7om 27oss7oad to 27oss7oad, asking i< anyone had seen the dea7 ones he had lost1 KD1 8 !nothe7 37oo< is the 5oman o< (h7a;asti 5ho ;isited he7 3eo3le:s homeJ and they 5anted to take he7 <7om he7 hus6and and ma77y he7 to someone else 5hom she did not like1 KK1 8 (he told he7 hus6and a6out it, 5he7eu3on he 2ut he7 into t5o and then killed himsel<, so that they might 6oth die togethe71 KL1 8!ll this the B7ahmin #ali Dhyan duly 7e3o7ted to the Cueen1 K.1 8 "he Cueen then 5ent to the king and asked' W !7e you <ond, si7, o< you7 only daughte7, the 37in2ess Ga?i7a1: : &es, ) am,: 7e3lied the king1 .LF

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> KE1 8 : )< anything ha33ened to you7 Ga?i7a 5ould you <eel so77y o7 notM: )< anything ha33ened to he7, it 5ould make a g7eat di<<e7en2e to my li<e1: 8

KF1 8 : !7e you <ond, si7, o< me, : asked Aallika1:&es,l am1: KH1 8 : )< anything ha33ened to me 5ould you <eel so77y o7 5ould you not M: : )< anything ha33ened to you it 5ould make a g7eat di<<e7en2e to my li<e1: K-1 8 : !7e you <ond, si7, o< the 3eo3le o< *asi and *osala M: :&es,: 7e3lied the king1 :)< anything ha33ened to them 5ould you 6e so77y o7 notM: K/1 8 : )< anything ha33ened to them, it 5ould make g7eat di<<e7en2e N ho5 2ould it 6e othe75iseM: L01 8 : Did the Blessed %o7d say anything di<<e7entM: : #o Aallika,: said the king in 7e3entan2e18 '' .1 "he a7dent +ish o< a P7egnant Aothe71 ''

D1 On2e 5hen the %o7d 5as staying in the Bhagga 2ount7y at (umsuma7agi7a in the Bhesakala g7o;e, in the dee7-3a7k the7e1 P7in2e Bodhi:s 3ala2e, 2alled the %otus, had ?ust 6een <inished 6ut had not as yet 6een inha6ited 6y 7e2luse, B7ahmin o7 any othe7 3e7son1 K1 (aid the 37in2e to a young B7ahmin named (ankika-3utta' 8 Io to the %o7d and in my name 6o5 you7 head at his <eet, ask a<te7 his health and in;ite him to 6e so good as to take his meal 5ith me tomo77o5 and to 67ing his 2on<7ate7nity 5ith him18 L1 "he message 5as deli;e7ed to the %o7d 5ho, 6y silen2e, signi<ied a22e3tan2e N as 5as duly 7e3o7ted to the 37in2e1 .1 +hen night had 3assed, the 37in2e, ha;ing o7de7ed an ex2ellent meal to 6e got 7eady in his 3ala2e and a 2a73eting o< 5hite doth to 6e laid to the <oot o< the stai7s o< the %otus 3ala2e, told the young B7ahmin to announ2e to the %o7d that all 5as 7eady1 E1 "his 5as done, and ea7ly that day the %o7d, duly 7o6ed and 6o5l in hand, 2ame to the 3ala2e 5he7e the 37in2e 5as a5aiting him, outside the 3o7tals1

.LH

E6ook o< Buddha and His Dhamma 6y D71 !m6edka7 =Be Ha33y- (iddha7tha Cha6uks5a7> F1 (eeing the %o7d a337oa2hing, the 37in2e ad;an2ed and saluted him and mo;ed in his t7ain to5a7ds the 3ala2e1 H1 !t the <oot o< the stai7s the %o7d stood still1 (aid the 37in2e' 8 ) 6eg the %o7d to ste3 u3 on the 2a73etingJ ) 6eg the Blessed One to do this, N to my a6iding 5eal and 5el<a7e18 But the %o7d ke3t silent1 -1 ! se2ond time did the 37in2e a33eal, and still the %o7d ke3t silent1 ! thi7d time he a33ealed, and no5 the %o7d looked to5a7ds !nanda1 /1 !nanda unde7stood 5hat the t7ou6le 5as and asked that the 2a73eting should 6e 7olled u3 and 7emo;ed <o7 the %o7d 5ould not t7ead u3on it as he is looking to those that shall <ollo5 he7ea<te71 D01 (o the 37in2e o7de7ed the 2a73eting to 6e 7olled u3 and 7emo;ed, a<te7 5hi2h he o7de7ed seats to 6e set out u3stai7s in the 3ala2e1 D D 1 "he %o7d then 37o2eeding u3stai7s, sat do5n on the seat set <o7 him, 5ith the 2on<7ate7nity1 DK1 "he 37in2e 5ith his o5n hand se7;ed that ex2ellent meal 5ithout stint to the %o7d and the 2on<7ate7nity1 DL1 "he %o7d:s meal o;e7 and done1 P7in2e Bodhi, seating himsel< on a lo5 seat to one side, said to the %o7d' 8 Ay