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MINIMISING DEEPWATER DRILLING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE AND INCREASING OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY IN NEW ZEALAND WITH CLOSED LOOP CIRCULATION

DRILLING
Julmar Shaun Sadicon Toralde and Chad Henry Wuest Weatherford (Solutions) Sdn. Bhd. Level 25, GTower, No. 199 Jalan Tun Razak 50400 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia julmarshaun.toralde@ap.weatherford.com / chad.wuest@ap.weatherford.com

ABSTRACT
Closed-loop circulation drilling (CLCD) systems provide a better alternative to open-to-the-atmosphere conventional drilling systems in deepwater applications by emphasizing the use of closed and pressurizable systems to allow a scalable approach that produces a range of benefits from increased personnel and environmental safety to better data resolution and even greater operational control over the drilling process. This technical paper discusses how CLCD addresses a need in a postMacondo world where deepwater drilling is under intense and increased regulatory control by providing flexible systems that supplement the safety and efficiency of deepwater drilling operations. It also enumerates the lessons learned from recent successful applications of this technology in the Asia Pacific region as well as provide details of how CLCD systems can be installed and utilized on moored and dynamically positioned drilling vessels deployed for deepwater conditions in New Zealand.

KEYWORDS
Closed-Loop Circulation Drilling (CLCD), Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD), Rotating Control Device (RCD), Early Kick and Loss Detection (EKLD), Deepwater, Drilling, Dynamically Positioned, Drilling Operational Efficiency, Environmental Exposure Minimization, New Zealand.

INTRODUCTION

The term Closed-Loop Circulation Drilling (CLCD) has been used to denote any drilling operation that is performed in a closed environment instead of the prevalent method of keeping drilling fluid returns open to the atmosphere. In conventional drilling, the only instance that a well is closed and can perform closed loop circulation is when the blow-out preventers (BOPs) are closed, as when an influx is taken. Closing the well in allows for backpressure to be imposed on the system using the rig well control chokes in order to increase bottomhole pressure and control and circulate the influx out. However, drilling, or rotating in particular, cannot be performed in this instance as the rig BOPs are not designed for rotation through them while in the closed position. A rotating control device (RCD; Fig. 1), when installed, provides drilling operations with the ability to close or restrict the flow of circulation returns and control and maintain pressure on the well while at the same time being able to rotate and continue drilling. It is the minimum requirement to be able to put a CLCD system in place. Figure 1 shows the two major components of an RCD: (1) the RCD bearing assembly; and (2) the RCD body that it is installed on. An RCD, according to the American Petroleum Institute (API) specification for this type of equipment, API 16RCD, is a drill through device with a rotating seal that contracts and seals against the drill string (drill pipe, casing, kelly, etc.) for the purpose of controlling the pressure or fluid flow to surface (2005). It creates a pressure-tight barrier in the wellbore annulus that enables you to contain and divert returning fluids, forming a vital line of defense against drilling hazards, such as kicks and shallow gas (Weatherford, 2011c). RCDs can either be active or passive, but passive types that use rubber elements which stretch-fit to the tubular passing through it, are predominantly used in CLCD systems.

CLOSED LOOP CIRCULATION DRILLING


CLCD systems are scalable. They can be made to suit the application they will be used for. Figure 2 features the scalable nature of CLCD systems and it shows that the benefits of CLCD applications can be grouped into three types, namely: (1) safety and efficiency; (2) visibility; and (3) control. The benefits increase as the scale of the CLCD installation increases. With only an RCD installed in a CLCD system, only safety and efficiency benefits can be attained, while if the RCD is used in conjunction with an early kick and loss detection (EKLD) system, particularly a mass flow meter, increased visibility of drilling events can be provided in addition to those already available. Furthermore, when used with an automated choke manifold, the complete range of benefits is received, with full control of the annular pressure regime of the well included, making the application of managed pressure drilling (MPD) possible (Pavel, 2011). A CLCD system with only an RCD involved provides safety and efficiency by diverting fluid away from the rig floor and from personnel working on top of it, keeping people away from the line of fire should hazardous gases and substances be inadvertently released from the well. It also allows pipe movement even with pressure on the well, thereby mitigating the occurrence of stuck pipe. From an environmental standpoint, since the RCD facilitates CLCD, it minimizes the potential for fluid spillage around the wellhead associated with open-air systems and the RCD sealing element also wipes the drillpipe clean as it is tripped. However, the visibility of the conventional drilling system is not improved as an influx or loss can still only be monitored by pit volumes and ECD control is done manually or by conventional well control via BOP. For increased visibility, an RCD is used in conjunction with a mass flow meter, which utilizes techniques that measure the mass flow of the flowing stream, for accuracy and reliability reasons. In these Coriolis-type meters, the mass and density, including temperature, are measured directly and flow is calculated from these acquired values. A Coriolis mass flow meter has a pressure drop and as such must be installed in a system with closed pipe work and is not ideal for use in gravity-based flow systems back to the shale shakers, which is one of the reasons why they are being used in combination with closed well bores and choke manifolds (Nas 2011b). With the RCD and the flow meter installed, the CLCD system provides safety and efficiency by acting as an early kick and loss detection system through accurate mass balance monitoring. Pavel and Grayson (2011a) state that closing the loop creates a contained circuit of the incompressible drilling fluid, so that a small change in bottomhole pressure due to a wellbore influx or loss is transmitted by the fluid to the surface in seconds and also allows for easy measurement of fluid flow, allowing the detection of minute circulating losses or gains. Ballooning and wellbore breathing can also be more accurately diagnosed using the system if flow fingerprinting was performed beforehand. The CLCD EKLD set-up is provided in Figure 3. There is however, still no control involved, and manual ECD control or conventional well control via BOP will have to be performed to act on the events identified. Full control of the annular pressure profile of the well is provided with the addition of an automated MPD Choke Manifold (Figure 4). With this equipment, which utilizes Microflux Control technology, application or release of backpressure exerted on the well using automated chokes can be performed, thereby making immediate adjustments to the bottomhole pressure while drilling, and consequently MPD possible (Weatherford, 2011b). In addition to this, the high-precision sensors for flow and pressure (standpipe and surface backpressure) values that are installed in the manifold provide greater data resolution that further enhance the safety and efficiency of the drilling process. MPD is defined by the International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC) as an adaptive drilling process used to more precisely control the annular pressure profile throughout the wellbore (2008). Its objectives are: (1) to ascertain the downhole pressure environment limits; and (2) to manage the annular hydraulic pressure profile accordingly. Compared to underbalanced drilling operations, MPD does not intentionally allow the well to flow to surface, but it will nonetheless be equipped to handle the same should it occur (IADC, 2008; Weatherford, 2011a). With a CLCD system, the Constant Bottomhole Pressure (CBHP) variant of MPD can be employed. In this method, backpressure is used to be able to compensate for the annular friction pressure lost when the rig mud pumps are turned off during drillpipe connections, allowing drilling operations to continue in wells with narrow mud weight windows. This highlights the added factor of backpressure that CLCD and MPD brings into the bottomhole pressure equation, as compared to conventional drilling where only the hydrostatic pressure of the drilling mud and the annular friction pressure control bottomhole pressure. Additionally, making changes in drilling fluid density takes a long time to institute and in the case of drilling pump rate, reducing it will have hole cleaning consequences. Backpressure as imposed by the automated MPD choke manifold, on the other hand, can be changed easily and fast, as changes made to the choke opening, are immediately relayed downhole at the speed of sound, thereby adjusting the effective bottomhole pressure quickly and enhancing greatly the degree of control exercised over the behavior of the well (Pavel and Grayson, 2011b, 2011c, 2011d). CLCD systems provide a wide range of applications and benefits that are simply not possible with conventional open-to-theatmosphere drilling systems. Moreover, in recent years, these applications have been utilized and benefits have been enjoyed in both onshore and offshore drilling applications in the Asia Pacific region (Nas et al, 2009). However, entry of the technology into the deepwater environment, particularly in deeper water depths that require drilling vessels that have dynamic positioning capabilities has been until recently slow. The next section discusses how CLCD systems have been adapted to the deepwater setting.

ROTATING CONTROL DEVICES FOR DEEPWATER CLCD OPERATIONS


In onshore and offshore applications involving surface BOP stacks, the RCD is normally installed directly on top of the rig annular BOP. For operations involving subsea stacks, which is the case for deepwater wells, it is normally deployed on top of a collapsed slip joint and above the tension ring when a moored drilling rig is used, while on a dynamically positioned rig, it is positioned below the tension ring and integrated with the rig riser system. Figure 5 shows the typical set-up for recent deepwater MPD operations using a submerged RCD. Toralde (2011) has written on the history behind the development of the said RCD, as well as how it makes CLCD or MPD possible in deepwater DP drilling vessels because of the following innovations: - Installation in riser below waterline and above the termination joint for the subsea choke and kill lines. - Rated to a tension rating is 3 million lbs, since it is now installed under the tension ring. - Gives the MPD system a higher pressure rating, as it is no longer limited by the pressure rating of the collapsed slip joint used in previous systems. - Preserves the rigs heave compensation system, as the slip joint is no longer collapsed. - Allows rig rotation by keeping MPD hoses away from tension lines. - Safer MPD system installation, as the whole assembly fits through the rig floor and minimizes the time required with personnel in the moonpool area. This set-up has already been deployed (see Figure 6) on eight rank wildcat deepwater wells in Indonesia on the dynamically positioned GSF Explorer drillship to perform MPD from 2010 to 2012. The system has been utilized to conduct almost all types of CLCD and MPD operations, ranging from EKLD, PMCD and CBHP, and has been used in almost all the different stages of the well construction operations, except during the riserless drilling phase. There were no major issues encountered with the use of the MPD system, and it has successfully adapted to the requirements of each and every well it has been installed in. Issues relating to the use of the riser to hold pressure were addressed beforehand with the conduct of a riser analysis, to determine the maximum pressure that can be contained and possible failure points, and the setting of limits. The RCD used for the deepwater MPD operations in Indonesia was of the Below-Tension-Ring (BTR) type. The RCD forms part of what is called an MPD riser joint (together with a surface annular BOP and a flow spool) that is installed through the rotary table when the riser and BOP are deployed. The BTR RCD was installed above the intermediate riser joint and below a standard slip joint about 43 m (140 ft) below the rig floor and 12 m (40 ft) below sea level. Hydraulic and electrical connections below the water line were made via a subsea-rated hydraulic stab plate. The BTR RCD is the first rotating head designed and field tested to support riser tension requirements of as much as 3 million lbs. and is certified to the drill-through specifications of API 16 RCD, the industry standard for RCDs. Using this standard, the RCD has been rated to a static and dynamic pressure ratings of 2,000 psi and 1,000 psi (at 100 rpm), respectively. Prior MPD operations aboard floating vessels have been configured with a surface RCD above the water line and the tension ring. Because the new RCD is made up below the tension ring, no modifications are required to the risers telescoping slip joint or the rigs mud returns system. In the deepwater CLCD set-up, an MPD annular BOP is installed below the BTR RCD. The MPD annular BOP is used in conventional drilling operations when the RCD sealing element is not installed to shut the well in and facilitate CLCD riser degassing operations. The MPD annular BOP also can be used when the RCD sealing element needs to be replaced. The MPD flow spool is installed below the MPD annular BOP and is connected to flexible hoses, which act as the primary flow lines for MPD operations.

RECENT DEEPWATER RCD SYSTEM DESIGNS

Recent technological developments related to RCD systems for deepwater MPD use have mainly involved two new designs: (1) a subsea rotating device (SRD) for dual gradient drilling (DGD) use; and (2) a mechanical version of the BTR RCD. According to Barry (2013), the newly developed DGD system that will be deployed on a DGD-capable drillship is currently undergoing system integration testing (SIT) prior to deployment in the GoM, and is of the seabed-pumping DGD category. IADC defines Dual Gradient Drilling (DGD) as a subset of MPD used in subsea applications to manage the annular pressure profile by creating multiple pressure gradients. A key component in the new DGD system is the industry's first commercially available subsea rotating device (SRD), shown in Figure 7, which diverts drilling fluids to establish a dual gradient environment. SRD is installed on top of the DGD system that sits on top of the LMRP and subsea BOP and it diverts annular return fluids before they enter the riser. It is a highly modified subsea RCD; instead of the latch mechanism being in the housing, it was added to the bearing assembly itself. The SRD bearing can now be set and released mechanically for maintenance and to provide full bore access through the riser. It forms an annular seal between the wellbore and the riser that allows running and rotating the drill pipe while diverting the flow of returns. Below the SRD seal are drilling mud and cuttings; above the seal in the riser is a lightweight fluid. This isolation of the annular fluid column into two discrete fluid components that eliminates the weight of several thousand feet of drilling mud in the riser that would otherwise put pressure on the wellbore. The mechanical version of the BTR RCD or the BTR-M (Figure 8) integrates salient features of the SRD into an RCD installation that can be deployed just below the rig tension ring. The system will have a smaller MPD joint effective outer diameter (OD) that allows installation of the system through the rig floor as well as a smaller RCD bearing assembly effective OD that will allow it to work on riser systems with smaller internal diameters, facilitating the running of the bearing assembly and its installation on the

RCD body or housing. The new BTR-M design does not require any major modification of rig systems for integration, as it does not require a termination joint, as choke, kill, booster and mux lines can now bypass the MPD / riser degassing joint and does not involve change out of the rig slip joint, riser, diverter to facilitate MPD. It also does not require extension of the rig choke and kill lines, since termination of the same will now be as conventionally practiced.

CLOSED LOOP CIRCULATION DRILLING IN DEEPWATER

There are many drivers for the adoption of CLCD in the deepwater setting and they vary based on the requirements of the drilling operation. Reasons previously used for justifying the use of the technology have been based mainly on either provision of a means of drilling difficult wells or on improvement of the economics of the drilling operation: - To optimize the drilling process by drilling with a closed-loop circulating system. - To be able to utilize the Constant Bottomhole Pressure (CBHP) variant of MPD when narrow mud weight windows and wellbore ballooning are expected or encountered during drilling. - To be able to conduct Pressurized Mud Cap Drilling (PMCD) in the event that severe circulation losses are encountered when drilling through fractured carbonates. However, more recently, CLCD is helping address a need in a post-Macondo world where deepwater drilling is under intense and increased regulatory control by providing flexible systems that supplement the environmental compliance, safety and efficiency of deepwater drilling operations. As a consequence, the following reasons have now been used for using deepwater MPD technology in certain projects: - To provide an early kick and loss detection system, especially when drilling deepwater exploration wells or hunting / pecking for casing point in carbonate formations. - To enhance the riser gas handling system of the rig by allowing early detection of riser gas breakout and facilitating pressure control for the same. Barry (2011) recently wrote about managing the threat of riser gas using CLCD methods, particularly utilizing an RCD integrated with the riser for riser degassing purposes. Figure 9 shows a general historical view of MPD Market Acceptance showing the trend towards utilizing CLCD as a means of mitigating risks, including those related to environmental compliance, and increasing operational safety in deepwater operations. It is also interesting to note that an independent study performed in 2009 by Jablonowski and Polio and sponsored by the University of Texas at Austin proved that RCDs play a critical role in reducing the risk of major well incidents. The analysis of onshore drilling data from a 12-year period (1995 to 2007) revealed a strong correlation between the use of RCDs and a reduced risk of blowouts (Jablonowski and Polio, 2010).

RISER GAS HANDLING IN DEEPWATER DRILLING OPERATIONS

In a deepwater drilling environment, one of the hazards that CLCD systems help mitigate is the threat of riser gas and the risk of releasing large amounts of drilling fluid into the environment when diversion is required during a riser degassing event. Previous studies on deepwater wells have revealed that due to the use of oil-based fluids, gas kicks that are unintentionally entrained in the return mud flow are unlikely to break out of solution until they reach a depth of 610 m to 915 m (2,000 ft to 3,000 ft) below the drill floor. At this point subsea BOPs will no longer be able to contain them as deepwater wells are by definition in water depths of more than 500 m (1464 m). The conventional practice of dealing with gas in the riser is to use the rig diverter system to vent it, but there is minimal control and considerable risk involved. It is for this reason that handling of gas in the riser on a deepwater rig is complex and challenging. To mitigate this risk using CLCD systems, an RCD is installed on top of the rig marine riser together with an additional annular BOP and flow spool directly below it. This combination provides a system that is already in place to safely divert fluids containing gas away from the rig floor and toward an automated MPD choke manifold system. An in-line gas chromatograph and a high-rate mud - gas separator provide gas characterization and gas handling capabilities, respectively. The CLCD system for deepwater applications on a DP vessel takes both a proactive and reactive approach on mitigating the risk of an event involving gas in the drilling riser. The proactive approach uses the early kick detection and control capabilities of the CLCD system to drastically cut back the incidence of reservoir gas entering the oil-based mud system at depth and dissolving into it without being detected, only to come out of solution later on when already in the drilling riser and above the subsea BOPs. Both testing and field deployment have proven the CLCD systems ability to detect flow anomalies within its defined range earlier and faster than conventional systems. The automated MPD choke manifold system is operated in automatic mode and will immediately detect a kick and close in on its choke to increase the bottomhole circulating pressure and control the well. In the unlikely event that an influx does make it above the subsea BOPs and into the riser with the CLCD system installed, the system is set-up so that it can use the automated MPD choke manifold to circulate the influx out of the well in a controlled manner (Toralde and Karnugroho, 2012). In the eight rank wildcat deepwater wells drilled with the CLCD system in Indonesia, there have been no instances recorded where formation gas has broken out of solution above the BOPs and inside the riser. Furthermore, the CLCD system control algorithms detected at least five flow anomalies, kept them to a minimal volume, and circulated them safely out using the rig well

control equipment. There has so far been one instance when an influx was circulated out through the riser using the system after being detected. After closing in on the subsea BOPs, the MPD annular BOP also was closed, and the fluid system above the subsea BOPs was circulated out through the automated MPD choke manifold and the high-rate mud - gas separator. The mud in the riser was then weighted up, and the subsea BOPs were opened and the rest of the well circulated to a higher mud weight with the MPD choke manifold exerting and controlling backpressure to avoid subsequent fluid gain.

DEEPWATER CLOSED LOOP CIRCULATION DRILLING IN NEW ZEALAND

Given the range of water depths involved in the geological basins of New Zealand that are being explored and developed for petroleum resources, particularly those in the Taranaki, Pegasus, Great South, Canterbury, Northland and Raukumara basins, it is anticipated that both types of RCD deployment, above and below the tension ring, will possibly be utilized depending on the type of rig that the CLCD system is to be installed. New build rigs that are of the dynamic positioning type will probably require the BTR-M type of RCD and customized components for the rest of the MPD riser package due to riser ID restrictions and to facilitate easier integration with conventional rig systems. However, given the long lead times (of as much as 48 weeks) required for a BTR-M system, very early engagement with interested operators and their rig contractors will be required to be able to equip and prepare the rigs involved with deepwater MPD systems in time. Moored floating rigs may be able to use the BTR and RiserCap type of RCD, which will require lesser lead times for rig integration. For the type of the CLCD system that will be used, it is believed that most of the deployments will mostly be centered around utilizing the deepwater CLCD system to increase the level of safety of deepwater drilling operations, particularly centered around early kick detection, riser gas handling and environmental containment, with the RCD used as a minimum, and EKLD and MPD deployed only on critical wells, on an as needed basis. In the Asia Pacific region, most of the operators that have expressed interest on the use of the system are considering a full MPD deployment on the rigs being considered for use in their drilling campaigns in anticipation that the full CLCD system will be able to provide operational efficiencies that will justify it economically, as well as provide them with additional options for drilling the difficult wells anticipated in their areas. There is also limited interest on applications centered on severe circulation losses like PMCD as most of the areas in consideration are not targeting carbonate structures, but more benign clastic geological formations instead.

CONCLUSION

In summary, CLCD technology systems provide an unutilized and promising alternative to open-to-the-atmosphere conventional drilling systems in New Zealand from the standpoints of minimizing deepwater drilling environmental exposure and increasing operational efficiency. The scalable approach that CLCD offers will provide a means of staging the acceptance of this field-tested technology to make its adoption more acceptable, as it can be done on a piecemeal basis that can later on be upgraded to the complete system to maximize its benefits. The accelerating trend of acceptance of CLCD methods in offshore drilling applications as well as it recent successful deployments in deepwater environments in the Asia Pacific region, even in dynamically positioned drilling vessels, indicates that an increasing number of companies and countries are entertaining the possibility of utilizing CLCD techniques for a variety of reasons and motivations, which can be addressed more appropriately by the modular and scalable nature of CLCD systems. It is therefore just a matter of time before CLCD systems find their way into the deepwater drilling operations of companies in New Zealand. The only question that remains to be answered is whether it will be a proactive installation to maximize operational safety and efficiencies and minimize environmental exposure or a reactive installation to an event that CLCD could have easily prevented if it had been installed beforehand.

REFERENCES

AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE. 2005API Specification 16RCD.

BARRY, A., 2013Subsea Rotating Device Enhances Dual Gradient Drilling. Offshore, Volume 73, Issue 3, March 2013. JABLONOWSKI, C. J. AND POLIO, A. I., 2010The Impact of Rotating Control Devices on the Incidence of Blowouts: A Case Study for Onshore Texas, USA. 2010 SPE Trinidad and Tobago Energy Resources Conference, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, 2730 June, SPE 133019. NAS, S. W., 2011A legend embraces deepwater MPD technology in Indonesia. Harts E&P Magazine, February 2011. NAS, S. W., 2011Kick Detection and Well Control in a Closed Wellbore. SPE/IADC Managed Pressure Drilling and Underbalanced Operations Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, USA, 56 April, SPE/IADC 143099. INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF DRILLING CONTRACTORS. 2008UBO and MPD Glossary, January 2008.

NAS, S. W., TORALDE, J. S. S., AND WUEST, C. H., 2009Offshore Managed Pressure Drilling Experiences in Asia Pacific. SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1719 March, SPE/IADC 119875. PAVEL, D. AND GRAYSON, B., 2010Closed Loop Circulating Part 1: Advanced pressure control improves kick, loss detection. Oil and Gas Journal. December 6, 2010. PAVEL, D. AND GRAYSON, B., 2011Closed Loop Circulating Part 2: Manual pressure management enhances safety, efficiency. Oil and Gas Journal, January 3, 2011. PAVEL, D., 2011Closing the loop alleviates challenges. Harts E&P Magazine, October 2011.

PAVEL, D. AND GRAYSON, B., 2011Closed Loop Circulating Part 3: Automation provides SCADA level safety, efficiency. Oil and Gas Journal, February 7, 2011. PAVEL, D. AND GRAYSON, B., 2011Closed Loop Circulating Part 4: Data benefit completion design, field development. Oil and Gas Journal, March 7, 2011. TORALDE, J. S. S., 2011RCD for DP Drillship takes MPD Deeper. Drilling Contractor, July / August 2011.

TORALDE, J. S. S. AND KARNUGROHO, A., 2012Riser Gas Risk Mitigation on a Drillship Uses Closed-Loop Circulation Drilling Systems. Harts E&P, May 2012. WEATHERFORD, 2011Managed Pressure Drilling Capabilities Brochure. WEATHERFORD, 2011MicroFlux Control Brochure. WEATHERFORD, 2011Rotating Control Devices Brochure.

FIGURES
Figure 1. Rotating Control Device (Passive Type).

Figure 2. Scalable Nature of Closed Loop Circulation Drilling.

Figure 3. Closed Loop Circulation Drilling Set-up for EKD. RCD installation is above the tension ring.

Figure 4. Automated Managed Pressure Drilling Choke Manifold.

Figure 5. Closed Loop Circulation Drilling Set-up for MPD. RCD installation is below the tension ring.

Figure 6. Actual deployment of the Below Tension Ring RCD.

Figure 7. Dual Gradient RCD.

Figure 8. MPD Riser Joint with the Below Tension Ring Mechanical (BTR-M) version of the RCD.

Adapter Spool

Marine Series Rotating Control Device (RCD) Model 7875 BTR-M (Below Tension Ring Mechanical)

Drill String Isolation Tool (DSIT)

MPD Flow Spool

Adapter Spool

Figure 9. Managed Pressure Drilling Market Acceptance.

THE AUTHORS
Julmar Shaun Sadicon Toralde is the Secure Drilling Services (SDS) Sales and Marketing Manager of Weatherford for Asia Pacific. He received a Geothermal Engineering (GE) degree from Negros Oriental State University (NORSU) in the Philippines in 1999. He then joined the academe, serving as GE Department Chairman of NORSU and implementing international renewable energy research projects. He joined Weatherford in 2005 as Controlled Pressure Drilling (CPD) Engineer and served as CPD&T Engineering Coordinator Indonesia from 2008 to 2011, providing engineering support to ~40 projects and ~100 wells in Indonesia. He spearheaded the successful delivery of the globally pioneering deepwater managed pressure drilling (MPD) / pressurized mud cap drilling (PMCD) project on a dynamically positioned drillship using a submerged rotating control device (RCD) and has been intensively involved in all the deepwater MPD projects of Weatherford in the Asia Pacific region. He was Engineering Manager - Asia Pacific for Well Construction Services (2011 2012), managing 50 engineers in developing solutions for challenging environments (deepwater, HPHT, NMWW, severe losses, geothermal). Chad Henry Wuest concurrently holds the positions of Business Unit Manager Asia Pacific for Secure Drilling Services and Business Unit Manager Malaysia for Secure Drilling Services within Weatherford. He has previously held various managerial positions with Weatherford in the Asia Pacific region, the most recent of which are Controlled Pressure Drilling & Testing (CPD) Operations Manager and Service Delivery Manager for Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD). Before joining management, he was personally involved as MPD Supervisor in numerous globally pioneering deployments of MPD / Underbalanced Operations (UBO) equipment, particularly with the most recent models of the Rotating Control Device (RCD) and the Downhole Deployment Valve (DDV), in both onshore and offshore environments. He is the author of numerous technical papers on MPD/UBO topics. He has more than 15 years of UBO/MPD experience, having been in the industry since 1997.