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# UNESCO-NIGERIA TECHNICAL &

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
REVITALISATION PROJECT-PHASE II

YEAR 2- SE MESTER 1 THEORY/
Version 1: December 2008

NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

THEORY OF STRUCTURES

COURSE CODE: CEC205

CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

THEORY OF STRUCTURES CEC 205

COURSE INDEX

WEEK 1. 1.0 STATICALLY DETERMINATE FRAMES

1.I INTRODUCTION

1.2 METHOD FOR SOLVING STATICALLY DETERMINATE
FRAMES

WEEK 2 2.0 TENSION COEFFICIENT METHOD

WEEK 3 3.0 DEFLECTION OF BEAMS

3.1 INTRODUCTION

3.1.2 Span
3.1.3 Size and shape of Beam
3.1.4Stiffness of Material

3.2 Slope and Deflection of simple Beams

3.3 DOUBLE INTEGRATION METHOD

3.3.1 Computation of slope and deflection of simple
beams and cantilevers by double integration
method.

WEEK 4 4.0 SLOPE AND DEFFLECTION

WEEK 5 5.0 DERIVATION OF DEFLECTION EQUITION

WEEK 6 6.0 DEFLECTION OF A CANTILEVER BEAM

WEEK 7 7.0 MOMENT AREA METHOD

7.1.1 Usefulness of Moment Area Method
7.1.2 Moment Area Theorem

7.1.3 Computation of slope and deflection of simple beams and
cantilever by moment area method

WEEK 8 8.0 EXPRESSION FOR SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM

WEEK 9 9.0 PRINCIPLES FOR THE STABILITY OF DAMS,
RETAINING WALLS AND CHIMNEYS

9.1 INTRODUCTION

9.2 Stability of Retaining Wall

9.3 Forces on Retaining Walls
9.3.1 Wind Pressure:

WEEK 10 10.0 Liquid (water) pressure.

10.1 Soil Pressure

WEEK 11 11.0 Modes of failure of Retaining Walls, Dams and Chimneys

11.1 Sliding:
11.2 Overturning
11.3 Overstressing

WEEK 12 12.0 DETERMINATION OF OVER-TURNING MOMENT,
OVERSTRESSING, SLIDING FORCES AND CENTRES FOR GIVEN
DAMS, RETAINING WALLS AND CHIMNEYS

WEEK 13 13.0 CALCULATIONS ON ECCENTRICITY

WEEK 14 14.0 INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES

14.1 INTRODUCTION

14.2 Definitions of determinate, indeterminate
structures and the concept of redundancies.
14.3 Degree of Redundancy or indeterminacy

14.4 Degree of static Indeterminacy

WEEK 15 15.0 DEGREE OF REDUNDANCY OF THE FRAME

15.1 TEST FOR GEOMETRIC INSTABILITY

:

WEEK 1

1.0 STATICALLY DETERMINATE FRAMES

1.1 INTRODUCTION

A statically determinate frame is a frame in which the force-actions in the members can
be obtained by the application of equations of static equilibrium. For a plane frame there
are three such equations and for a space frame six.
The first consideration is whether any given frame is statically determinate.

Frame Work
This is defined as an assemblage of bars which is able to resist geometrical distortion
under any system of applied loads.

1.2 METHOD FOR SOLVING STATICALLY DETERMINATE FRAMES
The main methods used for the solution of statically determinate frames are:
1. The stress diagram
2. Method of sections
3. The method of inspection or resolution at joints
4. The method of tension coefficients

The method of tension coefficients
Tension coefficient method can be applied to both plane and space frames. The ratio of
the member force to the length of the member is known as the tension coefficient of that
member and it can be plus or minus (+ or -) because the force in a member is negative or
positive (i.e. compressive or tensile force). The length is always positive.

Fig.1.0

The fundamental principles of the method in the case of plane frames are as flows.
If AB (fig 1.0) is a bar of length L
AB
in a frame, having a tensile force in it of T
AB
, then
the component of this force in the X and Y directions are T
AB
Cos B
AX
and T
AB
sin BAY.
If the co-ordinates of A and B are X
A
, Y
A
and X
B,
Y
B
respectively then, component of
T
AB
in the X- Direction = T
AB

AB
A B
L
X X
= t
AB
(X
B
-X
A
).
Where t
AB =
T
AB
/L
AB
and is known as the tension coefficient of the bar AB.
Similarly, the component in the Y- direction == t
AB
(Y
B
-Y
A
).
If at the joint A in the frame there are a number of bar AB, AC,AN and external
A
, Y
A
acting in the X and Y directions, then since the joint is in equilibrium the
sum of the components of external and internal forces must be zero. In each of these
directions. Expressing these relationships symbolically gives the equations:

t
AB
(X
B
X
A
) + (X
i
X
A
).+ t
AC
(X
C
X
A
) +. + t
AN
(X
N
X
A
) + X
A
= 0(1)

And in the Y direction t
AB
(Y
B
Y
A
) + (Y
i
Y
A
).+ t
AC
(Y
C
Y
A
) +.
+ t
AN
(Y
N
Y
A
) + Y
A
= 0. (2)

A similar pair of equations can be formed for each joint in the frame giving in all 2 J
equations in the case of a frame having J Joints. These equations will contain the
tension coefficients as unknowns and if the frame has n members then there are n
unknown tension coefficients. But for a plane frame n = 2j 3, hence there are three
super flows equations. These can be used to determine the reactions or to check the
values of the tension coefficients obtained from the previous equations.

In the case of space frame each joint has three o-ordinates and the force have
components in three directions, X, Y and Z. Thus if there are J-joints in a space frame
the considerations of the equilibrium in the three directions produces 3J equations
containing n 3J 6 unknown tension coefficients. But n = 3j 6, hence there are six
super flows equation which can be used either to determine the reactions or to check the
values of the tension coefficients.
Having found the tension coefficients t
AB
the force in the bar is he production t
AB
L
AB.

The procedure in using the method is as follows:
1. Draw the free body diagram of the structure
2. Find out whether it is statically determinate structure
3. Take positive directions for X, Y and Z
4. Assume that all members are in tension
5. Write down equations for each joint in the frame
6. Solve equations for t
ab
, etc
7. Check values for t
AB

8. Calculate T
AB
= L
AB
t
AB

WEEK 2

Example1: Use the method of tension coefficients to determine the forces in the members
of the frame shown in the fig. below

Fig.1.1
Solution

Free Body Diagram

We know D = M+r 2j
:. M = 7 r = 3 j=5
:. D = 7 + 3 2 (5)
D = 10 10 = 0

The structure is statically determinate. The reactions are first obtained. The pin has
horizontal and vertical components.

Resolving horizontally gives H
A
= 4K
N
b/c = 0 => H
A
= 2 = 2 = 4K
N

7.5 V
B
= 1 x 5 + 1 x 2.5 + 2 x 2 + 2 x 1
=> V
B
= KN 8 . 1
5 . 7
5 . 13
=

And V + 0 = V
A
+ V
B
= 1+1
V
A
= 2 1.8 = 0.2KN

Note t
AB
= AB = Tension coefficient.

Joint Direction Equations Tension Coefficient
A X - 2.5 AD 3.5 EA 4. 0 = 0 ......... (1) AD = - 3.90
Y - 1.0AD 2.5 AE + 0.2 = 0(2) EA = 1.64
Multiply equation (2) by 2.5
- 2.5 AD 3.5 AE 4.0 = 0.(3)
- 2.5 AD 6.25 AE + 0.5= 0 .(4)
Subtract equation (4) from (3)
It gives 0+2.75AE 4.5 = 0
=> AE = 64 . 1
75 . 2
5 . 4
=
Substitute AE into equation (1)

X +2.5AD 2.5CD 1.0 DE +2 =0 .... (1) DE = - 1.64 D
Y +1.0AD 1.0 DC 1.5DE 1 = 0 (2)
Substitute AD into equation (1) & (2) and it
gives
-2.5CD 1.0 DE 7.75 = 0 .. (3)
1.0DC 1.5DE 4.90 = 0 .(4)
Multiply equation (4) by 2.5
CD = - 2.44

- 2.5 CD 1.0DE 7.75 = 0..(5)
- 2.5 CD 3.75DE 12.25 = 0 (6)
Subtract (6) from (5) it gives
0+ 2.75DE + 4.5 = 0 => DE = - 1.64
Substitute DE into equation (5)
- 2.5 CD + 1.64 7.75 = 0
=> CD = - 2.44.

X + 2.5BC + 4.0 BE = 0 (1) BC = - 2.62 B
Y + 1.0 BC + 0.5 BE + 1.8 = 0 ..(2) BE = 1.64
Multiply equation (2) by 2.5
+ 2.5BC + 4.0 BE 0......(3)
+ 2.5 BC + 1.25BE + 4.5 = 0..(4)
Subtract (3) from (4)
0 2.75 BE + 4.5 = 0 => BE = 1.64
Subtract BE into equation (1)
2.5BC + 4 (1.64) = 0 => BC = -2.62
`
X + 2.5CD 2.5BC + 1.5CE + 2 = 0 (1) CD = - 2.44 C
Y +1.0CD 1.0BC 0.5CE 1 = 0 .(2) CE = - 1.64
Subtitle BC into equation(1) from (2) and
Multiply equation (2) by 2.5
+2.5CD + 1.5CE + 8.55 = 0 ..(3)
+2.5CD -1.25CE + 4.05 = 0 ..(4)
=> CE = - 1.64
Substitute into (3) and it gives
+ 2.5 CD + 1.5 (-1.64) + 8.55 = 0 =>CD = - 2.44
The value of CD here is used for checking

X +3.5AE + 1.0 DE 1.5CE 4.0BE = 0 E
Y +2.AE +1.5DE + 0.5CE 0. 5BE = 0
Joint E is used as a check
b/c all the tension coefficient values
are known . substitute
3.5 x 1.64 + 1.0 (-1.64) 1.5 (-1.64) 4 (1.64) = 0
5.74 1.64 + 2.46 6.56 = 0 => 0 = 0
For Y direction
2.5 (1.64) + 1.5 (-1.64) +0.5 (-1.64) -0.5 (1.64) = 0
4.1 -2.46 0.82 0.82 = 0
=> 4.1 4.1 = 0
0 = 0

Member Length (L) Tension Coefficient Force (KN) (t x L)
2
+ 1
2
= 2.7 - 3.90 10.50 compression
DC = 2.7 - 2.44 6.59 compression
CB = 2.7 - 2.62 7.07 compression
AE 3.5
2
+ 2.5
2
= 4.3 + 1.64 7.05 tension
BE 4
2
+ 0.5
2
= 4.03 +1.64 6.61 tension
CE 1.5
2
+ 0.5
2
= 1.58 -1.64 2.59 compression
DE 1.5
2
+ 1
2
= 1.8 - 1.64 2.95 compression

Use the tension coefficient methods to determine the member forces for joint A of the
shear legs shown in fig 1.2 below:

Fig.1.2
Solution

The three equations for joint A the shear legs are formed as follows

(1) in direction x + 2t
AB
2t
= 0
(2) in direction y + 3t
AB
+ 3t
AC
+ 3t
+ 21 = 0
(3) in direction z + 2t
AB
+ 4 t
AC
+ 2t
= 0
then from (1) t
AB
= t
, and adding (1) and (3) gives t
AB
= - t
AC
and
substituting both into (2)
- 3 t
AC
+ 3 t
AC
3t
AC
= 21
t
AC
= 7 and t
AB
= - 7 = t

Therefore
T
AB
= - 7 x [2
2
+ 2
2
+ 3
2
] = 28 . 86KN Strut.
T
AC
= + 7 x [4
2
+ 3
2
] = 35.00KN Tie
T
= 28.86KN Strut

Exercise
1. A load of 7.2KN is suspended from a soffit by two ropes PQ and QR as shown in
fig.1.3 determine the forces in the ropes
Fig. 1.3

2. Use the method of tension coefficients to determine the forces in the members of
the frame shown in the fig 1.4

Fig.1.4

WEEK 3

2.0 DEFLECTION OF BEAMS

2.1 INTRODUCTION

Deflection of a beam is as the deviation of the neutral surface, or elastic curve of the

Examples:

Factors affecting deflection
The factors affecting deflection of beams are:
2. Span
3. Size and shape of beam
4. Stiffness of Material

If AB (fig.2.1) represents a beam of span L. meters supported simply at its ends and
carrying a point load of WKN at mid-span. Let us assume that the deflection due to the
load is 5mm. It is obvious that, if the load is increased, the deflection will increase. It can
be proved that the deflection is directly proportional to the load.

2.1.2 Span

In fig. 2.2 (a) and (b) the loads are equal and the weights of the beams, which are
assumed to be equal cross-section, are ignored for purpose of discussion. The span of
beam b will be greater than that of beam a. it can be demonstrated experimentally or
proved by mathematics that the deflection of a beam is proportional to the cube of the
span.
Therefore L
3
is a term in the deflection formula.

2.1.3 Size and shape of Beam

Fig. 2.3 (a) and (b) represents two beams (their weights being ignored) of equal span and
loading but the moment of inertia of beam b is twice that of beam a. It can be prove that
the deflection is inversely proportional to the moment of inertia. Moment of inertia is
therefore a term in denominator of the deflection formula.

(a) Moment of inertia of beam = 1 unit
(b) Moment of inertia of beam = 2 units.

(It may be noted that, since the moment of inertia of a rectangular X- section beam is
12
3
bd
, doubling the breadth of a rectangular beam decreases the deflection by one half,
whereas doubling the depth of a beam decreases the deflection to one eight of the
previous value).

2.1.4 Stiffness of Material

The stiffer the material of a beam, i.e. the greater its resistance to bending, the less will be
the deflection, other conditions such as span, load, etc. remaining constant. The measure
of the stiffness of a material is its modulus of elasticity E and deflection is inversely
proportional to the value of E.

2.2 Slope and Deflection of simple Beams

A structure will carry loads provided that the load carrying capacity of the member is
not exceeded. That is, the structure must have adequate stiffness; it should not deflect
from its original position by more than certain amount. For this reason, codes of practice
specify maximum permissible deflection for a given span of beam, as well as maximum
permissible stresses.

Consider fig. 2.4 below:

Since beams are normally horizontal, the deflection is the vertical deviation () as
indicated, and the tangent to deflection curve at point C is assumed to be the slope, which
is an angle
C
with the X axis (Horizontal axis).
Many reasons exist for determining the deflection of a beam and these are:
In the design of building, for structural steelwork where the usual limitation that
a beam or joist supporting a plastered ceiling must not deflect more than
360
1
of its
span length if cracking of the plaster as to be avoided, for reinforced concrete, the
deflection is generally governed by the span/depth ratio. For timber beams is 0.03 of the
span when the supporting member is fully loaded.
Also, in the design of machines and airplanes.
For analyzing indeterminate beams various method methods are available for the
determining deflections in beams. The common ones are:

Double integration method
Moment area method
Super position method
Maxells reciprocal theorem method
Williot Mohr and Analytical method

2.3 DOUBLE INTEGRATION METHOD
From he theory of simple Bending the radius curvature ) 1 .......( .......... / / 1 EI M R =
where E = is the young modulus and I = the flexural stiffness of the beam .

But R / 1 =
( ) [ ]
2
3
2
2 2
/ 1
/
dx dy
dx y d
+
= d
2
y/dx
2
-------------- (2)

Assuming linear small displacement theory dy/dx <<<<<<< 1 => d
2
y/dx
2
=
EI
M
-----(3)
The slope dy/dx =

## EIdx M / -------------------- (4)

The deflection Y (x) =

dx EIdx M

/ ------------(5)
EI = constant
EI dy/dx =

mdx ------------------------------(6)
EIy =

m dx dx ----------------------------(7)

Sign convention

A positive bending moment produces negative curvature.
A negative bending moment produces positive curvature.
i.e. m
dx
y EId
=
2
2

2.3.1 Computation of slope and deflection of simple beams and cantilevers by
double integration method.

Example (1) write out slope and deflection equations for a simply supported beam
carrying a uniformly distributed load shown below, Establish the max. deflection
equation at mid span i.e. slope is zero.

Since WL is acting at mid-span R
ay
=
2
wl
and R
by =
2
wl
by inspection
Suppose x is measured from end A, while y is deflection with respect to x.
The bending moment at this distance x from A is M
x
= + wl (x) wx (1/2x)
M
x
=
2 2
2
wx wlx

Since the curvature is negative
EI d
2
y/dx
2
= - m
=> Eid
2
y/dx
2
= - [M
x
]
=> Eid
2
y/dx
2
= - wlx + wx
2

On integrating

EI

d
2
y/dx
2
=

- wlx +

wx
2

EI

d
2
y/dx
2
=

wlx +

wx
2
EI dy/dx = C S G c
wx Wlx
. .
6 4
1
3 2
+ +

And further integration yields

EI

dy/dx =

+
4
2
wlx

+
6
3
wlx

C
1
Eiy = - +
12
3
wlx
+
24
4
wlx
C
1
x C
2
----------G.d.c

The constants of integration C
1
and C
2
are evaluation from the boundary conditions for Y
= 0, x = o and x = L at the end. Than C
2 = 0, x
C
1= 2

Therefore, from general equation for deflection
Eiy = - +
12
3
wlx
+
24
4
wlx
C
1
x C
2

=> 0 = -
12
) (
3
l WL
+
24
4
wlx
C
1
(L)

+ 0

=> C
1 =
24
3
wlx

The general equations for slope becomes Eidy/dx = -
24 6 4
3 3 2
wl wx wlx
+ +
And for deflection Eiy = ( )
3 2 3
21 (
24
x x
wx
+
Then maximum deflection at mid-span i.e x = L
=> Eiy =
( )
( ) ( )
(

+
3 2
3
2
1
2
1
2
24
2
1
L L L L
L w
= [ ]
8 4
3
2
24
5 . 0 3
3
L L
L
wl
+
max = ymax =
EI
wl
384
5
4

Assignment:
Generate slope and deflection equation for a simply supported beam, carrying a
concentrated lateral load at center as shown below.
Establish the maximum deflection equation at mid-span i.e. slope is zero

Fig. 2.7

WEEK 4

Example:2
Generate general slope and deflection equations for a simply supported beam, carrying a
concentrated lateral load at any point as shown

(+M
B
= 0 : Ray(2) W(L-a) = 0
=> Ray =
( )
2
a L W

=> (+M
A
= 0 : Rby (2) + W (a) = 0
=> Rby =
L
wa

Now consider a section of the beam at distance x from A
If X < a, M
x
=
( )
L
x a L W )

and if x > a
M
x
=
( )
( ) a x W
L
x a L W

For x< a but M
x
=
( )
L
x a L W

M
dx
y EId
=
2
2

( )
(

=
L
x a L W
dx
EId
2
2

Integrating SE G C Rayx
dx
EIdy
. ) 1 (
2
1
1
2
+ = for x > a

( )
(

\
|
= => = a x w x
L
a L
w
dx
y EId
M
dx
EIdy
2
2
2

Therefore, ( ) E S G C ax
x
xW Rayx
dx
EIdy
. . ) 2 (
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
+ =
Integrating (1) and (2) further for general deflection equation =>
Eiy =
6
1
Ray x
3
+ C
1
+ C
2
--------- (3) for x < a.
Eiy =
6
1
Ray x
3
+ W( )
1
2
1
1
2
2 6
3
C x C
ax x
+ + ------------- (4) for x > a.

WEEK 5

In these equations, C
1
C
2

1
1
C and
1
2
C are arbitrary constants.
Now for x = a, the values of y given by equations (3) and (4) are equal, and the sloes
given by equations (1) and (2) are also equal, since there is continuity of the deflected
form of the beam through the point D. then.

- ) 5 (
2
6
6
1
6
1
1
2
1
1
2
3
3
2 1
3
+ +
|
|

\
|
+ = + + C x C
ax
x
W Rayx C x C Rayx
And ) 6 (
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
+
|
|

\
|
+ = + C ax
x
W Rayx C Rayx
Solving equations (5) and (6)
) 5 (
2
6
1
2
1
1
2
3
2 1
+ +
|
|

\
|
+ = + C x C
ax
x
W C x C
) 6 (
2
1
1
2
1
+
|
|

\
|
+ = C ax
x
W C
But x = a
) 5 (
2
6
1
2
1
1
2
3
2 1
+ +
|
|

\
|
+ = + C a C
aa
a
W C a C
) 6 (
2
1
1
2
1
+
|
|

\
|
+ = C aa
a
W C
From equation (6) ) 7 (
2
2
1
1
1
+ =
Wa
C C
Substituting
1
1
C in equation (5)
This => ) 8 (
6
3
2
1
2
=
Wa
C C
At the extreme ends of the beam y = 0, x = 0 and C
2
= 0 for equation ------ (3)
i.e. 0 = 0 + 0 + C
2
=> C
2
= 0 ------------------------------------------------------- (9)
and when y = 0, x = L for equation (4)
0 = -
6
1
R
ay
l
3
+ W( )
1
2
1
1
2
2 6
3
C l C
al l
+ + ------------- (10)
=> ) 11 (
6
3
1
2
=
Wa
C from equation (8)
Substitute
1
2
C in equation (10)
( ) ) 12 (
2
1
6 6
1
2 3 2 1
1
+ = wa a L
L
W
RayL C
Also from equation 7
( )
2
]
2
1
6 6
1
[
2
2 3 2
1
Wa
wa a L
L
W
L R C
ay
+ =

( ) ) 13 (
6 6
1
[
3 2
1
= a L
L
W
L R C
ay

After substituting the values of Ray, C
1
,
1
2 , 2
1
1
, C C C , equation (4) may be written as
Eiy = - ( ) ( ) ( ) ) 14 (
6
3 2
6 6
3 2 2 3
+ + + a x
W
x a al L
L
wa
x a L
L
w

Equation (14) may used to define the deflected form in all parts of the beam.
On putting x = a, the deflection at the loaded point D is
D
Y
D
=
: 3
2 2
EI
b Wa

Similarly when, W is at the centre of the beam i.e.
2
L
a = then = y =
EI
WL
48
3

WEEK 6

Example 3:
Generate slope and deflection equations for a cantilever with a uniformly distributed load
as shown in fig 2.9. Establish max. deflection equation at free end.

Since WL acts at mid-span Ray= WL by inspection Rax = 0 and M
A
= -
2
2
WL

The bending moment at a distance x from origin A is M
X
= - ( )
2
2
X l
W

But
X
M
dx
y EId
=
2
2

Integrating Eidy/dx = W(
3
3
2 2
x
Lx x L + )+C
1
-------------------------------G.S.E
And integrating again
Eiy = W (
12 3
1
2
1
4
3 2 2
x
Lx x L + )+C
1
X +C
2
-------------------------------G.D.E
For boundary conditions at built-in end, X = 0 dy/dx = 0 and y = 0
Thus C
1
= C
2
= 0
Therefore at the free end (B), i.e. x = L the vertical deflection is

max

=
EI
WL
8
4

Example 4
Generate slope and deflection equations for a cantilever carrying a concentrated load at
the free end, as shown in fig 2.9.1. Establish max. deflection and slope equations at the
free end.

Since W is at free end

R
ay
= W, R
ax
= 0

M
A
= - WL

The bending moment at a distance x from the built-in end is

M
X
= - W(L-x).

We know
X
M
dx
y EId
=
2
2

) (
2
2
x L W
dx
y EId
=
Integrating . . . )
2
1
(
1
2
E S G C x Lx W
dx
EIdy
+ =
And further integration gives: Eiy = W(Lx
2
/2 - E D G C X C x . . )
6
1
2 1
3
+ +
Boundary conditions at end x = 0, = 0, 0 =
x
d
dy

The G.S.E gives C
1
= 0 and G.D.E gives C
2
= 0
At the three free end, x = L,
max
=
( )
( )
EI
WL
L L
EI
L W
3
3
6
)
3 2
=
The slope of the beam at free end is
L
=
EI
WL
2
2

WEEK 7

2.4 MOMENT AREA METHOD
The moment area method is one of the common methods used in computing flexural
displacement of beams and frames. It is often referred to as a geometric method because
the displaced shape of a structure is a direct function of the strain in the structure, Once
they are computed or measured the displace shape is uniquely determined by summing
the effects of the strain.

2.4.1 Usefulness of Moment Area Method

The moment area is the simplest method for beams with how degree of
redundancy.
It provides rapid techniques for computing displacements of statically determinate
beams or frames.
It is also highly useful in computing displacements of statically indeterminate
structures with known bending moment diagram (B.M.D)

2.4.2 Moment Area Theorem.
There are two moment area theorems both applicable to a loaded beam which is
originally straight.

Theorem 1
The angle between the tangents to deflection curve at two points A and B is equal to the
area of the bending moment diagram between those points divided by EI.

Theorem 2
The deflection () of point B from the tangent at point A is equal to the moment of the
area of
EI
M
diagram between the points A and B taken about B.

B =
X dx
EI
M
b
a

Note: The area must be taken positive when the bending moment is positive and
negative when the bending moment is negative. i.e. positive are means that B is
above the tangent at A, whereas negative moment means that B is between the
tangent as shown in fig 3.2 above.

2.4.3 Computation of slope and deflection of simple beams and cantilever
by moment area method

Example (1)
Use the momentarea methods to generate expressions for the simply supported
beam, carrying a uniformly distributed load, as shown in fig. 3.3 below. Establish
the maximum deflection equation at the mid-span i.e. slope = 0 and slope at the
left end of the beam.

R
ay
=
2
, 0 ,
2
WL
R R
WL
R
by ax by
= = =
By inspection and M
D
= +
8
2
WL

=> The Maximum deflection =

Y
= Ax.
Where A = Area of the B.M.D and x= Centroid of the quadrant of parabola
A =
EI
WL L 1
8 2 3
2
2
|
|

\
|
|

\
|

X = ( ).
2
8
5
L

=> Maximum deflection
max
= Ax =
EI
L WL L 1
2 8
5
8 2 3
2
2
|

\
|
|

\
|
|
|

\
|
|

\
|
|

\
|

Therefore,
max
=
EI
WL
384
5
4

Also, by the first moment-area theorem the slope at the left end of the beam (i.e.

A
) = Area under the quadrant of parabola =>
A
= A = ( )
EI
WL
L
1
8
2 /
3
2
2
|
|

\
|

A
=
EI
WL
24
3

Example (2)
Use the moment area methods to generate the expressions for the simply
supported beam, carrying a concentrated load at center, as shown in fig. 3.4
below. Establish the maximum deflection equation at mid-span (i.e. slope == 0)
and slop at the left end of the beam.

R
ay
=
2
, 0 ,
2
W
R R
W
by ax
= = by inspection
MD = +
|

\
|
2 2
L W

MD =
4
WL
i.e. the maximum deflection of the beam occur at the centre D, and a
tangent to the elastic curve at D will be horizontal, that is parallel to the
undeflected axis of the beam. Hence the maximum deflection
max
= Y
(i.e. the
displacement of point A from the tangent at D)

which in turn equals the moment
about A of the moment area between A and D, divided by EI.
=>
max
= Y
= Ax
A =
EI
I WL L
|

\
|
|

\
|
4 2 2
1

X =
|

\
|
2 3
2 L

max =
AX = 1/2
|

\
|
|

\
|
|

\
|
|

\
|
2 3
2
4 2
L
EI
WL L

max
=
EI
WL
48
3

Also by the first moment area theorem, the slope at the left end of the beam (i.e

A
) = Area under the half of triangle.
=>
A
= A

=
EI
WL L 1
4 2
|

\
|
|

\
|

A
=
EI
WL
16
2

WEEK 8

Example (3)
Use the moment area methods to generate the expressions for the simply
supported beam, carrying a concentrated lateral load at a point from support A
and B (i.e. a < b), as shown in fig. 3.5 below. Establish the deflection equation at
point of loading (1) and slope at the left end of the beam (
and
A
)

M
A
= 0 : W(a) R
by
(L) = 0
R
by
=
L
Wa

Similarly M
B
= 0 + R
ay
L(a) Wb = 0
R
ay
=
L
Wb

M
D
=
L
Wb
(a)

= AX
=> Ax = 1/2(a) ) (
3
2
a
LEI
wab
|

\
|
|

\
|

The deflection =
=
LEI
b Wa
3
3

Also slope
A
= Area under triangle AD. = A
=>
A
= 1/2(a)
LEI
Wab

A
= 1/2
LEI
b Wa
2

Example (4)
Use the moment area methods to generate expression for a cantilever with a
uniformly distributed load, as shown in fig.3.6. Establish maximum deflect
equation at free end and also the slope

M
A
= 0 => M
a
= -
2
2
WL

R
ax
= 0

R
ay
= WL by inspection

max
=
Ba
= AX =
(

|
|

\
|
) (
4
3
2
) (
3
1
2
L
EI
WL
L
The deflection at free end
Ba
=
EI
WL
8
4

Slope at free end =
B
=
EI
WL
6
3

Example (5)
Use the moment area methods to generate expressions for a cantilever with
carrying a concentrated load at point D away from the supports (i.e. a > b) as
shown in fig. 3.7. Establish maximum deflection equation at free end and also the
slope.

M
A
= 0 => M
a
= - W(a)
R
ay
=W and R
ax
= 0 by inspection
The deflection
Ba
at the free end.

Ba
= Ax
A = 1/2( )
|

\
|
EI
wa
a
X = ( )
(

+ b a
3
2

Ba
= Ax =1/2( )
|

\
|
EI
wa
a ( )
(

+ b a
3
2

=
BA
= [ ] b a
EI
wa
3 2
6
2
+
Therefore, slope at the free end
B
= Area under
EI
m
curve
=>
Bm
= A = 1/2(a)
|

\
|
EI
Wa

=>
B =
|
|

\
|
EI
Wa
2
2

Exercise
Use the moment area methods to generate expression for the cantilever shown
in fig.3.8 carrying a concentrated load at point D away from the support
(i.e a < b). Establish the deflection and slope equations at the free end

WEEK 9

4.0 PRINCIPLES FOR THE STABILITY OF DAMS, RETAINING WALLS
AND CHIMNEYS

4.1 INTRODUCTION

Dams are structures that are meant to store water that may be used for different purpose
such as drinking; irrigation hydro-electricity etc. reliable records have shown that the first
dam was built on the Nile River sometimes before 4000. BC. It was used to divert the
Nile and to provide a site for the ancient city of Memphis. The oldest dam that is still in
use is the Almanza Dam in spain, which was constructed in the sixteenth century Dam
must be able to suites the following conditions:

Karu Dam in Iran
1. Foundation:
The foundation made for the construction of a dam must be able to support the
weight of the dam, without excessive deformation / stress. To ensure the above
condition is met site/soil investigation is carried out in order to determine;
(a) nature of the suit in the area and its geology
(b) Check if faults or other cracks exists in the site
(c) Determine the characteristics of the foundation materials such as
permeability, bearing capacity, shear stress.

1. See page:
Dams are constructed to trap water; therefore, permeability soil should be
avoided.
Fig.4.0 Type of Dams.

GILBOA DAM in New York is an Hoover Dam, A concrete Arch gravity
Dam
Example of a solid gravity dam

San Luis dam California is an embankment Dam

Materials used for the construction;
Gravity Dam - concrete and rubble masonry.
Arch Dam concrete.
Buttress Dam concrete, timber and steel.
Embankment Dam earth or rock.

4.2 Stability of Retaining Wall
A retaining wall is a wall built to hold back earth or other solid material . The wall
as it rests on soil or on a concrete footing and acted upon by the horizontal forces
induced by the material, transmits to the soil or footing stresses which consists of:
(i) Direct stress from the walls weight and
(ii) Stress due to the overturning moment.

These stresses bring about a combined action of the vertical and horizontal
inclined forces on the overall behaviour of the wall. As a result of that action, the
wall may fail in three modes, as follows:

(a) Sliding
(b) Overturning, and
(c) Overstressing

4.3 Forces on Retaining Walls
Forces acting on retaining walls are usually horizontal forces [P], which could be
due to wind, liquid (water), soil (Granular material) depending on the retained
materials and the nature of there forces exert on the wall will be studied first.

4.3.1 Wind Pressure: The action of a horizontal force like the wind pressure can
be investigated on a chimney, which is simply the tallest or protruding part of
building, for letting out smokes from the kitchen. Consider the fig. 4.1 below

Fig. 4.1

WEEK 10

4.3.2 Liquid (water) pressure.
Liquid (water) pressure is more pronounced in the dams. Consider fig. 4.2
below, which is a vertical surface AB,
Fig. 4.2

And the face of a wall which is retaining a liquid. It can be shown that a cubic
meter of liquid, situated at depth h (m) below the surface, exert a pressure of wh
(kN) outward on all its six side surfaces. W in this case Is the equivalent density
or unit weight of the liquid in (kN/m
3
).
Thus, the intensity of outward pressure varies directly with the depth and
will have a maximum value of WH (kN/m
2
) at H (m), the maximum depth as
indicated in the fig4.2 (b). at the surface of the liquid (h=0), the pressure will be
zero. So, as the maximum is WH (kN/m
2
), the average pressure between A and B
is 1/2WH (kN/m
2
).
In dealing with retaining wall generally, it is convenient, as said earlier, to
consider the forces acting on 1m length of wall, and that is an area of wall H (m)
high and 1m measured perpendicular to the plane of the diagrams. Fig. 4.2(a & b).
thus wetted area concerned is H (m
2
), the total force caused by water pressure
on a 1m strip of wall is ;
wetted area x average pressure = H x 1/2WH = 1/2WH
2

this is total resultant force on the walls vertical surface from the liquid is (as will
be seen from fig 4.2 b). The resultant of a large number forces, which range from
zero at the top to WH at the bases. The resultant will therefore act at a point 1/3
rd

of H from the base, as shown in fig. 4.2c.
Note that, if liquid does not reach the top of the retaining wall, as shown in
fig. 4.3 below:
Fig.4.3

Then the resultant force is calculated with H as the depth of the liquid and not as
the height of the retaining wall. The force is again 1/2WH
2
and it acts at a point
1/3H (one-third the depth of the liquid) form the walls base.
In cases where the wall in contact with the water is not vertical as shown in
fig. 4.4 below, the wetted area will be larger than in the case of vertical back,
another resultant pressure will thus be Increased to 1/2WHL (i.e. wetted area will
be L (m
2
2
) considering 1m run of the wall.

Fig.4.4

4.3.3 Soil Pressure
It is obvious that pressures on wall form retaining soils or other granular materials
cannot be determined with quite the same accuracy as with water. Soils vary in
weight and character, they behave quite differently under varying conditions of
moisture, etc and in general, the resultant pressures on vertical and non-vertical
surfaces from soils which is obtained from various soil pressure theories.
Numerous theories vary in the assumptions which they make and the estimated
pressures which they determine. Ranking theory is most applicable.

Rankine Theory of Soil Pressure

It has been seen that a cubic meter of liquid at a depth h below the surface
pressure outwards horizontally by an amount wh (kN/m
2
) [w being the equivalent
density of liquid]. In the case of soil weighting W (kN/m
3
), the outward pressure
at a depth of h (m) below the surface will be less than wh (kN/m
2
), since some of
the soil is self-supporting. Consider the fig. 4.5 below, for example,

Fig.4.5

Of the soil retained by the vertical face AB. In figure 4.5, if the retaining face AB
was removed, then some of the soil would probably collapse at once, and in the
course of time, the soil would assume a line BC, as shown. The angle made
below the horizontal and the line BC varies for different type of soil and is call the
angle of repose angle of internal friction of the soil.
It can be said; therefore that only part of the soil was in fact being retained by the
wall and as exerting pressure on the wall. Thus, it follows that the amount of
pressure on the wall from the soil depends upon the angle of repose for the type of
soil concerned, and Rankin theory states in general terms that the outward
pressure per square meter at a depth of h (m) due to a level of fill of soil is:
wh
|

\
|
+

sin 1
sin 1
kN/m
2

As compared with (wh) kN/m
2
in the case of liquids. Thus by similar reasoning
as used in the case of the liquid pressure, the maximum pressure at the bottom of
the wall is given by:
Maximum Pressure = WH
|

\
|
+

sin 1
sin 1
kN/m
2

Average Pressure = 1/2 WH
|

\
|
+

sin 1
sin 1
kN/m
2

The soil acts at this average rates on an area of H (m
2
) of wall, so that the total
resultant force per meter sun of wall is

P = 1/2WH
2

|

\
|
+

sin 1
sin 1
kN

And this acts, as shown in fig.4.6 below at 1/3H above the base of the wall.
Fig.4.6

WEEK 11

4.4 Modes of failure of Retaining Walls, Dams and Chimneys
4.4.1 Sliding:

The possibility that a wall may slide along its base exists, unless the weight of the
walls sufficient to prevent such movement. The ability of the walls to resist this
sliding depends upon the interaction of the weight of the wall and the friction
between the material of the wall and soil directly in contact with the base of the
wall. Consider a arbitrary body of weight W, resting on a level surface as shown
in fig. 4.7 (a ,b & c) below.

Fig. 4.7

Apply a small force P (not enough to move the body) in fig. 4.7 (b), leads to a
resultant R
1
for W and P on the level surface. Hence R
2
will be inclined as shown
at angle of Increasing p gradually would lead to an increment in , until a
certain load (which depends on the nature of the two surface in contact and on the
weight w), the body will move horizontally. The angle which the resultant
upward thrust makes with the vertical at the stage where the block starts to slide is
known as the angle of internal friction between the two surfaces. From fig 4.7 (c)

Tan = P
m
/ w = least force that will cause sliding
Weight of block

Tan = Coefficient of friction for the two materials is denoted as . (it usually
varies between 0.4. to 0.7 for most materially.
From equation (1)

P
m
= W

Note that, in the case of retaining walls, P
m
, the force which would cause sliding,
can be calculated as W x coefficient of friction, and the horizontal for P of the
retained material should not exceed approximately half of the force P
m
. In other
words, the factor of safety F.S = P
m
/p 2 for safety.

4.4.2 Overturning
A retaining wall may have quite a satisfactory resistance to sliding, but the
positive action of the horizontal force may tend to overturn it about its toe as
shown in Fig 4.8 below

Fig.4.8

Assuming that sliding does not occur, equilibrium will be upset as the wall just
lifts off the ground at the heel B, the turning point being the toe A.
At this time, the over turning moment due to the force P is just balanced by
the restoring or balancing moment due to the weight of the wall, the wall being
balanced on the edge A. Taking distances assuming that wall is vertical, moment

P x distance AD = W x distance AC

or overturning moment = restoring (balancing) moment. Applying a factor of
safety of 2 against overturning

Factor of safety =
gMoment Overturnin
Moment balancing storing ) ( Re

And therefore, Overturning moment = 1/2 x Restoring (balancing) moment

4.4.3 Overstressing

The maximum stress resulting from the combination of direct and bending
stresses must be kept within Limits of the safe bearing capacity of the soil
supporting the wall. Consider fig. 4.9 below when the weight of a wall per meter
W, and

Fig.4.9

The resultant pressure from the soil or liquid P, have been calculated, these two
forces may be compounded to a resultant as shown above. It can be shown that
the position along the base at when this resultant cuts (i.e. at S) has an important
bearing on the stability of the wall and on the pressures exerted by the wall upon
the earth beneath.
The pressure under the wall at F is equal to sum of direct stress and
bending stress.
=> Pressure under wall at (F) = Direct stress + bending stress.

But direct stress =
Base of Area
wall of weight
=
A
W
and
Bending stress =
Z
M

where M is moment due to the eccentricity of the resultant, and Z is the section
modules about an axis through the centre line of the base.
Pressure under wall at (F
toe
) =
Z
M
A
W
+ similarly pressure under wall at
G (Heel) =
Z
M
A
W
for no tension the resultant of the applied loads P and W
must cross the base within its middle third or eccentricity e should not be greater
than 1/6 x width of base.

WEEK 12

4.5 DETERMINATION OF OVER-TURNING MOMENT, OVERSTRESSING,
SLIDING FORCES AND CENTRES FOR GIVEN DAMS, RETAINING
WALLS AND CHIMNEYS

Example:1
A masonry dam retains water on its vertical face. The wall is as shown below,
what is about 3.7m, but the water level reaches only 0.7m from the to of the wall.
What is the resultant water pressure per meter run of wall?

Fig.4.9.1

Solution:

The equivalent density of water, W = 10 KN/m
3

P = 1/2WH
2
=> p = 1/2 (10) (3
2
) = 45KN acting at 1/3 (3) = 1m above the base.

Example (2)
A soil weigh 15KN/m
3
and having = 30
0
,
extents a pressure on a 4.5m high
vertical force what is the resultant horizontal fore per meter run of wall?

Solution:

Sin = sin 30
0
= 0.5, But W = 15KN/m
3
, = 30
0
, H= 4.5m

P = 1/2WH
2
|

\
|
+

sin 1
sin 1
kN

= 1/2 x 15 x 4.5 x 4.5 x
|

\
|
+

5 . 0 1
5 . 0 1

P = 50.63KN

Example (3)

The masonry dam shown in fig 4.9.2 retains water to the full depth. The
coefficient of friction between the base of the wall and the earth underneath is 0.7.
Check if the wall is safe against sliding.

Fig.4.9.2

Solution:

P = actual horizontal pressure on side of wall = 1/2 WH
2
= 1/2 x 10 x 4
2
= 80KN
P
m
= horizontal force which would just case sliding
P
m
= w => 0.7 x w = 0.7 x 1/2 (1 + 3) 4 x 18
=> 0.7(144) = 100.8KN

The actual pressure (80KN) exceeds half the value of P
m
and the factor of safety
against sliding is F.S = 26 . 1
80
8 . 100
= =
P
w
< 2

Which is undesirable.

Example (4)

Along boundary wall 2.7m high and 0.4m thick is constructed of brickwork
weighing 18KN/m
3
as shown fig.4.9.3 If the Maximum wind pressure uniformly
distributed over the whole height of the wall is 500N/m
2
, Calculate the factor of
safety against overturning, neglecting any small adhesive strength between the
brickwork and its base.

Fig. 4.9.3

Solution:

Weight of 1m sum of wall = 21.7 x 1.0 x 0.4 x 18 = 19.44KN

Wind Pressure on 1m sum of wall = 2.7 x 1.0 x 0.5 = 1.35KN

And this can be taken as acting at the centre of the height of the wall for purposes
of taking moments about [0] as shown 4.9.4

Fig.4.9.4

Restoring Moment = 19.44 x 1/2(0.7) = 3.88KNm

Overturning moment = 1.35 x 1/2x 2.7 = 1.823 KNm
Therefore FS against overturning = 13 . 2
823 . 1
88 . 3
= .
It will be found that a satisfactory factor of safety against overturning is achieved
if the resultant of the horizontal and vertical forces crosses the base of the wall
within its Middle third i.e. when no tensile stresses are allowed to develop in
the wall.

WEEK 13

Example (5)

A retaining wall of weight [W=28KN/m] and resultant pressure (p=10KN) from
liquid. The base is 2.5m long by 1m breadth as shown. The weight per meter of
the retaining wall is acting at 1.0m from the heel. (i) Find the position where the
resultant force per meter (W) cuts the base from the heel of the wall. (ii) find the
eccentricity [e] of the resultant force [W] per meter from the centre line of the
base (iii) Find the Pressure under wall at th heel, and the toe respectively.

Fig.4.9.5

Solution:

Consider the wall above, W acts through the centroid of the wall section

(i) From the similar triangles. ASC and ADE
m
x
y
y
5 . 0
28
4 . 1 10
28
10
4 . 1
= = => =
=> Thus the resultant force cuts the base at 1.0 +0.5 = 1.5m, from the
point G (heel) of the wall.
(ii) The eccentricity (e) of the resultant force from the centre line of the base is
thus by inspection.
e = 1.5m 1.25m
=> e = 0.25m

(iii) Pressure under at Toe (F) =
Z
M
A
W
+

=> Pressure at Toe (F) =
Modules Section
t sul of ty Eccentrici to Due moment
base of Area
wall of Weight . tan Re
+

2
6
1
tan
0 . 1 5 . 2
28
bd Z
base the of centre the from s ce wxdis
x
=
+

=
( )( )
2
5 . 2 1
6
1
25 . 0
0 . 1 5 . 2
28
=
+
Z
wx
x

=
04 . 1
25 . 0 28
10 5 . 2
8 . 2 x
x
+

Pressure at Toe (F) 11.20 + 6.73 = 17.93KN/m
2

Similarly Pressure under wall at G (heel) =
Z
M
A
W

Pressure at G (heel) = 11.20 6.73 = 4.47KN/m
2

Example (6)
A masonry wall is shown below, and weighs 20KN/m
3
. It retains on its vertical
face water weighing 10KN/m
3
. The water reaches the top of the wall. Calculate
the pressures under the wall at the heel and the toe.

Fig .4.9.6

Solution:
W = (1.0 + 3.0) x 4.5 x 20 = 180KN
Area of Trapezium

P = WH
2
= (10) (4.5)
2
= 101.25KN

To determine the centroid of the wall, xA = Ax, + A
2
x
2
and

+
=
A
2 2 1 1
x A x A
X
Where X=centroid of the wall,
X = 1.0 x 4.5 x 0.5) + [ (20) (4.5) (1.7)
(1.0 x 4.5) + ) x 2.0 x 4.5)
X = m x 08 . 1
50 . 4 50 . 4
50 . 7 25 . 2
=>
+
+

By similar triangles

0 . 180
25 . 101
4 . 1
=
y

Y =
0 . 180
25 . 101
4 . 1
=
y

Thus, the resultant force cuts at 1.08 + 0.84 = 1.92m from B at S or 0.42 to the
centre line of the base. Hence, the Pressure at A (Toe) is

=>
Z
M
A
W
+
=> Pressure at Toe (A) =
0 . 3 0 . 3 0 . 1
6 42 . 0 0 . 180
0 . 1 0 . 3
0 . 180
x x
x x
x
+
= 60.0 + 5 + 50.4

Pressure at A = 110.4KN/m
2

And the pressure at B (Heel) is =
Z
M
A
W

= 60.0 50.4
Pressure at B = 9.6KN/m
2

The purpose of calculating distance y was to find the eccentricity of w, i.e.
distance e so that M = w x e could be determine. Distance e, however, can be
determined directly by considering the equilibrium about the centroid of the base
of all the force acting on the wall, as shown below:

Fig . 4.9.7

Let R
H
and R
V
be, respectively, the horizontal and vertical components of the
soils reaction acting at the inter section of the resultant of P and W with the base
of the wall. Then for equilibrium, R
H
= P and R
V
= W, both of which have been
calculated previously. Hence, taking moments about [0], the centre of are (or
centroid) of the base W x a P
x
H + Wx e = 0

=> e = Px H Wx a/w
e = 101.25 x 15 180.0 (1.50 1.08)/180
=> e = 0.42m as before .

WEEK 14

5.0 INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES.

5.1 INTRODUCTION

Structural analysis is the process of determining the response of a structure to
specified loadings in order to satisfy essential requirements for function, safety, economy
and sometimes aesthetics. This response is usually measured by calculating the reactions
known as, internal forces of members, and displacements of the structures.

Structure may be classified into two general categories: statically determinate and
statically indeterminate. A structure which can be completely analysed by means of
static alone is called statically determinate. It then follow that a statically indeterminate
structure is one which cannot be analysed by means of static alone,

Consider a structure in space subjected to non coplanar system of forces. For the structure
to be in equilibrium, the components of the resultants in the orthogonal directions must
vanish. This condition constitutes the six equations of equilibrium in space which are
written as:
f
x
= 0, f
y
= 0 fy
z
= 0

M
x
= 0 m
y
= 0 m
z
= 0

For a structure subjected to coplanar force system, only three of the six equations
equilibrium are applicable. The three equations of equilibrium in the xy plane are:

f
x
= 0, f
y
= 0 m
z
= 0

Here we are to deal with statically indeterminate structures in which the structures cannot
be analysed by the equations of equilibrium alone.

Statically indeterminate structure has certain advantages over the determinate structure in
that:

It is usually more economical in materials
It has a greater margin of safety in that the removal or failure of a redundant member
or support will not cause immediate collapse
It has joints that are easier and more economical to form, particularly true for
reinforced concrete structures
It is generally stiffer for a given weight of material than the determinate structure.
It can often furnish compensation by redistribution within the structure in the case of

On the other hand, changes of temperature or initial lack of fit of a member can set up
high stresses in a redundant structure particularly trusses, this is not the case with the
truss that is simply stiff particularly foundation settlements can cause considerable stress
redistribution in the fixed based portal frames or continuous beam and because of this,
settlement of support should be avoided at all cost, thus a poor soils liable to settlement
under load, it is safer to design the structure as determinate.
Indeterminate structures introduced computational difficulty in establishing the required
equations.

5.2 Definitions of determinate, indeterminate structures
and the concept of redundancies.

A structure is either statically determinate or indeterminate. It is statically determinate if
it is possible to calculate or determined all the unknown forces in its various members
from the knowledge of the dimensions and external loading of the structure and by
applying the basic conditions of static equilibrium.
A structure is statically indeterminate if it is not possible to calculate or determinate all
the unknown forces, reactions and moments by the use of the conditions of static
equilibrium alone.

`A redundant frame is a frame having one member or reaction more than
necessary to produce stability and cannot be solved by the ordinary methods of static. It
is, therefore, also called a statically indeterminate or hyper static frame. When a structure
is statically indeterminate, there is some freedom of choice in selecting the member or
reaction to be regarded as redundant. When the reaction is taken as the redundant, the
structure is said to be externally indeterminate. On the other hand, when the member
itself is regarded as the redundant, the structure is said to internally indeterminate.

The question of identifying external or internal indeterminacy is largely of academic
interest. What is of primary importance in the analysis of indeterminate structures is to
know the degree of total indeterminacy.

5.3 Degree of Redundancy or indeterminacy:

if a structure has R redundancies, it is said to be redundant to R degree, for beams and
frame, the number of redundancies may be taken as the number of restraints that would
have to be removed to enable the structure to be analyzed by the use of the conditions of
static equilibrium i.e. to render the structure statically determinate.
Fig . 5.1

I.e no horizontal and vertical translation and no rotations, therefore, 3 restraints and
zero degree of freedom.

Fig .5.2

At A 3 no of restraints and At B 1 no of restraint
0 Degree of freedom 2 degree of freedom
Note:
Encastre beam: is a beam which both the two ends have fixed support

Propped cantilever beam: is a beam fixed at one end and simply supported at the other
end.

5.4 Degree of static Indeterminacy

The most general method for determining degree of indeterminacy in beam frames is
based on the relation D = U e.

D = Degree of Indeterminacy
Where u = No of independent Unknown member forces
u
f
= 3 x no. of member for plane frames
u
t
= 1 x no. of member for plane trusses
e
i
= No. of unknown joint displacement + internal release
e = Degree of freedom of support(dof
s
) + 3 x degree of freedom of free
joints(dof
fj
)

Eaxample. 1. Find the degree of indeterminacy

Fig .5.3

Solution:

D = u e
No. of members = 3
Therefore, u = 3 x 3 = 9
e = dof
s
+ dof
fj

e = 0 + 2 x 3 = 6
Because there are 2 free joints
Therefore, D = 9 6 = 3 => it is redundant to 3
rd
degree.

WEEK 15

Example 2. Find the degree of indeterminacy of the frame. structure in the fig.5.4

Fig. 5.4

Solution:

No of members = 28
Therefore, u = 3 x no of members
= 3 x 28 = 84
e = 0 + 3 x 16 = 48
D = u e = 84 48 = 36
This implies that it is redundant to the 36
th
degree .

Note: If all the supports are fixed, the D for multi-bay, multi-storey building is given by
D = 3 x no. of beams
This implies that D = 3 x 12 = 36
But if one or more of the support is not fixed the condition will not hold.

Example (3)

Find the degree of redundancy of the frame structure in the fig. 5.5

Fig. 5.5

Solution:

u = 3 x 3 = 9
e = 0 + 1 + 3 + 2 = 6
D = u e = 9 -6 =3

This implies that it is redundant to the 3
rd
degree

Example 4

Find the degree of indeterminacy of the frame structure in the fig. 5.6

Fig. 5.6

Solution:
u = 3 x 1 = 3
e = 1+1+1 = 3
Therefore, D = u e = 3 3 =0

Therefore, this member is determinate.

Exercise:
Find the degree of redundancy of the arch in the fig . 5.7

Fig. 5.7

Example 5:
Find the degree of indeterminacy for the truss shown in the fig. 5.8

Fig. 5.8

Note: Hinged support in trusses provides zero degree of freedom and one degree of
freedom in beams and frames

Solution:

U = 1 x 15 = 15
e = 1 + 0 + 2 x 6 = 13
Therefore:
D = 15 13 = 2

This implies that it is redundant to second degree

or D = m + r -2j
Where m = number of members, r = number reactions, j = number of joints
Theref ore D = 15 + 3 2 x 8 = 2
This implies that it is redundant to second degree

5.5 TEST FOR GEOMETRIC INSTABILITY

1. If D < 0, that structure is always unstable, because it is neither determinate nor
indeterminate thus no further analysis is needed, since we are not interested in
analyzing a structure that cannot stand.

Fig. 5.9

U=3, e=2+2=4
But D=u-e
D= 3-4 = -1 it is unstable
2. Even D 0, does not guarantee stability

Fig. 5.1.1

u = 2 x 3 = 6
e = 2 (3) = 6, D = 6 6 = 0

But it is not a stable structure.

In this case a careful study of the structure is required in order to detect possible
unstable or critical form, for beam and frame structures, a common sense
approach without resulting to qualitative analytical method is useful
(1) Check if the structures configuration cannot carry a specific load.
(2) If instability is suspected in a certain direction or rigid of the structure apply a
load there and check if it can be equilibrated.