International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) aims to cover the latest outstanding developments in the field of all Engineering Technologies & science.
International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is a team of researchers not publication services or private publications running the journals for monetary benefits, we are association of scientists and academia who focus only on supporting authors who want to publish their work. The articles published in our journal can be accessed online, all the articles will be archived for real time access.
Our journal system primarily aims to bring out the research talent and the works done by sciaentists, academia, engineers, practitioners, scholars, post graduate students of engineering and science. This journal aims to cover the scientific research in a broader sense and not publishing a niche area of research facilitating researchers from various verticals to publish their papers. It is also aimed to provide a platform for the researchers to publish in a shorter of time, enabling them to continue further All articles published are freely available to scientific researchers in the Government agencies,educators and the general public. We are taking serious efforts to promote our journal across the globe in various ways, we are sure that our journal will act as a scientific platform for all researchers to publish their works online.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

5 views

International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) aims to cover the latest outstanding developments in the field of all Engineering Technologies & science.
International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is a team of researchers not publication services or private publications running the journals for monetary benefits, we are association of scientists and academia who focus only on supporting authors who want to publish their work. The articles published in our journal can be accessed online, all the articles will be archived for real time access.
Our journal system primarily aims to bring out the research talent and the works done by sciaentists, academia, engineers, practitioners, scholars, post graduate students of engineering and science. This journal aims to cover the scientific research in a broader sense and not publishing a niche area of research facilitating researchers from various verticals to publish their papers. It is also aimed to provide a platform for the researchers to publish in a shorter of time, enabling them to continue further All articles published are freely available to scientific researchers in the Government agencies,educators and the general public. We are taking serious efforts to promote our journal across the globe in various ways, we are sure that our journal will act as a scientific platform for all researchers to publish their works online.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Fuzzy Indices for Environmental Conditions
- Improved Learning of I2C Distance and Accelerating the Neighborhood Search for Image Classification 2011
- Survey on Parameters of Fingerprint Classification Methods Based On Algorithmic Flow
- Release Procedure for Service Entry Sheet
- Reference Jrnl
- Duplicate Removal of Web Database
- Volume 1 No. 5, August 2012
- Early Detection of Adult Valve Disease Mitral Stenosis
- P Cost Sensitive Classifiers
- 39576507-Sop
- A Comparison of Decision Tree Algorithms For UCI Repository Classification
- Evaluation using Regression Analysis
- Some Remarks on Lukasiwicz disjunction and conjunction operators On Intuitionistic Fuzzy Matrices
- Land Use Cover Classification Techniques Using Optical Remotely Sensed Data in Landscape Planning
- D ESIGN A ND I MPLEMENTATION F OR A UTOMATED N ETWORK T ROUBLESHOOTING U SING D ATA M INING
- ir 13 1
- 2012 A Comparison Study between Data Mining Algorithms over Classification Techniques in Squid Dataset .pdf
- Decision Tree Example
- IJETR031613
- 2nd edtpa lesson plan - murchison belinda

You are on page 1of 5

www.ijera.com

RESEARCH ARTICLE

OPEN ACCESS

Sanchita Rothe, Shruti Shete, Rachana Varyani, Sukanya Mulay

1,2,3,4

ABSTRACT

This paper works on fuzzy min-max classifier neural network implementation. Fuzzy min-max classifier creates hyperboxes for classification. Each fuzzy set hyperbox is an n-dimensional pattern space defined by a min point and max point with a corresponding membership function. The fuzzy min-max algorithm is used to determine the min-max points of the hyperbox. The use of a fuzzy set approach to pattern classification inherently provides degree of membership information that is extremely useful in higher level decision making. A confidence factor is calculated for every FMM hyperbox, and a threshold value defined by user is used to prune the hyperboxes with low confidence factors. This will describe the relationships between fuzzy sets and pattern classification. Keywords-Fuzzy minmax neural network, Hyperbox, Membership function, Pattern classification, Pruning

I.

Introduction

as learning from examples and exhibiting some capability for generalization beyond the training data. Also they have universal approximation property. But the problem with traditional neural network techniques is that they take more training time because of scanning of input data for many times. This problem is solved in fuzzy min-max neural network (FMMN) proposed by Simpson [1]. This paper will represent classifier that creates classes by aggregating several smaller fuzzy sets into a single fuzzy set class. Fuzzy min-max classification neural networks are built using hyperbox fuzzy sets which were initially defined by Zadeh [3]. Fuzzy min-max classification neural networks are built using hyperbox fuzzy sets. A hyperbox defines a region of the n-dimensional pattern space that has patterns with full class membership. A hyperbox is completely defined by its min-point and its max-point, and a membership function is defined with respect to these hyperbox min-max points. The min-max (hyperbox) membership function combination defines a fuzzy set, hyperbox fuzzy sets are aggregated to form single fuzzy set classes and the resulting structure fits into a neural network framework; hence this classification system is called a fuzzy min-max classification neural network. Pruning is a technique introduced in FMM to reduce the complexity of network. It is used to remove the hyperboxes with low confidence factor when compared with a user defined threshold.

Artificial Neural Network(ANN) has emerged as a research applications tool including classification and regression.ANN are successfully applied across an range of problem domains in areas as diverge as finance, medicine, engineering, physics and biology. They are powerful tool for modeling especially when the underlying data relationship is unknown. ANNs are useful for solving pattern classification problems in many different fields, e.g. medical prognosis and diagnosis, industrial fault detection and diagnosis, etc. In the medical field, ANNs are expanded as diagnostic decision support. The Neural networks (NN) is a wide area of research for the practitioners. NN are useful for the solving the problems of regression and pattern classification. Pattern Recognition techniques provide a unified frame work to study a variety of techniques, in statistics and computer science that are individually useful in many different applications. Pattern classification is the key problem to many engineering solutions such as sonar, radar, seismic, and diagnostic applications that requires the ability to accurately classify a situation. Pattern classification may be defined as the organization of patterns into groups of patterns sharing the same set of properties. Pattern classification covers a wide spectrum of discipline such as Cybernetics, Computer Science, Mathematics, Logic etc. There are several applications of pattern recognition such as Life form analysis, Image processing, Information management system, Weather prediction, Character recognition, Speech and speaker recognition etc. Artificial neural network is one of the most commonly used classifier technique. The reason for being commonly used is due to some properties such www.ijera.com

618 | P a g e

Sanchita Rothe et al Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 2( Version 1), February 2014, pp.618-622 II. Related Work

www.ijera.com

There have been several studies associated with Artificial Neural Network for the pattern classification. C.Chong proposed fuzzy min-max hyperbox classifier to solve M-class classification problems. A learning procedure is proposed to generate a fuzzy classifier by adding min-max hyperboxes as needed to ensure that all training patterns are correctly recognized. Fuzzy systems have been used to represent and manipulate data that are fuzzy rather than precise. Ishibuchi presented a heuristic method for generating fuzzy rules was applied to the grid-type fuzzy partitions, and a rule selection method, based on genetic algorithms was then employed to select relevant fuzzy rules from generated fuzzy rules for classifying training patterns in the considered classification problem. Fuzzy minmax classification neural networks are built using hyperbox fuzzy sets. A fuzzy set A is a subset of the universe of discourse X that admits partial membership. The fuzzy set A is defined as the ordered pair A={x,mA(x)} Where x X and 0 mA(x) 1. The membership function mA(x) describes the degree to which the object x belongs to the set A where mA(x) =0 represents no membership and mA(x)=1 represents full membership. 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 Degree 0.60 to which a person 0.50 is young 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 0 25 50 75 100

person belongs to A twice as much as a 50 year old person. 2.1 K- Nearest Neighbor Classifier The fuzzy min-max neural network classifier collapses to the k-nearest-neighbor classifier[2] when the size of the hyperboxes are set to 0 (i.e., = 0). This could be the expansion of point to a hyperbox has several computing advantage. 2.2 Probabilistic NN The PNN[7] is similar to the fuzzy min max neural network in that it associates membership function with pattern classes, it utilizes a union operation, and it grows to meet the needs of the problem. However, the main difference between the two is PNN and the fuzzy min max neural network classifier uses a Hamming distance based membership function.

III.

Methodology

The methodology is divided into three modules: 3.1 Fuzzy Min-Max Classification Algorithm The Fuzzy Min Max neural network is formed using hyperboxes with fuzzy sets. It defines a region of the n-dimensional pattern space that has patterns with full class membership. The hyperbox can be described using its minimum and maximum points and their corresponding membership functions are used to create fuzzy subsets in the n-dimensional pattern space. The learning process in FMM comprises a series of expansion and contraction processes that fine tune the hyperboxes in the network to establish boundaries among classes. If overlapped hyperboxes of different classes occurred in the pattern space, contraction is performed to eliminate the overlapped areas. We define membership function with respect to the minimum and maximum points of a hyperbox. A pattern which is contained in the hyperbox has the membership function of one. The definition of each hyperbox fuzzy set[6] as given in Bj, is Bj= {X,Vj,,Wj,f(X,Vj,Wj) } X In

mA(25)=1.0

mA(50)=0.5

Age of Person Fig1. Membership Function showing how young a person is The membership function shown above describes the relationship between persons age and the degree to which a person is considered to be young. This membership function determines that a 25 year old

Where the input pattern is X=( x,x2xn ), the minimum And maximum points of Bj are Vj={vj1 ,vj2,vjn} and Wj ={wj1, wj2wjn} respectively.

www.ijera.com

619 | P a g e

Sanchita Rothe et al Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 2( Version 1), February 2014, pp.618-622

www.ijera.com

v new ji

=min(

old w new ji =max( w ji , x hi ) i = 1,2,3, , n,

Applying the definition of the hyperboxed fuzzy set, the combined fuzzy set that classifies the Kth pattern class, Ck, is defined as Ck =

j

3.2.2 Overlap Test: Determine if any overlap exists between hyperboxes from different classes. To determine if this expansion created any overlap, a dimension by dimension comparison between hyperboxes is performed. old Assuming = 1 initially, the four test cases and the corresponding minimum overlap value for the ith dimension are as follows[1]

Bj k Case 1: < < < , = min( , ) Case 2: < < < , = min( , ) Case 3: < < < , = min(min( , ), )

The membership function for the j th hyperbox bj (Ah), 0 bj (Aj) 1 measures the degree to which hth input pattern. Ah falls outside hyperbox Bj. As bj (Ah) approaches 1. The pattern is said to be more contained by the hyperbox. The resulting membership function[1] is

(Ah)= [max 0,1 max 0, min 1, 2 =1 +max(0,1max(0,min(1,)))] 1

3.2 Hyperbox Formation The training set V consists of a set of M ordered pairs {Xh,dh}, where Xh= (Xh1,Xh2,..,Xhn) Iis the input pattern and dh {1, 2, ... ,m} is the index of one of the m classes. The fuzzy min-max classification learning algorithm is a three-step process: 3.2.1 Expansion: Identify the hyperbox that can expand and expand it. If an expandable hyperbox cannot be found, add a new hyperbox for that class. For the hyperbox Bj to expand to include Xh,, the following constraint must be met[1] n Case 4: < < < , = min(min( , ), )

If 0ld - new> 0, then = i and 0ld = 8new, signifying that there was overlap for the thdimension and overlap testing will proceed with the next dimension.

max w

n i=1

ji

, x hi min v ji , x hi

3.2.3 Contraction: If >0, th then thdimensions of the two hyperboxes are adjusted. To determine the proper adjustment to make, the same four cases are examined[1] Case 1: < < < ,

= =

old w old j +v k

If the expansion criterion has been met for hyperbox Bj, the main point of the hyperbox is adjusted using the equation. If the expansion criterion has been met for Hyperbox Bj,min point of the hyperbox is adjusted using equation

= =

old w old k +v j

www.ijera.com

620 | P a g e

Sanchita Rothe et al Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 2( Version 1), February 2014, pp.618-622

Case 3a: < < < and ( - ) < ( - )

=

www.ijera.com

Where Cj is the number of patterns classified by hyperbox j for class k, Cf is the number of patterns classified any hyperbox f for class k. On the other hand, the value of Aj is defined as the number of correctly predicted set of patterns classified by any hyperbox j, divided by the maximum correctly classified patterns with the same classification class. = / max{ : hyperbox f correctly predicts class k} wherePjis the number of patterns correctly classified by hyperbox j for class k, Pf is the number of patterns correctly classified by any hyperbox f for class k. The hyperboxes with a confidence factor less than or equal to some user defined threshold are pruned. Hyperboxes with confidence factor 1 are highly accurate and have high usage. As the confidence factor decreases the usage and accuracy of the corresponding hyperbox also decreases.

=

=

=

3.3Pruning An effective pruning algorithm is a crucial component of any neural network. Pruned network also serves to filter the noise that might be present in the data. Such noise could be data samples that are outliers or incorrectly labeled. The proposed classification model assumes that the trained network has been pruned to remove the less useful hyperboxes based on their confidence factor to improve the overall system performance. The confidence factor identifies good hyperboxes that are frequently used and generally correct, as well as that are rarely used but extremely accurate. The confidence factor for each hyperbox node is defined in terms of its usage frequency and its predictive accuracy on the predicting set is given by: =(1 - ) + Where Uj [0,1] is the usage of hyperbox j, Aj [0,1] is its accuracy, and [0,1] is a weighting factor. The value of Uj is defined as the number of patterns in the prediction set classified by any hyperbox j, divided by the maximum number of patterns in the prediction set classified by any hyperbox with the same classification class. = / max { : hyperbox f predicts class k}

We have considered PID Dataset. Number of Instances 786 which divided into training and testing.Initially Hyperboxes are formed using training dataset, The size of a hyperbox is controlled by , that is varied between 0 and 1. once is small, more hyperboxes are created.When is large, the number of hyperboxes is small. During Pruning, Confidence factor of all hyperboxes are calculated and the hyperbox with the confidence factor less than threshold (user defined) are pruned.

Theta Hyperbox Number(Before pruning) 17 13 7 7 Hyperbox Number(After pruning) 8 6 3 3 Accuracy(In Percentage) 61.01 66.10 67.79 67.79

V. CONCLUSION

In this paper, we implemented fuzzy minmax classifier that uses aggregated fuzzy set classes. The proposed system is capable to perform the function of searching reasonable decision boundaries in the overlapping classes, learn highly nonlinear decision boundaries and provide results on a standard data set that was equivalent to other neural and traditional classifiers. Due to the application of pruning algorithms on fuzzy min-max neural network the number of unwanted hyperboxes or rather the hyperbox which do not contribute in decision making 621 | P a g e

www.ijera.com

Sanchita Rothe et al Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 2( Version 1), February 2014, pp.618-622

are removed. Thus it makes decision making much easier as the complexity of the network is reduced. Our future work will include a mathematical description of decision boundaries that are formed, a study of the effects of the maximum hyper box size B on classification accuracy on classification accuracy. [2]

www.ijera.com

[3]

VI. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We would like to express our special appreciation and thanks to our Head of Information Technology Department Prof. Sudeep Thepade and Project Coordinator Prof. S.V. Shinde for opening the doors of the department towards the realization of this paper, for many insightful suggestions that helped in properly representing this work and for encouraging our research. Most importantly we would also like to express our sincere gratitude to all who rendered their valuable help, along with all those unseen people across the internet for maintaining those valuable resources for the successful completion of the paper.

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

REFRENCES

[1] P. Simpson, Fuzzy minmax neural networks-Part 1: Classification, IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, Vol. 3,No. 5, September 1992.

J. Bezdek, S. Chuah, and D. Leep, "Generalized k-nearest neighbor rules," Fuzzy Sets and Systems, vol. 18, pp. 237-256, 1986.. L. Zadeh , Fuzzy Sets, Inform. and control,vol.8,pp.338-353,1965.[4] P. Simpson, Fuzzy minmax classification with neural networks, Heuristics, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1-9, 1991. P. Simpson, Fuzzy minmax neural networks, in Proc. 1991 Int.Joint Conf. Neural Networks (Singapore). P. Simpson, Fuzzy minmax neural networks-Part 2: Clustering, submitted to IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst. R. Bellman, R. Kalaba, and L. Zadeh, "Abstraction and pattern classification," RAND Memorandum, RM-4307-PR, Oct. 1964 D. Specht, Probabilistic neural networks, Neural Networks, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 109-118, 1990. AnasQuteishat and CheePeng Lim, Application of the Fuzzy Min-Max Neural Networks to Medical Diagnosis.

www.ijera.com

622 | P a g e

- Fuzzy Indices for Environmental ConditionsUploaded bymaisshhh
- Improved Learning of I2C Distance and Accelerating the Neighborhood Search for Image Classification 2011Uploaded byIshrat Jahan Sumana
- Survey on Parameters of Fingerprint Classification Methods Based On Algorithmic FlowUploaded byijcses
- Release Procedure for Service Entry SheetUploaded byKapil Kulkarni
- Reference JrnlUploaded bybroken_mutt
- Duplicate Removal of Web DatabaseUploaded byaravinthcse
- Volume 1 No. 5, August 2012Uploaded byIjarai ManagingEditor
- Early Detection of Adult Valve Disease Mitral StenosisUploaded byIAEME Publication
- P Cost Sensitive ClassifiersUploaded byAnonymous RrGVQj
- 39576507-SopUploaded byVijendra Purohit
- A Comparison of Decision Tree Algorithms For UCI Repository ClassificationUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- Evaluation using Regression AnalysisUploaded bylumut idjoe
- Some Remarks on Lukasiwicz disjunction and conjunction operators On Intuitionistic Fuzzy MatricesUploaded byJAM
- Land Use Cover Classification Techniques Using Optical Remotely Sensed Data in Landscape PlanningUploaded byJosé Cuadros Loayza
- D ESIGN A ND I MPLEMENTATION F OR A UTOMATED N ETWORK T ROUBLESHOOTING U SING D ATA M ININGUploaded byLewis Torres
- ir 13 1Uploaded byapi-299622755
- 2012 A Comparison Study between Data Mining Algorithms over Classification Techniques in Squid Dataset .pdfUploaded bySoniya Sk
- Decision Tree ExampleUploaded bysanjay.diddee
- IJETR031613Uploaded byerpublication
- 2nd edtpa lesson plan - murchison belindaUploaded byapi-363366891
- Patri BigData 2014Uploaded byDhaval Patel
- neural-control2.pdfUploaded bysurya
- A Fuzzy Probabilistic Neural Network for.pdfUploaded byVijayalakshmi Vengattaramane
- Chapter 2Uploaded byAnanta Pratama
- Data Mining RecordUploaded byMohan Chandaluru
- BPJ_Vol_11_No_2_p_795-805Uploaded byNovi Ratna
- 4a23fea3da9a4f89c2a1e7ce0e909f8d3a99.pdfUploaded byE. Sudharani
- FAKE PRODUCT1.pptxUploaded bySowndarya Sowndarya
- 20180911 Machine Learning for Public Administration ResearchUploaded byCarlosEstrada
- Variation and the FrequencyUploaded bySrinivas

- Cloud Computing and Security IssuesUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Design of 32-bit Floating Point Unit for Advanced ProcessorsUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Intelligent controlled UPQC for power quality improvement of grid supply connected with non-linear loadUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Light Weight Concrete with Full Replacement for Fine and Partial Replacement for Coarse AggregateUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- N-alkylation methods, Characterization and Evaluation of antibacterial activity of some Novel 5-Chloroisatin DerivativesUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- A Survey on Skin Cancer Detection SystemUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- BUID: A key for Integrated Core Financial SystemUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Overlapped Fingerprint Separation for Fingerprint AuthenticationUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Highly Deformable Energy-Dissipating Reinforced Concrete Elements in Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete StructuresUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- The Experimental Behavior Researches of the Reinforced Concrete Beams Bending Stressed By Short – Time LoadUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Effect of wrist abduction on force applied and response time during touch screen mobile phone useUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Projection of future Temperature and Precipitation for Jhelum river basin in India using Multiple Linear Regression.Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Survey on Different Methods of Digital Audio WatermarkingUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- M0706047684.pdfUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- H0706045257.pdfUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Q070604106112.pdfUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- J0706046265.pdfUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- An Improved Personal Security SystemUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- L0706047175.pdfUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- K706046670.pdfUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- N0706048588.pdfUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- I0706045861.pdfUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O

- Performance Analysis of Different Wavelet Families in Recognizing SpeechUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- Classification of Aedes Adults Mosquitoes in Two Distinct Groups Based on Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis and FZOARO TechniquesUploaded byAlexander Decker
- 4- Image Processing and AnalysisUploaded byrajaanwar
- Classify Patterns With a Neural NetworkUploaded bysirojul
- AI music generation system - MorpheuSUploaded bydorien82
- Software Requirement Specification DocumentUploaded byKuldeep Singh
- Vineeth - Curriculum Vita - Apr 2011Uploaded byVineeth NB
- A PREDICTIVE SYSTEM FOR DETECTION OF BANKRUPTCY USING MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUESUploaded byLewis Torres
- Bayes Lecture NotesUploaded byKiran Kumar Das
- Application of Image Processing in Biometric Verification.pdf (1) (2)Uploaded byPradyumn Paliwal
- An Introduction to Face Recognition TechnologyUploaded byhungbktt2
- _______-_____-2018-ebookUploaded bygaurav7207
- AI - Characteristics of Neural NetworksUploaded byGirish Kumar Nistala
- Bayes Classifier Exercise_1Uploaded byamitcrathod
- Artificial Intelligence Neural Networks Unit 5 Basics of NNUploaded byAnanth Nath
- Dendrite Morphological Neurons by Differential Evolution, SSCI 2016Uploaded byErik Zamora
- Handwritten Character Recognition Using Feed-Forward Neural Network ModelsUploaded byIAEME Publication
- D2L2_Caetano_Classification_Techniques.pdfUploaded byYanquiel Mansfarroll Gonzalez
- 649335.pdfUploaded byCriscky Ramos Flores
- Brain Computing Interfacing - Technical Report.pdfUploaded byrashi100
- TEXT-PROMPTED REMOTE SPEAKER AUTHENTICATION - Project Report - GANESH TIWARI - IOE - TUUploaded byGanesh Tiwari
- MLSIG_ Machine Learning Special Interest Group _ CSA, IIScUploaded byAritra Ghosh
- Research on Feature Extraction of Indicator Card Data for Sucker Rod Pump Working Condition DiagnosisUploaded byRichard More Leon
- Z04630010120174045Session1 IntroductionUploaded bydestinatt
- The Computational Complexity of Machine Learning - Michael J. Kearns.pdfUploaded byDrHarman Preet Singh
- Soft SkillUploaded byAnonymous Unya7k
- Image SegmentationUploaded byangels2_2009
- Artificial Neural NetworksUploaded byanmolkainth
- Data MiningUploaded bySugandha BornWhimsical
- Digital - ComputationalUploaded bySanDro Cavaleiro Guerreiro

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.