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Trends in Welding Research

Proceedings of the 9 International Conference on Trends in Welding Research


th

June 4!8, 2012 Hilton Chicago/Indian Lakes Resort Chicago, Illinois, USA

Editors Tarasankar DebRoy Stan A. David John N. DuPont Toshihiko Koseki Harry K. Bhadeshia

Sponsored by

Published by ASM International Materials Park, Ohio 44073-0002 www.asminternational.org

Copyright 2013 by ASM International All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the copyright owner. First printing, March 2013

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ISBN-13: 978-1-62708-998-2 ISBN-10: 1-62708-998-8 SAN: 204-7586

ASM International Materials Park, OH 44073-0002 www.asminternational.org

Printed in the United States of America

Trends in Welding Research Organizing Committee


On behalf of ASM International, we would like to thank the Conference Chairmen, Session Chairs and Speakers for their time and efforts in creating an outstanding 9th International Conference on Trends in Welding Research.

Conference Co-Chairs:

Harry K. Bhadeshia University of Cambridge Cambridge, UK

Stan A. David, FASM Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, TN

Tarasankar DebRoy, FASM The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA

John DuPont, FASM Lehigh University Bethlehem, PA

Toshihiko Koseki The University of Tokyo Tokyo, Japan

PREFACE The 9th International Trends in Welding Research Conference, sponsored by the ASM International, was held during 4th to 8th June 2012 at the Hilton Indian Lakes Resort in Chicago. This is the first time this conference was held here and the venue was very convenient for air travel by experts who came from various regions of US as well as over 25 countries all over the world. The venue also provided ample opportunity for networking and informal technical discussions among the attendees. There was a significant increase in the number of delegates from the previous Trends conference. The papers in this volume reflect the comprehensive coverage of the important topics in welding and joining by the top researchers from all over the world. They cover both the welding and joining processes such as the friction stir welding, laser beam, arc and hybrid welding processes and various attributes of the welded materials. Significant advances were reported in the understanding of phase transformations, microstructures, solidification, weldability, residual stresses, transport phenomena, modeling, sensing, control and automation, welding processes, consumables and weld properties. The keynote lectures and invited presentations were made by the leading researchers in the field and were very well received. Formal presentations and intensive technical discussions in a casual environment, sharing of practical experience and theoretical expertise, meeting of well over 200 highly accomplished researchers from industry, university and government labs, renewal of important contacts and making of new valuable ones all contributed to the rich experience of the Trends conference. We are very grateful to many of our colleagues from all over the world who organized special sessions by personally contacting leading researchers. Our special thanks to all the speakers and poster authors for making the conference an exciting event. We very much appreciate the valuable contributions of session chairs and student session monitors. Finally, our sincere thanks to Natalie Nemec and Jaime Creighton of ASM International for their sustained hard work and logistic support without which this conference would not have been possible.

Editors and Conference co-Chairs T. DebRoy S.A David J. Dupont T. Koseki H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia

Contents
Organizing Committee ...........................................................................................................iii Preface .....................................................................................................................................iv

Steel Microstructure I
Improvement of Microstructure Stability during Creep in High Cr Ferritic Heat Resistant Steel HAZ .............................................................................1
S. Tsukamoto, Y. Liu, T. Shirane, M. Tabuchi, and F. Abe National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

Use of Segregation as a Weld Design Opportunity ............................................................ 11


E.A. Pfei, C. Howard, S.Tate, S. Liu, B. Mishra, and D.L. Olson Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA

Investigation of HAZ Softening in Laser Welding of AHS/High Hardness Steels ................................................................................................... 19


Brian Hanhold1, Sudarsanam Suresh Babu1,Gary Cola2, Stan Ream3, Brad Nagy3, and Brian Victor3 (1) The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH USA (2) SFP Works LLC, Washington, MI USA (3) Edison Welding Institute, Columbus, OH USA

Investigation of Precipitate Evolution in Multi-pass Cr-Mo Steel Welds: Prediction of Alloying Element Recovery ............................................................................ 26
Soumya Mohan1, S.S. Babu1, B. Narayanan2, and B. Schaeffer2 (1) Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA (2) Lincoln Electric Company, Cleveland, OH, USA

Understanding the Role of Initial Microstructure on Intercritically Reheated Heat-Affected Zone Microstructures and Properties of Microalloyed Steels ........................................................................................ 34
T. Lolla1, S.S. Babu1, S. Lalam2, and M. Manohar2 (1) The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA (2) ArcelorMittal Global R&D, East Chicago, IN, USA

Ferrite Formation Behavior from Non-Metallic Compounds in Steels .............................. 43


Changjoon Lee, Shoichi Nambu, Junya Inoue, and Toshihiko Koseki The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Residual Stress I
Residual Stresses in Multi-Layer Component Welds ......................................................... 48
Michael Rhode, Arne Kromm, and Thomas Kannengiesser BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin, Germany
v

Sensing and Control I


High Power Laser Characterization Using Beam Diagnostics .......................................... 55
J.J. Blecher, T.A. Palmer, and S.M. Kelly The Applied Research Lab, University Park, PA, USA

Online Monitoring the Quality of AC Resistance Spot Welding Using Electrode Vibration Signals ..................................................................................................60
Xianfeng Wang1 and Yongbing Li2, (1) CSR Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., Ltd., Zhuzhou, People!s Republic of China (2) Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People!s Republic of China

Low-Cost Wireless Force Sensor Design with Applications in Friction Stir Welding ................................................................................... 70
Brian T. Gibson, Chase D. Cox, Jason R. Aguilar, Alvin M. Strauss, and George E. Cook Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA

Vision-Based Weld Pool Surface Geometry Measurement System for Pulsed-GMAW Process .........................................................................................................76
XiaoJi Ma, YuKang Liu, YuMing Zhang University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA

Welding of Al and Mg I
Laser Welding of Rheocast Semi-Solid Metal (SSM) Processed Wrought Aluminium Alloy 7017 ............................................................................................ 87
Madeleine du Toit1, Patronica Letsoalo1, and Hein Mller2 (1) University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa (2) Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pretoria, South Africa

Influence of Aluminum Content on Grain Refinement and Strength of AZ31 Magnesium GTA Weld Metal ................................................................... 91
N. Kishore Babu1 and C.E. Cross2 (1) Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Singapore (2) Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA

Influence of Alloy and Solidification Parameters on Grain Refinement in Aluminum Weld Metal Due to Inoculation ........................................................................... 98
P. Schempp1, A. Pittner1, M. Rethmeier1, Z. Tang2, T. Seefeld2, and C.E. Cross3 (1) BAM " Federal Institute for Materials Research, Berlin, Germany (2) BIAS " Bremer Institut fr Strahltechnik, Bremen, Germany (3) Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, NM, USA

Exceptional Grain Refinement in Directly Built Up Sc-Modified AlMg-Alloys is Promising a Quantum Leap in Ultimate Light Weight Design ......................................... 108
Frank Palm and Katja Schmidtke EADS Innovation Works, Ottobrunn, Germany

vi

Analysis of Heat Affected Zone in Al1239 and Al2198 Laser Welds Using Inverse Modeling .................................................................... 117
A.D. Zervaki1, G.N. Haidemenopoulos1, and S.G. Lambrakos2 (1) University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece, (2) Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA

Homogeneous Welding of the 6061 Aluminum Alloy Using MIG CMT............................. 125
A. Benoit1, T. Baudin1, P. Paillard2, J.-B. Mottin3 (1) CNRS, Laboratoire De Physico-Chimie De L!etat Solide, Orsay, France (2) Universit De Nantes CNRS, Nantes, France (3) SNECMA - Usine De Chtellerault, Chtellerault, France

Characterization of Fusion Behavior during Variable Polarity AC Welding of Aluminum ....................................................................... 129
M. Yarmuch1, J. Pepin1, A.C. Bicknell2, and B.M. Patchett2 (1) Alberta Innovates, Devon, Alberta, Canada (2) University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Monday PM Keynote Session


Strategies for the Minimisation of Residual Stresses in Welds ......................................139
Philip J. Withers, School of Materials, Manchester, UK

Sensing, Control, and Modeling II


Automated Spot Weld Inspection Using Infrared Thermography ................................... 148
Jian Chen, Wei Zhang, Zhenzhen Yu, and Zhili Feng Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA

Residual Stress II
Refining Welding Modelling for Prediction of Distortion Incorporating Mechanical Effects of Annealing .............................................. 152
Aritz Mendizabal, Maria San Sebastian, and Alberto Echeverria IK4 Lortek, Ordizia, Gipuzkoa, Spain

Prediction of Welding Distortions in a Complex Structure Using Finite Element Modelling: Experimental Validation .......................................................... 158
Aritz Mendizabal, Maria San Sebastian, and Alberto Echeverria IK4 Lortek, Ordizia, Gipuzkoa, Spain

Fundamental Study of Buckling Behavior in Thin Plate Butt Welding by the Inherent Deformation Method ........................................ 165
Jiangchao Wang and Hidekazu Murakawa Osaka University, Osaka, Japan

vii

Advances in the Measurement and Assessment of Residual Stresses in Complex Welded Components ....................................................... 174
David J. Smith, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK

X-ray Residual Stress Measurements Correlated with Weld Microstructure Characteristics ................................................................................. 184
Masahito Mochizuki, Tadafumi Hashimoto, and Shigetaka Okano Osaka University, Japan

Steel Microstructure II
Fractographic Investigation of Cleavage Initiation in Steel Friction Stir Welds ..................................................................................................... 193
D.P. Fairchild1, A.J. Wasson1, A. Kumar1, M.L. Macia1, T.D. Anderson1, H.W. Jin2, R. Ayer2, N. Ma2, and A. Ozekcin2 (1) ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company, Houston, TX, USA (2) ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ, USA

Changes in Mechanical Properties of Dual-Phase Steel Due to Post-Welded Microstructure and Loading Geometry ....................................................... 201
E. Biro1, S.S. Nayak2, and Y. Zhou2 (1) ArcelorMittal Global Research Hamilton, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (2) University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

Study on Weldability of High Strength Steel for Structural Applications ....................... 208
R. Mazzina1, G. Gomez1, M. Solano2, T. Perez1, and E. Lopez1 (1) TenarisSiderca, Campana, Buenos Aires, Argentina (2) TenarisDalmine, Dalmine, Italy

Phosphorous and Boron Segregation during Resistance Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels ......................................... 217
M. Amirthalingam1, E.M. van der Aa2, N. den Uijl2, M.J.M. Hermans3, and I.M. Richardson3 (1) Materials innovation institute (M2i), Delft, The Netherlands. (2)Tata Steel Research, Development and Technology, IJmuiden, The Netherlands. (3) Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands

A Comparision of Interface Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of Aluminium-Steel Joints Made by Pulsed-MIG and Cold Metal Transfer (CMT) Processes ................................................... 227
G. Padmanabham1, Y. Krishna Priya1, K.V. Phani Prabhakar1, Ravi N. Bathe1, and K. Bhanu Sankara Rao2 (1) International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy & New Materials, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India (2) University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India

Temperbead Repair of T91 Using EPRI P87 Filler Metal ..................................................235


John A. Siefert and John P. Shingledecker Electric Power Research Institute, Charlotte, NC, USA

viii

Solidification
Solidification Mechanism of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metals with Primary Ferrite Solidification ..............................................................................................242
Hiroshige Inoue1 and Toshihiko Koseki2 (1) Nippon Steel Corporation, Futtsu-city, Chiba, Japan (2) The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Tuesday AM Keynote Session


Generalization and Communication of Welding Simulations and Experiments Using Scaling Analysis ................................................................................. 249
Patricio F. Mendez1, Karem E. Tello2, and Satya S. Gajapathi3 (1) University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (2) Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA (3) Ulterra, Nisku, Alberta, Canada

Consumable
Challenges to Develop an Underwater Wet Welding Electrode for "Class A Welds" Classification, as Required in the AWS D3.6 Code .............................. 259
Ezequiel Caires Pereira Pessoa1, Alexandre Queiroz Bracarense2, Valter Rocha dos Santos3, Maurcio de Jesus Monteiro3, Leonardo Augusto Vieira4, and Ricardo Reppold Marinho5 (1) Instituto Federal de Educao, Cincia e Tecnologia de Minas Gerais, Betim, M.G., Brazil (2) Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, M.G., Brazil (3) PUC-Rio, Rio de Janeiro, R.J. Brazil (4) ESAB Ind. e Com Ltda., Belo Horizonte, M.G., Brazil (5) Petrobras/CENPES, Rio de Janeiro, M.G., Brazil

Welding Consumables, Characterization and Usage of Metal Arc Welding ! Under Oil (MAW-UO) ......................................................................... 268
Hamad Almostaneer1, Stephen Liu2, and David L. Olson2 (1) Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC), Jubail Industrial City, Saudi Arabia (2) Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA

FSW I ! Steel
Effect of Welding Parameters on Properties of Friction Stir Welded High Nitrogen Steel ........................................................................... 280
Yutaka S. Sato, Kei Nakamura, and Hiroyuki Kokawa Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan

ix

A Comparison between Single Sided and Double Sided Friction Stir Welded 8 mm Thick DH36 Steel Plate ................................... 284
N.A. McPherson1, A.M. Galloway2, S.R. Cater3, and M.M. Osman4 (1) BAE Systems Marine - Naval Ships, Glasgow, Scotland, UK (2) Strathclyde University, Glasgow, UK (3) TWI Technology Centre, Yorkshire, UK (4) Military Technical College, Cairo, Egypt

A Comparison between Single Sided Friction Stir Welded and Submerged Arc Welded DH36 Steel Thin Plate ................................................................ 291
N.A. McPherson1, A.M. Galloway2, J. Wood2, S.R.Cater3 (1) BAE Systems Naval Ships, Glasgow, Scotland, UK (2)University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, UK (3) TWI Technology Centre, Yorkshire, UK

Microstructural Simulation of Friction Stir Welding in UNS S32205 Duplex Stainless Steel .................................................................................. 297
E.B. Fonseca1, T.F.A. Santos1, S.T. Button2, and A.J. Ramirez1 (1) Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory LNNano, Campinas-SP, Brazil (2) University of Campinas Unicamp, Campinas-SP, Brazil

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded 17-4 Martensitic Stainless Steel ....................................................... 302
Bharat K. Jasthi, Timothy Johnson, Todd Curtis, Eric East, Md Shamsujjoha, and Christian Widener South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD, USA

Cavitation Erosion Resistance Improvement of a Multipass Friction Stir Processed UNS S32205 Duplex Stainless Steel ......................... 307
E. Velsquez1, E. Hoyos1, T.F.A. Santos2, A.J. Ramrez2, D.M. Lpez1 (1) Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medelln, Colombia (2) Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil (3) University of Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Microstructure I
Microstructural Heterogeneities in Pulsed Gas Metal Arc Welds ................................... 316
Shona R. McLaughlin and Christopher J. Bayley Defence R&D Canada ! Atlantic, Dockyard Laboratory Pacific, Victoria, BC, Canada

Hot Cracking Susceptibility of Commercial Alloy 52 Filler Metals in Multipass Welding of Alloy 690 .......................................................................................... 322
Kazuyoshi Saida, Kosuke Bunda, Hiroyuki Ogiwara, and Kazutoshi Nishimoto Osaka University, Osaka, Japan

Weldability and Liquation Cracking Characteristics on | Resistance-Spot-Welded High-Mn Austenitic Steel .......................................................... 330
Dulal Chandra Saha and Yeong-Do Park Dong-Eui University, Busan, South Korea

Influence of Welding in Operational Conditions on the Partial Mixed Zone Formation in Ni-Based Dissimilar Weld Overlay .............................. 336
C.C. Silva1, H.C. de Miranda1, M.F. Motta1, J.P. Farias1, and W.M. Aguiar2 (1) Universidade Federal do Cear, Fortaleza, Cear, Brazil (2) Instituto Federal de Educao, Cincia e Tecnologia, Fortaleza, Cear, Brazil

Chemistry and Crystallographic Evaluation of Ni-based Alloy and Steel Dissimilar Interface ................................................................... 344
C.C. Silva, H.C. Miranda, J.P. Farias, and H.F.G. de Abreu Universidade Federal do Cear, Fortaleza, Cear, Brazil

Tuesday Attendee Lunch Keynote Session


Pyrometallurgical Studies of Molten Metal Droplets for the Characterization of Gas Metal Arc Welding ...................................................................... 353
Stephen Liu, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA

Tuesday PM Keynote Session


Cold Cracking Susceptibility of Steel Welds and the Development of a Preheat-Free 980MPa Grade Welding Wire ......................................... 362
Tadashi Kasuya, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan

Microstructure II
Color Metallography for Microstructural Characterization of Welded Regions in a TRIP 800 Steel .................................................................................. 370
G.Y. Perez-Medina1, H.F. Lpez2, P. Zambrano3, F.A. Reyes-Valds1 (1) Corporacin Mexicana de Investigacin en Materiales, Saltillo, Coah. Mxico (2) University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee WI, USA (3) Universidad Autnoma de Nuevo Len. San Nicols de los Garza Nuevo Len. Mxico

Creep and Damage Investigation of Improved 9%Cr Steel Welded Joints ..................... 376
C. Schlacher1, C. Sommitsch1, P. Mayr2, C. Gupta3, H. Toda3, K. Usegi4, and Y. Suzuki4 (1) Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria (2) Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz, Germany (3) Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Japan (4) Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Hyogo, Japan

FSW II ! Steel
Effect of Friction Stir Processing Parameters on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al 5059 ....................................................................................... 382
H. Izadi1, A. Nolting2, C. Munro2, and A.P. Gerlich3 (1) University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (2) Defence R&D Canada -- Atlantic, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada (3) University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
xi

Microstructure-Fracture Toughness Studies in Friction Stir Processed API X80 Pipeline Steel ................................................................. 387
Majid Abbasi, Tracy W. Nelson, and Allan Tribe Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA

Microstructural Characterization of Underwater Friction Stir Welded API X80 Steel ................................................................ 392
Maysa Terada1, Tarcila Sugahara1, Vctor F. Pereira1, Antonio J. Ramirez1, Ricardo R. Marinho2, Marcelo T.P. Paes2 (1) Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory, Campinas-SP, Brazil (2) Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Effect of Rotation Speed on Microstructure Evolution during Underwater Friction Stir Processing AlCu Alloys .......................................................... 397
X.L. Feng1, H.J. Liu1, S.S. Babu2, A. Chaudhary3, and M. Keller3 (1) Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China (2) The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA (3) Applied Optimization, Dayton, OH, USA

Residual Stress IV
Process Optimization to Control Welding Distortion of Aluminum Alloy Train Roof by High Efficiency Numerical Simulation ........................... 401
Yanjun Sun1, Qingyu Shi1, Kai Sun1, Gaoqiang Chen1, and Lichun Meng2 (1) Tsinghua University, Beijing, China (2) CSR Sifang Locomotive and Rolling Stock. Co. Lt, Qingdao, China

Integration of Weld Pool Dynamics in the Numerical Investigation of Residual Stresses in a Gas Tungsten Arc Welded Joint .................................................. 408
Debamoy Sen, Kenneth S. Ball, and Mark A. Pierson Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA

An Improved Plasticity-Based Distortion Analysis Method for Large Welded Structures .................................................................................................... 418
Yu-Ping Yang1 and Badrinarayan P. Athreya2 (1) EWI, Columbus, OH, USA (2) Caterpillar Inc., Peoria, IL, USA

The Effects of Waveform in Residual Stress Relief by Vibration Technique ................. 427
Jia-Siang Wang, Che-Wei Kuo, Chih-Chun Hsieh, Hsin-Chih Liao, and Weite Wu National Chung Hsing University, Taichung City, Taiwan

Welding Process and Consumable I


Assessment of Conventional and Controlled Short-Circuit GMAW Processes for Steel-Pipe Welding in Single Pass ..................................................................................... 432
Thonson F. Costa and Louriel O. Vilarinho Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia-MG, Brazil
xii

Effect of Waveform and Shielding Gas on Melting Rate and Bead Geometry for GMAW-VP and Correlation to Kinematics of Metal Transfer ........................................... 438
Louriel O. Vilarinho1 and Alexandre S. Nascimento2 (1) Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia-MG, Brazil (2) Federal University of Para, Belem-PA, Brazil

Experimental Analysis of Droplet-Gas Interaction during GMAW Process .................... 448


Julien Chapuis1, Edward Romero2, Fabien Souli2, and Cyril Bordreuil2 (1) University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada (2) Universit Montpellier, Montpellier, France

A Potential Solution to GMAW Gas Flow Optimisation .................................................... 453


S.W. Campbell1, A.M. Galloway1, G.M. Ramsey1, and N.A. McPherson2 (1) University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, UK (2) BAE Systems Marine - Naval Ships, Glasgow, Scotland, UK

Fracture Assessment
Toward Understanding of Mechanical Property Degradation of Steel Welds in High-Pressure Hydrogen Transmission Pipeline ! Role of Microstructure ........................................................................................................ 461
H.Y. Song1, W. Zhang2, S.S. Babu1, and Z. Feng2 (1) The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA (2) Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA

Constraint-Based Assessment of Fracture - Application of ISO 27306 to Beam-to-Column Welded Joints ........................................................................................ 469
Fumiyoshi Minami1, Mitsuru Ohata1, and Yasutake Chiba2 (1) Osaka University, Osaka, Japan (2) Chubu Steel Plate Co. Ltd, Nagoya, Japan

Three-Dimensional Analysis of Crack Driving Force in Simulated Weld Residual Stress Fields ............................................................................. 479
Dave Dewees1, David A. Osage1, Phillip E. Prueter1, and Robert H. Dodds Jr.2 (1) The Equity Engineering Group, Inc., Shaker Heights, OH, USA (2) The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA

J and CTOD Estimation Procedures for Welded Fracture Specimens Including Effects of Weld Strength Overmatch ................................................................ 489
Claudio Ruggieri, University of So Paulo, So Paulo, Brazil

Phase Transformation I
Thermo-Metallurgical Simulation of Laser Welding Nd: YAG through Bi-Phase Model Applied for Dual Phase Steels ................................................................ 497
C. Seang, A.K. David, and E. Ragneau

xiii

In-Situ Neutron Diffraction Study of Non-Equilibrium Phase Transformation in Advanced High-Strength Steels ......................................................................................... 506
Zhenzhen Yu, Zhili Feng, Ke An, Wei Zhang, Eliot D. Specht, Jian Chen, Xun-Li Wang, and Stan David Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA

Measurement of Steel Phase Transformation Kinetics by Dilatometry and In-Situ Neutron Diffraction ! A Comparative Study .......................................................... 510
Zhenzhen Yu, Zhili Feng, Ke An, Wei Zhang, Eliot D. Specht, Jian Chen, Xun-Li Wang, and Stan David Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA

Effect of Pre-Welding Tempering on Creep Properties of Grade 91 Steels Weldments ................................................................................................ 514
Xinghua Yu1, Sudarsanam Suresh Babu1, Mike Santella2, and Yukinori Yamamoto2 (1) Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA (2) Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA

Welding Process and Consumable II


Using Polarity-Specific Heat Input to Evaluate the Effects of AC Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) Waveform Variables on Deposition Rates and Weld Bead Profiles ......................................................................... 520
J. Pepin1, M. Yarmuch1, G. Casey1, H. Henein2, D.G. Ivey2, and C. Penniston3 (1) Alberta Innovates - Technology Futures, Devon, Alberta, Canada (2) University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (3) TransCanada Corporation, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Characterization of Explosive Weld Interface Using Advanced Analytical Techniques: Microstructural Changes and Effects after Stress Relief ................................................................................................... 530
Stephen Liu1, John Banker2, and Curtis Prothe2 (1) Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA (2) Dynamic Materials Corporation, Boulder, CO, USA

Joining of Dissimilar Materials Using the Electromagnetic Pulse Technology ............. 537
Koen Faes1, Oleg Zaitov1, and W. De Waele2 (1) Belgian Welding Institute, Gent, Belgium (2) Ghent University, Gent, Belgium

Development of Resistance Spot Welding Applying Pulsed High Current for High Strength Steel Sheet ................................................................................................... 544
Koichi Taniguchi, Rinsei Ikeda, and Kenji Oi JFE Steel Corporation, Chiba, Japan

xiv

FSW III Al
Material Characterisation of Friction Stir Processed 6082-T6 Aluminium Alloy ............ 548
Esther T. Akinlabi and Stephen A. Akinlabi University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa

Effect of Thermomechanical Processing on Abnormal Grain Growth in Al-2195 Friction Stir Welds .................................................................................................553
Brahmanandam Kaligotla, Bharat K. Jasthi, William J. Arbegast, and Stanley M. Howard South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD, USA

Determining Optimum Friction Stir Weld Variables to Inhibit Abnormal Grain Growth in Al-2195 ........................................................................ 558
Brahmanandam Kaligotla,Srikanth Labhala, Bharat K. Jasthi, William J. Arbegast, and Stanley M. Howard South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD, USA

Wednesday PM Keynote Session


Probing Load Bearing Capacity of Circular and Non-Circular Tool Pins in Friction Stir Welding ................................................................ 563
M. Mehta1, A. De1, and T. DebRoy2 (1) IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India (2) The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA

FSW IV Al
Tensile Strength of Friction Stir Spot Welded Dissimilar AA5754-to-AZ31B Alloys ................................................................................... 572
X. Cao, C. Garnier, and P. Wanjara National Research Council Canada, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Fatigue Behavior of Swept Spot Friction Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Alclad 2024-T3 Aluminum Sheets ............................................ 580
Zheng-Ming Su1, Ru-Yi He1, Pai-Chen Lin1, Kent Dong2, Tony Tang2, Bob Huang2, and Yung-Chuan Chiou3 (1) National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan (2) Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan (3) National Chiayi University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan

Friction Stir Welding of Die Cast Aluminum Impact of Production Deviations ........... 589
Andreas Roth and Michael F. Zaeh Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich, Germany

xv

Comparison of Tungsten Inert Gas and Friction Stir Welding of AA 5083- H321 Aluminum Alloy Plates .............................................................................. 598
K. Subbaiah1, M. Geetha2, N. Sridhar3, and S.R. Koteswara Rao4 (1) SSN College of Engineering, Chennai, India (2) VIT University, Vellore, India (3) Defence Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad, India (4) Tagore Engineering College, Chennai, India

CFD Modeling of Dissimilar Aluminum-Steel Friction Stir Welds ................................... 604


H.S. Idagawa, E.A. Torres, and A.J. Ramirez Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory - LNNano, Campinas-SP, Brazil

Weldability I ! Cracking
Direct Observation of SR Crack Initiation by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy ............................................................................... 611
Yu-Ichi Komizo1, Hidenori Terasaki1, Kenji Kubo2, Mikihiro Sakata2, and Ken Yamashita2 (1) Osaka University, Osaka, Japan (2) Kobe Steel, Ltd., Fujisawa, Japan

Susceptibility to Solidification Cracking in High Chromium Nickel-Base Filler Metals for Nuclear Power Applications ............................................................................................... 614
Boian T. Alexandrov1, Adam T. Hope1, Benjamin J. Sutton1, John C. Lippold1, Jeffrey W. Sowards2, and Steven L. McCracken3 (1) The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA (2) NIST, Boulder, CO, USA (3) EPRI, Charlotte, NC, USA

Welding Process and Consumable II


A Comparative Study of the Non-Metallic Inclusions in C-Mn Steel Weld Metals Containing Titanium or Aluminium ........................................... 623
Alan G. Fox1 and Glyn M. Evans2 (1) Asian University, Chon Buri, Thailand (2) Consultant, West Kirby, Merseyside, UK

Spot Welding
Ultrasonic Spot Welding of 301 Stainless Steel to Aluminum 6061-T6 ........................... 631
Brahmanandam Kaligotla, Bharat K. Jasthi, Christian A. Widener, and Stanley M. Howard South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD, USA

Mathematical Modeling of Laser Micro-Welding for Photovoltaic Devices .................... 635


A. Raghavan, T.A. Palmer, and T. DebRoy The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
xvi

Resistance Spot Welding of Dual-Phase Steels: Heat Affected Zone Softening and Tensile Properties ...................................................... 641
S.S. Nayak1, Y. Zhou1, V.H. Baltazar Hernandez2, and E. Biro3 (1) University of Waterloo,Waterloo, Ontario, Canada (2) Autonomous University of Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Mexico (3) ArcelorMittal Global Research, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Influence of Imperfections on the Fatigue Performance of Resistance Spot Welded Joints ......................................................................................... 650
Stephan Brauser1, Moritz Oliver Gebhardt2, and Michael Rethmeier1 (1) Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology, Berlin, Germany (2) BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin, Germany

A Novel Method Using Electromagnetic Stirring to Improve Resistance Spot Weld Quality of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) ...................... 661
Qi Shen, YongBing Li, and GuanLong Chen Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, P.R. China

Spot Welding Effects in Multi-Material Combinations ...................................................... 670


M. Shome and K.S. Arora Tata Steel, Jamshedpur, India

Weldability Evaluation and Nugget Formation Mechanism in Three Sheets Spot Welding of High Strength Steels ........................................................680
Nazmul Huda and Yeong-Do Park Dong Eui University, Busan, South Korea

Thursday AM Keynote Session


Visualizations and Predictions of Welding Arcs ............................................................... 685
M. Tanaka, S. Tashiro, and Y. Tsujimura Osaka University, Osaka, Japan

FSW VI ! Dissimilar Metals


Aluminum to Copper Lap Joining Using Friction Stir Welding ....................................... 689
D.M. Rodrigues1, I. Galvo1, D. Gesto2, and D. Verdera2 (1) DEMUC, Coimbra, Portugal (2) AIMEN, Porrio, Spain

Effects of Process Parameters on the Evolving Properties of Dissimilar Aluminium-Copper Friction Stir Welds ............................................................ 695
Esther T. Akinlabi and Stephen A. Akinlabi University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa

xvii

Relationship between FSW Parameters and Intermetallic Compounds Formation in Dissimilar Aluminum-Steel Butt Joints .............................................................................. 700
E.A. Torres and A.J. Ramirez Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory, Campinas-SP, Brazil

Other Experimental and Modeling I


Overcoming Physical Limits for High Speed GMAW on Thin Sheets ............................. 709
J.-P. Planckaert, Air Liquide CTAS, Saint Ouen l!Aumne, France

Determination of Thermal Contact Conductance of Metal Tabs for Battery Ultrasonic Welding Process .................................................................................. 717
Jian Chen1, Wei Zhang1, Zhenzhen Yu1, Zhili Feng1, and Wayne Cai2 (1) Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA (2) General Motors R&D, Warren, MI, USA

Experimental and Computational Feasibility Study of a Non-Contact Temperature Measurement Method for TIG Welding ................................. 722
Debamoy Sen, William N. Pollard, Kenneth S. Ball, and Mark A. Pierson Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA

General Aspects of a Methodology for Inverse Thermal Analysis of Drop-by-Drop Liquid-Metal Deposition .............................................................................. 728
K.P. Cooper1, A. Shabaev2, and S.G. Lambrakos1 (1) Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA (2) George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA

Prediction of the Thermal Cycles in Dry Hyperbaric GMA Welding Using Partial Differential Heat Transfer Equations ...................................................................... 738
Amin S. Azar1, Odd M. Akselsen1, and Hans Fostervoll2 (1) NTNU, Trondheim, Norway (2) SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim, Norway

Modeling of Moving Heat Sources Using Meshless Element Free Galerkin Method .......................................................................... 746
X.-T. Pham1, G. Pradinc1, X. Cao2, and J.-L. Fihey1 (1) cole de technologie suprieure, Montral, Qubec, Canada (2) National Research Council Canada Aerospace, Montral, Qubec, Canada

Weldability II
Linear Friction Welding of High Strength Chains ............................................................. 752
Kemal Mucic1, Norbert Enzinger1, and Franz Fuchs2 (1) Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria (2) pewag austria GmbH, Kapfenberg, Austria

xviii

Surface Modification of Very High Power Ultrasonic Additive Manufactured (VHP UAM) Aluminum and Copper Structures ..................................................................................... 757
A.G. Truog, R.M. Sriraman, and S.S. Babu The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA

Effect of Nitriding on the Frictional Wear Properties of AISI 304L Surfaced with Inconel-625 Using SMAW Process ........................................... 763
Sandeep S. Sandhu1 and A.S. Shahi2 (1) Quest Infosys Foundation, Mohali, Punjab, India (2) Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Punjab, India

Theoretical Assessment of Dissimilar Metal Joint of Titanium to Stainless Steel .................................................................................................770


Wei Zhang and Roger G. Miller Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA

Welding Process and Consumable IV


Diffusion Welding of Compact Heat Exchangers for Nuclear Applications ................... 775
Denis E. Clark, Ronald E. Mizia, Michael V. Glazoff, and Michael W. Patterson Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID, USA

Progress in High Performance Hardfacing Processes Tandem-Gas-Metal-Arc-Welding and Plasma-MIG Hybrid Welding ................................ 784
S. Neyka, M. Kusch, and P. Mayr Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz, Germany

Effect of Magnetic Stirring on Nickel Alloy Weld Microstructure and Micro-Fissure Response ..................................................................................................... 791
Xinghua Yu1, Ryan Smith1, Yong-Chae Lim1, Dave F. Farson1, S.S. Babu1, John C. Lippold1, and Steve. L. McCracken2 (1) The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA (2) EPRI, Welding and Repair Technology Center, Charlotte, NC, USA

Properties and Structural Integrity I ! Fatigue


Weld Procedures and Demands for Improved Fatigue Strength of Single Load Carrying Fillet Welds ...................................................................................... 798
Erik A. strand, Volvo Construction Equipment, Bras, Sweden

Welding Process and Consumable V ! Brazing


Interfacial Microstructure and Properties of Diode Laser Brazed AZ31B Magnesium to Steel Joints Using Al-12Si and Ni Interlayers .............................. 805
A.M. Nasiri1, M.Y. Lee2, D.C. Weckman1, and Y. Zhou1 (1) University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada (2) Research Institute of Industrial Science & Technology (RIST), Pohang, South Korea
xix

Brazeability of UNS 32101 and UNS S32304 Lean Duplex Stainless Steels ................... 814
Dany Michel Andrade Centeno1, Clvis Carvalho Jr.2, and Srgio Duarte Brandi1 (1) Universidade de So Paulo, So Paulo, Brazil (2) BTM Brasagem e Tratamento em Metais Ltda. So Paulo, Brazil

FSW VII ! Various Materials


Characterization of Friction Stir Welded Multilayered Steel ............................................ 823
J. Taendl1, N. Enzinger1, S. Nambu2, J. Inoue2, and T. Koseki2 (1) Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria (2) The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Three-Dimensional Friction Stir Welding of Inconel 718 Using the ESAB Rosio FSW-Robot ..................................................................................................... 829
Jeroen De Backer1 and Mikael Soron2 (1) University West, Trollhttan, Sweden (2) ESAB AB, Lax, Sweden

Systems Modelling of the Internal Process Variables for Friction Stir Welding Using Genetic Multi-Objective Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems ................................................................................................ 834
Qian Zhang1, Mahdi Mahfouf1, George Panoutsos1, Kathryn Beamish2, and Ian Norris2 (1) University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK (2) TWI Ltd, Great Abington, Cambridge, UK

Issues Concerning Small Additions of Ni to Ti Friction Stir Welds ................................. 842


R.K. Everett1, J.N. Wolk2, A. Shabaev3, and S.G. Lambrakos1 (1) Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA (2) Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock, MD, USA (3) George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA

Friction Stir Welding of Metal Matrix Composites: Predictive Process Modeling .............................................................................................. 848
Tracie Prater, George E. Cook, Alvin Strauss, Brian Gibson, and Chase Cox Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA

Other Experimental and Modeling II


Modeling of Metal Deposition ............................................................................................. 853
Magnus Sderberg, Andreas Lundbck, and Lars-Erik Lindgren Lule University of Technology, Lule, Sweden

Modelling of the Electron Beam Welding of a Titanium Aeroengine Compressor Disc ............................................................................ 859
Richard Turner, Jean-Christophe Gebelin, Mark Ward, Jianglin Huang, and Roger C. Reed University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

xx

The Effect of Hydrogen on Porosity Formation during Electron Beam Welding of Titanium Alloys ....................................................................... 868
Jianglin Huang, Richard Turner, Jean-Christophe Gebelin, Nils Warnken, Martin Strangwood, and Roger C. Reed University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK

Magnetic Field Models for High Intensity Arcs, Applied to Welding ! A Comparison between Three Different Formulations ................................... 876
Isabelle Choquet1, Alireza Javidi Shirvan1, and Hkan Nilsson2 (1) University West, Trollhttan, Sweden (2) Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden

Linear Friction Welding of Titanium Alloys for Aeroengine Applications: Modelling and Validation ....................................................................................................886
F. Schroeder1, R.M. Ward1, R.P. Turner1, M.M. Attallah1, J.-C. Gebelin1, R.C. Reed1, and A.R. Walpole2 (1) University of Birmingham,Birmingham, West Midlands, UK (2) Rolls-Royce plc., Derby, Derbyshire, UK

The Effect of Buoyancy Induced Force on Geometry of Fusion Zone in GTA Welding .............................................................................................. 893
Alireza Bahrami and Daryush K. Aidun Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, USA

Transport
Surface Tension Effects on Fluid Flow in Laser Beam Welding of Cerium Metal ................................................................................ 899
Erik M. Lord, Stephen Liu, and David L. Olson Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA

3D Finite Element Simulation of TIG Weld Pool with Free Surface ................................. 910
X. Kong1, O. Asserin1, S. Gounand1, P. Gilles2, J.M. Bergheau3, and M. Medale4 (1) CEA, DEN, DANS, Gif-sur-Yvette, France (2) AREVA NP, Paris La Dfense, France (3) LTDS, Ecole Nationale d!Ingnieurs de Saint-Etienne, France (4) Ecole Polytechnique Universitaire de Marseille, Marseille, France

Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Dissimilar Welding of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel to 1018 Carbon Steel ........................................................... 916
Alireza Bahrami, and Daryush K. Aidun Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, USA

FSW VIII ! Process and Modeling


Numerical Study of Factors for Generating Inherent Strain in Friction Stir Welding ............................................................................................................ 922
H. Serizawa, H. Murakawa, and J. Shimazaki Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
xxi

Simulation of Material Flow during Friction Stir Welding Based on the Model of Interactive Force between Tool and Material ..................................................... 930
G.Q. Chen1, Q.Y. Shi1, Y. Fujiya2, and T. Horie2 (1) Tsinghua University, Beijing, China (2) Mitsubishi Heavy Industry, Ltd., Hyogo, Japan

Friction Stir Welding Across Joining Direction ................................................................ 937


M. Govindaraju1, K. Balasubramanian1, K. Prasad Rao2, and Uday Chakkingal2 (1) Non Ferrous Materials Technology Development Centre (NFTDC), Hyderabad, India (2) IIT Madras, Chennai, India

The Application of a Rotating Anvil in Friction Stir Spot Welding: A Numerical and Experimental Study ................................................................................ 941
Chase D. Cox, Brian T. Gibson, Alvin M. Strauss, and George E. Cook Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA

Other Experimental and Modeling III


Proposition of Methodology for Accreditation of Destructive Tools of Column Parts Used in Oil Wells ...................................................... 947
Louriel O. Vilarinho1, Adalto Alves Costa Filho1, and Rafael S. Moraes1, Joao Carlos R. Placido2, and Marcelo Ehlers2 (1) Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, Brazil (2) Petrobras SA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Collapse Predictions of a Weld Repaired Cylinder ........................................................... 955


Christopher Bayley1, John Goldak2, and Stanislav Tchernov2 (1) Defence R&D Canada - Atlantic, Victoria, BC, Canada (2) Goldak Technology Incorporated, Ottawa, ON, Canada

Measurement and Simulation of Titanium Alloy Deposit Temperature in Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing ............................................................................. 963
R. Bruce Madigan1, Sean F. Riley2, Mark J. Cola2, Vivek R. Dave2, and John E. Talkington2 (1) Montana Tech of The University of Montana, Butte, MT, USA (2) B6 Sigma, Inc., Santa Fe, NM, USA

Microstructure Evolution during Laser Additive Manufacturing of Ti6Al4V Alloy ................................................................ 970
K. Makiewicz1, S.S. Babu1, M. Keller2, and A. Chaudhary2 (1) The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA (2) Applied Optimization Inc., Dayton, OH, USA

In-situ Reaction Processing Using Friction Stir Processing ........................................... 978


Bharat K. Jasthi1, Glenn J. Grant2, and Stanley M. Howard1 (1) South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD, USA (2) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA

Mathematical Modeling of the Heat and Mass Transport during Laser Processing of Silicon ................................................................................................ 983
J.J. Blecher, T.A. Palmer, and T. DebRoy The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
xxii

Properties and Structural Integrity II Toughness


Temperbead Welding Repair of Nuclear Components .....................................................989
Miguel Yescas1, and Denis Pollier2 (1) AREVA NP Direction Ingnierie et Projets, Paris La Dfense, France (2) AREVA NP, Equipment Servicing and Repair, Chalon-sur-Sane, France

Homogenization and Solution Kinetics of Inconel Alloy 740H Welds ............................. 994
Daniel H. Bechetti and John N. DuPont Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, USA

Experience with Utility Properties of T24 Steel ............................................................... 1003


ubo! Mrz 1, Peter Brziak 1, Peter Bernasovsk 1, Peter Zifk 1, Jn Kotora 2, Du!an Kraji 2, Michal Mrz 2, Jozef Pecha 3, Jeremy Robinson 4, and David Tanner 4 (1) Welding Research Institute, Bratislava, Slovak Republic (2) SES Tlmae, a.s., Tlmae, Slovak Republic (3) Energoinvest a.s., Bratislava, Slovak Republic (4) University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland

Poster Session
Embedded System for Wireless Signals Monitoring during Arc Welding with Technological Approach ..................................................................... 1011
Louriel O. Vilarinho, Marcus Vincius R. Machado, Carolina P. Mota, and Roberto M. Finzi Neto Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia-MG, Brazil

Development and Assessment of Calorimeters Using Liquid Nitrogen and Continuous Flow (Water) for Heat Input Measurement .................................................. 1019
Louriel O. Vilarinho, Hernan D.H. Arevalo, and Cesar A.C. Vieira Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia-MG, Brazil

Near-Infrared Vision System for Arc-Welding Monitoring ............................................. 1029


Louriel O. Vilarinho, Carolina P. Mota, Marcus Vincius R. Machado, and Roberto M. Finzi Neto Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia-MG, Brazil

Limiting Travel Speed in Additive Layer Manufacturing ................................................ 1038


A. Adebayo, J. Mehnen, and X. Tonnellier Cranfield University, Cranfield, UK

Study of 6061 Weld Heat Affected Zones Made with GMAW ......................................... 1045
A. Benoit1, M. Besse2, R. Louahdi2, H. Paul3, P. Paillard2, and T. Baudin1 (1) Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l"Etat Solide, Orsay, France (2) Universit de Nantes CNRS, Nantes, France (3) Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Krakow, Poland

xxiii

Case-Study Inverse Thermal Analysis of 21-6-9 Stainless Steel Laser Welds .................................................................................. 1050
S.G. Lambrakos1 and J.O. Milewski2 (1) Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA (2) Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA

Real-Time Measurement of the Weld Pool Surface in GTAW Process ......................... 1057
WeiJie Zhang and YuMing Zhang University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA

Properties of Thick Welded Similar and Dissimilar Joints Made of TEMPALOY A-3 Steel Assigned for Power Industry ....................................................... 1064
R. Jachym1, M. omozik1, K. Kwieciski1, M. Urzynicok2, P. Mariani3, and Y. Minami4 (1) Instytut Spawalnictwa / Institute of Welding, Gliwice, Poland (2) ZELKOT Boiler Elements Factory, Koszecin, Poland (3) Tenaris Dalmine, Dalmine, Italy (4) TenarisNKKTubes, Kawasaki City, Japan

The Effect of Testing Variables and Microstructure on the Flow Stress and Dynamic Re-Crystallization of SCMV and Aermet 100 in Compression ............................................................................................. 1071
Michael Shakib1, Karen Perkins1, and Simon Bray2 (1) Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea (2) Rolls-Royce plc, Derby, UK

Steel Microstructure II
(paper added after pagination completed) Fracture Toughness of Simulated Heat Affected Zones in NUCu-140 Steel ................ 1079
Brett M. Leister and John N. DuPont, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, USA

Author Index ...................................................................................................................... 1088

xxiv