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Nathaniel Hawthorne - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nathaniel Hawthorne (born Nathaniel Hathorne ; July 4, 1804 – May 19, 1864) was an American novelist and short story writer. He was born in 1804 in Salem, Massachusetts to Nathaniel Hathorne and the former Elizabeth Clarke Manning. His ancestors include John Hathorne, the only judge involved in the Salem witch trials who never repented of his actions. Nathaniel later added a "w" to make his name "Hawthorne" in order to hide this relation. He entered Bowdoin College in 1821, was elected to Phi Beta Kappa in 1824, and graduated in 1825. Hawthorne published his first work, a novel titled Fanshawe, in 1828; he later tried to suppress it, feeling it was not equal to the standard of his later work. He published several short stories in various periodicals which he collected in 1837 as Twice-Told Tales. The next year, he became engaged to Sophia Peabody. He worked at a Custom House and joined Brook Farm, a transcendentalist community, before marrying Peabody in 1842. The couple moved to The Old Manse in Concord, Massachusetts, later moving to Salem, the Berkshires, then to The Wayside in Concord. The Scarlet Letter was published in 1850, followed by a succession of other novels. A political appointment took Hawthorne and family to Europe before their return to The Wayside in 1860. Hawthorne died on May 19, 1864, and was survived by his wife and their three children.
Nathaniel Hawthorne in the 1860s Born Died July 4, 1804 Salem, Massachusetts, United States May 19, 1864 (aged 59) Plymouth, New Hampshire, United States
Alma mater Bowdoin College (1825) Signature
Much of Hawthorne's writing centers on New England, many works featuring moral allegories with a Puritan inspiration. His fiction works are considered part of the Romantic movement and, more specifically, Dark romanticism. His themes often center on the inherent evil and sin of humanity, and his works often have moral messages and deep psychological complexity. His published works include novels, short stories, and a biography of his friend Franklin Pierce.
1 Biography 1.1 Early life 1.2 Early career 1.3 Marriage and family 1.4 Middle years 1.5 The Wayside and Europe 1.6 Later years and death
1804. Massachusetts. shortly after graduating from college.4/3/2014 Nathaniel Hawthorne . Sr. There he became an important member of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and held many political positions including magistrate and judge. that the boy attend college. was a sea captain who died in 1808 of yellow fever in Suriname. William Hathorne.3 Selected short stories 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links Biography Early life Nathaniel Hawthorne was born on July 4. Massachusetts before moving to Salem. Maine.wikipedia. Having learned about this. The homemade newspaper was written by hand and included essays. he was sent back to Salem for school and soon complained of homesickness and being too far from his mother and sisters. Portrait of Nathaniel Hawthorne by Charles Osgood. With . After his death. on November 10. his birthplace is preserved and open to the public. the author's great-great-great-grandfather. William's son and the author's great-great-grandfather. near Sebago Lake. the free encyclopedia 2 Writings 2. his mother and two sisters moved in with maternal relatives. the author probably added the "w" to his surname in his early twenties. Hawthorne's father. where they lived for 10 years. in Salem. despite Hawthorne's protests. the family lived as boarders with farmers before moving to a home recently built specifically for them by Hawthorne's uncles Richard and Robert Manning in Raymond. During this time. becoming infamous for his harsh sentencing. 1841 (Peabody Essex Museum) In the summer of 1816. 1813. for fun. In spite of his homesickness.Wikipedia. for that part of the country was wild then. he distributed to his family seven issues of The Spectator in August and September 1820. young Nathaniel. and nine tenths of it primeval woods". was one of the judges who oversaw the Salem witch trials.php?title=Nathaniel_Hawthorne&printable=yes 2/13 Hawthorne's uncle Robert Manning insisted. Nathaniel Hathorne. a Puritan.2 Short story collections 3. and news utilizing the young author's developing adolescent humor..1 Novels 3. though several physicians could find nothing wrong with him. in an effort to dissociate himself from his notorious forebears. poems. In 1819. the Mannings. with only scattered clearings.2 Criticism 3 Selected works 3. John Hathorne. young Hawthorne was hit on the leg while playing "bat and ball" and became lame and bedridden for a year. was the first of the family to emigrate from England.1 Literary style and themes 2. Years later. first settling in Dorchester. http://en.org/w/index. in Salem. Hawthorne looked back at his time in Maine fondly: "Those were delightful days.
he joined the transcendentalist Utopian community at Brook Farm in 1841 not because he agreed with the experiment but because it helped him save money to marry Sophia. Hawthorne was sent to Bowdoin College in 1821. but Hawthorne was almost pathologically shy and stayed silent when at gatherings. I was an idle student. but only dreamed about living". He contributed short stories. Hawthorne wrote most of the tales collected in Mosses from an Old Manse. After public flirtations with local women Mary Silsbee and Elizabeth Peabody.500 a year. though his Brook Farm adventure would prove an inspiration for his novel The Blithedale Romance. at a ceremony in the Peabody parlor on circa 1850 West Street in Boston. he rented a room from George Stillman Hillard. Early career In 1836 Hawthorne served as the editor of the American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge. During his time there.org/w/index. but did not remain a bachelor for life. Once at the school. rather choosing to nurse my own fancies than to dig into Greek roots and be numbered among the learned Thebans.4/3/2014 Nathaniel Hawthorne . business partner of Charles Sumner. 1842. Marriage and family Boston Custom House. Years after his graduation with the class of 1825. His neighbor. Horatio Bridge offered to cover the risk of collecting these stories in the spring of 1837 into one volume. the free encyclopedia Hawthorne's uncle Robert Manning insisted. he wrote: "I have not lived. and also because of its relatively inexpensive tuition rate.wikipedia. Hawthorne wrote in the comparative obscurity of what he called his "owl's nest" in the family home. As he looked back on this period of his life. Custom House Street. he also met the future poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. he would describe his college experience to Richard Henry Stoddard: I was educated (as the phrase is) at Bowdoin College.Wikipedia. to various magazines and annuals. negligent of college rules and the Procrustean details of academic life. On the way to Bowdoin. despite Hawthorne's protests. future congressman Jonathan Cilley.1839– 1840 While at Bowdoin. Ralph Waldo Emerson. partly because of family connections in the area. where Hawthorne worked ca. Seeking a possible home for himself and Sophia. 1839. He paid a $1.php?title=Nathaniel_Hawthorne&printable=yes 3/13 . By 1836 he had won the wager. illustrator and transcendentalist Sophia Peabody. which he accepted on January 17. http://en. With the financial support of his uncle. He was offered an appointment as weigher and gauger at the Boston Custom House at a salary of $1. invited him into his social circle. Hawthorne met future president Franklin Pierce and the two became fast friends. He left later that year. that the boy attend college. he began pursuing the latter's sister. Hawthorne bet his friend Jonathan Cilley a bottle of Madeira wine that Cilley would get married before he did. at the stage stop in Portland. Twice-Told Tales. which made Hawthorne known locally. The couple moved to The Old Manse in Concord. including "Young Goodman Brown" and "The Minister's Black Veil". During this time he boarded with the poet Thomas Green Fessenden on Hancock Street in Beacon Hill in Boston. Massachusetts. and future naval reformer Horatio Bridge.000 deposit and was put in charge of shoveling the hill of manure referred to as "the Gold Mine". Hawthorne married Julian and Una Hawthorne Sophia Peabody on July 9. though none drew major attention to the author. where they lived for three years. At the Old Manse.
deeply affected by the death of his mother shortly thereafter in late July. http://en. Hawthorne wrote a letter of protest to the Boston Daily Advertiser which was attacked by the Whigs and supported by the Democrats. Middle years In April 1846..wikipedia. She was the very image of death-agony. Hawthorne was officially appointed as the "Surveyor for the District of Salem and Beverly and Inspector of the Revenue for the Port of Salem" at an annual salary of $1. any more than in my heart. Guests that came to speak that season included Emerson. In one of her journals.. I have business on earth now. a daughter. Pond Lily. the poet Ellery Channing came to the Old Manse for help. Nathaniel and Sophia Hawthorne had three children. Their first. She was named Una. Hawthorne lost this job due to the change of administration in Washington after the presidential election of 1848. I find myself dreaming about stories.Wikipedia. the .org/w/index. Hawthorne wrote that she "is... Whipple & Black. jewels of beauty in his productions that I am always looking forward to a second reading where I can ponder and muse and fully take in the miraculous wealth of thoughts. in the strictest sense. Like his earlier appointment to the custom house in Boston. Louis Agassiz and Theodore Parker. The Hawthornes enjoyed a long and happy marriage.. which he described as "a spectacle of such perfect horror. Hawthorne wrote to a friend. was needed to find her body. "the darkest hour I ever lived". was born in May 1851. A Democrat.. Throughout her early life. Of his wife. who claimed to be your nephew". Hawthorne was Daguerrotype of Hawthorne.4/3/2014 Nathaniel Hawthorne . and I need no other—there is no vacancy in my mind..200." In 1846. was born March 3. my sole companion. Hawthorne wrote to his sister Louisa on June 22. 1844.. A local teenager named Martha Hunt had drowned herself in the river and Hawthorne's boat. she had frequent migraines and underwent several experimental medical treatments. Whenever I sit alone. Thoreau. their son Julian was born. She was mostly bedridden until her sister introduced her to Hawthorne." The incident later inspired a scene in his novel The Blithedale Romance. but these forenoons in the Custom House undo all that the afternoons and evenings have done. On the first anniversary of the Hawthornes' marriage. making Hawthorne's dismissal a much-talked about event in New England. a reference to The Faerie Queene. I should be happier if I could write. the free encyclopedia Like Hawthorne. 1846. the depth. Sophia was a reclusive person. He had difficulty writing during this period. to the displeasure of family members. and must look about me for the means of doing it. as of old. 1848 calling it. after which her headaches seem to have abated. Hawthorne called her "my autumnal flower". Their final child. Thank God that I suffice for her boundless heart!" Sophia greatly admired her husband's work. There is no escaping it any longer.. or walk alone. Rose.. Hawthorne was appointed the corresponding secretary of the Salem Lyceum in 1848. she wrote: I am always so dazzled and bewildered with the richness. as he admitted to Longfellow: I am trying to resume my pen. Hawthorne helped recover the corpse. "I find it a very sober and serious kind of happiness that springs from the birth of a child. with the news: "A small troglodyte made his appearance here at ten minutes to six o'clock this morning. this employment was vulnerable to the politics of the spoils system. whom he referred to as his "Dove".php?title=Nathaniel_Hawthorne&printable=yes 4/13 .
 Melville. Hawthorne became friends with Herman Melville beginning on August 5. wrote that these stories revealed a dark side to Hawthorne. 1851. too painfully anatomical in his exhibition of them"." The Wayside and Europe In 1852. Hawthorne and his family moved to a small red farmhouse near Lenox. Melville had just read Hawthorne's short story collection Mosses from an Old Manse.. his appointment ended at the close of the Pierce administration and the Hawthorne family toured France and Italy. "If he makes out Pierce to be a great man or a brave man. One of the first mass-produced books in America. The House of the Seven Gables (1851). depicting him as "a man of peaceful pursuits" in the book.. the critic Edwin Percy Whipple. Horace Mann said. I have felt languid and dispirited. they bought The Hillside. Nevertheless. it initiated his most lucrative period as a writer. who was composing Moby-Dick at the time. writing that the book "is therefore apt to become. Hawthorne was rewarded in 1853 with the position of United States consul in Liverpool shortly after the publication of Tanglewood Tales. during almost my whole residence. "I am sick to death of Berkshire. including a preface which refers to his three-year tenure in the Custom House and makes several allusions to local politicians. objected to the novel's "morbid intensity" and its dense psychological details.Wikipedia. A Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys. Massachusetts at the end of March 1850. In February. He also published in 1851 a collection of short stories retelling myths. 1850. a home previously inhabited by Amos Bronson Alcott and his family. his only work written in the first person. a book he had been thinking about writing since 1846. it sold 2. That year Hawthorne wrote the campaign biography of his friend Franklin Pierce. who did not appreciate their treatment. During his time in Italy. titled "Hawthorne and His Mosses". Hawthorne depicted Pierce as a statesman and soldier who had accomplished no great feats because of his need to make "little noise" and so "withdrew into the background".4/3/2014 Nathaniel Hawthorne . They left on November 21. were written here. The book was immediately pirated by booksellers in London[citation needed ] and became an immediate best-seller in the United States. One of Hawthorne's friends. In the biography. considered the most lucrative foreign service position at the time. In 1857. was printed in The Literary World on August 17 and August 24. With Pierce's election as President. Their neighbors in Concord included Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. Hawthorne did not enjoy the winters in their small red house. http://en. He also left out Pierce's drinking habits despite rumors of his alcoholism and emphasized Pierce's belief that slavery could not "be remedied by human contrivances" but would. H. The role. which he titled The Life of Franklin Pierce. it will be the greatest work of fiction he ever wrote"." Hawthorne's time in The Berkshires was very productive. and renamed it The Wayside. and his unsigned review of the collection. over time. this book is inscribed to Nathaniel Hawthorne. Melville dedicated Moby-Dick (1851) to Hawthorne: "In token of my admiration for his genius. "shrouded in blackness. though 20th-century writer D.php?title=Nathaniel_Hawthorne&printable=yes 5/13 . Lawrence said that there could be no more perfect work of the American imagination than The Scarlet Letter. Though the family enjoyed the scenery of The Berkshires. which poet and critic James Russell Lowell said was better than The Scarlet Letter and called "the most valuable contribution to New England history that has been made" and The Blithedale Romance (1852). the poet Ellery Channing reported that Hawthorne "has suffered much living in this place". like Hawthorne. was described by Hawthorne's wife as "second in dignity to the Embassy in London".500 over 14 years.500 volumes within ten days and earned Hawthorne $1. "vanish like a dream". ten times black". when the authors met at a picnic hosted by a mutual friend. the previously clean-shaven Hawthorne grew a bushy mustache. Hawthorne noted.wikipedia. the Hawthornes returned to Concord.org/w/index. the free encyclopedia Hawthorne returned to writing and published The Scarlet Letter in mid-March 1850.
 His later writings also reflect his negative view of the Transcendentalism movement. Ticknor handled many of Hawthorne's personal matters. http://en." His wife Sophia and daughter Una were originally buried in England. that might be more fully rendered. she was too saddened by the news to handle the funeral arrangements herself. dark romanticism. Longfellow wrote a tribute poem to Hawthorne. Hawthorne insisted on a recuperative trip with his friend Franklin Pierce. it was Fields who convinced Hawthorne to turn The Scarlet Letter into a novel rather than a short story. published in 1866. I suppose. including the purchase of cigars. according to a friend. in Plymouth. though his neighbor Bronson Alcott was concerned Hawthorne was too ill..php?title=Nathaniel_Hawthorne&printable=yes 6/13 . sin. cautionary tales that suggest that guilt.—in the painful solitude of the man. at the time a freshman at Harvard College. D. his first new book in seven years. they were reinterred in plots adjacent to Hawthorne. bordering on surrealism. He wrote about his experiences in the essay "Chiefly About War Matters" in 1862. Oliver Wendell Holmes.C. While on a tour of the White Mountains. James Thomas Fields. learned of his father's death the next day. Later years and death At the outset of the American Civil War. Literary style and themes Hawthorne's works belong to romanticism or. Pierce sent a telegram to Elizabeth Peabody to inform Hawthorne's wife in person. called "The Bells of Lynn". Hawthorne traveled with William D. Grave of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Hawthorne died in his sleep on May 19. and Edwin Percy Whipple.Wikipedia. New Hampshire. There. it was the same day he was initiated into the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity by being placed blindfolded into a coffin. Hawthorne's son Julian. Sr. Hawthorne once told Fields. and that year saw the publication of The Marble Faun. overseeing financial accounts. Emerson wrote of the funeral: "I thought there was a tragic element in the event.org/w/index. Pallbearers included Longfellow. In fact. His depictions of the past are a version of historical fiction used only as a vehicle to express common themes of ancestral sin. Failing health prevented him from completing several more romances. referring to himself as "wrinkled with time and trouble". Hawthorne admitted he had aged considerably.4/3/2014 Nathaniel Hawthorne . and even purchasing clothes. in June 2006. guilt and retribution. Suffering from pain in his stomach. could no longer be endured. and evil are the most inherent natural qualities of humanity. the free encyclopedia The family returned to The Wayside in 1860. 1864.wikipedia. "I care more for your good opinion than for that of a host of critics". coincidentally. Concord. combining historical romance loaded with symbolism and deep psychological themes. However. more specifically. & he died of it. Hawthorne was buried on what is now known as "Authors' Ridge" in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery. Hawthorne was left "apparently dazed". Alcott. Ticknor to Washington.. Writings Hawthorne had a particularly close relationship with his publishers William Ticknor and James Thomas Fields. he met Abraham Lincoln and other notable figures. which. Massachusetts. Many of his works are inspired by Puritan New England. Ticknor died with Hawthorne at his side in Philadelphia in 1864. Emerson.
org/w/index.4/3/2014 Nathaniel Hawthorne . Selected works Novels http://en. however. His four major romances were written between 1850 and 1860: The Scarlet Letter (1850).php?title=Nathaniel_Hawthorne&printable=yes 7/13 . because his writing is not good for anything. Poe's negative assessment was partly due to his own contempt of allegory and moral tales. critics have focused on symbolism and didacticism. The House of the Seven Gables (1851). thoughtful. Fanshawe was published anonymously in 1828. "The fine thing in Hawthorne is that he cared for the deeper psychology. saying. plaintive. and that. Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote that "Nathaniel Hawthorne's reputation as a writer is a very pleasing fact. The Library of America selected Hawthorne's "A Collection of Wax Figures" for inclusion in its two-century retrospective of American True Crime.. and he expected little response from the public. Upon publishing Twice-Told Tales. Massachusetts Criticism Edgar Allan Poe wrote important and somewhat unflattering reviews of both Twice-Told Tales and Mosses from an Old Manse.wikipedia. though he admitted. in his way. "I do not think much of them". "Young Goodman Brown". he is the most original. and in full accordance with his themes. We look upon him as one of the few men of indisputable genius to whom our country has as yet given birth. "Wakefield" and "Feathertop". although he admits that he favors James as the greatest American novelist.Wikipedia. he tried to become familiar with it". Contemporary response to Hawthorne's work praised his sentimentality and moral purity while more modern evaluations focus on the dark psychological complexity. Statue of Hawthorne in Salem. The Blithedale Romance (1852) and The Marble Faun (1860). Poet John Greenleaf Whittier wrote that he admired the "weird and subtle beauty" in Hawthorne's tales. the one least indebted to foreign models or literary precedents of any kind". In 2008. and this is a tribute to the man". Hawthorne defined a romance as being radically different from a novel by not being concerned with the possible or probable course of ordinary experience. he noted. and his chronic accusations of plagiarism. His tone is singularly effective—wild. Evert Augustus Duyckinck said of Hawthorne. Henry James praised Hawthorne. Major Molineux"." Hawthorne also wrote nonfiction. the free encyclopedia Hawthorne was predominantly a short story writer in his early career. Bloom sees Hawthorne's greatest works to be principally The Scarlet Letter followed by The Marble Faun and certain short stories including "My Kinsman.. Hawthorne describes his romance-writing as using "atmospherical medium as to bring out or mellow the lights and deepen and enrich the shadows of the picture. The critic Harold Bloom has opined that only Henry James and William Faulkner challenge Hawthorne's position as the greatest American novelist. Beginning in the 1950s. In the preface to The House of the Seven Gables. The style of Hawthorne is purity itself. Another novel-length romance. "Of the American writers destined to live.
UK publication. same year) The Dolliver Romance (1863) (unfinished) Septimus Felton. and Other Twice-Told Tales (1852) The Midas myth. the free encyclopedia Fanshawe (published anonymously. or.4/3/2014 Nathaniel Hawthorne .'s Correspondence" (1845) "Ethan Brand" (1850) http://en. The Romance of Monte Beni. The Romance of Monte Beni (1860) (as Transformation: Or. 1828) The Scarlet Letter (1850) The House of the Seven Gables (1851) The Blithedale Romance (1852) The Marble Faun: Or.org/w/index.Wikipedia. the Elixir of Life (Published in the Atlantic Monthly. from A WonderA Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys (1852) Book for Girls and Boys. with Preface and Notes by Julian Hawthorne (1882) Short story collections Twice-Told Tales (1837) Grandfather's Chair (1840) Mosses from an Old Manse (1846) The Snow-Image.wikipedia. Illustration Tanglewood Tales (1853) by Walter Crane for the 1893 edition. or. Heidegger's Experiment" (1837) "A Virtuoso's Collection" (May 1842) "The Birth-Mark" (March 1843) "Egotism. The Dolliver Romance and Other Pieces (1876) The Great Stone Face and Other Tales of the White Mountains (1889) The Celestial Railroad and Other Short Stories A Wonder-Book for Young and Old (1851) Publisher: The Rogers Company Selected short stories "Roger Malvin's Burial" (1832) "My Kinsman. Major Molineux" (1832) "Young Goodman Brown" (1835) "The Gray Champion" (1835) "The White Old Maid" (1835) "Wakefield" (1835) "The Ambitious Guest" (1835) "The Minister's Black Veil" (1836) "The Man of Adamant" (1837) "The Maypole of Merry Mount" (1837) "The Great Carbuncle" (1837) "Dr.php?title=Nathaniel_Hawthorne&printable=yes 8/13 . 1872) Doctor Grimshawe's Secret: A romance (unfinished). The Bosom-Serpent" (1843) "The Artist of the Beautiful" (1846) "Rappaccini's Daughter" (1844) "P.
76 19. ^ McFarland. ^ Mellow. ^ Miller.org/infoview/PBK_InfoView. 102 27. 13. No. ^ Manning Hawthorne. 17 8. ^ Mellow.com/html/downeast_mag. DC: The Preservation Press. 4. ^ Haas. ^ Mellow. ^ Cheever. ^ Mellow.pbk.com/books?id=ZGgeAQAAIAAJ). 160 31. ^ Wineapple. 22 14. 44–45 17. ^ McFarland. Boston: Marsh & Capen. The New England Quarterly. ^ Wineapple. 87 36. ^ McFarland. 87–88 21. 2 (Jun. 169 22. 37. June 4. Fanshawe (http://books. ^ a b Edwards.org/w/index. 21 13. ^ Cheever.aspx?t=&id=59). ISBN 0-89133-180-8. 6–7 35.hawthorneassoc. Aug. ^ Miller. ^ Miller. 26.google.Wikipedia. "Nathaniel Hawthorne in Maine (http://www. 3. The Bookman (http://books.php?title=Nathaniel_Hawthorne&printable=yes 9/13 . Herbert. 1991: 118. Berg Collection NY Public Library. 50 12.4/3/2014 Nathaniel Hawthorne . 18 6. ^ January 14. 246–247 34. ^ McFarland. Vol. ^ Schreiner. 123 33. ^ George Edwin Jepson. ^ Miller. 22–23 25. ^ a b McFarland.google. Washington. 20 11. Historic Homes of American Authors. ^ McFarland. ^ Letter to Longfellow. 1962 16. ^ Miller. ^ Cheever. 116–117 38. Hawthorne in the Boston Custom House. accessed Oct 4. 20–21 7. ^ Schreiner. 24. ^ Miller. 2009 2. 104 29. ^ Miller. 18 10. 169 23.. 47 9.com/books?id=yVQ4AAAAIAAJ&lpg=PA72). 20. ^ Who Belongs To Phi Beta Kappa (http://www.html)". the free encyclopedia "The Great Stone Face" (1850) "Feathertop" (1852) See also Gothic literature Notes 1. ^ Wineapple. ^ Wineapple. Nathaniel (1828). Irvin. 25 32. "Nathaniel Hawthorne at Bowdoin". 1837.wikipedia. 1851. ^ McFarland. 149 30. 1904. Phi Beta Kappa website. Journal of Sophia Hawthorne. ^ McFarland. 57 15. 97 http://en. 1940): 246–279. 99 18. ^ Mellow. 83 28. ^ Mellow. ^ Hawthorne. 20–21 5. 'Downeast Magazine'.
180 ^ Miller. 52.4/3/2014 38. 412 ^ Miller. 67. 9 ^ Miller. The Boston Globe. 55.Wikipedia. 81. 80.wikipedia. 73. 297 ^ Mishra. 61. 58. 96 ^ Miller. 284 ^ Miller. 206 ^ Mellow. 520 ^ Schreiner. 301–302 ^ Miller. MA: The University of Massachusetts Press. 2008 ^ Madison. 210 ^ McFarland. 39. 78. 41. 68. New York: Oxford University Press. the free encyclopedia ^ McFarland. http://en. 50. 69. 381 ^ Schreiner. Jack (August 15. Carlos. 57. 76. 59. Raja and Sally Heaney.com/article/Nathaniel-Hawthornes-Untold/123889). 265 ^ Cheever. 82.com/news/local/articles/2006/06/01/hawthornes_to_be_reunited/)". 415 ^ McFarland. 274 ^ Cheever. 42. SC: The History Press. 72. ^ Wagenknecht. 312 ^ Mellow. 186 ^ Mellow. ISBN 0-670-86675-X. 335 ^ Mellow. 518 ^ Matthews.boston. Hawthorne's Haunts in New England. John Hardy. 1993 (first published 1959): 56. Literary Publishing in America: 1790–1850. 382 ^ a b Wright. The Chronicle Review. 53.org/w/index. 63. 85. ISBN 0-87023-801-9 ^ Madison. 74. 97 ^ Schreiner. 43. 119 ^ Mellow. New York: Viking Press. Charleston. 45. 49. 2006. 65. 170–171 ^ Mellow. 2008: 93. 242 ^ Miller. ^ Baker. ^ McFarland. 372 ^ Miller. Accessed July 4. 54. 84. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: Portrait of an American Humanist. 129–130 ^ McFarland. 51. 46. William. 66. 47. 1966: 9. Emerson Among the Eccentrics: A Group Portrait. 48. Amherst. 60. 62.php?title=Nathaniel_Hawthorne&printable=yes Nathaniel Hawthorne . 264–265 ^ Miller. 44. 316 ^ a b McFarland. 136 ^ Cheever. 75. 242 ^ McFarland. 2010). 207 ^ Wineapple. June 1. ISBN 978-1-59629-425-7 ^ Mellow. 382–383 ^ McFarland. 40. 1996: 448. 181 ^ Miller. 343–344 ^ Miller. 77. 281 ^ Charvat. 71. 15 10/13 . 241 ^ Wineapple. 179 ^ Cheever. "Hawthornes to be reunited (http://www. 83. 56. 79. 300 ^ Mellow. 273 ^ Miller. 368–369 ^ Miller. 182 ^ a b Miller. "Nathaniel Hawthorne's Untold Tale" (http://chronicle. 70. Retrieved 2010-0817. 64. 345 ^ Wineapple. Edward.
Conn. Their Lives. 2004. ISBN 07876-6517-7 93. Literary Movements for Students. Roland H. "Nathaniel Hawthorne". ^ Wayne. Daniel Walker. and the Friendship that Freed the American Mind. Joel. 1985: 293.pagebypagebooks. 4 103. 1980: 173. Hawthorne and the Historical Romance of New England. McFarland. ISBN 0-8160-5626-9. 100. External links http://en. 95 95. 1974. Haverhill.wikipedia. 1981: 150. Page by Page Books. 98. Encyclopedia of Transcendentalism.org/w/index. Melville. 102. Detroit: Thompson Gale.: Wesleyan University Press. Miller.. ISBN 978-0-19-507894-7. ISBN 0-87745-332-2. 237 96. Samuel A. ^ McFarland. Random House: New York. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-8129-7291-0. Randy F. Crews. ed. Middletown. ^ Woodwell. ^ Porte. Irving to Irving: Author-Publisher Relations 1800–1974. 1969. Edwin Haviland. Los Altos. California: William Kaufmann. New York: Facts on File. Oxford University Press. 2003. 1815–1848. Nathaniel Hawthorne. NJ: John Wiley and Sons. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. 1966. the free encyclopedia References Cheever. accessed June 11. David S. ISBN 0-8021-1776-7. John Greenleaf Whittier: A Biography. Wineapple. ISBN 0-471-64663-6. ^ Nelson. 88–89 97.php?title=Nathaniel_Hawthorne&printable=yes 11/13 . "Bibliographical Essay: Hawthorne and History".Wikipedia. 2001: 187. ^ Reynolds. Cambridge. ^ Person. New York: Oxford University Press. New York: R. ^ McFarland. ^ Wineapple.4/3/2014 85. Bowker Company. ISBN 0-7862-9521-X. Their Work . 2007. Michael Davitt. What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America. 513–514 87. ^ Bell. Philip.. Madison. ISBN 0-691-06136-X 90. Hawthorne. The Almanac of American Letters. Porte. American Bloomsbury: Louisa May Alcott. The Concord Quartet: Alcott. reprinted 1989. collected in A Historical Guide to Nathaniel Hawthorne. Jr. James R. Inc. Mellow. 89. Salem Is My Dwelling Place: A Life of Nathaniel Hawthorne. 1991. ISBN 0-19-512414-6. ISBN 0-674-06565-4 88. Vol. Berkeley: University of California Press. and Henry David Thoreau. Schreiner. 1. Nathaniel Hawthorne . ^ Miller. ^ Howe. Hawthorne. Hawthorne in Concord. ^ Nathaniel Hawthorne By Harold Bloom (2000) p9 104. Leland S. 97 99. ^ Publication info on books from Editor's Note (http://www. ^ Porte. Tiffany K. 104 94. Emerson. 2002: 319.. ^ Crews. Margaret Fuller. Frederick. 2006. 2006. The Sins of the Fathers: Hawthorne's Psychological Themes. 15 86. New York: Grove Press. Detroit: Thorndike Press. ^ Miller. 1988: 524. Hoboken. and James. 2007: 633. Nathaniel Hawthorne in His Times. Large print edition. 2006: 140. Thoreau.com/Nathaniel_Hawthorne/The_Scarlet_Letter/EDITOR_S_NOTE_p1. Inc. Beneath the American Renaissance: The Subversive Imagination in the Age of Emerson and Melville. Charles A. Susan. Brenda. (editor). Their Loves. Ralph Waldo Emerson. ^ a b Nathaniel Hawthorne By Harold Bloom xii 105. Poe. 1980. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Hawthorne: A Life. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.html) to The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne. 88 101. ^ Madison. Massachusetts: Trustees of the John Greenleaf Whittier Homestead. ISBN 0-86576-008-X. David. R. ISBN 0-520-06817-3. ISBN 0-36527602-0. 91. 28–29 92. The Romance in America: Studies in Cooper. ^ Crews. ^ Galens.
htm) in Concord. Joint diary of Sophia and Nathaniel Hawthorne (http://www.newpaltz. text and images Works by Nathaniel Hawthorne (http://www. 2004. Progress.org/library) of The Peabody Essex Museum in Salem.kellscraft.html) (1879) Second copy (http://www.7gables.html).org/Watch/179670-1/Brenda+Wineapple.org/nh/hawthorne.americanwriters.4/3/2014 Nathaniel Hawthorne .html) (1851) Henry James's book-length study. Maine The Wayside (http://www.aspx) Hawthorne: Science. 1883 (volume IX of the 13volume Riverside Edition of the Complete Works of Nathaniel Hawthorne).org/exhibitions/online/TheDiary/diary. Boston: Houghton.com/) and boyhood home in Raymond. by Nathaniel Hawthorne. Massachusetts The House of the Seven Gables (http://www.org/etext/18566) at Project Gutenberg WBUR's celebration of Nathaniel Hawthorne at 200 (http://www.asp) Hawthorne Family Papers.org/nh/hahm.asp) at C-SPAN's [[American writers: A Journey Through History]] Booknotes interview with Brenda Wineapple on Hawthorne: A Life.eldritchpress.org) in Salem. Massachusetts The Phillips Library (http://www.org/arts/2005/48691_20050101.wikipedia.eldritchpress.thenewatlantis.pem.gutenberg.php?title=Nathaniel_Hawthorne&printable=yes 12/13 .com/ProvinceHouse/ProvinceHousecontentpage. 1868.wbur.themorgan.com/publications/hawthorne-series-science-progress-and-human-nature). edited by Sophia Hawthorne. Massachusetts owns several well-known Hawthorne related manuscript collections.hawthorneassoc. Hawthorne (http://www2.nps.org/writers/hawthorne. January 4.gutenberg.org/identities/lccn-n79-7728) in libraries (WorldCat catalog) s]] http://en. housed in the Department of Special Collections (http://library. Mifflin.hawthorneinsalem. ca.org/w/index.oac.eldritchpress. and Human Nature (http://www.org/findaid/ark:/13030/tf487003nz). 1825–1929 (http://www.html) at Eldritch Press Legends of the Province House and Other Twice Told Tales (http://www.gov/nr/travel/pwwmh/ma47.org/author/Nathaniel_Hawthorne) at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Nathaniel Hawthorne (http://worldcat. series of essays on Hawthorne stories at The New Atlantis.stanford. Works Eldred's Hawthorne site (http://www.booknotes. the free encyclopedia About Hawthorne The Hawthorne in Salem (http://www.asp?id=3) at The Morgan Library & Museum Related websites Hawthorne Community Association (http://www.org/nh/pfanb01.edu/depts/spc/spc.Wikipedia.edu/~hathawar/nhhj1.html). Passages from the American Note-Books (http://www. "Hawthorne and His Mosses" (http://www.html) at Stanford University Libraries Nathaniel Hawthorne (http://www. (http://www.cdlib.org/) website Herman Melville's appreciation.
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