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39, Design, Application, Performance and Emissions Of Modern Internal Combustion Engine Systems and Components ASME2002


Dr. Rainer W. Jorach Dr. Wolfgang Scheibe Rolf Prillwitz Horst Ressel Dr. Leo Bakaj

ABSTRACT In August 1997 LOrange GmbH launched the first electronic common rail injection system in the world for application to mtu and DDC series 4000. This had a major impact on the entire Diesel engine industry as it made possible the highest improvements in fuel efficiency, exhaust-emissions and black smoke, power and torque. In the past five years, a complete range of common rail injection systems for Diesel, micro pilot, water and heavy fuel oil injection between 100 and 1050 kW/cyl have been introduced to the market by LOrange. Design and performance of these injection system types will be reviewed in brief. The evaluation of these systems including comparison of advantages and disadvantages led to the next generation concepts and design. One of the next generation type heavy fuel oil common rail injection systems will be presented in detail. INTRODUCTION As the emission legislation according to IMO Marpol Annex VI Reg. 13 of the International Maritime Organization [1] went into effect in January 2000, the limitation of exhaust and smoke emissions of large engines has come into focus once again. This tendency however had been started far earlier and affected the any local emission legislations with various measuring methods, limit values as well as limited emission components. LOrange realized early that common-rail injection would have the best potential for adaptation to these various boundary conditions. Therefore, challenging environmental objectives had been specified in the LOrange management system since, in addition, this new technology helped realizing new possibilities in product design and application. The worldwide first electronic common-rail injection system had been consequently introduced to the market in August 1997 [2, 3]. This trend set by LOrange, as it is common knowledge,

has been re-enacted until today in almost all diesel passenger vehicles and various trucks as well as further large engine applications. The above mentioned IMO regulation [1] limits the nitrogen oxide emission of marine engines between 17 g/kWh for two-stroke engines with nominal speed of less than 130 rpm and 9.8 g/kWh for high-speed engines with more than 2000 rpm. Thus, typical heavy-fuel oil medium-speed marine engines in the range of 400 rpm < n < 1200 rpm must be from NOx = 13.6 g/kWh down to 10.9 g/kWh meaning a considerable effort for the application of the conventional mechanical pump-linenozzle-system. On the other hand black smoke has come more and more into focus of heavy fuel oil engine customers especially in applications where low engine loads and speeds are more often used. Modern and innovative solutions are furthermore demanded as future potential for the subsequent optimization during a medium speed engines operation that usually lasts several decades.




LOrange has expanded and transferred its major experience in development, production, assembly and quality assurance of the common-rail injection system for the mtu/DDC series 4000 to further applications, Figure 1.

Figure 2: The common-rail diesel injection system for mtu/DDC series 4000 The principle of the sucking throttle has been implemented for the first time to control the injected fuel quantity. Since ist introduction on the LOrange injection system of the mtu/DDC 4000 series [2], this principle is used in the meantime or will be implemented shortly by almost all manufacturers in automotive common-rail injection systems. It provides a very high hydraulic efficiency even with partial stroke due to the phase control. Figure 1: LOrange common-rail injection systems in large engine development After having started to use exclusively marine diesel fuel (= MDF) [4, 5] or light fuel oil (= LFO) in single-component injection systems the transfer to micro-pilot injection for dual fuel engines [6, 7] had been relatively simple. More difficult became the water injection [8, 9] to decrease the nitrogen oxide emission in the range of about 50 % due to special material requirements. Even more technologically pretentious is the heavy fuel oil common-rail injection [9, 10, 11] due to the abrasive wear along the filigree regulation devices and due to the high fuel temperatures up to 160 C. The pump is initially outlined in radial design due to the available space. Recent developments have been more and more cost oriented due to even more intensive coordination between engine manufacturers and the supplier. In-line high pressure pumps, Figure 3, have been established, as well, in order to further extend the pump performance to 32 l/min at 1400 bar system pressure for a 20 V longstroke engine. In addition, the distinctions potential important for large engines will be more on the injectors side in future which enables the adaptation of one type of pump or one family of pumps on several different engine series.

Diesel common-rail injection systems The Diesel injection system for the mtu/DDC series 4000 high speed engines, Figure 2, is adequately well known thanks to its excellent features [2, 3]. Due to these features the engine is able to reach a very high power density compared to low noise and exhaust emissions. Therefore, it is especially suitable for the installation in high speed catamaran ferries and pleasure yachts, extra-large off road dump trucks for the mining industry, locomotives or gensets.


In addition, the accumulator volumes of the system are divided into 0.7 l per pump accumulator and 0.4 l per accumulator next to the injector. In addition to the known possibilities regarding the beginning of the injection, the quantity and pressure because of this realized concept the injectors do not influence each other to their disadvantage. The dynamic, stability limiting, peak loads in the injector or nozzle are very low as well. This is a basic requirement for fast injection systems with corresponding advantages in the development of combustion systems. Moreover, the total width of the engine which is important for the installation into catamaran ferries/twin hulls or locomotives can be kept in legitimate limits of specifications. A 410 kW and 450 kW output per cylinder for the first performance stage on the 20V engine can be reached by applying a nominal injection rate of 3333 mm/stroke and injection periods from 20 up to 30 CA [4, 5]. Figure 3: The new high pressure in-line pump for mtu/DDC series 4000 Due to the consistent evolution of the systems components the system pressure could be raised to 1400 bar with both pump types and injection rate could be optimized, so that continuous emission and smoke limits in various applications could be more easily fulfilled. For the application in mtus series 8000 medium speed engine, the diesel injection system know-how had been further developed into a system with hydraulically and geometrically optimized single accumulators and a system pressure of 1800 bar [4, 5]. This system has compared to all nowadays applied automotive common-rail injection systems the advantage that instead of a rigid rail one accumulator per cylinder, Figure 4, is applied very closely next to each injector. The two high pressure pumps are integrated front sided in the gear drive and are powered by the crankshaft with a transmission ratio of 1.65 and a nominal pump speed of 1800 rpm. The high pressure section of the injection system, in which high pressure generation and accumulation as well as fuel metering are executed, consists of mainly two high pressure pumps with integrated pump accumulators, up to 20 accumulators with integrated flow fuse, the high pressure jumper lines and up to 20 solenoid-operated injectors. Two 3-cylinder high pressure pumps with sucking throttle control that are powered by one roller-bearing camshaft each are used for fuel supply and pressure generation, Figure 5. A safety gear with a defined safety release momentum works with the gear drive of the engine and serves for the transmission of the required propulsion power as well as to protect both the pump towards gear drive and engine and vice versa. The common fuel pre-supply pump is flanged to the front side of one of the high pressure pumps.

Figure 4: Accumulator with integrated flow fuse and injector supply line of LOrange Commonrail injection system for mtu series 8000

Figure 5: Cross-section of 3-cylinder common-rail high pressure pump for mtu series 8000


The electronically controlled injector, Figure 6, takes care of the injection of the fuel into the combustion chamber, in the course of which the begin of injection and duration, and thereby the quantity, are controlled sec precisely by the exact solenoid current supply.

Micro-pilot common-rail injection systems for dualfuel engines Gas-powered medium speed engines with spark ignition are in spite of distinctive optimization still limited in their application by the durability of the spark plug and the limited combustion pressure. Consequently, the power density of gas engines has been reduced in relation to HFO engines by 20 % and more. For that reason LOrange examined since 1995 the potentials of pilot diesel injection systems, Figure 7, for the ignition initiation in gas engines with external mixture formation and lean burn combustion up to ! = 2. The additional heavy-fuel oil operation used as a possibility for emergency operation, provided a most significant complementary benefit [6, 7].

Figure 6: Cross-section of the solenoid injector for mtu series 8000 The system pressure lasts continuously almost constantly both at the injector needle seat and the control unit above the piston rod, which has, as opposed to many twin-circuit servosystems, the advantage of a faster actuation performance. Due to the various cross-sectional ratio of piston rod and injector needle the resulting hydraulic force component acts towards the closing direction. The armature is lifted by the current supply of the solenoid. It releases a very exact toleranced and produced cross-section of the outlet orifice in the control unit as a result of which the pressure that effects the piston rod breaks in. The nozzle needle lifts off the seat and starts the injection process. This process is limited by the interruption of the solenoid current. The closing flank of the injection rate can be shaped very steeply by the intermediate valve plate secondary to the control valve, for it opens additional inlet cross-sections during the closing of the solenoid valve. By this means, a fast closing of the needle can be made, to prevent after-dribbling, using high closing power which is not possible with conventional systems. The gradient of the injection rate at the beginning of the injection is therefore defined completely independent of the closing process by the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the in- and outflow orifices.

Figure 7: Cylinder head with twin-needle micro-pilot common-rail injector and gas injection valve [7] During the standardized gas operation the gas with less than 10 bar in a single pipe arrangement is injected with external mixture formation directly into the cylinder inlet port. For the exact control of the ignition start and to reach the necessary ignition conditions a supplementary amount of light fuel oil, which consists of about 1 to 0.5 % of the total fuel quantity, is injected through the smaller side of the twin-needle micro-pilot common-rail injector. In case of a failure of the gas supply the nominal performance, as a back-up solution, is possible by extremely fast switch over to the bigger side of the twin-needle injector. With this, 100 % of the necessary full-load quantity is injected as light fuel oil if the gas supply is safely shut down. By this means a safe and easy start of the engine is possible: The engine is started exclusively in light fuel oil operation and switches then into gas operation. The dangerous flame backfire into the suction and charge-air pipe respectively can be safely excluded. On the other hand even the heavy fuel


oil operation is possible through the further existing unchanged conventional side by re-exchanging the injector with the single standard injection valve. Large gas engines typically undercut the operative emission legislation by 50 % and more and have a noise level of less than 85 dB(A) at 1 m. Todays large heavy fuel oil engines on the other hand are dimensioned and adjusted for a tight but safe compliance of operative emission legislations upon the best fuel economy possible. Since the NOx-emission of pilot spray combusted gas engines depends mainly on the ignition quantity and timing, only an electronic controlled micro-pilot commonrail injection could be successful. In addition, the control of the micro-pilot injection effects through the common-rail system a self-supporting system set-up: The main components of the system are the twin-needle dual-fuel injectors and the common-rail high pressure pump. The injector housing is divided into two parts, Figure 8, which enables the application of the conventional injection components for independent LFO-operation in the upper housing. The common-rail components are accommodated in the bottom housing for the reduction of possible tolerances and optimization of the stability of the micro-pilot injection especially regarding injection quantity and begin. Subsequently to the design, production of an extremely difficult injector with two different eccentric nozzle needle guidings and seats is necessary, whose secure control had been the result of a systematic process development. In addition, a further requirement exists, which does not appear with any other known injection application: During operating exclusively on gas lasting several hours, the micro-pilot injection needle only is opened and only over this side the needle cooling fuel is injected and new cold fuel is re-supplied, while the main fuel side remains closed in spite of high temperatures in the combustion chamber and relatively long combustion periods with deposited fuel. Therefore the cooling of the injector by flowing fuel is not applicable on this side which has to be balanced by additional actions to prevent damages from injector coking.

Figure 8: Micro-pilot common-rail injector for medium-speed dual-fuel engines with 320 mm cylinder bore The well-known radial-piston pump is used as high pressure pump. In this application it is at first run by an independent electric motor which is limited to a nominal speed of n = 1500 rpm and leads to an operating pressure of 1000 bar. In the newest application, the Wrtsil W50DF [7], the pump is flanged to the gear drive of the engine as usual. From 1997 until today more than ten dual-fuel engines with LOrange injection technology have been introduced in the field with more than 100 000 cumulated operating hours. Due to the offshore applications initiated in 2002 the demand increases at present. The engine fulfills fire insulation to class A60. In offshore applications the gas is directly taken from the oil/gas production on board of FPSO vessels [7].

Water common-rail injection systems for direct water injection LOrange does not only use the common-rail injection technology for injection of the necessary fuel. Moreover, this technology has been adapted in close cooperation with Wrtsil to the injection of water to reduce the nitrogen oxide emission in the engine by more than 50 %. In the meantime, twin-needle water injection systems have been developed for the engine types Vaasa 32DWI, W32DWI and W46DWI and have been introduced to the field with about 400 cylinders. Further series have been announced and will follow shortly [8, 9]. Due to the economical incentives by NOx-dependent harbor taxes in the Baltic States, more than 10 ferries and ro/ro vessels have already been converted to direct water injection as


a so-called retrofit solution. A retrofit solution is the conversion of a conventional injection system to a modern electronically system where the engine neither has to be significantly redesigned nor considerably rebuilt. The sidewise application of an additional sole-water injector is possible for some cylinder heads. For this application a single-type water injector has been developed so that fuel can only be injected centrally. The described systems [8, 9] require water of a quality similar to tap water, i. e. at a pH-value of 5 to 8, a low hardness of about 10 degrees dH to avoid any calcium precipitations, and with a chlorine content of < 80 mg/l. The water is compressed in two steps up to 400 bar. A mechanical flow fuse is installed in each accumulator which locks the injector inlet immediately in case of permanent injection or other excess quantities to avoid a damaging water compression, Figure 9. This flow fuse is installed into one accumulator each made of a special waterresistant material, but is not shown below. The main element of the injection system is the twin-needle common-rail injector made of a corrosion-resistant material. The conventional pressure-controlled heavy fuel oil injection and the timecontrolled common-rail water injection are located next to each other in the same injector housing. The injector housing is split into two pieces which enables the installation of the conventional HFO technology in the upper part. Consequently, the required space is kept narrow and the existing space is absolutely sufficient. The conventional injection technology has been known for decades but is absolutely open to technical innovations. It is therefore not further enlarged. The water common-rail injection technology as a matter of principle is the equivalent of the single-circuit servo concept. Again the solenoid releases a control unit outlet throttle cross-section by lifting the armature which enables the lifting of the piston rod and consequently enables the lifting of the nozzle needle and starts the water injection. The decisive advantage of this kind of system is the optimum configuration of each subsystem and certainly the central installation of the injector in the cylinder head which is optimum for the combustion process. Thus, the HFO-subsystem is solely designed for optimal HFO-operation as far as its control response and spray hole geometry are concerned, and, in case of any failure of water supply, operation will automatically continue in an optimal way by the electronic control unit. Speed governor and control rack are readjusted accordingly.

Figure 9: Twin-needle common-rail water and heavy fuel oil injection system If the water fails, the emissions are with this operating manner as high as with the conventional system. It is therefore independent of the function of the water supply. By means of concept, Figure 10 compares the possible diesel/water injection systems against one another. There is the emulsion principle, the principle of stratified injection and the direct water injection as applied by LOrange. Related to the injected water proportion the NOx reduction might be lower than in the compared systems. The possible water proportion however is distinctively higher which leads to a reduction in NOx emissions. Due to the direct storage of the water in the fuel in the emission process, the soot reduction is higher. The adaptability of the water/fuel ratio in the stratified injection and for the direct water injector is advantageous. Furthermore, the requirements regarding cavitation and wear are lower than for example for the emulsion system, where the water is already available in the conventional pump. The system effort is much lower due to the existing independent subsystems. The crucial advantage is the independence of the water infra-structure, i. e. the spray hole cross-sections of the HFO injection are optimized for the heavy fuel oil operation alone while the water injection is added independently.



high speed

medium speed

Power output/cyl. Pe [kW]

1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Single-circuit injectors

low speed

diesel micro-pilot water

Single-circuit injectors in any application

single or twincircuit injectors

Cylinder bore [mm]

Figure 10: Comparison of the different water injection methods The essential challenges and changed fringe conditions in the production have been consequently considered for the realization of a safe process in the series adaptation. These are: Water-resistant materials of high hardness and temperature stability Good running qualities with reduced lubricating properties of water Enhanced efforts against needle seat excentricity in the case of multi-needle nozzles Necessity of a special water calibration test rig for calibration and as production end-control for every single injector

Figure 11: LOrange single and twin-circuit HFOCommon-Rail injection systems It depends on the requirements of the engine manufacturer, the engine size, and the field of application, whether the presented single-circuit system in detail [9, 10] with almost constant pressure at the nozzle seat even in the injection pause, Figure 12, or the twin-circuit system with pressure shut-off between the injections, Figure 13, should be preferred. Both LOrange systems are available and run now on several medium speed engine types.

In summary: The NOx-emission of HFO medium-speed engines can be more than halved by the water injection. The black smoke emission as well is significantly lower compared to the heavy fuel oil operation alone due to its possibility to change the beginning of injection. An optimum HFO combustion is completely guaranteed even in the case of shut down of the water injection. The free application possibilities in the engine map by using common-rail technology are known. The system effort is acceptable. The corrosion and wear resistance are guaranteed due to special materials and a special heat treatment. The high process capability is guaranteed by the high effort put into manufacturing, assembly and calibration. The series application with more than 400 cylinders has been realized. The expansion of this technology into further engine series including cruise ship applications is in process. Heavy fuel oil common-rail injection systems LOrange follows simultaneously two directions of development for HFO common-rail injection systems, Figure 11:

Figure 12: Hydraulic connection scheme of the LOrange single circuit HFO common rail injector


The single-circuit system is in comparison dimensioned for a high operating speed to enable optimal multiple injections. Therefore, the system pressure remains in the nozzle element. Because of this delays resulting from the charging of the system barely exist. Subsequently, it is able to pilot- and post-inject very small quantities. Such a system provides therefore low NOx-emissions and noise without being disadvantageous towards the reduction of the black smoke due to the full system pressure that appears at the beginning and above all at the end of the injection. In addition, the single-circuit system is clearly simpler and cost efficient and the connection to the engine lubricating-oil system is not necessarily applicable, which makes it favorable for smaller and mid-size HFO engines. It will be described in detail during the following chapter.

Heavy fuel oil common-rail injection system with single-circuit injector Figure 13: Hydraulic connection scheme of the LOrange twin-circuit HFO common rail injection system In the twin-circuit injector the shut-off piston above the nozzle needle prevents the fuel discharge in the injection pause, as well as for a seizing or leaking heavy fuel oil shuttle valve. Consequently, an individual flow fuse per cylinder is not necessary. This made it an ideal first step with reduced risks into the delicate heavy-fuel oil common-rail technology, where any high wear wont destroy the complete systems function. The immediately visible high complexity of the system and the distinctive lower operating speed compared with the singlecircuit system which allows only restricted multiple injections, is a disadvantage of the twin-circuit system. It is explicitly used at cylinder bore of 320 mm and above with its high orifice flow regions. Figure 14 gives an impression of the injectors shape. The series production of the complete system has been started. System Layout Figure 15 shows the system architecture of the singlecircuit HFO common-rail injection system with which in the meantime far more than 3000 hours have been run on the component test rig as well as more than 400 hours each for the diesel and the heavy fuel oil operation in the engine. The HFO specifications used range from RMC 10 up to RMH 55, which corresponds to a kinematical viscosity of 10 to 55 cSt at 100 C or of 40 to 700 cSt at 50 C. This design as well can be retrofitted, i. e. it had been optimally adapted to an existing engine by avoiding larger modifications. For that two HFO high pressure unit pumps are installed at existing spaces of the pump bench. A rail of about 2.3 m length running along the engine uses the existing space above the pump bench. The injectors are connected to the rail by pressure lines and flow fuses that are directly attached to the rail. For safety reasons the pressure lines are designed double-walled like the rail. The rail is designed safely with a calibrated maximum pressure valve and a high pressure sensor. Future developments [11] become significantly more flexibly applicable, more cost efficient and easy-tomaintain due to solutions based on the initially described high pressure in-line pump. Through appropriate application of one or more pumps in 2-, 4- or 6-cylinder design, the same technology will be possible for various engine types with different cylinders.

Figure 14: Heavy fuel oil twin-circuit common-rail injector with solenoid valve


production. The outlet throttle of the control unit and the pilot valve have been designed highly wear resistant in regards to the high abrasive wear behavior of heavy fuel oil. The solenoid armature moves a valve rod which is positioned in an intermediate piece to decouple itself from the high heavy fuel oil temperatures. The pilot valve is positioned at the bottom of the valve rod and opens and closes the outlet throttle. Evolutions target to the modular combination and easy exchange of the wear components in the injector.

Figure 15: HFO common-rail injection system

HFO Pump design The HFO-common rail injection system is operated with a pressure control depending on the engine map at a system pressure of up to 1600 bar. The sucking throttle solenoid on the pump is controlled and activated by the engine control unit. The pump, see Figure 3, is of very stiff design with a single housing containing the pump elements as well as roller tappets and the camshaft. In order to safely prevent lacquer accumulation at the plunger surface from a chemical interaction between fuel oil and the engine lube oil, the spring chambers are strictly divided into upper and lower cavities. The assembly of all the pump elements as well as roller tappets takes place from the top which decreases operational cost and time for overhaul The pump is directly driven by the engines gear drive from the crankshaft. Through the use of constant pressure valves on the inlet side the volumetric efficiency is high as already stated on current LOrange common-rail pumps. The quantity of fuel oil is controlled using the suction throttle principle, which guarantees high hydraulic efficiency also in the case of partial stroke by the phase control: similar to the conventional injection pump with a helix or solenoid valve control, the delivery rate when using the suction throttle principle is not controlled by adjusting the plunger stroke as is usual for hydraulic pumps but by the degree of use of the stroke. Solenoid HFO injector The solenoid operated common-rail injector, Figure 16, is designed especially for heavy fuel oil operation, even though its hydraulic basis has been consistently proven on the mtu/DDC series 4000, and has been used in the meantime for over 100.000 cylinders in the field. The HFO-injector, from the lower part of the nozzle to the inlet throttle of the control unit, corresponds to the series 4000 and 8000 concept used in series

Figure 16: Heavy fuel oil common-rail injector for up to 190 kW/cylinder with solenoid valve Circulation valve The circulation valve, Figure 17, is opened when the engine is at standstill and with pressure relieved rail. It ensures the preheating of the system with a running pre-supply pump. So, the flowing ability of the HFO is enabled and the HFO is safely prevented from solidification. The pressure in the rail necessary for the start of the engine is achieved by the closing of the valve. In addition, the electronic control unit switches the starting compressed air against the piston, as a result of which the valve component is pulled into its seat and is sealed. After exceeding the rail pressure of about 400 bar and after shut down of the starting compressed air control the valve remains automatically fail-safe closed supported by the internal rail pressure. After the engine stops and the pressure drops in the rail the spring-loaded circulation valve component opens again automatically.


Summary of the single-circuit common-rail injection system



Figure 17: Circulation valve of the HFO common-rail injection system Experimental data An injection curve with pilot- and post-injection at a system pressure of 1400 bar is shown in Figure 18: Shown above is the curve of the solenoid current, below the pressure in the injector inlet and the pilot needle lift. Result is the injection rate. A pilot-injection quantity of 20 mm, which is 3 % of the full injection quantity, at a crank angle interval of 6 CA is still consistently possible and also a following post-injection of about 22 mm has been realized. This opens completely new, so far unknown possibilities for the medium speed engine industry in regards to emission, smoke and noise reduction, and was possible because of the hydraulic concept and of the use of 90 Volt or more for solenoid control.

There is fundamentally the possibility of realization of single- and twin-circuit servo common-rail systems that are developed simultaneously. Series production of the twin-circuit HFO servo common-rail system has been started. The presented single-circuit common-rail injection system decreases the black smoke emission due to the system pressure of 1600 bar also in the case of lower engine speed and due to post-injection. The pilot-injection decreases the NOx-emission and the engine noise. Cold start capability with heavy fuel oil is given by the special system architecture. The injector switching enables the presented pilot- and post-injection with free pilot control of injection start, duration and pressure. The system and engine efficiency is high due to the system pressure of 1600 bar in connection with the sucking throttle control. The combustion development can be optimized by independent pilot control of injector opening and closing as well as pilot- and post-injection capability. The application of special fuel parameters in the engine mapping is possible. Transfer of the pump technology into in-line pump design has been started. A safe operation is obtained due to the safety concept. Over 3000 hours of component testing, over 400 hours of engine operation, each with light and heavy fuel oil have been realized until today. The classification of the system has succeeded for the most part. The expansion of the described performance class of 100 kW/cylinder up to 220 kW/cylinder is about to be realized.

SUMMARY AND FUTURE OUTLOOK Final conclusion and outlook are as follows: The emission legislation for large engines is continuously becoming more stringent; modern injection systems contribute significantly to the reduction of the emission and this by simultaneously reduced fuel consumption. The diesel common-rail injection technology has been expanded to the performance class of over 410 kW/cylinder with a system pressure of 1800 bar and single accumulators. The twin-needle micro-pilot injection technology has been realized successfully and has been incorporated

Figure 18: Measurement data, shown at a system pressure of 1400 bar with pilot- and postinjection


into the gas engine technology by micropilot spray combusted dual-fuel engines with either gas, light or even heavy fuel oil operation. The direct water common-rail injection technology halves the NOx-emission and has been introduced to the field successfully on more than 400 cylinders. The HFO common-rail injection system with a system pressure of 1600 bar, pilot- as well as post-injection has been introduced and is operationally safe and durable.

The trend of common-rail in the large engine retrofit applications with diesel, micro-pilot and water injection has been further extended to the more demanding heavy fuel oil application and it will succeed!

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Development and production of trend-setting new technology products are a big effort which has been realized in joint team work. The authors thank all those who helped to reach the high targets.

REFERENCES [1] International Maritime Organization, Protocol of 1997 to amend MARPOL 73/78, Annex VI of MARPOL 73/78 Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships an Final Act of the 1997 MARPOL Conference including the resolutions of the Conference and the Technical Code on Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides from Marine Diesel Engines. London: IMO 1998. [2] Brucker, E.: Die Entwicklung des Common-Rail Einspritzsystems fr die Baureihe 4000. In: MTZ Motortechnische Zeitschrift, Sonderausgabe Die neuen Motorbaureihen 2000 und 4000 von MTU und DDC. Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg 1997. pp. 44-48. [3] Czerny, L.; e. a.: Low NOx-Emission Development for S4000 Common-rail Diesel Engine. In: Papers CIMAC Day 1999 Shanghai, International Symposium on Internal Combustion Engine. Shanghai: TAO Lu-gen 1999. [4] Freitag, M.; Jorach, R. W.; Remmels, W.; Kosiedowski, U.: The new MTU Series 8000. In: Proceedings Vol. 1 of 23rd CIMAC Congress May 2001 Hamburg. Frankfurt/Main: CIMAC 2001. pp. 38-46. [5] Jorach, R. W.; Doppler, H.: Das Akkumulator-CommonRail Einspritzsystem fr die mtu BR 8000 mit 1800 bar Systemdruck. In: MTZ Motortechnische Zeitschrift, Issue 10/00. Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg 2000. pp. 640-642. (See as well English version in mtz worldwide:

Accumulator Common Rail Injection System for MTU 8000 Series Engines with a System Pressure of 1800 bar.) [6] Nylund, I.: Gas Engine Developments at Wrtsil NSD. In: Proceedings of the Fall Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division. Large Bore Engine Designs, Natural Gas Engines, and Alternative Fuels. Volume 2. September 23-26, 2000, Preoria. New York: ASME 2000. pp. 131-137. [7] Wrtsil 50DF performance optimized for dual-fuel operation. In: Energy News, Solutions for the Americas, Issue 9. Vaasa/Finland: Wrtsil 1999. pp. 10-13. [8] Lundkvist, A.: Reducing Nox with Direct Water Injection. In: Proceedings of the Motorship Propulsion Conference 2000, 29th/30th March 2000. Amsterdam: 2000. [9] Jorach, R. W.; Doppler, H.; Altmann, O.: Schwerl Common-Rail Einspritzsysteme fr Gromotoren. In: MTZ Motortechnische Zeitschrift, Issue 12/00. Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg 2000. pp. 854-861. (See as well English version in mtz worldwide: Heavy Fuel Oil Common Rail Injection Systems for Large Engines.) [10] Jorach, R. W.; Doppler, H.; Ressel, H.; Scheibe, W.: Common-Rail Applications for Medium Speed Engines: The Answer from the Fuel Injection System Supplier on the Customers Demands. In: Proceedings Vol. 2 of 23rd CIMAC Congress May 2001 Hamburg. Frankfurt/Main: CIMAC 2001. pp. 501-510. [11] Schlemmer-Kelling, U.: Inside the Engine Technology for Low Emissions. In: Proceedings of 2nd Annual International Mulit-Streamed Conference. Lloyds List Events: Ship Propulsion Systems. Hamburg: Oct. 9-10, 2001. Lloyds 2001.