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ISO SAP022811M21 Rev.

0 Version 15
Berkeley, California, USA February 2011

Steel Frame
Design Manual
Australian 4100-1998
For SAP2000















Copyright
Copyright Computers and Structures, Inc., 1978-2011
All rights reserved.

The CSI Logo, SAP2000, and ETABS are registered trademarks of Computers and
Structures, Inc. SAFE
TM
and Watch & Learn
TM
are trademarks of Computers and
Structures, Inc.

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DISCLAIMER
CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE
DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER,
THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS
EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON
THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT.
THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL
DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC
ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN
ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT
ADDRESSED.
THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY
A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST
INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL
RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.


i
Contents
1 Introduction
1.1 Organization 1-3
1.2 Recommended Reading 1-3
2 Modeling, Analysis and Design Prerequisites
2.1 Check and Design Capability 2-1
2.2 Analysis Sections vs. Design Sections 2-2
2.3 Design and Check Stations 2-3
2.4 Demand/Capacity Ratios 2-4
2.5 Design Load Combinations 2-5
2.6 Notional Load Patterns 2-6
2.7 Second Order P-Delta Effects 2-7
2.8 Member Unsupported Lengths 2-9
2.9 Effective Length Factor (k
e
) 2-11
2.10 Effects of Breaking a Member into Multiple Elements 2-14
2.11 Supported Framing Types 2-16
2.12 Frame Design Procedure Overwrites 2-17
2.13 Steel Frame Design Process 2-17
2.14 Interactive Steel Frame Design 2-20
Steel Frame Design AS 4100-1998
ii
2.15 Automated Iterative Design 2-20
2.16 Choice of Units 2-21
3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998
3.1 Notations 3-1
3.2 Design Preferences 3-6
3.3 Overwrites 3-8
3.4 Design Loading Combinations 3-14
3.5 Classification of Sections for Local Buckling 3-16
3.6 Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments 3-29
3.7 Calculation of Nominal Strengths 3-33
3.7.1 Nominal Flexural Capacities 3-33
3.7.2 Nominal Shear Capacities 3-40
3.7.3 Nominal Compressive Capacities 3-44
3.7.4 Nominal Tensile Capacity 3-50
3.8 Members Subjected to Combined Forces 3-51
3.8.1 Section Capacity 3-51
3.8.2 Member Capacity 3-54
3.9 Shear Check 3-58
4 Design Output
4.1 Display Design Information on the Model 4-2
4.2 Display Design Information in Tables 4-5
4.3 Display Detailed Member Specific Information 4-8
4.4 Save or Print Design Information as Tables 4-13
4.5 Error and Warning Messages 4-15
Appendix A Supported Design Codes
Bibliography

1 - 1
Chapter 1
Introduction
The design/check of steel frames is seamlessly integrated within the program.
Initiation of the design process, along with control of various design parame-
ters, is accomplished using the Design menu.
Automated design at the object level is available for any one of a number of
user-selected design codes, as long as the structures have first been modeled
and analyzed by the program. Model and analysis data, such as material prop-
erties and member forces, are recovered directly from the model database, and
are used in the design process in accordance with the user defined or default
design settings. As with all design applications, the user should carefully re-
view all of the user options and default settings to ensure that the design proc-
ess is consistent with the users expectations.
The design is based on a set of user-specified loading combinations. However,
the program provides default load combinations for each supported design
code. If the default load combinations are acceptable, no definition of addi-
tional load combinations is required. The Direct Analysis Method requires that
a notional load, N = 0.002Y
i
, where Y
i
is the gravity load acting at level i, be
applied to account for the destabilizing effects associated with the initial imper-
fections and other conditions that may induce sway not explicitly modeled in
the structure. The user must be aware that notional loads must be defined and
assigned by the user. Currently, the software creates design combinations that
include notional loads and gravity loads only. If the user needs notional loads
Steel Frame Design AS 4100-1998
1 - 2 Organization
that include combinations containing lateral loads, the user must define such
combinations manually. The automation of default load combinations, includ-
ing notional loads, is currently limited to gravity loads only. Design load com-
binations of notional loads acting together with lateral loads currently are NOT
automated by the software.
Steel frame design/check consists of calculating the flexural, axial, and shear
forces or stresses at several locations along the length of a member, and then
comparing those calculated values with acceptable limits. That comparison
produces a demand/capacity ratio, which typically should not exceed a value of
one if code requirements are to be satisfied. The program follows the same re-
view procedures when it is checking a user-specified shape or when checking a
shape selected by the program from a predefined list. The program does not do
the connection design. However, it calculates the design basis forces for con-
nection design.
Program output can be presented graphically on the model, in tables for both
input and output data, or in calculation sheets prepared for each member. For
each presentation method, the output is in a format that allows the engineer to
quickly study the stress conditions that exist in the structure, and in the event
the member is not adequate, aid the engineer in taking appropriate remedial
measures, including altering the design member without re-running the entire
analysis.
The program supports a wide range of steel frame design codes, including
many national building codes. Appendix A provides a list of supported steel
frame design codes. However, this manual is dedicated to the use of the menu
option "AS 4100-1998." This option covers the AS 4100-1998 Australian
Standard Steel Structures (SA 1998). The implementation covers loading
and load combinations from "AS/NZS 1170.0:2002 Australian/New Zealand
Standard, Part 0 : General Principals (SA/SNZ 2002).
Currently, the software does not automate the following:
Notional loads combinations that include lateral wind and quake loads
The validity of the analysis method. The user must verify the suitability of
the specified analysis method used under the User Options described in the
preceding sections. The code requires, for instance, that the Second Order
Elastic Analysis Method be used when a ratio of the second order moments
Chapter 1 Introduction
Organization 1 - 3
to the first order moments exceeds 1.4. This check currently must be per-
formed by the user.
P- analysis. Since many different codes are supported by the software and
not all require a P- analysis, the user must specify that a P- analysis be
performed during the analysis phase so that the proper member forces are
available for use in the design phase.
The design codes supported under AS 4100-1998 are written in Newton-
millimeter units. All the associated equations and requirements have been im-
plemented in the program in Newton-millimeter units. The program has been
enabled with unit conversion capability. This allows the users to enjoy the
flexibility of choosing any set of consistent units during creating and editing
models, exporting and importing the model components, and reviewing the de-
sign results.
1.1 Organization
This manual is designed to help you quickly become productive using the AS
4100-1998 steel frame design option. Chapter 2 addresses prerequisites related
to modeling and analysis for a successful design in accordance with 4100-
1998. Chapter 3 provides detailed descriptions of the specific requirements as
implemented in 4100-1998. Chapter 4 concludes by illustrating some of the
display and output options. The appendix identifies the code supposed in
SAP2000.
1.2 Recommended Reading/Practice
It is strongly recommended that you read this manual and review any applica-
ble "Watch & Learn" Series
TM
tutorials, which are found on our web site,
http://www.csiberkeley.com, before attempting to design a steel frame. Addi-
tional information can be found in the on-line Help facility available from
within the program.

2 - 1
Chapter 2
Modeling, Analysis and Design Prerequisites
This chapter provides an overview of the basic assumptions, design precondi-
tions, and some of the design parameters that affect the design of steel frames.
For referring to pertinent sections of the corresponding code, a unique prefix is
assigned for each code.
Reference to the AS 4100-1998 code is identified with the prefix "AS."
Reference to the AS/NZS 1170.0:2002 code is identified with the prefix
"AS/NZS."
2.1 Check and Design Capability
The program has the ability to check adequacy of a section (shape) in accor-
dance with the requirements of the selected design code. Also the program can
automatically choose (i.e., design) the optimal (i.e., least weight) sections from
a predefined list that satisfies the design requirements.
To check adequacy of a section, the program checks the demand/capacity
("D/C") ratios at a predefined number of stations for each design load combina-
tion. It calculates the envelope of the D/C ratios. It also checks the other re-
quirements on a pass or fail basis. If the capacity ratio remains less than or
equal to the D/C ratio limit, which is a number close to 1.0, and if the section
Steel Frame Design AS 4100-1998
2 - 2 Analysis Sections vs. Design Sections
passes all the special requirements, the section is considered to be adequate,
else the section is considered to be failed. The D/C ratio limit is taken as 0.95
by default. However, this value can be overwritten in the Preferences (Chapter
3).
To choose (design) the optional section from a predefined list, the program first
orders the list of sections in increasing order of weight per unit length. Then it
starts checking each section from the ordered list, starting with the one with the
least weight. The procedure for checking each section in this list for adequacy
is exactly the same as described in the preceding paragraph. The program will
evaluate each section in the list until it finds the least weight section that passes
the code checks. If no section in the list is acceptable, the program will use the
heaviest section but flag it as being overstressed.
To check adequacy of an individual section, the user must assign the section
using the Assign menu. In that case, both the analysis and design sections will
be changed.
To choose the optimal section, the user must first define a list of steel sections,
the Auto Select sections list. The user must next assign this list, in the same
manner as any other section assignment, to the frame members to be opti-
mized. The program will use the median section by weight when doing the ini-
tial analysis. Click the Define menu > Frame Sections command to access the
Frame Properties form where the Auto Select sections list may be defined.
2.2 Analysis Sections vs. Design Sections
Analysis sections are those section properties used to analyze the model when
the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command is clicked. The design section is
whatever section is used in the steel frame design. It is possible for the last
used analysis section and the current design section to be different. For exam-
ple, an analysis may be run using a W18X35 beam, and then in the design, it
may be found that a W16X31 beam worked. In that case, the last used analysis
section is the W18X35 and the current design section is the W16X31. Before
the design process is complete, verify that the last used analysis section and the
current design section are the same. The Design menu > Steel Frame Design
> Verify Analysis vs. Design Section command is useful for this task.
Chapter 2 Design Algorithms
Design and Check Stations 2 - 3
The program keeps track of the analysis section and the design section sepa-
rately. Note the following about analysis and design sections:
Assigning a frame section property using the Assign menu assigns the sec-
tion as both the analysis section and the design section.
Running an analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command
always sets the analysis section to be the same as the current design sec-
tion.
Assigning an Auto Select section list to a frame object initially sets the
analysis and design section to be the section in the list with the median
weight.
Unlocking a model deletes the design results, but it does not delete or
change the design section.
Altering the Design Combinations in any way deletes the design results,
but does not delete or change the design section.
Altering any of the steel frame design preferences deletes the design re-
sults, but does not delete or change the design section.
2.3 Design and Check Stations
For each design combination, steel frame members (beams, columns, and
braces) are designed (optimized) or checked at a number of locations (stations)
along the length of the object. The stations are located at equally spaced seg-
ments along the clear length of the object. By default, at least three stations
will be located in a column or brace member, and the stations in a beam will be
spaced at most 0.5 meter apart (2 feet if the model has been created in US
units). The user can overwrite the number of stations in an object before the
analysis is made using the Assign menu. The user can refine the design along
the length of a member by requesting more stations.
Steel Frame Design AS 4100-1998
2 - 4 Demand/Capacity Ratios
2.4 Demand/Capacity Ratios
Determination of the controlling D/C ratios for each steel frame member indi-
cates the acceptability of the member for the given loading conditions. The
steps for calculating the D/C ratios are as follows:
The factored forces are calculated for axial, flexural, and shear at each de-
fined station for each design combination. The bending moments are calcu-
lated about the principal axes. For I-Shape, Box, Channel, T-Shape, Dou-
ble-Angle, Pipe, Circular, and Rectangular sections, the principal axes co-
incide with the geometric axes. For Single-Angle sections, the design con-
siders the principal properties. For General sections, it is assumed that all
section properties are given in terms of the principal directions.
For Single-Angle sections, the shear forces are calculated for directions
along the geometric axes. For all other sections, the program calculates the
shear forces along the geometric and principal axes.
The nominal capacities are calculated for compression, tension, bending
and shear based on the equations provided later in this manual. For flexure,
the nominal capacities are calculated based on the principal axes of bend-
ing. For the I-Shape, Box, Channel, Circular, Pipe, T-Shape, Double-Angle
and Rectangular sections, the principal axes coincide with their geometric
axes. For the Angle sections, the principal axes are determined and all
computations related to flexural stresses are based on that.
The nominal capacities for shear is calculated along the geometric axes for
all sections. For I-Shape, Box, Channel, T-Shape, Double-Angle, Pipe,
Circular, and Rectangular sections, the principal axes coincide with their
geometric axes. For Single-Angle sections, principal axes do not coincide
with the geometric axes.
Factored forces are compared to nominal capacities to determine D/C ra-
tios. In either case, design codes typically require that the ratios not exceed
a value of one. A D/C ratio greater than one indicates a member that has
exceeded a limit state.
Chapter 2 Design Algorithms
Design Load Combinations 2 - 5
2.5 Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed
analysis cases for which the structure needs to be checked. The program creates
a number of default design load combinations for steel frame design. Users can
add their own design combinations as well as modify or delete the program de-
fault design load combinations. An unlimited number of design load combina-
tions can be specified.
To define a design load combination, simply specify one or more analysis
cases, each with its own scale factor. The scale factors are applied to the forces
and moments from the analysis cases to form the factored design forces and
moments for each design load combination.
For normal loading conditions involving static dead load (DL), live load (LL),
wind load (WL), earthquake load (EL), notional load (NL), and dynamic re-
sponse spectrum load (EL), the program has built-in default design combina-
tions for the design code. These are based on the code recommendations.
The default design combinations assume all static load response cases declared
as dead or live to be additive. However, each static load case declared as wind,
earthquake, or response spectrum cases, is assumed to be non-additive with
other loads and produces multiple lateral combinations. Also static wind,
earthquake and notional load responses produce separate design combinations
with the sense (positive or negative) reversed. The notional load cases are
added to load combinations involving gravity loads only.
For other loading conditions involving moving load, time history, pattern live
load, separate consideration of roof live load, snow load, and the like, the user
must define the design load combinations in lieu of or in addition to the default
design load combinations. If notional loads are to be combined with other load
combinations involving wind or earthquake loads, the design load combina-
tions should be defined in lieu of or in addition to the default design load com-
binations.
For multi-valued design combinations, such as those involving response spec-
trum, time history, moving loads and envelopes, where any correspondence
between forces is lost, the program automatically produces sub-combinations
using the maxima/minima values of the interacting forces. Separate combina-
Steel Frame Design AS 4100-1998
2 - 6 Notional Load Patterns
tions with negative factors for response spectrum analysis cases are not
required because the program automatically takes the minima to be the nega-
tive of the maxima response when preparing the sub-combinations described
previously.
The program allows live load reduction factors to be applied to the member
forces of the reducible live load case on a member-by-member basis to reduce
the contribution of the live load to the factored responses.
2.6 Notional Load Patterns
Notional loads are lateral loads that are applied at each framing level and are
specified as a percentage of the gravity loads applied at that level. They are in-
tended to account for the destabilizing effects of out-of-plumbness, geometric
imperfections, inelasticity in structural members, and any other effects that
could induce sway and that are not explicitly considered in the analysis.
The program allows the user to create a Notional Load pattern as a percentage
of the previously defined gravity load pattern to be applied in one of the global
lateral directions: X or Y. The user can define more than one notional load pat-
tern associated with one gravity load by considering different factors and dif-
ferent directions. In the AS 4100-1998 code, the notional loads are typically
suggested to be 0.2% (or 0.002) (AS 3.2.4), a factor referred to as the notional
load coefficient in this document.
The notional load patterns should be considered in combination with appropri-
ate factors, appropriate directions, and appropriate senses. The code needs the
notional loads to be considered only in gravity load combinations (ASC 3.2.4).
The program does not create the notional load pattern automatically. However,
if a notional load pattern is defined by the user, it is automatically included in
the default design load combinations involving gravity loads only.
Currently, the notional loads are not automatically included in the default de-
sign load combinations that include lateral loads. However, the user is free to
modify the default design load combinations to include the notional loads with
appropriate factors and in appropriate load combinations.
Chapter 2 Design Algorithms
Second Order P-Delta Effects 2 - 7
2.7 Second Order P-Delta Effects
Modern design provisions are based on the principle that the member forces are
calculated by a second-order elastic analysis, where the equilibrium is satisfied
on the deformed geometry of the structure. The effects of the loads acting on
the deformed geometry of the structure are known as the second-order or the
P-Delta effects.
The P-Delta effects come from two sources: global lateral translation of the
frame and the local deformation of members within the frame.
Consider the frame object shown in Figure 2-1, which is extracted from a story
level of a larger structure. The overall global translation of this frame object is
indicated by A. The local deformation of the member is shown as o. The total
second order P-Delta effects on this frame object are those caused by both A
and o.
A
Original position of frame
element shown by vertical
line
Position of frame element
as a result of global lateral
translation, A, shown by
dashed line
Final deflected position of the
frame element that includes the
global lateral translation, A, and
the local deformation of the
element, o
o
o
P
A
Original position of frame
element shown by vertical
line
Position of frame element
as a result of global lateral
translation, A, shown by
dashed line
Final deflected position of the
frame element that includes the
global lateral translation, A, and
the local deformation of the
element, o
o
o
P

Figure 2-1 P-A and P-o effects
The program has an option to consider P-Delta effects in the analysis. When
you consider P-Delta effects in the analysis, the program does a good job of
Steel Frame Design AS 4100-1998
2 - 8 Second Order P-Delta Effects
capturing the effect due to the A deformation (P-A effect) shown in Figure
2-1, but it does not typically capture the effect of the o deformation (P-o
effect), unless, in the model, the frame object is broken into multiple elements
over its length.
In design codes, required strengths are usually required to be determined using
a second-order analysis that considers both P-A and P-o effects. Approximate
second-order analysis procedures based on amplification of responses from
first-order analysis for calculating the required flexural strengths are common
in current design codes and have the following general form:
( ) o o = +
CAP b nt s lt
M M M (AS 4.4.2.2, App. E, App. F)
where,
CAP
M = Required flexural design capacities
nt
M = Required flexural capacities from first-order analysis of the
member assuming there is no translation of the frame (i.e., asso-
ciated with the o deformation in Figure 2-1)
lt
M = Required flexural capacities from first-order analysis of the
member as a result of lateral translation of the frame only (i.e.,
associated with the A deformation in Figure 2-1)
o
s
= Unitless amplification factor multiplying
lt
M
o
b
= Unitless amplification factor multiplying ( ) o +
nt s lt
M M
In the AS 4100-1998 code, a rigorous second order analysis (AS 4.4.1.2(b)) or
the amplification of first order analysis results to estimate the effect of second
order effects (AS 4.4.1.2(a)) is required. The program has the capability of
performing both. In the first case, the required strengths are determined directly
from the analysis results without any amplification factor o
s
(i.e., o
s
is equal to
1). However, these amplification factors can always be overwritten by the user
on a member-by-member basis, if desired, using the overwrite option.
To properly capture the P-o effect in a finite element analysis, each element,
especially column elements, must be broken into multiple finite elements,
which is not really desired for other reasons. Although a single element per
Chapter 2 Design Algorithms
Member Unsupported Lengths 2 - 9
member can capture the P-o effect to some extent, the program considers that
inadequate. The program thus uses the o
b
factor even if the analysis considers
the P-A effects. This is a conservative approach.
Thus, in general, the steel frame design feature requires consideration of
P-Delta effects in the analysis before the check/design is performed. Although
one element per line object is generally adequate to capture the P-A effect, it is
recommended to use more than one element per line object for the cases where
both P-A and P-o effects are to be considered. However, explicit manual break-
ing of the member into elements has other consequences related to member end
moments and unbraced segment end moment. It is recommended that the
members be broken internally by the program. In this way, the member is
recognized as one unit, end of the members are identified properly, and P-A
and P-o effects are captured better.
2.8 Member Unsupported Lengths
The column unsupported lengths are required to account for column slender-
ness effects for flexural buckling and for lateral-torsional buckling. The pro-
gram automatically determines the unsupported length ratios, which are speci-
fied as a fraction of the frame object length. Those ratios times the frame ob-
ject lengths give the unbraced lengths for the member. Those ratios also can be
overwritten by the user on a member-by-member basis, if desired, using the de-
sign overwrite option.
The unsupported length for minor direction bending or for lateral-torsional
buckling also can be defined more precisely by using precise bracing points in
the Lateral Bracing option on the Steel Frame Design menu. This allows the
user to define the lateral bracing of the top, bottom, or both flanges. The brac-
ing can be a point brace, or continuous bracing is considered enough for flex-
ural buckling in the minor direction. The unbraced length of the compression
flange is determined based on the current moment diagram to determine the
lateral-torsional buckling length, l
LTB
. This exact method of bracing definition
does not allow the user to define unbraced lengths for major direction bending.
Two unsupported lengths, l
33
and l
22
, as shown in Figure 2-2 are to be consid-
ered for flexural buckling. These are the lengths between support points of the
Steel Frame Design AS 4100-1998
2 - 10 Member Unsupported Lengths
member in the corresponding directions. The length l
33
corresponds to instabil-
ity about the 3-3 axis (major axis), and l
22
corresponds to instability about the
2-2 axis (minor axis). The length l
LTB
not shown in the figure, is also used for
lateral-torsional buckling caused by major direction bending (i.e., about the 3-3
axis).
In determining the values for l
22
and l
33
of the members, the program recognizes
various aspects of the structure that have an effect on these lengths, such as
member connectivity, diaphragm constraints, and support points. The program
automatically locates the member support points and evaluates the correspond-
ing unsupported length.

Figure 2-2 Unsupported lengths
33
l and
22
l
It is possible for the unsupported length of a frame object to be evaluated by
the program as greater than the corresponding member length. For example,
assume a column has a beam framing into it in one direction, but not the other,
at a floor level. In that case, the column is assumed to be supported in one di-
rection only at that story level, and its unsupported length in the other direction
will exceed the story height.
By default, the unsupported length for lateral-torsional buckling, l
LTB
, is taken to
be equal to the l
22
factor. Similar to l
22
and l
33
, l
LTB
can be overwritten.
Chapter 2 Design Algorithms
Effective Length Factor (ke) 2 - 11
If the unsupported length is defined using the precise bracing point definition
and if it is also overwritten in the overwrites, the value used in the design
overwrites prevails. If the unsupported length is defined using the precise brac-
ing point definition and if it is not overwritten in the overwrites, the value used
in the bracing point definition governs. If the unsupported length is defined us-
ing neither the bracing point definition nor an overwrite, the program calcu-
lated value will be used.
2.9 Effective Length Factor (k
e
)
The effective length method for calculating member axial compressive strength
has been used in various forms in several stability based design codes. The
method originates from calculating effective buckling lengths, l
e
, and is based
on elastic/inelastic stability theory. The effective buckling length is used to cal-
culate an axial compressive strength, N
c
, through an empirical column curve
that accounts for geometric imperfections, distributed yielding, and residual
stresses present in the cross-section.
There are two types of -factors
e
k in the AS 4100-1998 code. The first type of
-factor
e
k is used for calculating the Euler axial capacity assuming that all of
the beam-column joints are held in place, i.e., no lateral translation is allowed.
The resulting axial capacity is used in calculation of the o
b
factor. This
-factor
e
k is named as
eb
k in the code. This
eb
k factor is always less than 1 and
is not calculated. By default the program uses the value of 1 for
eb
k . The pro-
gram allows the user to overwrite
eb
k on a member-by-member basis.
The other -factor
e
k is used for calculating the Euler axial capacity assuming
that all the beam-column joints are free to sway, i.e., lateral translation is al-
lowed. This -factor
e
k is named as
es
k in the code. This
es
k is always greater
than 1 if the frame is a sway frame. The program calculates the
es
k factor
automatically based on sway condition. The program also allows the user to
overwrite
es
k factors on a member-by-member basis. The same
es
k factor is
supposed to be used in calculation of the o
s
factor. However the program does
not calculate o
s
factors and relies on the overwritten values.
Steel Frame Design AS 4100-1998
2 - 12 Effective Length Factor (ke)
Both
eb
k and
es
k have two values: one for major direction and the other for
minor direction,
minor eb
k ,
major eb
k ,
minor es
k ,
major es
k .
-factors
es
k are supposed to be obtained from figures given in the code (AS
Figure 4.6.3.3(b)). However in absence of the exact mathematical form, either
explicit or implicit, the program calculates the -factor
es
k from its basic princi-
ple, which is described here. The resulting
es
k matches very closely with the
figure given in the code (AS Figure 4.6.3.3(b)). The same method is used for
AISC codes.
The -factor
es
k algorithm has been developed for building-type structures,
where the columns are vertical and the beams are horizontal, and the behavior
is basically that of a moment-resisting frame for which the -factor
es
k calcula-
tion is relatively complex. For the purpose of calculating -factor,
es
k the ob-
jects are identified as columns, beam and braces. All frame objects parallel to
the Z -axis are classified as columns. All objects parallel to the X - Y plane are
classified as beams. The remainders are considered to be braces.
The beams and braces are assigned -factor
es
k of unity. In the calculation of the
-factor
es
k for a column object, the program first makes the following four
stiffness summations for each joint in the structural model:
| |
=
|
\ .

c c
cx
c x
E I
S
L

b b
bx
b x
E I
S
L
| |
=
|
\ .


c c
cy
c y
E I
S
L
| |
=
|
\ .


b b
by
b y
E I
S
L
| |
=
|
\ .


where the x and y subscripts correspond to the global X and Y directions and
the c and b subscripts refer to column and beam. The local 2-2 and 3-3 terms
22 22
EI L and
33 33
EI L are rotated to give components along the global X and
Y directions to form the ( )
x
EI L and ( )
y
EI L values. Then for each column,
the joint summations at END-I and the END-J of the member are transformed
back to the column local 1-2-3 coordinate system, and the G -values for END-I
and the END-J of the member are calculated about the 2-2 and 3-3 directions as
follows:
Chapter 2 Design Algorithms
Effective Length Factor (ke) 2 - 13
22
22
22
b
I
c
I
I
S
S
G =
22
22
22
b
J
c
J
J
S
S
G =
33
33
33
b
I
c
I
I
S
S
G =
33
33
33
b
J
c
J
J
S
S
G =
If a rotational release exists at a particular end (and direction) of an object, the
corresponding value of G is set to 10.0. If all degrees of freedom for a particu-
lar joint are deleted, the G -values for all members connecting to that joint will
be set to 1.0 for the end of the member connecting to that joint. Finally, if
I
G
and
J
G are known for a particular direction, the column
es
k -factors for the
corresponding direction is calculated by solving the following relationship for
o:
o
o o
tan ) ( 6
36
2
=
+

J I
J I
G G
G G

from which
es
k = t/o. This relationship is the mathematical formulation for
the evaluation of
es
k -factors for moment-resisting frames assuming sidesway
to be uninhibited. For other structures, such as braced frame structures, the
es
k -factors for all members are usually unity and should be set so by the user.
The following are some important aspects associated with the column
es
k -factor algorithm:
An object that has a pin at the joint under consideration will not enter the
stiffness summations calculated above. An object that has a pin at the far
end from the joint under consideration will contribute only 50% of the cal-
culated EI value. Also, beam members that have no column member at the
far end from the joint under consideration, such as cantilevers, will not en-
ter the stiffness summation.
If there are no beams framing into a particular direction of a column mem-
ber, the associated G-value will be infinity. If the G-value at any one end
of a column for a particular direction is infinity, the
es
k -factor correspond-
ing to that direction is set equal to unity.
If rotational releases exist at both ends of an object for a particular direc-
tion, the corresponding
es
k -factor is set to unity.
Steel Frame Design AS 4100-1998
2 - 14 Effect of Breaking a Member into Multiple Elements
The automated
es
k -factor calculation procedure can occasionally generate
artificially high
es
k -factors, specifically under circumstances involving
skewed beams, fixed support conditions, and under other conditions where
the program may have difficulty recognizing that the members are laterally
supported and
es
k -factors of unity are to be used.
All
es
k -factors produced by the program can be overwritten by the user.
These values should be reviewed and any unacceptable values should be
replaced.
The beams and braces are assigned
es
k -factors of unity.
eb
k -factors are supposed to be obtained from figures given in the code (AS
Figure 4.6.3.3(a)). However in absence of the exact mathematical form, the
program calculates the
eb
k -factor from its basic principle. This is similar to the
determination of the
es
k -factor, except that the
eb
k -factor for the correspond-
ing direction is calculated by solving the following relationship for o:

( )
( )
1
2
tan 2
1 1 0
4 2 tan 2
o o
o
o o
+ | |
+ + =
|
\ .
J J J
G G G G

where,
.
eb
k
t
o
=
If the member is assigned with a framing type of sway frame, k
eb
is used for o
b

calculation, and k
es
is used for N
c
calculation. If the member is assigned with a
framing type of Braced frame, k
eb
is used for both o
b
and N
c
calculation.
2.10 Effect of Breaking a Member into Multiple Elements
The preferred method is to model a beam, column or brace member as one sin-
gle element. However, the user can request that the program break a member
internally at framing intersections and at specified intervals. In this way, accu-
racy in modeling can be maintained at the same time that design/check specifi-
cations can be applied accurately. There is special emphasis on the end forces
(moments in particular) for many different aspects of beam, column, and brace
Chapter 2 Design Algorithms
Effect of Breaking a Member into Multiple Elements 2 - 15
design. If the member is manually meshed (broken) into segments, maintaining
the integrity of the design algorithm becomes difficult.
Manually breaking a column member into several elements can affect many
things during design in the program.
1. The unbraced length: The unbraced length is really the unsupported length
between braces. If no intermediate brace is present in the member, the un-
braced length is typically calculated automatically by the program from the
top of the flange of the beam framing the column at the bottom to the bot-
tom of the flange of the beam framing the column at the top. The automati-
cally calculated length factor typically becomes less than 1. If there are in-
termediate bracing points, the user should overwrite the unbraced length
factor in the program. The user should choose the critical (larger) one.
Even if the user breaks the element, the program typically picks up the un-
braced length correctly, provided that there is no intermediate bracing
point.
2. k
e
-factor: Even if the user breaks the member into pieces, the program typi-
cally can pick up the k
e
-factors correctly. However, sometimes it can not.
The user should note the k
e
-factors. All segments of the member should
have the same k
e
-factor and that factor should be calculated based on the
entire member. If the calculated k
e
-factor is not reasonable, the user can
overwrite the k
e
-factors for all the segments.
3. C
m
factor: The C
m
factor should be based on the end moments of unbraced
lengths of each member and should not be based on the end moments of
the segment (AS 4.4.2.2). The program already calculates the C
m
factors
based on the end moments of unbraced lengths of each member. If the
member is broken, the program calculated C
m
factor is conservative. If this
conservative value is acceptable, no action is required by the user. If it is
not acceptable, the user can calculate the C
m
factor manually for the critical
combination and overwrite its value for that segment.
4. o
m
factor: The o
m
factor should be based on the end moments of unbraced
lengths of each segment and should not be based on the end moments of
the member (AS 5.6.1.1). The program already calculates the o
m
factors
based on the end moments of unbraced lengths of each segment. If the bro-
ken segments do not represent the brace-to-brace unsupported length, the
program calculated o
m
factor is conservative. If this conservative value is
Steel Frame Design AS 4100-1998
2 - 16 Supported Framing Types
acceptable, no action is required by the user. If it is not acceptable, the user
can calculate the o
m
factor manually for the critical combination and over-
write its value for that segment.
5. o
b
factor: This factor amplifies the factored moments for the P-o effect (AS
4.2.1.2, App. F). In its expression, there are the C
m
factor and the Euler
Buckling capacity N
omb
. If the user keeps the unbraced length ratios (l
33
and
l
22
) and the k
e
-factors (k
e,33
and k
e,22
) correct, the o
b
factor would be correct. If
the axial force is small, the o
b
factor can be 1 and have no effect with re-
spect to modeling the single segment or multi-segment element.
6. o
s
factor: The program does not calculate the o
s
factor. The program
assumes that the user turns on the P-A feature. In such cases, o
s
can be
taken as equal to 1. That means that modeling with one or with multiple
segments has no effect on this factor.
If the user models a column with a single element and makes sure that the
l-factors and k
e
-factors are correct, the effect of o
b
and o
s
will be picked up cor-
rectly. The factors C
m
and o
m
will be picked up correctly if there is no interme-
diate bracing point. The calculated C
m
and o
m
factors will be slightly conserva-
tive if there are intermediate bracing points.
If the user models a column with multiple elements and makes sure that
l-factors and k
e
-factor are correct, the effect of o
b
and o
s
will be picked up
correctly. The factors C
m
and o
m
will be picked up correctly if the member is
broken at the bracing points. The calculated C
m
and o
m
factors will be conserva-
tive if the member is not broken at the bracing points.
2.11 Supported Framing Types
The code (AS 4100-1998) recognizes the following types of framing
systems.
Framing Type References
Sway Frame AS 4.4.2.2
Braced Frame AS 4.4.2.2
Chapter 2 Design Algorithms
Frame Design Procedure Overwrites 2 - 17
2.12 Frame Design Procedure Overwrites
The structural model may contain frame elements made of several structural
materials: steel, concrete, aluminum, cold-formed steel and other materials.
The program supports separate design procedures for each material type. By
default the program determines the design procedure from the material of the
frame member.
The program allows the user to turn the design of specific members off and on
by selecting No Design or Default from material. Overwriting the design pro-
cedure can be accessed from the Design menu > Overwrite Frame Design
Procedure command.
ETABS supports both regular steel frame design and composite beam design.
The determination of design procedure is different. If the material is concrete,
the design procedure is concrete. If the material is steel, the default design pro-
cedure can be steel frame design or composite beam design. If the section is of
steel material, and the member satisfies a host of other criteria, such as the
member is horizontal (beam), it supports a filled deck or slab, it is an I-shaped
member, it is hinged at both ends and so on, then the default design procedure
is taken as composite beam design; otherwise, the default design procedure is
taken as steel frame design. ETABS allows the user to overwrite a steel mem-
ber frame design procedure to steel frame design, composite beam design, de-
fault, or no design. Change the design procedure by selecting the member(s)
and clicking the Design menu > Overwrite Frame Design Procedure com-
mand. A change in design will be successful only if the design procedure is
valid for that member, i.e., the program will not allow the user to change the
design procedure for a steel frame object to concrete frame design.
2.13 Steel Frame Design Process
The following sequence describes a typical steel frame design process for a
new structure. Note that although the sequence of steps you follow may vary,
the basic process probably will be essentially the same.
1. Use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites
command to choose the steel frame design code and to review other steel
Steel Frame Design AS 4100-1998
2 - 18 Steel Frame Design Process
frame design preferences and revise them if necessary. Note that default
values are provided for all design preferences, so it is unnecessary to define
any preferences unless you want to change some of the default values.
2. Create the model.
3. Run the analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command.
4. Assign steel frame overwrites, if needed, using the Design menu > Steel
Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. Note that frame
members must be selected before using this command, and that overwrites
may be assigned before or after the analysis is run.
5. Designate design groups, if desired, using the Design menu > Steel Frame
Design > Select Design Group command. Note that some groups must al-
ready have been created by selecting objects and going to the Assign
menu.
6. To use design combinations other than the defaults created by the program,
click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Select Design Combo
command. Note that design combos must already have been created using
the Define menu.
7. Designate displacement targets for various analysis cases using the Design
menu > Steel Frame Design > Set Displacement Targets command.
8. Set time period targets for various modes using the Design menu > Steel
Frame Design > Set Time Period Targets command.
9. Click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Start Design/Check of
Structure command to run the steel frame design.
10. Review the steel frame design results by doing one of the following:
a. Click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Display Design Info
command to display design input and output information on the model.
b. Right click on a frame object while the design results are displayed on
it to enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the
frame member. Note that while in this mode, overwrites can be
revised and the results of the new design displayed immediately. If
Chapter 2 Design Algorithms
Steel Frame Design Process 2 - 19
design results are not currently displayed (and the design has been
run), click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Interactive
Steel Frame Design command and then right click a frame object to
enter the interactive design mode for the member.
11. Use the File menu > Print Tables command to print steel frame design
data. If frame objects are selected before using this command, data is
printed for the selected objects only.
12. Use the Display menu > Show Tables command to display steel frame de-
sign data in a spreadsheet-type tabular format. If frame objects are selected
before using the command, data is displayed for the selected objects only.
13. Use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Change Design Section
command to change the design section properties for selected frame ob-
jects.
14. Click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Start Design/Check of
Structure command to rerun the design with the new section properties.
Review the results using the procedures described in Item 10.
15. Rerun the analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command.
Note that the section properties used for the analysis are the last specified
design section properties.
16. Compare displacements with displacement targets, or the resulting periods
with period targets, if appropriate.
17. Click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Start Design/Check of
Structure command to rerun the design with the new analysis results. Re-
view the results using the previous steps.
18. Repeat the processes in steps 13 through 17 as many times as necessary.
Note that steel frame design is an iterative process, and that the analysis
and design will typically be rerun multiple times to complete a design.
19. Click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Verify Analysis vs De-
sign Section command to verify that all of the final design sections are the
same as the last used analysis sections.
Steel Frame Design AS 4100-1998
2 - 20 Interactive Steel Frame Design
Again, it is important to note that design is an iterative process. The sections
used in the original analysis are not likely to be the same as those obtained at
the end of the design process. Always run the analysis using the frame sections
from the final design, and then run a design check using the forces obtained
from that analysis.
2.14 Interactive Steel Frame Design
The Interactive Steel Frame Design command is a powerful mode that allows
the user to review the design results for any steel frame design and interac-
tively revise the design assumptions and immediately review the revised re-
sults.
Note that a design must have been run for the interactive design mode to be
available. With the design results displayed, right click on a frame object to
display the Steel Stress Check Information form for the member. Click on the
Overwrites button to display the Design Overwrites form, where the member
section or other design parameters may be changed. Clicking OK on this form
results in an immediate updating of the results displayed on the Steel Stress
Check Information form.
2.15 Automated Iterative Design
If Auto Select sections have been assigned to frame objects, ETABS can auto-
matically perform the iterative steel frame design process. To initiate the proc-
ess, first use the Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design com-
mand and set the maximum number of auto iterations to the maximum number
of design iterations the program is to run automatically. Next, run the analysis.
Then, making sure that no objects are selected, use the Design menu > Steel
Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to begin the de-
sign of the structure.
The program will then start the cycle of (1) performing the design, (2) compar-
ing the last-used Analysis Sections with the Design Sections, (3) setting the
Analysis Sections equal to the Design Sections, and (4) rerunning the analysis.
This cycle will continue until one of the following conditions has been met:
Chapter 2 Design Algorithms
Choice of Units 2 - 21
The Design Sections and the last-used Analysis Sections are the same.
The number of iterations performed is equal to the number of iterations
specified for the maximum number on the Preferences form.
Currently, this feature is absent in SAP2000.
2.16 Choice of Units
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The codes
are based on a specific system of units. All equations and descriptions pre-
sented in the subsequent chapters correspond to that specific system of units
unless otherwise noted. For example, the ACI code is published in inch-pound-
second units. By default, all equations and descriptions presented in the "De-
sign Process" appendix correspond to inch-pound-second units. However, any
system of units can be used to define and design a structure in the program.

3 - 1
Chapter 3
Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998
This chapter provides a detailed description of the algorithms used by the pro-
gram in the design/check of structures in accordance with "AS 4100-1998 Aus-
tralian Standard Steel Structures" (SA, 1998). The implementation covers
load combinations from "AS/NZS 1170.0:2002 Australian/New Zealand Stan-
dard Structural Design Actions, Part 0: General Principle (SA/SNZ, 2002a),
which are described in section 3.4 Design Loading Combinations in this chap-
ter. The wind loading based on "AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Australian/New Zealand
Standard Structural Design Actions Part 2: Wind Actions (SA/SNZ, 2002b).
The earthquake loading based on AS 1170.04-2007 Australian Standard
Structural Design Actions Part A; Earthquake Actions in Australia (SA, 2007)
has been described in a separate document entitled CSI Lateral Load Manual
(CSI 2007).
Reference to the AS 4100-1998 code is identified with the prefix AS.
Reference to the AS/NZS 1170.0:2002 code is identified with the prefix
AS/NZS.
3.1 Notations
The various notations used in this chapter are described herein.
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 2 Notations
A Area of cross-section, mm
2

A
g
Gross area of a cross-section, mm
2

A
n
Net area of a cross-section, mm
2

A
w
Gross sectional area of a web, mm
2

b
f
Width of flange, mm
b
w
Web depth, mm
d Depth of a section, mm
d
e
Effective outside diameter of a circular hollow section, mm
d
f
Distance between flange centroids, mm
d
p
Clear transverse dimension of a web panel, or
Depth of deepest web panel in a length, mm
d
1
Clear depth between flanges ignoring fillets or welds, mm
d
2
Twice the clear distance from the neutral axes to the com-
pression flange, mm
E Youngs modulus of elasticity, MPa
e Eccentricity, mm
F Action in general, force or load, N
f
u
Tensile strength used in design, MPa
f
y
Yield stress used in design, MPa
G Shear modulus of elasticity, MPa, or
Nominal dead load
I Second moment of area of a cross-section, mm
4

I
cy
Second moment of area of compression flange about the sec-
tion minor principal y-axis, mm
4

I
w
Warping constant for a cross-section, mm
6

I
x
I about the cross-section major principal x-axis, mm
4

I
y
I about the cross-section minor principal y-axis, mm
4

J Torsion constant for a cross-section, mm
4

k
e
Member effective length factor
k
f
Form factor for members subject to axial compression
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Notations 3 - 3
k
l
Load height effective length factor
k
r
Effective length factor for restraint against lateral rotation
l Span, or member length, or segment or sub-segment length,
mm
l
22
, l
33
Laterally unbraced length of member for major and minor
axes bending, mm
l
e
/r Geometrical slenderness ratio
M
b
Nominal member moment capacity, N-mm
M
bx
M
b
about major principal x-axis, N-mm
M
cx
Lesser of M
ix
and M
ox
, N-mm

M
i
Nominal in-plane member moment capacity, N-mm
M
ix
M
i
about major principal axis, N-mm
M
iy
M
i
about minor principal axis, N-mm
M
o
Reference elastic buckling moment for a flexural member,
N-mm
M
oa
Amended elastic buckling moment for a member subjected to
bending, N-mm
M
ob
Elastic buckling moment determined using an elastic buck-
ling analysis, N-mm
M
oo
Reference elastic buckling moment obtained using l
e
= l,
N-mm
M
os
M
ob
for a segment, fully restrained at both ends, unrestrained
against lateral rotation and loaded at shear centre, N-mm
M
ox
Nominal out-of-plane member moment capacity about major
principal x-axis, N-mm
M
rx
M
s
about major principal x-axis reduced by axial force,
N-mm
M
ry
M
s
about minor principal y-axis reduced by axial force,
N-mm
M
s
Nominal section moment capacity, N-mm
M
sx
M
s
about major principal x-axis, N-mm
M
sy
M
s
about the minor principal y-axis, N-mm
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 4 Notations
M
tx
Lesser of M
rx
and M
ox
, N-mm
M
*


Design bending moment, N-mm
N
c
Nominal member capacity in compression, N
N
cy
N
c
for member buckling about minor principal y-axis, N
N
om
Elastic flexural buckling load of a member, N
N
omb
N
om
for a braced member, N
N
oms
N
om
for a sway member, N
N
s
Nominal section capacity of a compression member, or
Nominal section capacity for axial load, N
N
t
Nominal section capacity in tension, N
N
*

Design axial force, tensile or compressive, N
Q Nominal live load
r Radius of gyration, mm
r
y
Radius of gyration about minor principle axis, mm
S Plastic section modulus, mm
3

t Flat thickness, or wall thickness of a circular hollow section,
mm
t
f
Thickness of a flange, mm
t
p
Thickness of a plate, mm
t
w
Thickness of a web, mm
V
b
Nominal shear buckling capacity of a web, N
V
u
Nominal shear capacity of a web with a uniform shear stress
distribution, N
V
v
Nominal shear capacity of a web, N
V
vm
Nominal web shear capacity in the presence of bending mo-
ment, N
V
w
Nominal shear yield capacity of a web, N
V
*
Design shear force, N
y
o
Coordinate of shear centre, mm
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Notations 3 - 5
Z Elastic section modulus, mm
3

Z
c
Z
e
for a compact section, mm
3

Z
e
Effective section modulus, mm
3

o
b

Compression member section constant
o
c

Compression member slenderness reduction factor
o
m

Moment modification factor for bending
o
l
, o
lc
, o
mc
Factors for bending defined in Appendix H of AS 4100
o
s

Slenderness reduction factor
o
st

Reduction factor for members of varying cross-section
o
v

Shear buckling coefficient for a web
|
e

Modifying factor to account for conditions at the far ends of
beam members
|
m

Ratio of smaller to larger bending moment at the ends of a
member

Compression member factor defined in AS Clause 6.3.3
q
Compression member imperfection factor (AS 6.3.3)

Slenderness ratio

e

Plate element slenderness

ep

Plate element plasticity slenderness limit

ey

Plate element yield slenderness limit

n

Modified compression member slenderness

s

Section slenderness

sp

Section plasticity slenderness limit

sy

Section yield slenderness limit
u
Poissons ratio, 0.25
|
Capacity factor

Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 6 Design Preferences
3.2 Design Preferences
The steel frame design preferences are basic assignments that apply to all of
the steel frame members. Tables 3-1 list steel frame design preferences for "AS
4100-1998." Default values are provided for all preference items. Thus, it is not
necessary to specify or change any of the preferences. However, at least review
the default values to ensure they are acceptable. Some of the preference items
also are available as member-specific Overwrite items. The overwrites are de-
scribed in the next section. Overwritten values take precedence over the prefer-
ences.
To view design preferences, select the Design menu > Steel Frame Design >
View/Revise Preferences command. The Preferences form will display. The
preference options are displayed in a two-column spreadsheet on that form.
The left column of the spreadsheet displays the Preference item name. The
right column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item value.
To change a preference item, left click the desired Preference item in the left or
right column of the spreadsheet. This activates a drop-down list or highlights
the current preference value. If the drop-down list displays, select a new value.
If the cell is highlighted, type in the desired value. The preference value will
update accordingly. Values in the drop-down lists provide the available op-
tions. The Preference items are presented in Table 3-1.
Table 3-1: Steel Frame Design Preferences
Item Possible Values Default Value Description
Design Code Design codes
available in the
current version
AS4100-1998 The selected design code. Subsequent design is based on
this selected code. The default values shown below appear
when the AS4100-1989 is selected as the Design Code.
Multi-Response
Case Design
Envelopes,
Step-by-Step,
Last Step,
Envelopes All,
Step-by-Step All
Envelopes Indicates how results for multivalued cases (Time history,
Nonlinear static or Multi-step static) are considered in the
design. - Envelope - considers enveloping values for Time
History and Multi-step static and last step values for Non-
linear static. - Step-by-Step - considers step by step values
for Time History and Multi-step static and last step values
for Nonlinear static. - Last Step - considers last values for
Time History, Multi-step static and Nonlinear static. -
Envelope - All - considers enveloping values for Time
History, Multi-step static and Nonlinear static. - Step-by-
Step - All - considers step by step values for Time History,
Multi-step static and Nonlinear static. Step-by-Step and
Step-by-Step - All default to the corresponding Envelope if
more then one multi-valued case is present in the combo.
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Design Preferences 3 - 7
Table 3-1: Steel Frame Design Preferences
Item Possible Values Default Value Description
Framing Type Sway, Braced Sway Frame This item is used for ductility considerations in the design.
Structural Analysis
Method
General 2
nd
Order,
Amplified 1
st

Order
General 2
nd

Order
Indicates the analysis method used to check/design the
steel members. The design module does not verify the
acceptability of the selected analysis method. See sections
4.1, 4.3, 4.4.1.2, and Appendix E of "AS 4100:1998" code
for details. The user is expected to verify the acceptability
of the selected method. The user is expected to set the
appropriate notional loads..
Steel Type Hot Rolled,
Hot Finished,
Cold Formed,
Stress Relieved,
Lightly Welded,
Heavily Welded
Hot Rolled Indicates the residual stress level in the structural section.
This affects plasticity limit and yield limit of plate element
slenderness values. Eventually this can affect moment
capacity and axial compression capacity through modifica-
tion on Z
e
and A
eff
. "Hot Rolled" and "Hot Finished" are
used synonymously in this program. "Cold Formed" is
meant as cold-formed and not stress-relieved. "Stress
Relieved" is meant as cold-formed and stress-relieved.
Welded H and I sections are assumed to be fabricated from
flame-cut plates. See sections 5.2.2, 6.2.4, 6.3.3, and
Tables 5.2, 6.2.4, 6.3.3(1), and 6.3.3(2) of "AS 4100:1998"
code for details.
Capacity Factor
Phi (Bending)
s1.0 0.9
Capacity factor for strength limit state. See section 3.4 and
Table 3.4 of AS 4100 1998 for details.
Capacity Factor
Phi (Compression)
s1.0 0.9
Capacity factor for strength limit state. See section 3.4 and
Table 3.4 of AS 4100 1998 for details.
Capacity Factor,
Phi (Tension Yield-
ing)
s1.0 0.9
Capacity factor for strength limit state. See section 3.4 and
Table 3.4 of AS 4100 1998 for details.
Capacity Factor
Phi (Tension-
Fracture)
s1.0 0.9
Capacity factor for strength limit state. See section 3.4 and
Table 3.4 of AS 4100 1998 for details.
Capacity Factor
Phi (Shear)
s1.0 0.9
Capacity factor for strength limit state. See section 3.4 and
Table 3.4 of AS 4100 1998 for details.
Consider
Deflection?
Yes, No No Toggle to consider the deflection limit (Yes) or to not
consider the deflection limit (No) in design.
DL Limit, L/ > 0 120 Deflection limit for dead load. Inputting 120 means that
the limit is L/120. Inputting zero means no check will be
made of this item.
Super DL+LL
Limit, L/
> 0 120 Deflection limit for superimposed dead plus live load.
Inputting 120 means that the limit is L/120. Inputting zero
means no check will be made of this item.
Live Load Limit, L/ > 0 360 Deflection limit for superimposed live load. Inputting 360
means that the limit is L/360. Inputting zero means no
check will be made of this item.
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 8 Overwrites
Table 3-1: Steel Frame Design Preferences
Item Possible Values Default Value Description
Total Limit, L/ > 0 240 Deflection limit for total load. Inputting 240 means that the
limit is L/240. Inputting zero means no check will be made
of this item.
Total-Camber Lim-
it, L/
> 0 240 Limit for net deflection. Camber is subtracted from the
total load deflection to get net deflection. Inputting 240
means that the limit is L/240. Inputting zero means no
check will be made of this item.
Pattern Live Load
Factor
s1.0 0.75 The live load factor for automatic generation of load com-
binations involving pattern live loads and dead loads.
Demand/Capacity
Ratio Limit
s1.0 0.95 The demand/capacity ratio limit to be used for acceptabil-
ity. D/C ratios that are less than or equal to this value are
considered acceptable.
3.3 Overwrites
The steel frame design Overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to
those elements to which they are assigned. Table 3-2 lists steel frame design
overwrites for "AS 4100-1998." Default values are provided for all Overwrite
items. Thus, it is not necessary to specify or change any of the Overwrites.
However, at least review the default values to ensure they are acceptable.
When changes are made to Overwrite items, the program applies the changes
only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned. Overwritten val-
ues take precedence over the Preferences.
To access the steel frame Overwrites, select a frame object and click the
Design menu > Steel Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command.
The overwrites are displayed in a two-column spreadsheet. The left column of
the spreadsheet contains the name of the Overwrite item. The right column of
the spreadsheet contains the Overwrites values. Click in either column of the
spreadsheet to activate a drop-down list or highlight the contents in the cell in
the right column of the spreadsheet. If the drop-down list appears, select a val-
ue from the box. If the cell contents are highlighted, type in the desired value.
The Overwrite will reflect the change.
Many of the items on the Overwrites form are similar to those found on the
Preferences form. Note that the values displayed on the table will often be
Program Determined, indicating that the value used will be calculated by the
program. The overwrite items are presented in Table 3-2.
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Overwrites 3 - 9
Table 3-2 Steel Frame Design Overwrites for AS-4100-1998
Item Possible Values Default Value Description
Current Design
Section
Any defined steel
section
Analysis section
The design section for the selected frame object. When
this Overwrite is applied, any previous auto select section
assigned to the frame object is removed.
Fame Type Sway, Braced From Preferences This item is used for ductility considerations in the de-
sign.
Steel Type Hot Rolled,
Hot Finished,
Cold Formed,
Stress Relieved,
Lightly Welded,
Heavily Welded
Hot Rolled
The steel type selection will effect the plate element
slenderness limits as described in AS4100-1998, Table
5.2.
Consider
Deflection?
Yes, No From Preferences Toggle to consider the deflection limit (Yes) or to not
consider the deflection limit (No) in design.
Deflection Check
Type
Ratio,
Absolute,
Both
Both Choose to consider deflection limit as an absolute, as a
divisor of the beam length, as both, or with no deflection
limit.
DL Limit, L/ > 0 From Preferences Deflection limit for dead load. Inputting 120 means that
the limit is L/120. Inputting zero means no check will be
made of this item.
Super DL+LL
Limit, L/
> 0 From Preferences Deflection limit for superimposed dead plus live load.
Inputting 120 means that the limit is L/120. Inputting
zero means no check will be made of this item.
Live Load Limit,
L/
> 0 360 Deflection limit for superimposed live load. Inputting
360 means that the limit is L/360. Inputting zero means
no check will be made of this item.
Total Limit, L/ > 0 240 Deflection limit for total load. Inputting 240 means that
the limit is L/240. Inputting zero means no check will be
made of this item.
Total-Camber
Limit, L/
> 0 240 Limit for net deflection. Camber is subtracted from the
total load deflection to get net deflection. Inputting 240
means that the limit is L/240. Inputting zero means no
check will be made of this item.
DL Limit, abs > 0 120 Deflection limit for dead load. Inputting 120 means that
the limit is L/120. Inputting zero means no check will be
made of this item.
Super DL+LL
Limit, abs
> 0 1. Deflection limit for superimposed dead plus live load.
Inputting zero means no check will be made of this item.
Live Load Limit,
abs
> 0 1. Deflection limit for superimposed live load. Inputting
zero means no check will be made of this item.
Total Limit, abs > 0 1. Deflection limit for total load. Inputting zero means no
check will be made of this item.
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 10 Overwrites
Table 3-2 Steel Frame Design Overwrites for AS-4100-1998
Item Possible Values Default Value Description
TotalCamber
Limit, abs
> 0 1. Deflection limit for net deflection. Camber is subtracted
from the total load deflection to get net deflection. Input-
ting zero means no check will be made of this item.
Specified Camber
> 0 0
The specified amount of camber to be reported in the
design output and to be used in the net deflection check.
Net Area to Total
Area Ratio
> 0 1.0
The ratio of the net area at the end joint to gross cross-
sectional area of the section. This ratio affects the design
of axial tension members. Specifying zero means the
value is the program default, which is 1.
Live Load Reduc-
tion Factor
> 0 Calculated
The reducible live load is multiplied by this factor to
obtain the reduced live load for the frame object. Specify-
ing zero means the value is program determined.
Unbraced Length
Ratio (Major)
> 0 Calculated
Unbraced length factor for buckling about the frame
object major axis; specified as a fraction of the frame
object length. This factor times the frame object length
gives the unbraced length for the object. Specifying zero
means the value is program determined. For symmetrical
sections, major bending is bending about the local 3-axis.
For unsymmetrical sections (e.g., angles) major bending
is the bending about the section principal axis with the
larger moment of inertia.
Unbraced Length
Ratio (Minor)
> 0 Calculated
Unbraced length factor for buckling about the frame
object minor axis; specified as a fraction of the frame
object length. This factor times the frame object length
gives the unbraced length for the object. Specifying zero
means the value is program determined. For symmetrical
sections, major bending is bending about the local 2-axis.
For unsymmetrical sections (e.g., angles) major bending
is the bending about the section principal axis with the
larger moment of inertia.
Unbraced Length
Ratio (LTB)
> 0 L22
Unbraced length factor for lateral-torsional buckling for
the frame object; specified as a fraction of the frame
object length. This factor times the frame object length
gives the unbraced length for the object. Specifying zero
means the value is program determined.
Effective Length
Factor (Ke Major
Braced)
> 0 1.0
Effective length factor for buckling about the frame
object major axis with an assumption that the frame is
braced at the joints against sidesway. This item is speci-
fied as a fraction of the frame object length. Multiplying
the frame object length with this factor gives the effective
length for the object. Specifying 0 means the value is
program determined. For beam design, this factor is
always taken as 1 regardless of what may be specified in
the overwrites. This factor is used for B
1
factor. For
symmetrical sections major bending is bending about the
local 3-axis. For unsymmetrical sections (e.g., an-
gles)major bending is the bending about the section prin-
cipal axis with the larger moment of inertia..
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Overwrites 3 - 11
Table 3-2 Steel Frame Design Overwrites for AS-4100-1998
Item Possible Values Default Value Description
Effective Length
Factor (Ke Minor
Braced)
> 0 1.0
Effective length factor for buckling about the frame
object minor axis with an assumption that the frame is
braced at the joints against sidesway. This item is speci-
fied as a fraction of the frame object length. Multiplying
the frame object length with this factor gives the effective
length for the object. Specifying 0 means the value is
program determined. For beam design, this factor is
always taken as 1 regardless of what may be specified in
the overwrites. This factor is also used for determining
the effective length for lateral-torsional buckling. This
factor is used for B
1
factor. For symmetrical sections
minor bending is bending about the local 2-axis. For
unsymmetrical sections (e.g., angles)minor bending is the
bending about the section principal axis with the smaller
moment of inertia.
Effective Length
Factor (Ke Major
Sway)
> 0 1.0
Effective length factor for buckling about the frame
object major axis. This item is specified as a fraction of
the frame object length. Multiplying the frame object
length with this factor gives the effective length for the
object. Specifying 0 means the value is program deter-
mined. For beam design, this factor is always taken as 1
regardless of what may be specified in the overwrites.
For symmetrical sections major bending is bending about
the local 3-axis. For unsymmetrical sections (e.g., an-
gles)major bending is the bending about the section prin-
cipal axis with the larger moment of inertia.
Effective Length
Factor (Ke Minor
Sway)
> 0 1.0
Effective length factor for buckling about the frame
object minor axis. This item is specified as a fraction of
the frame object length. Multiplying the frame object
length with this factor gives the effective length for the
object. Specifying 0 means the value is program deter-
mined. For beam design, this factor is always taken as 1
regardless of what may be specified in the overwrites.
This factor is also used for determining the effective
length for lateral-torsional buckling. For symmetrical
sections minor bending is bending about the local 2-axis.
For unsymmetrical sections (e.g., angles)minor bending
is the bending about the section principal axis with the
smaller moment of inertia.
Twist Restraint
Factor for LTB
(Kt)
> 0 Program
Determined
Twist restraint effective length factor for members sub-
jected to flexure. It is unitless. It affects lateral-torsional
buckling capacity, M
b
by affecting M
o
and alpha_s. Its
value depends on lateral or rotational restraints and sec-
tion slenderness b/t or d/t. Specifying 0 means the value
is program default which is 1. See section 5.6.3 and Ta-
ble 5.6.3(1) of "AS 4100:1998" code for details.
Lateral Rotation
Restraint Factor
(Kr)
> 0 Program
Determined
Lateral rotation restraint effective length factor for mem-
bers subjected to flexure. It is Unitless. It affects lateral-
torsional buckling capacity, M
b
by affecting M
o
and al-
pha_s. Its value depends on lateral or rotational restraints.
Specifying 0 means the value is the program default. See
Section 5.6.3 and Table 5.6.3(3) of AS 4100-1998 code
for details.
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 12 Overwrites
Table 3-2 Steel Frame Design Overwrites for AS-4100-1998
Item Possible Values Default Value Description
Load Height
Factor for LTB
(Kl)
> 0 Program
Determined
Load height effective length factor for members sub-
jected to flexure. It is Unitless. It affects lateral-torsional
buckling capacity, M
b
by affecting M
o
and alpha_s. Its
value depends on lateral or rotational restraints. Specify-
ing 0 means the value is the program default. See Section
5.6.3 and Table 5.6.3(2) of AS 4100-1998 code for
details..
Moment Coeffi-
cient (Cm Major)
> 0 Program
Determined
Unitless factor for nonuniform moments, Cm for major
axis bending, used in determining the Delta_b factor. It
captures the effect of non-uniform moment distribution
along the length. Specifying 0 means the value is pro-
gram determined. See section 4.4.2.2 and Appendix E of
"AS 4100:1998" code for details. For symmetrical sec-
tions major bending is bending about the local 3-axis. For
unsymmetrical sections (e.g., angles)major bending is the
bending about the section principal axis with the larger
moment of inertia.
Moment Coeffi-
cient (Cm Minor)
> 0 Program
Determined
Unitless factor for nonuniform moments, Cm for minor
axis bending, used in determining the Delta_b factor. It
captures the effect of non-uniform moment distribution
along the length. Specifying 0 means the value is pro-
gram determined. See section 4.4.2.2 and Appendix E of
"AS 4100:1998" code for details. For symmetrical sec-
tions minor bending is bending about the local 2-axis. For
unsymmetrical sections (e.g., angles)minor bending is the
bending about the section principal axis with the smaller
moment of inertia.
Moment Modifi-
cation Factor
(Alpha_m)
> 0 Calculated
Moment modification factor for distribution of bending
moments in a member subjected to flexure. It is unitless.
It captures the effect of non-uniform moment distribution
along the length. Program determined value means it is
calculated for each element for each load combination
uniquely. Specifying 0 means the value is program de-
termined. See sections 5.6.1.1 and 5.6.2 and Tables 5.6.1
and 5.6.2 of "AS 4100:1998" code for details.
Slenderness Re-
duction Factor
(Alpha_s)
> 0 Calculated
Slenderness reduction factor for a member subjected to
flexure. It is unitless. Program determined value means
it is calculated for each element for each load combina-
tion uniquely. Specifying 0 means the value is program
determined. See section 5.6.1.1 "AS 4100:1998" code for
details.
NonSway Mo-
ment Factor (Db
Major)
> 0 Calculated
Unitless moment magnification factor for major axis
bending moment of a braced member. Specifying 0
means the value is program determined. Program deter-
mined value means it is calculated for each element for
each load combination uniquely. See section 4.4.2.2 and
Appendix E and F of "AS 4100:1998" code for details.
For symmetrical sections major bending is bending about
the local 3-axis. For unsymmetrical sections (e.g., an-
gles)major bending is the bending about the section prin-
cipal axis with the larger moment of inertia.
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Overwrites 3 - 13
Table 3-2 Steel Frame Design Overwrites for AS-4100-1998
Item Possible Values Default Value Description
NonSway Mo-
ment Factor (Db
Minor)
> 0 Program
Determined
Unitless moment magnification factor for minor axis
bending moment of a braced member. Specifying 0
means the value is program determined. Program deter-
mined value means it is calculated for each element for
each load combination uniquely. See section 4.4.2.2 and
Appendix E and F of "AS 4100:1998" code for details.
For symmetrical sections minor bending is bending about
the local 2-axis. For unsymmetrical sections (e.g., an-
gles)minor bending is the bending about the section
principal axis with the smaller moment of inertia..
Sway Moment
Factor (Ds Major)
> 0 1.0
Unitless moment magnification factor for major axis
bending moment of a sway member. Specifying 0 means
the value is program default which is 1. The program
determined value is taken as 1 because it is assumed that
P-Delta effects were specified to be included in the anal-
ysis, and thus no further magnification is required. See
section 4.4.2.3 and Appendix E and F of "AS 4100:1998"
code for details. For symmetrical sections major bending
is bending about the local 3-axis.For unsymmetrical
sections (e.g., angles)major bending is the bending about
the section principal axis with the larger moment of iner-
tia.
Sway Moment
Factor (Ds Minor)
> 0 1.0
Unitless moment magnification factor for minor axis
bending moment of a sway member. Specifying 0 means
the value is program default which is 1. The program
determined value is taken as 1 because it is assumed that
P-Delta effects were specified to be included in the anal-
ysis, and thus no further magnification is required. See
section 4.4.2.3 and Appendix E and F of "AS 4100:1998"
code for details. For symmetrical sections minor bending
is bending about the local 2-axis. For unsymmetrical
sections (e.g., angles)minor bending is the bending about
the section principal axis with the smaller moment of
inertia.
Form Factor (Kf)
1
<1
1
Form factor for members subjected to axial compression.
It is unitless. Its value is 1 for compact sections and less
than one for non-compact and slender sections. Specify-
ing 0 means the value is program determined. See sec-
tions 6.2.1, 6.3.3, 8.3.2, 8.4.2.2, and 8.4.4.1 of "AS
4100:1998" code for details.
Axial Capacity
Connection Factor
(kt)
s 1 1
Correction factor for distribution of forces for members
subjected to axial tension. It is unitless. Its value depends
on the connections and can be less than or equal to one
for any sections. Specifying 0 means the value is program
default which is 1. See sections 7.2, 7.3.1, and 7.3.2 and
Table 7.3.2 of "AS 4100:1998" code for details.
Yield Stress, Fy
> 0 Program
Determined
Material yield strength used in the design/check. Speci-
fying zero means the value is program determined. The
program determined value is taken from the material
property assigned to the frame object.
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 14 Design Load Combination
Table 3-2 Steel Frame Design Overwrites for AS-4100-1998
Item Possible Values Default Value Description
Compressive
Capacity, Nc
> 0 Program
Determined
Allowable axial compressive capacity. Specifying zero
means the value is program determined.
Tensile Capacity,
Pnt
> 0 Program
Determined
Allowable axial tensile capacity. Specifying zero means
the value is program determined.
Major Bending
Capacity, Ms33
> 0 Program
Determined
Allowable bending moment capacity in major axis bend-
ing. Specifying 0 means the value is program deter-
mined. For symmetrical sections major bending is bend-
ing about the local 3-axis. For unsymmetrical sections
(e.g., angles) major bending is the bending about the
section principal axis with the larger moment of inertia.
Minor Bending
Capacity, Ms22
> 0 Program
Determined
Allowable bending moment capacity in minor axis bend-
ing. Specifying 0 means the value is program deter-
mined. For symmetrical sections minor bending is bend-
ing about the local 2-axis. For unsymmetrical sections
(e.g., angles) minor bending is the bending about the
section principal axis with the smaller moment of inertia.
Major Bending
Capacity, Mb33
> 0 Program
Determined
Allowable critical moment capacity for major axis bend-
ing. Specifying 0 means the value is program deter-
mined. For symmetrical sections major bending is bend-
ing about the local 3-axis. For unsymmetrical sections
(e.g., angles) major bending is the bending about the
section principal axis with the larger moment of inertia.
Major Shear
Capacity, Vu2
> 0 Program
Determined
Allowable shear capacity force for major direction shear.
Specifying 0 means the value is program determined. For
symmetrical sections major shear is shear in the local 2-
axis direction. For unsymmetrical sections (e.g., angles)
major shear is the shear associated with major bending.
Note that major bending is the bending about the section
principal axis with the larger moment of inertia.
Minor Shear
Capacity, Vu3
> 0 Program
Determined
Allowable shear capacity force for minor direction shear.
Specifying 0 means the value is program determined. For
symmetrical sections minor shear is shear in the local 3-
axis direction. For unsymmetrical sections (e.g., angles)
minor shear is the shear associated with minor bending.
Note that minor bending is the bending about the section
principal axis with the smaller moment of inertia.
Demand/Capacity
Ratio Limit
> 0 Program
Determined
The stress ratio limit to be used for acceptability. Stress
ratios that are less than or equal to this value are consid-
ered acceptable. Specifying zero means the value is pro-
gram determined.
3.4 Design Load Combination
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed
load cases for which the structure is to be checked. The program creates a
number of default design load combinations for steel frame design. Users can
add their own design load combinations as well as modify or delete the pro-
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Design Load Combination 3 - 15
gram default design load combinations. An unlimited number of design load
combinations can be specified.
To define a design load combination, simply specify one or more load cases,
each with its own scale factor. The scale factors are applied to the forces and
moments from the load cases to form the factored design forces and moments
for each design load combination. There is one exception to the preceding. For
spectral analysis modal combinations, any correspondence between the signs
of the moments and axial loads is lost. The program uses eight design load
combinations for each such loading combination specified, reversing the sign
of axial loads and moments in major and minor directions.
As an example, if a structure is subjected to dead load, D, and live load, L, on-
ly, the AS 4100-1998 design check may need one design load combination on-
ly, namely, 1.2D + 1.5L. However, if the structure is subjected to wind, earth-
quake, or other loads, numerous additional design load combinations may be
required.
For AS 4100-1998, if a structure is subjected to dead (D), live (L), pattern live
(PL), wind (W), and earthquake (E) loads, and considering that wind and
earthquake forces are reversible, the following load combinations may need to
be defined (AS 3.2.3, AS/NZS 4.2.2):
1.35D (AS/NZS, 4.2.2(a))
1.2D + 1.5L (AS/NZS, 4.2.2(b))
1.2D + 1.5(0.75 PL) (AS/NZS, 4.2.2(b))
0.9D 1.0W
1.2D 1.0W
1.2D + 0.4L 1.0W
(AS/NZS, 4.2.2(e))
(AS/NZS, 4.2.2(d))
(AS/NZS, 4.2.2(d))
1.0D 1.0E
1.0D + 0.4L 1.0E
(AS/NZS, 4.2.2(f))
(AS/NZS, 4.2.2(f))
Note that the 0.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid
for live load representing storage areas.
These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever
the AS 4100-1998 code is used.
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 16 Classification of Sections for Local Buckling
Two types of live load are used in the program, i.e., Live (L) and Reduced Live
(LR). Live loads are non-reducible and this load should be used for defining
sustained loadings, such as storage, car parking, mechanical plant, and the like,
and Reduced Live should be used for transient live loads.
The program allows live load reduction factors to be applied to the member
forces of the reducible live load case on a member-by-member basis to reduce
the contribution of the live load to the factored responses.
The user should use other appropriate design load combinations if roof live
load is separately treated, or if other types of loads are present. PLL is the live
load multiplied by the Pattern Live Load Factor. The Pattern Live Load Factor
can be specified in the Preferences.
The code is required to consider Notional Load in the design loading combina-
tions for steel frame design. The program allows the user to define and create
notional loads as individual load cases from a specified percentage of a given
gravity load acting in a particular lateral direction. These notional load cases
should be considered in the combinations with appropriate factors, appropriate
directions, and appropriate senses. Currently, the program automatically in-
cludes the notional loads in the default design gravity load combinations only.
The user is free to modify the default design load combinations to include the
notional loads for the other combinations, if desired. For further information,
refer to the "Notional Load Patterns" section in Chapter 2.
The combinations described herein are the default loading combinations only.
They can be deleted or edited as required by the design code or engineer-of-
record.
3.5 Classification of Sections for Local Buckling
The nominal strengths for flexure are dependent on the classification of the
section as Compact, Non-Compact, Slender, or Too Slender. Compact sections
are capable of developing the full plastic strength before local buckling occurs.
Non-Compact sections can develop partial yielding in compression and buckle
inelastically before reaching fully plastic stress distribution. Slender sections
buckle elastically before any of the elements yield under compression.
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Classification of Sections for Local Buckling 3 - 17
Sections are classified as Compact, Non-Compact, or Slender sections in ac-
cordance with Section 5.2.2 of the code (AS 5.2.2). For a section to qualify as
Compact, its flanges must be continuously connected to the web or webs and
the width-thickness ratios of its compression elements must not exceed the
plasticity limit,
ep
from Table 5.2 of the code.

e
s
ep
(for all elements) (AS 5.2.2, 5.2.3, Table 5.2).
If the width-thickness ratio of one or more compression elements exceeds
ep
,
but does not exceed
ey
from Table 5-2, the section is Non-Compact.

e
s
ey
(all) (AS 5.2.2, 5.2.4, Table 5.2)

ep
<
e
s
ey
(any) (AS 5.2.2, 5.2.4, Table 5.2)
If the width-thickness ratio of any element exceeds
ey
but does not exceed
ew
,
the section is Slender.

e
s
ew
(all) (AS 5.2.2, 5.2.5, Table 5.2)

ey
<
e
s
ew
(any) (AS 5.2.2, 5.2.5, 5.10.1)
If the width-thickness ratio of any element exceeds
ew
, the section is consid-
ered Too Slender.

e
>
ew
(any) (AS 5.2.2, 5.10.1)
The values of
ep
,

ey
, and

ew
, as implemented in the program are taken from
Table 3-4 (AS 5.2.2, 5.10.1, Table 5.2). In that table, all expressions of
ep
and

ey
are taken from AS Section 5.2.2 and AS Table 5.2. The limit demarcating
Slender and Too Slender has been identified as
ew
in this document. The ex-
pression of
ew
for I-Shape, Double Channel, Channel, and T-Shape sections is
taken from AS section 5.10.1.
Section classification is done differently for bending about major and minor
axes. For example, when a double symmetric I-Shaped member goes through
major axis bending, its compression flange sustains a uniform compression.
Whereas the same member when subjected to a minor axis bending moment,
the flanges sustain a non-uniform compression as the stress will be maximum
at the tip and zero at the edge that connects the web. In these two cases the val-
ue of
ep
,

ey
, and

ew
will be different because of uniform and non-uniform
stress conditions. Accordingly the program classifies the individual sections in
accordance with Table 3-4 for major axis bending, and Table 3-5 for minor
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 18 Classification of Sections for Local Buckling
axis bending. Tables 3-4 and 3-5 focus mostly on the width-thickness ratios,
number of longitudinal edge supported and stress condition. Actual
ep
,

ey
, and

ew
are taken from Table 3-3.
Table 3-3 Values of Plate Element Slenderness Limits (Table AS 5.2)
Plate
element
type
Longitudinal
edges
supported
Stress Condition
Residual
stresses
(see Notes)
Plasticity
limit
(
ep
)
Yield
limit
(
ey
)
Too slender
limit
(
ew
)
SR 10 16 90
HR 9 16 90
LW, CF 8 15 90
Uniform compression
HW 8 14 90
SR 10 25 90
HR 9 25 90
LW, CF 8 22 90
One
Non-uniform Compression -
Maximum compression at
unsupported edge, zero stress
or tension at supported edge
HW 8 22 90
SR 30 45 180
HR 30 45 180
LW, CF 30 40 180
Uniform compression
HW 30 35 180
Flat
Both
Non-uniform Compression -
Compression at one edge,
tension at the other edge
Any 82 115 180
SR 50 120 No Limit
HR, CF 50 120 No Limit
LW 42 120 No Limit
Circular hollow sections Any
HW 42 120 No Limit
Notes:
SR Stress relieved LW Lightly welded longitudinally (residual stress < 40 MPa)
HR Hot-rolled or hot-finished HW Heavily welded longitudinally (residual stress > 40 MPa)
CF Cold formed

The tables use the variables b
f
, t
f
, t
w
, b, t, d
o
, d, h, and so on. The variables b, d,
d
o
, and t are explained in the respective figures inside the table. The variables
b
f
, t
f
, h, and t
w
are explained in Figure 3-1.

Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Classification of Sections for Local Buckling 3 - 19
Table 3-4 Width-Thickness Ratios, Edge Supports, and Stress Uniformity of
Compression Elements for Classification of Sections When Subjected
to Flexure about Major Axis
Section
Type
Description
of Element Example
Element
Slenderness
(
e
)
Number of
Supported
Edges
Stress
Condition
Flexural compression
of flanges of rolled
I-Shapes

2 250
| |
|
\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
Flexural compression
in flanges of built-up
I-Shapes

2 250
| |
|
\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
D
o
u
b
l
y

S
y
m
m
e
t
r
i
c


I
-
S
h
a
p
e

Flexure in web

250
y
w
f h
t
| |
|
\ .
Two Non-Uniform
Flexural Compression
of flanges of rolled
I-Shapes

2 250
| |
|
\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
Flexural Compression
in flanges of
built-up I-Shapes

2 250
f w y
f
b t f
t
| |
|
\ .
One Uniform
S
i
n
g
l
y

S
y
m
m
e
t
r
i
c


I
-
S
h
a
p
e
s

Flexure in Web
p
h
2
c
h
2
t
w
pna
cg
h
p
h
2
c
h
2
t
w
pna
cg
p
h
2
c
h
2
t
w
pna
cg
h

250
y
w
f h
t
| |
|
\ .
Two Non-Uniform
C
h
a
n
n
e
l

Flexural
compression in
flanges

250
f w y
f
b t f
t
| |
|
\ .
One Uniform
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 20 Classification of Sections for Local Buckling
Table 3-4 Width-Thickness Ratios, Edge Supports, and Stress Uniformity of
Compression Elements for Classification of Sections When Subjected
to Flexure about Major Axis
Section
Type
Description
of Element Example
Element
Slenderness
(
e
)
Number of
Supported
Edges
Stress
Condition
C
h
a
n
n
e
l

Flexure in web

250
y
w
f h
t
| |
|
\ .
Two Non-Uniform
Flexural
compression in
flanges

250
| |
|
\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
D
o
u
b
l
e

C
h
a
n
n
e
l

Flexure in web

250
y
w
f h
t
| |
|
\ .
Two Non-Uniform
Flexural compression
of flanges

250
y
f b
t
| |
|
\ .
Two Uniform
B
o
x

Flexure in web

250
y
f h
t
| |
|
\ .
Two Non-Uniform
Flexural compression
in flanges

2 250
| |
|
\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
T
-
S
h
a
p
e

Flexural compression
in stems

250
| |
|
\ .
f y
w
d t f
t
One Non-Uniform
Flexural compression
in leg

250
y
f b
t
| |
|
\ .
One Uniform
D
o
u
b
l
e

A
n
g
l
e

Flexural
compression in leg

250
y
f b
t
| |
|
\ .
One Non-Uniform
A
n
g
l
e

Flexural compression
in any leg

250
y
f b
t
| |
|
\ .
One Uniform
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Classification of Sections for Local Buckling 3 - 21
Table 3-4 Width-Thickness Ratios, Edge Supports, and Stress Uniformity of
Compression Elements for Classification of Sections When Subjected
to Flexure about Major Axis
Section
Type
Description
of Element Example
Element
Slenderness
(
e
)
Number of
Supported
Edges
Stress
Condition
P
i
p
e

Flexural compression
o
d
o
d
o
d
o
d

250
y o
f d
t
| |
|
\ .

Round
Bar
---- ---- ---- Assumed Compact
Rectan-
gular
---- ---- ---- Assumed Compact
General ---- ---- ---- Assumed Compact
SD
Section
---- ---- ---- Assumed Compact

Table 3-5 Width-Thickness Ratios, Edge Supports, and Shear Uniformity of
Compression Elements for Classification Sections When Subjected to
Flexure about Minor Axis
Section
Type
Description of Ele-
ment Example
Element Slenderness
(
e
)
Number of
Supported
Edges
Stress Condi-
tion
Flexural compression
of flanges of rolled I-
Shapes

2 250
| |
|
\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Non-Uniform
Flexural compression
in flanges of built-up
I-Shapes

2 250
| |
|
\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Non-Uniform
D
o
u
b
l
y

S
y
m
m
e
t
r
i
c


I
-
S
h
a
p
e

Flexure in web

250
y
w
f h
t
| |
|
\ .
Two Non-Uniform
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 22 Classification of Sections for Local Buckling
Table 3-5 Width-Thickness Ratios, Edge Supports, and Shear Uniformity of
Compression Elements for Classification Sections When Subjected to
Flexure about Minor Axis
Section
Type
Description of Ele-
ment Example
Element Slenderness
(
e
)
Number of
Supported
Edges
Stress Condi-
tion
Flexural Compression
of flanges of rolled
I-Shapes

2 250
| |
|
\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Non-Uniform
Flexural Compression
in flanges of built-up I-
Shapes

2 250
| |
|
\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Non-Uniform
S
i
n
g
l
y

S
y
m
m
e
t
r
i
c


I
-
S
h
a
p
e
s

Flexure in Web

2 250
| |
|
\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
Two Non-Uniform
Flexural
compression in
flanges

250
| |
|
\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Non-Uniform
C
h
a
n
n
e
l

Flexure in web

250
y
w
f h
t
| |
|
\ .
Two Uniform
Flexural
compression
in flanges

250
| |
|
\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Non-Uniform
D
o
u
b
l
e

C
h
a
n
n
e
l

Flexure in web

250
y
w
f h
t
| |
|
\ .
Two Uniform
B
o
x
Flexural compression
of flanges under major
axis bending

250
y
f b
t
| |
|
\ .
Two Non-Uniform
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Classification of Sections for Local Buckling 3 - 23
Table 3-5 Width-Thickness Ratios, Edge Supports, and Shear Uniformity of
Compression Elements for Classification Sections When Subjected to
Flexure about Minor Axis
Section
Type
Description of Ele-
ment Example
Element Slenderness
(
e
)
Number of
Supported
Edges
Stress Condi-
tion
B
o
x

Flexure in web

250
y
f h
t
| |
|
\ .
Two Uniform
Flexural compression
in flanges

250
| |
|
\ .
f w y
w
b t f
t
One Non-Uniform
T
-
S
h
a
p
e

Compression in stems

250
| |
|
\ .
f y
w
d t f
t
One Non-Uniform
Any type of
compression in leg

250
y
f b
t
| |
|
\ .
One Non-Uniform
D
o
u
b
l
e

A
n
g
l
e

Any type of
compression in leg

250
y
f b
t
| |
|
\ .
One Uniform
A
n
g
l
e

Flexural compression
in any leg

250
y
f b
t
| |
|
\ .
One Non-uniform
P
i
p
e

Flexural
compression
o
d
o
d

250
y o
f d
t
| |
|
\ .

Round
Bar
---- ---- ---- Assumed Compact
Rectan-
gular
---- ---- ---- Assumed Compact
General ---- ---- ---- Assumed Compact
SD
Section
---- ---- ---- Assumed Compact

Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 24 Classification of Sections for Local Buckling
2, y
2, y
3, x 3, x
Axes Conventions
2-2 is the cross section axis
parallel to the webs, the
longer dimension of tubes,
the longer leg of single
angles, or the side by side
legs of double anges. This is
the same as the y-y axis.
3-3 is orthogonal to 2-2. This is
the same as the x-x axis.
f
b
b
w
t
f
t
d
f
b
( )
=
w f
b d 2 t
f
t
w
t
b
w
t
b
f
t
d
t
d
o
d
f
b
d
w
t
f
t
w
b
b
w
t
d
s
f
b
f
b
f
t
b
t
w
t
f
b
b
d
d
f
b
b
f
t
w
t
h
b
f
t
f
b
w
t
( )
=
w f
b d 2 t
s
ft
b
w
t
h
c
h 2
p
h 2
PNA
NA
fc
b
w
b f
d
( )
=
w f
b d 2 t
b
w
b
u
b
2, y
2, y
3, x 3, x
Axes Conventions
2-2 is the cross section axis
parallel to the webs, the
longer dimension of tubes,
the longer leg of single
angles, or the side by side
legs of double anges. This is
the same as the y-y axis.
2-2 is the cross section axis
parallel to the webs, the
longer dimension of tubes,
the longer leg of single
angles, or the side by side
legs of double anges. This is
the same as the y-y axis.
3-3 is orthogonal to 2-2. This is
the same as the x-x axis.
3-3 is orthogonal to 2-2. This is
the same as the x-x axis.
f
b
b
w
t
f
t
d
f
b
( )
=
w f
b d 2 t
f
t
w
t
b
w
t
b
f
t
d
t
d
o
d
f
b
d
w
t
f
t
f
t
w
b
b
w
t
d
s
f
b
f
b
f
t
b
t
w
t
f
b
b
d
d
f
b
b
f
t
w
t
h
b
f
t
f
b
w
t
( )
=
w f
b d 2 t
s
ft
b
w
t
h
c
h 2
p
h 2
PNA
NA
fc
b
w
b f
d
( )
=
w f
b d 2 t
b
w
b
u
b

Figure 3-1 AS 4100-1998 Definition of Geometric Properties

Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Classification of Sections for Local Buckling 3 - 25
In classifying web slenderness of I-Shape, Box, Channel, Double Channel, and
all other sections, it is assumed that there are not intermediate stiffeners. The
code provides a limit on web slenderness for unstiffened web in Clause 5.10.1.
This document refers to that limit as
ew
and uses it as a limit of Too Slender-
ness. When
e
exceeds
ew
, the web slenderness limit at unstiffened condition,
the program reports that the section is Too Slender.
For sections with flat compression elements, the plate element slenderness is
taken as follows:

250
y
e
f b
t
| |
=
|
\ .
(AS 5.2.2)
For flat compression elements supported on only one edge parallel to the direc-
tion of compression force, b is taken as the clear width of the element outstand
from the face of the supporting plate elements. For flat compression elements
supported along two edges parallel to the direction of the compression force, b
is taken as the clear width of the element between the faces of supporting plate
elements (AS 5.2.2). For all flat compression elements t is taken as the element
thickness (AS 5.2.2).
For circular hollow sections, the element slenderness,
e
, and equivalent sec-
tion slenderness,
s
, is taken as follows:

250
| | | |
= =
| |
\ .\ .
y o
s e
f d
t
(AS 5.2.2)
where d
o
is the outside diameter of the section.
The nominal strength for axial compression also depends on the classification
of section. In this mode, however, the sections are classified as either Compact
or Slender in accordance with the code (AS 6.2.3). For a section to qualify as
Compact, the following condition should be satisfied:

e
s
ey
(all elements) (AS 6.2.3)
If the preceding condition is not satisfied, the section is considered to be Slen-
der.
The value of
ey
for the axial mode is taken from Table 3-6 in accordance with
the code (AS 6.2.4, Table 6.2.4). For sections with flat plate elements, this lim-
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 26 Classification of Sections for Local Buckling
it
ey
is the same as that in AS Table 5.2. However for pipe sections, the values
differ.
The slenderness of a flat plate element,
e
, is calculated as follows:

y
e
f
b
t

| |
=
|
\ .
250
(AS 6.2.3)
For circular hollow sections, the element slenderness,
e
, is calculated as fol-
lows:

| |
| |
=
|
|
\ .
\ .
y
o
e
f
d
t 250
(AS 6.2.3)
The preceding two expressions of
e
are exactly the same as those given for the
flexural mode (AS 6.2.3, 5.2.2). Also the values of b, t, and d
o
are the same as
those described earlier in this section.
The program clarifies the individual sections in accordance with Table 3-7 for
axial compression. This table focuses on the width-thickness ratios, number of
longitudinal edges supported, and stress condition. Actual
ey
is taken from Ta-
ble 3-6.
Table 3-6 Values of Plate Element Yield Slenderness Limit (AS Table 6.2.4)
Plate
element type
Longitudinal
edges
supported
Residual
stresses
(see Notes)
Yield
slenderness
limit,
ey

One (Outstand)
SR
HR
LW, CF
HW
16
16
15
14
Flat
Both
SR
HR
LW, CF
HW
45
45
40
35
Circular hollow sections
SR
HR
LW, CF
HW
82
82
82
82
Notes:
SR Stress relieved LW Lightly welded longitudinally (residual stress < 40 MPa)
HR Hot-rolled or hot-finished HW Heavily welded longitudinally (residual stress > 40 MPa)
CF Cold formed

Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Classification of Sections for Local Buckling 3 - 27
Table 3-7 Width-Thickness Ratios, Edge Supports, and Stress Uniformity of
Compression Elements for Classification Sections When Subjected to
Axial Compression
Section
Type
Description of Ele-
ment Example
Element Slenderness
(
e
)
Number of
Supported
Edges
Stress Condi-
tion
Flexural compression
of flanges of rolled I-
Shapes

2 250
| |
|
\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
Flexural compression
in flanges of built-up
I-Shapes

2 250
| |
|
\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
D
o
u
b
l
y

S
y
m
m
e
t
r
i
c


I
-
S
h
a
p
e

Flexure in web

250
y
w
f h
t
| |
|
\ .
Two Uniform
Flexural Compression
of flanges of rolled
I-Shapes

2 250
| |
|
\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
Flexural Compression
in flanges of built-up I-
Shapes

2 250
| |
|
\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
S
i
n
g
l
y

S
y
m
m
e
t
r
i
c


I
-
S
h
a
p
e
s

Flexure in Web

250
y
w
f h
t
| |
|
\ .
Two Uniform
C
h
a
n
n
e
l

Flexural
compression in
flanges

2 250
| |
|
\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 28 Classification of Sections for Local Buckling
Table 3-7 Width-Thickness Ratios, Edge Supports, and Stress Uniformity of
Compression Elements for Classification Sections When Subjected to
Axial Compression
Section
Type
Description of Ele-
ment Example
Element Slenderness
(
e
)
Number of
Supported
Edges
Stress Condi-
tion
C
h
a
n
n
e
l

Flexure in web

250
y
w
f h
t
| |
|
\ .
Two Uniform
Flexural
compression
in flanges

250
| |
|
\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
D
o
u
b
l
e

C
h
a
n
n
e
l

Flexure in web

250
y
w
f h
t
| |
|
\ .
Two Uniform
Flexural compression
of flanges under major
axis bending

250
y
f b
t
| |
|
\ .
Two Uniform
B
o
x

Flexure in web

250
y
f h
t
| |
|
\ .
Two Uniform
Flexural compression
in flanges

2 250
| |
|
\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
T
-
S
h
a
p
e

Compression in stems

250
| |
|
\ .
f y
w
d t f
t
One Uniform
Any type of
compression in leg

250
y
f b
t
| |
|
\ .
One Uniform
D
o
u
b
l
e

A
n
g
l
e

Any type of
compression in leg

250
y
f b
t
| |
|
\ .
One Uniform
A
n
g
l
e

Flexural compression
in any leg

250
y
f b
t
| |
|
\ .
One Uniform
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments 3 - 29
Table 3-7 Width-Thickness Ratios, Edge Supports, and Stress Uniformity of
Compression Elements for Classification Sections When Subjected to
Axial Compression
Section
Type
Description of Ele-
ment Example
Element Slenderness
(
e
)
Number of
Supported
Edges
Stress Condi-
tion
A
n
g
l
e

Axial only
compression
in any leg

250
y
f b
t
| |
|
\ .
One Uniform
P
i
p
e

Flexural
compression o
d
o
d

250
y o
f d
t
| |
|
\ .

Round
Bar
---- ---- ---- Assumed Compact
Rectan-
gular
---- ---- ---- Assumed Compact
General ---- ---- ---- Assumed Compact
SD
Section
---- ---- ---- Assumed Compact
3.6 Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments
The factored member loads that are calculated for each load combination are
N
*
, M
*
33
, M
*
22
, V
*
2
, V
*
3
and T
*
corresponding to factored values of the axial load,
the major and minor moments and shears, and torsion, respectively. These fac-
tored loads are calculated at each of the previously defined stations.
The factored forces can be amplified to consider second order effects, depend-
ing on the choice of analysis method chosen in the Preferences. If the analysis
method is chosen to be General Second Order Elastic Analysis, it is assumed
that the analysis considers the influence of second-order effects (P-A and P-o
effects); hence the analysis results are used without amplification (AS
4.4.1.2(a), 4.4.1.2(b), App E, App F). Second-order effects due to overall sway
of the structure can usually be accounted for, conservatively, by considering
the second-order effects on the structure under one set of loads (usually the
most severe gravity load case), and performing all other analyses as linear us-
ing the stiffness matrix developed for this one set of P-delta loads (see also
White and Hajjar 1991). For a more accurate analysis, it is always possible to
define each loading combination as a nonlinear load case that considers only
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 30 Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments
geometric nonlinearities. For both approaches, when P-o effects are expected to
be important, use more than one element per line object (accomplished using
the automatic frame subdivide option of the Assign menu > Frame > Auto-
matic Frame Mesh command).
If the analysis method considers only Second Order Analysis by Amplified
First Order Analysis (AS 4.4.2), it is assumed that the analysis does not con-
sider the influence of second order effects (P-A and P-o). Hence the analysis
results are amplified using o
b
and o
s
factors using the following approximate
second-order analysis for calculating the required flexural strengths in mem-
bers of lateral load resisting systems. The required second-order flexural
strength, M
*
, is determined as follows:
M
*
= o
b
(M
*
fb
+ o
s
M
*
fs
) Sway Frames (AS 4.4.1.2(b), 4.4.2.3, App F)
M
*
= o
b
(M
*
fb
+ M
*
fs
) Braced Frames (AS 4.4.1.2(a), 4.4.2.2, App F)
where,

*
1,
1
m
b
omb
C
N
N
o = >
| |

|
\ .
and (AS 4.4.2.2)
o = >
A E

E
*
*
1
1,
1
s
s
s
N
h V
(AS 4.4.2.3)
where,
M
*

= required second-order flexural strength using load combina-
tions, N-mm
M
*
fb
= first-order factored moment using the design load combina-
tions, assuming there is no lateral translation of the frame, N-
mm
M
*
fs
= first-order factored moment using the design load combina-
tions caused by lateral translation of the frame only, N-mm
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments 3 - 31
N
*
= required second-order axial strength using load combinations,
N

E
N
*
= total vertical load supported by the story, including gravity
column loads, N

E
V
*
= total story shear, N
A
s
= lateral strong drift, mm
h
s
= strong height, mm
C
m
= a coefficient assuming no lateral translation of the frame,
whose value is taken as follows:
(i) For beam-columns not subject to transverse loading be-
tween supports in the plane of bending,
= | s 0.6 0.4 1.0
m m
C (AS 4.4.2.1)

a
m
b
M
M
| =
where, M
a
and M
b
, calculated from a first-order analysis,
are the smaller and larger moments, respectively, at the
ends of that portion of the member unbraced in the plane
of bending under consideration.
a b
M M is positive when
the member is bent in reverse curvature, negative when
bent in single curvature.
(ii) For beam-columns subjected to transverse loading between
supports, the value of C
m
is conservatively taken as 1.0 for
all cases (AS 4.4.2.2.(a)).
When M
b
is zero, C
m
is taken as 1.0, the program defaults C
m

to 1.0, if the unbraced length is more than actual member
length. The user can overwrite the value of C
m
for any member.
C
m
can be expressed as follows:
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 32 Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments

1.00, if length is more than actual length,


1.00, if tension member,
1.00, if both ends unrestrained,
0.6 0.4 , if no transverse loading, and
1.00, if transverse loading is present.
m
m
C
(AS 4.4.2.1)
N
omb
= elastic critical buckling resistance of the member in the plane
of bending, calculated based on the assumption of zero side-
sway, N
( )
2
2 omb
eb
EI
N
k l
t
= (AS 4.6.2)
where,
E = modulus of elasticity of steel, 200,000 MPa
I = moment of inertia in the plane of bending, mm
4

l = story height, mm
k
eb
= effective length factor in the plane of bending, calcu-
lated based on the assumption of no lateral translation.
It is calculated following the procedure given in Chap-
ter 2. The Overwrites can be used to change the value
of k
eb
for the major and minor directions.
In the expression of o
b
, the required axial force N
*
is used based on its first or-
der value. The magnification factor o
b
must be a positive number. Therefore, N
*

must be less than N
omb
. If N
*
is found to be greater than or equal to N
omb
a failure
condition is declared.
If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular structural model
or member, the user has the choice to explicitly specify the values of o
b
for any
member.
Currently, the program does not calculate the o
s
factor. The user is required to
overwrite the values of o
s
for the members, if the Amplified First Order Me-
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Calculation of Nominal Strengths 3 - 33
thod is used. The program prefers that the user would use the General Second
Order Elastic Analysis method
However, it is assumed that P-A analysis reasonably captures the effect of P-A
only. In order to capture the effect of P-o, the program conservatively amplifies
the second order moment with the o
b
factor only.
M
*
= o
b
M
*
m
( AS 4.4.1.2(b), App E)
This is similar to assuming a braced condition.
3.7 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
The nominal strengths in compression, tension, bending, and shear are com-
puted for Compact, Noncompact, and Slender members in accordance with the
following sections. The nominal flexural strengths for all shapes of sections
are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. For the Rectangular, I-
Shape, Box, Channel, Double Channel, Circular, Pipe, T-Shape, and Double
Angle sections, the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. For the
Single Angle sections, the principal axes are determined and all computations
except shear are based on that.
For all sections, the nominal shear strengths are calculated for directions
aligned with the geometric axes, which typically coincide with the principal
axes. Again, the exception is the Single Angle section.
If the user specifies nonzero nominal capacities for one or more of the
members on the Steel Frame Overwrites form, those values will override
the calculated values for those members. The specified capacities should
be based on the principal axes of bending for flexure, and the geometric
axes for shear.
3.7.1 Nominal Flexural Capacities
This section applies to members subject to simple bending about one principal
axis. The members are assumed to be loaded in a plane parallel to a principal
axis that passes through the shear center, or restrained against twisting. Nor-
mally a member subjected to pure bending about the major principal axis (x-
axis or 3-3 axis) should satisfy the following conditions:
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 34 Calculation of Nominal Strengths

*
x sx
M M s | (AS 5.1)

*
x bx
M M s | (AS 5.1)
Normally a member subjected to pure bending about the minor principal axis
(y-axis or 2-2 axis) should satisfy the following condition:

*
y sy
M M | s (AS 5.1)
where,

*
x
M = The design bending moment about the x-axis (major principal
axis, 3-3 axis).

*
y
M = The design bending moment about the y-axis (minor principal
axis, 2-2 axis).
| = The capacity factor for flexure.
M
sx
= The nominal section moment capacity about the x-axis.
M
sy
= The nominal section moment capacity about the y-axis
M
bx
= The nominal member moment capacity about the x-axis.
Members subjected to combined actions of axial forces, bending moments, and
shear forced are checked using interaction equations described later in this
chapter. These equations use M
sx
, M
sy
, and M
bx
extensively.
3.7.1.1 Section Moment Capacity for Bending About a Principal Axis
For bending about a principal axis, the section moment capacity is calculated
as follows,
=
sx y ex
M f Z (AS 5.2.1)
=
sy y ey
M f Z (AS 5.2.1)
where the effective section modulus, Z
e
, is calculated as follows:
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Calculation of Nominal Strengths 3 - 35
For compact, noncompact, and slender sections comprised of flat plate ele-
ments, such as I-Shape, Box, Channel, Double Channel, T-Shape, Angle, Dou-
ble Angle sections and hollow pipe sections, Z
e
is calculated as follows:
For sections that satisfy
s
s
sp
(compact sections), the effective section mod-
ulus, Z
e
, is taken as follows:
Z
e
= min{S, 1.5Z}, (AS 5.2.3)
where,
S = Plastic section modulus, and
Z = Elastic section modulus.
The program uses the S and Z values based on gross section property. No ad-
justment for holes is done.
For sections that satisfy
sp
<
s
s
sy
(non-compact sections), the effectiveness
section modulus, Z
e
, is calculated as follows:
( )
sy s
e c
sy sp
Z Z Z Z
( | |
= +
( |

( \ .
( AS 5.2.4)
where Z
c
is the effective section modulus Z
e
for a compact section specified
above.
Z
c
= min{S, 1.5Z} (AS 5.2.3)
For sections with flat plate elements in uniform compression that satisfy
s
>
sy

(slender sections), the effective section modulus, Z
e
, is calculated as follows:

sy
e
s
Z Z
| |
=
|

\ .
(AS 5.2.5)
For a section whose slenderness is determined by the value calculated for a flat
plate element with maximum compression at an unsupported edge and zero
stress or tension at the other edge and that satisfies
s
>
sy
, the effective section
modulus, Z
e
, is calculated as follows:
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 36 Calculation of Nominal Strengths

2
sy
e
s
Z Z
| |
=
|

\ .
( AS 5.2.5)
For circular hollow sections (pipe) that satisfy
s
>
sy
, the effective section
modulus is taken as the lesser of the following two values:

| |
=
|

\ .
sy
e
s
Z Z and ( AS 5.2.5)

| |
=
|

\ .
sy
e
s
Z Z
2
2
( AS 5.2.5)
For solid circular sections, Z
e
is always calculated assuming compact section.
Z
e
= min{S, 1.5Z} (AS 5.2.3)
For solid rectangular sections, general sections, and the Section Designer sec-
tions, Z
e
is calculated conservatively as follows:
Z
e
= Z
Z
e
is calculated for major and minor axis bending separately using the appro-
priate values of (Z
22
, S
22
) or (Z
33
, S
33
) pairs.
3.7.1.2 Member Moment Capacity of Segments with Arbitrary Lateral Re-
straint
The nominal member moment capacity of a flexural member is calculated as
follows:

b m s s s
M M M o o = s (AS 5.6.1.1(a))
where,

m
o = A moment modification factor.

s
o = A slenderness reduction factor.
M
s
= The nominal section moment capacity.
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Calculation of Nominal Strengths 3 - 37
The moment modification factor, o
m
, is taken as follows:

( ) ( ) ( )
*
m
m
* * *
. M
.
M M M
o = s
(
+ +
(

2 2 2
2 3 4
1 7
2 5 (AS 5.6.1.1(a)(iii))
where,

*
m
M = Maximum design bending moment in the segment.

*
M
2
,
*
M
4
= Design bending moment at the quarter points of the segment.
*
M
3
= Design bending moment at the midpoint of the segment.
If the segment is unrestrained at one end (cantilever), the program determined
value for the factor o
m
, in accordance with AS 5.6.1.1(a)(iii), does not remain
correct. In this case o
m
should be taken from AS Table 5.6.2. The user should
overwrite o
m
for cantilever. The program also defaults o
m
to 1.0 if the minor
unbraced length, l
22
, is redefined to be more than the length of the member by
the user or the program, i.e., if the unbraced length is longer than the member
length. The Overwrites can be used to change the value of o
m
for any member
The slenderness reduction factors o
s
, is calculated as follows:
s s
s
oa oa
M M
.
M M
o
(
(
| | | |
(
(
= +
| |
(
(
\ . \ .
(

2
0 6 3 (AS 5.6.1.1(a)(iv))
in which M
oa
is taken as
M
oa
= M
o
, where M
o
is the reference buckling moment
For doubly symmetric I-Shape, Channel, Double Channel, T-Shape, Angle,
Double Angle, Box, and Pipe sections, the reference buckling moment, M
o
, is
determined as follows:

2
2
2 2
y
w
oa o
e e
EI
EI
M M GJ
l l
(
| | (
| |
( | = = + ( |
|
|
(
(
\ . \ .
t
t
(AS 5.6.1.1(a)(iv))
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 38 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
where,
E, G are the elastic Young's and shear moduli,
I
y
, J and I
w
are section constants,
I
w
= 0 for angle sections (AS 5.6.1.3)
I
w
= 0 for rectangular box sections (AS 5.6.1.4)
l
e
is the effective length for lateral torsional buckling determined in ac-
cordance with AS 5.6.3, which is described later.
For singly-symmetric I-Shapes, M
o
is determined as follows:
( )
(
| | | | | |
| |
( | | | = + + + |
|
| | |
(
\ .
\ . \ . \ .
y x y y
w x
o
e e e e
EI EI EI
EI
M GJ
l l l l
t | t t
t |
2 2 2 2
2
2 2 2 2
2
4

(AS 5.6.1.2(a))
where, the monosymmetric section constant, |
x
, is defined as:
cy
x f
y
I
. d
I
|
( | |
= ( |
|
(
\ .
2
0 8 1 (AS 5.6.1.2(i))
where,
d
f
= The distance between flange centroids.
I
cy
= The moment of inertia of the compression flange about the
section minor principal y-axis.
The effective length for lateral torsional buckling, l
e
, of a segment or sub-
segment is determined as follows:
l
e
= k
t
k
l
k
r
l
LTB
(AS 5.6.3)
where,
k
t
= A twist-resistant factor given in AS Table 5.6.3(1).
k
l
= A load height factor given in AS Table 5.6.3(2).
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Calculation of Nominal Strengths 3 - 39
k
r
= A lateral rotation restraint factor given in AS Table 5.6.3(3).
l
LTB
= The segment length between two lateral restraints.
The procedure to determine l
LTB
is described in the section entitled Member Un-
supported Length in Chapter 2. This length factor can be overwritten.
k
t
, k
l
, and k
r
values should be based on AS Tables 5.6.3(1), 5.6.3(2), 5.6.3(3).
The program does not calculate them. The user is expected to overwrite them.
The procedure for calculating M
b
can be simplified for full lateral restraint
segments. In such cases,
e
l r satisfies certain upper limits (AS 5.3.2.4). Since
the unbraced length is small, the moment capacity in such case reaches M
sx
.
However, the program uses the general expression for arbitrary braced seg-
ments.
The program allows program determination of unbraced length l
LTB
, overwrit-
ing the length factor, or overwriting the precise bracing points. This has been
discussed in the section entitled Member Unsupported Length in Chapter 2.
The user should use judgment to match the program definition of bracing
points with the code specified bracing points (AS 5.4).
For nonprismatic members, the determination of M
b
involves
(i) the properties of minimum cross section, or
(ii) the reduction of M
o
with a factor o
st
.
However, the program is yet to implement this clause. The program just takes
the section properties at any cross-section by interpolation and then uses this
section property assuming prismatic section. The user should check the validity
of this assumption.
If the member is subjected to bending moment about the non-principal axis, the
bending moment is resolved about the principal axis. Then the program goes
through the interaction of combined forces and moments check (AS 5.7.1,
5.7.2).
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 40 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
3.7.2 Nominal Shear Capacities
The nominal shear strengths are calculated for shears along the geometric axes
for all sections. For I-Shape, Box, Channel, Double Channel, T-Shape, Double
Angle, Pipe, Circular and Rectangular sections, the principal axes coincide
with their geometric axes. For Angle sections, principal axes do not coincide
with their geometric axes.
In calculating nominal capacities for shear, V
v

, it is assumed that there is no in-
termediate stiffeners used to enhance shear strength of a section (AS 5.10.1).
Since the program does not design web stiffeners, it assumes the web is always
unstiffened. The unstiffened web should always satisfy the following slender-
ness lemits:
s
y
f
d
t
1
180
250
if web bounded on two sides (AS 5.10.1)
s
y
f
d
t
1
90
250
if web bounded on one side (AS 5.10.1)
where,
d
1
is the clear depth of the web between flanges, ignoring fillets and
welds,
t is the thickness of the web.
All sections consisting of flat plate elements, such as I-Shape, Box, Channel,
Double Channel, T-Shape, Angle, Double Angle sections are checked for this
limit as appropriate. This is described earlier in the section entitled Classifica-
tion of Section for Local Buckling. If any section violates the appropriate limit,
it is declared as Too Slender, and a further check is not done.
The program assumes that the shear stress distribution is uniform through the
web of the member. For members with unequal flanges, varying web thickness,
or holes, the user will need to check shear capacity independently.
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Calculation of Nominal Strengths 3 - 41
3.7.2.1 Shear Capacity in the Major Direction
A member subject to design shear force, V*, along the major direction (2-2 axis
or y-axis) should satisfy the following condition:
V
*
s|V
v

where,
| = The capacity factor, which is 0.9 by default. It can be modified in
the preferences.
V
v
= The nominal shear capacity of the web in the major geometric axis.
V
*
= The design shear force in the major geometric axis.
3.7.2.2 Uniform Shear Stress Distribution
The nominal shear capacity, V
v
, of a web is taken as follows:
V
v
= V
u
(AS 5.11.2)
where, V
u
is the nominal shear capacity of the web assuming approximately
uniform shear stress distribution. For shapes with well defined web, such as I-
Shape, Box, Channel, Double Channel, and T-Shape sections, V
u
is calculated
as follows:
When
p
w
y
d
t
f
s
| |
|
\ .
82
250

V
u
= V
w
, (AS 5.11.2)
where,
V
w
= 0.6 f
y
A
w
(AS 5.11.4)
A
w
is the gross sectional area of the web. It is taken as follows:
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 42 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
=

w
w
w
w
w
w
dt
dt
A dt
dt
ht
for I-Shape sections,
for Channel sections,
for T-Shape sections,
2 for Double Channel sections, and
2 for Box sections.
(AS 5.11.4)
When >
| |
|
\ .
w
y
d
t
f
82
250

V
u
= V
b
(AS 5.11.2)
V
b
= o
v
V
w
(AS 5.11.5.1)
o
v
=
(
(
(
(
| | | | (
| |
(
\ . \ .

p y
w
d f
t
2
82
250
s 1 (AS 5.11.5.1)
For Pipe sections, V
u
is calculated as follows:
V
u
= 0.36 f
y
A
e
(AS 5.11.2, 5.11.4)
A
e
= max(A
n
, 0.9A
g
) (AS 5.11.4)
For angle and double-angle sections, V
v
for one of the geometric axis is taken
as follows:
V
u
= V
w
= 0.6 f
y
A
w
(AS 5.11.2, 5.11.4)

w
bt
A
bt
angle section (AS 5.11.4)
2 , double angle section (AS 5.11.4)

For solid circular sections, rectangular, and general sections and Section De-
signer sections, V
v
for the major axis is taken as follows:
V
u
= V
w
= 0.6 f
y
A
w
, (AS 5.11.2, 5.11.4)
where A
w
is the shear area obtained from elastic shear distribution.
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Calculation of Nominal Strengths 3 - 43
When the bending moment is significant (M
*
> 0.75|M
s
), the shear capacity is
reduced as follows:
V
vm
= V
v
for M
*
s 0.75|M
s
(AS 5.12.3)
=
( | |

( |
|
( \ .
v
s
M
V
M
*
1.6
2.2 0.75|M
s
s M
*
s |M
s
(AS 5.12.3)
where,
V
vm
= The reduced nominal shear capacity of the web.
V
v
= The nominal shear capacity of a web in shear alone.
M
s
= The nominal section moment capacity.
However the program reports V
vm
as equivalent to V
m
.
3.7.2.3 Shear Capacity in the Minor Direction
The nominal shear strength, V
v
, for minor direction shear in I-Shapes, Boxes,
Channels, Double Channels, and T-Shapes is calculated in the same way as for
major direction, except A
w
and
w
h t is taken as follows.
where, A
w
is taken as follows:

2 for I-Shape sections,
2 for Channel sections,
for T-Shape sections,
4 for Double Channel sections, and
2 for Box sections.
f f
f f
w f f
f f
f f
b t
b t
A b t
b t
b t


V
u
is calculated in the same way as that for major direction shear, except that
w
h t is taken as follows:
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 44 Calculation of Nominal Strengths

( )

f f
f f
f f
w
f f
f f
b t
b t
h
b t
t
b t
b t
2 for I-Shape sections,
for Channel sections,
for T-Shape sections,
2 for Double Channel sections, and
for Box sections.

The nominal shear capacity, V
v
, for minor direction shears in Double Angle,
Angle, Rectangular, Circular, Pipe, and General sections and Section Designer
sections is calculated in the same way as that for major direction shear, except
that A
w
and V
w
are taken approximately.
3.7.3 Nominal Compressive Capacities
Normally a concentrically loaded member subjected to a design axial force, N
*
,
should satisfy the following two conditions:
N
*
s |N
s
(AS 6.1)
N
*
s |N
c
(AS 6.1)
where,
| = The capacity factor for axial compression. It is equal to 0.9 by
default (AS Table 3.4). However, it can be modified by the user
through the preferences.
N
s
= The nominal section capacity in compression.
N
c
= The nominal member capacity in compression.
Members subjected to combined actions of axial compression, bending mo-
ment, and shear forces are checked using interaction equations described later
in this chapter. These equations use both N
s
and N
c
extensively.
3.7.3.1 Nominal Section Capacity
The nominal section capacity, N
s
, of a concentrically loaded compression
member is given as follows:
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Calculation of Nominal Strengths 3 - 45
N
s
= k
f
A
n

f
y
(AS 6.2.1)
where,
A
n
= The net area of the cross-section.
k
f
= The form factor. It is calculated as follows:
=
eff
g
A
A
(AS 6.2.2)
where,
A
eff
= The effective area of the whole section, and
A
g
= The gross area of the section.
A
n
= The net area of the cross-section. It is obtained by deducting from
the gross area the sectional area of all penetrations and holes, in-
cluding fastener holes (AS 9.1.10). It is set equal to A
g
by default.
The program allows the user to overwrite
n g
A A , namely the net
area of the total area ratio. By default its value is 1. A value
smaller than or equal to 1 is expected.
For sections comprised of flat plate elements, such as I-Shape, Box, Channel,
Double Channel, T-Shape, Angle, and Double Angle sections, the effective
area of the whole section, A
eff
, is calculated as the summation of effective areas
of all the individual flat plate elements.
A
eff
= A
g

E
(b b
e
)t (AS 6.2.2)
where, the effective width of the individual flat plate elements, b
e
, is calculated
as:

| |
= s
|

\ .
ey
e
e
b b b ( AS 6.2.4)
The yield slenderness limit,
ey
, has been described earlier. It is taken from AS
Table 6.2.4, which has been reproduced earlier in this document in the section
entitled Classification of Section for Local Buckling. Similarly, the clear width
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 46 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
of the individual flat plate elements, b, and the element slenderness,
e
, have
been described earlier.
For pipe sections, the effective area of the section, A
eff
, is calculated as follows:
=
e
eff g
d
A A
d
0
(AS 6.2.2)
where,


| |

=
` |

\ .

)
ey ey
e o o
e e
d d d
2
3
min , (AS 6.2.4)
The yield slenderness limit,
ey
, the element slenderness
e
, and outside diame-
ter d
o
have been described in the section entitled Classification of Sections for
Local Buckling.
Since, for axially compact sections
e
s
ey
, for all flat plate or circular ele-
ments,
A
eff
= A
g
(axially compact sections) ( AS 6.2.4)
A
eff
< A
g
(axially slender sections) ( AS 6.2.4)
This means that for axially compact sections, k
f
= 1 and for all slender sections
k
f
s 1.
k
f
= 1 (axially compact sections)
k
f
s 1 (axially slender sections)
For rectangular, circular, general, and Section Designer sections, k
f
factors are
not calculated and assumed to be 1.
The k
f
factor can be overwritten for any section.
3.7.3.2 Nominal Member Capacity
The nominal member capacities are determined using the geometric slender-
ness ratios and effective lengths described in the following subsections and in
Section 2.7.
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Calculation of Nominal Strengths 3 - 47
The nominal member capacity, N
c
, for a member having a constant cross sec-
tion is calculated as follows:
N
c
= o
c
N
s
s N
s
(AS 6.3.3)
where,
N
s
= the nominal section capacity, determined as described
above in accordance with AS 6.2.1 (AS 6.2.1)
o
c
= the member slenderness reduction factor,
=

(
(
| |
(
(
|
(
( \ .


2
90
1 1 (AS 6.3.3)
=

| |
+ +
|
\ .
| |
|
\ .
2
2
1
90
2
90
(AS 6.3.3)
q = 0.0326 ( 13.5) > 0 (AS 6.3.3)
=
n
+ o
a
o
b
(AS 6.3.3)

n
=
y
e
f
f
l
k
r 250
(AS 6.3.3)
o
a
=
( )
n
n n
.
.

+
2
2100 13 5
15 3 2050
(AS 6.3.3)
o
b
= The appropriate member section constant, given in AS Tables
6.3.3.(1) and 6.3.3.(2). However, the program depends on user
overwrites.
k
f
= The form factor described previously.
If the k
f
factor is equal to 1.0, the o
b
factor is taken from Table 3-8 (AS Table
6.3.3(1)). If the k
f
factor is less than 1.0, the o
b
factor is taken from Table 3-9
(AS Table 6.3.3(2)). There is a minor exception in Table 3-8 from the original
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 48 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
AS Table 6.3.3(1). For welded H and I sections, flanges and webs are assumed
to be fabricated from flame-cut plates.
Table 3-8 Values of Member Section Constant (o
b
) for k
f
= 1.0
(AS Table 6.3.3(1))
Compression member
section constant, o
b

Section description
1.0
Hot-formed RHS and CHS
Cold-formed (stress relieved) RHS and CHS
0.5 Cold-formed (non-stress relieved) RHS and CHS
0
Hot-rolled UB and UC sections
(flange thickness up to 40 mm)
Welded H and I sections fabricated from flame-cut plates*
Welded box sections
0.5
Tees flame-cut from universal sections, and angles
Hot-rolled channels
Weld H and I sections fabricated from as-rolled plates*
(flange thickness up to 40 mm)
Other sections not listed in this Table
1.0
Hot-rolled UB and UC sections
(flange thickness over 40 mm)
Welded H and I sections fabricated from as-rolled plates*
(flange thickness over 40 mm)
*Note: For welded H and I sections, flanges and webs are assumed to be fabricated
from flame-cut plates.
Table 3-9 Values of Member Section Constant (o
b
) for k
f
< 1.0
(AS Table 6.3.3(2))
Compression member
section constant, o
b
Section description
0.5
Hot-formed RHS and CHS
Cold-formed RHS and CHS (stress relieved)
Cold-formed RHS and CHS (non-stress relieved)
0
Hot-rolled UB and UC sections
(flange thickness up to 40 mm)
Welded box sections
0.5
Weld H and I sections
(flange thickness up to 40 mm)
1.0 Other sections not listed in this Table

Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Calculation of Nominal Strengths 3 - 49
For compression members, the effective lengths, l
e
, are determined as,
l
e
= k
e
l
where the effective length factor k
e
takes the form k
eb
(effective length factor for
braced condition, k
eb
s 1) or k
es
(effective length factor for sway condition, k
es
>
1) depending on whether the P-A analysis is performed and whether the mem-
ber is declared to be a Braced Frame or Sway Frame.

A

eb
e eb
es
k
k k
k
,
,
if P- analysis is done for Braced or Sway frames,
if Braced frames,
if Sway frames and P- analysis is not done.

(AS 6.3.2, 4.6.3.3, App G)
If the user overwrites the k
eb
and k
es
, the appropriate overwritten values are
used.
The nominal member capacity for axial compression, N
c

, depends on the slen-
derness ratio,
e
k l r , where


=
`
)
e e e
k l k l k l
r r r
33 33 22 22
33 22
max , .
For all sections except Single Angles, the principal radii of gyration r
22
and r
33

are used. For Single Angles, the minimum (principal) radius of gyration, r
z

, is
used instead of r
22
and r
33

, conservatively, in computing
e
k l r. k
e33
and k
e22
are
two values of k
e
for the major and minor axes of bending.
For members having variable cross-sections, the nominal member capacity, N
c
,
should be determined using procedures described in the section for prismatic
sections, with the following exception:
(a) The nominal section capacity, N
s
, is the minimum value for all cross-
sections along the length of the member, and
(b) The modified member slenderness,
n
, given in earlier in this section
(AS 6.3.3) is replaced by the following:
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 50 Calculation of Nominal Strengths

n
=
s
om
N
N
| |
|
\ .
90 (AS 6.3.4)
where N
om
is the elastic flexural buckling load of the member in axial
compression determined using a rational elastic buckling analysis.
However, the program has yet to implement this clause. The program takes the
section properties of any cross-section by interpolation and then uses this sec-
tion property assuming prismatic section. The user should check the validity of
this assumption.
3.7.4 Nominal Tensile Capacity
This section applies to the members subject to axial tension.
Normally a concentrically loaded member subjected to a design axial tensile
force, N
*
, should satisfy the following conditions:
N
*
s |N
t
(AS 7.1)
where,
| = The capacity factor for axial compression. It is equal to 0.9 by
default (AS Table 3.4). However, it can be overwritten by the
user through the preferences.
N
t
= The nominal section capacity in tension.
The nominal section capacity of a tension member is calculated as follows:
N
t
= min(A
g
f
y
, 0.85k
t
A
n

f
u
) (AS 7.2)
where,
A
g
= The gross area of the cross-section,
f
y
= The yield stress used in design,
k
t
= The correction factor for distribution of forces. It depends on
connection configuration and shape (AS 7.3). It is set to 1.0 and
can be overwritten by the user.
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Members Subjected to Combined Forces 3 - 51
A
n
= The net area of the cross-section. It is obtained by deducting
from the gross area the sectional area of all penetrations and
holes, including fastener holes (AS 9.1.10). It is set equal to A
g
.
The program allows the user to overwrite A
n /
A
g
, namely the net
area of the total area ratio. By default, its value is 1. A value
smaller than or equal to 1 is expected.
f
u
= The tensile strength used in design.
3.8 Members Subjected to Combined Forces
Previous sections of this design manual address members subject to only one
type of force, namely axial tension, axial compression, flexure, or shear. This
section addresses the design of members subject to a combination of two or
more of the individual forces. Both the section capacities and member capaci-
ties are considered.
In the calculation of the demand/capacity (D/C) ratios, first, for each station
along the length of the member, the actual member force/moment components
are calculated for each design combination. Then, the corresponding capacities
are calculated. Then, the D/C ratios are calculated at each station for each
member under the influence of each of the design combinations. The control-
ling D/C ratio is then obtained, along with the associated station and design
combination. A D/C ratio greater than the D/C ratio limit (whose default value
is 1.0) indicates exceeding a limit state.
During the design, the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not consid-
ered.
3.8.1 Section Capacity
From the factored axial loads and bending moments at each station and the fac-
tored strengths for axial tension and compression and major and minor axis
bending, a D/C ratio is produced for each of the load combinations as follows.
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 52 Members Subjected to Combined Forces
3.8.1.1 Uniaxial Bending About the Major Axis
For uniaxial bending about the x-axis (section major axis), the following condi-
tion is checked:

*
1
x
rx
M
M |
s (AS 8.3.1)
where,
| = The capacity factor (AS Table 3.4).
M
rx
= The nominal section moment capacity, reduced by axial
force.
M
sx
, M
sy
= The nominal section moment capacities about the x- and y-
axes respectively.
N
s
= The nominal section axial load capacity.
For doubly symmetric I sections and rectangular and square hollow compact
sections, M
rx
is calculated by one of the following equations, as appropriate:
(a) For compression members where k
f
is equal to 1.0 and for tension mem-
bers:

*
rx sx sx
s
N
M . M M
N |
| |
= s |
|
\ .
1 18 1 (AS 8.3.2(a))
(b) For compression members where k
f
is less than 1.0:

82
1 1 0 18
82
*
w
rx sx sx
s wy
N
M M . M
N

|
| |
( | |
= + s |
( |
|

\ . ( \ .
(AS 8.3.2(b))

w
and
wy
are the values of
e
and
ey
for the web, as described in Section
3.2.
For all other sections, M
rx
is calculated as follows:
1
*
rx sx
s
N
M M
N |
| |
= |
|
\ .
(AS 8.3.1)
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Members Subjected to Combined Forces 3 - 53
3.8.1.2 Uniaxial Bending About the Minor Axis
For uniaxial bending about the y-axis (section minor axis), the following con-
dition is checked:
s
|
y
ry
M
M
*
1.0 (AS 8.3.3)
where,
| = The capacity factor.
M
ry
= The nominal section moment capacity reduced by the axial ten-
sile or compressive force.
M
ry
is calculated by one of the following as appropriate:
(a) For doubly symmetric I sections that are compact:

*
ry sy sy
s
N
M . M M
N |
(
| |
(
= s |
|
(
\ .

2
1 19 1 (AS 8.3.3(a))
(b) For rectangular or rectangular box compact sections:

(
| |
= s ( |
|
( \ .

*
ry sy sy
s
N
M . M M
N |
1 18 1 (AS 8.3.3(b))
(c) For all other cases,

(
| |
= ( |
|
( \ .

*
ry sy
s
N
M M
N |
1 (AS 8.3.3)
3.8.1.3 Biaxial Bending
For biaxial bending of a compression member the following condition is
checked:

*
* *
y
x
s sx sy
M
N M
N M M | | |
+ + s1 (AS 8.3.4(a))
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 54 Members Subjected to Combined Forces
In addition, to use the preceding equation for doubly symmetric I sections and
rectangular and square hollow sections, the following ratio is also calculated.
However, the equation that gives the smaller ratio is used (AS 8.3.4(b)):

*
*
y
x
rx ry
M
M
M M

| |
| |
| |
| + s |
|
|
\ .
\ .
1 (AS 8.3.4(b))
where M
rx
and M
ry
are calculated in accordance with clause 8.3.2 and 8.3.3, and
they are described earlier, and

*
s
N
. .
N

|
| |
= + s |
|
\ .
1 4 2 0 (AS 8.3.4)
3.8.2 Member Capacity
For bending about a single axis or bending about both axes, the program
checks each member for the conditions described below for in-plane and out-
of-plane capacities.
3.8.2.1 In-Plane Bending Capacity
For a compression members bent about a principal axis, the following condi-
tion is evaluated:
s
i
M
M |
*
1.0

(AS 8.4.2.2)
where,
M
*
= The design bending moment about the principal axis.
| = The capacity factor (AS Table 3.4).
M
i
= The nominal in-plane member moment capacity.
=
*
s
c
N
M
N |
| |
|
|
\ .
1
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Members Subjected to Combined Forces 3 - 55
M
s
= The nominal section moment capacity for bending about the same
principal axis as the design bending moment.
N
*
= The design axial compressive force.
N
c
= The nominal member capacity in axial compression determined in
accordance with Section 3.7.3 for buckling about the same princi-
pal axis, with the effective length factor (k
e
) taken as 1.0 for both
braced and sway members.
For doubly symmetric I sections, rectangular, and hollow box compact sec-
tions, M
i
can be calculated as,

* *
m m
i s
c c
N N
M M .
N N
| |
| |

(
| | | |
+ + | | | |
( = + | | ` | |
| |
\ . \ .

\ . \ .
)
3 3
1 1
1 1 1 18 1
2 2
(AS 8.4.2.2)
s M
rx
or M
ry
as appropriate
where,
|
m
= The ratio of the smaller to the larger end bending moment,
taken as positive when the member is bent in reverse curva-
ture for members without transverse load, or
M
rx
or M
ry
= The nominal section moment capacity about the appropriate
principal axis determined in accordance with the formula
given earlier in Section 3.8.1.1 and 3.8.1.2.
For tension members subjected to bending moments this stress ratio is not cal-
culated for in-plane capacity (AS 8.4.2.3).
3.8.2.2 Out-of-Plane Bending Capacity
For a member with axial compression and bending about the x-axis, the follow-
ing condition is checked:
s
|
x
ox
M
M
*
1.0

(AS 8.4.4.1)
where,
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 56 Members Subjected to Combined Forces
| = The capacity factor (see Table 3.4).
M
ox
= The nominal out-of-plane member moment capacity.
=
*
bx
cy
N
M
N |
| |
|
|
\ .
1
M
bx
= The nominal member moment capacity of the member without
full lateral restraint and bent about the major principal x axis, de-
termined in accordance with Clause 5.6 using a moment modifi-
cation factor (o
m
) appropriate to the distribution of design bend-
ing moments along the member.
N
cy
= The nominal member capacity is axial compression, determined
in accordance with Clause 6.3 for buckling about the minor prin-
cipal y-axis.
However, for members without transverse loads that are of compact doubly
symmetric I section and are fully or partially restrained at both ends, and have
a form factor (k
f
) of unity, M
ox
is calculated as follows:
o
| |
( | || |
= s ( | |
|
|
( \ .
\ .

* *
ox bc bxo rx
cy oz
N N
M M M ,
N N
1 1 (AS 8.4.4.1)
where,

bc
o
1
=
*
m m
cy
N
. .
N
| |
|
| |
+ | |
+ | |
|
\ .
\ .
3
1 1
0 4 0 23
2 2
(AS 8.4.4.1)
M
bxo
= The nominal member moment capacity without full lateral
restraint and with a uniform distribution of design bending
moment so that o
m
is unity, determined in accordance with
AS Clause 5.6.
N
cy
= The nominal member capacity in axial compression, determined
in accordance with Clause 6.3 for buckling about the minor
principal y-axis.
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Members Subjected to Combined Forces 3 - 57
|
m
= The ratio of the smaller to the larger end bending moment, tak-
en as positive when the member is bent in reverse curvature.
N
oz
= The nominal elastic torsional buckling capacity of the member,
calculated as follows:

( )
( )
+
=
+
w z
oz
x y
GJ EI l
N
I I A
t
2 2
(AS 8.4.4.1)
E, G = the elastic moduli
A, I
w
, I
x
, I
y
, and J = the section constants
l
z
= the distance between partial or full torsional restraints
For a member with axial tension and bending about the x-axis, the following
condition is checked:

*
1.0
x
ox
M
M
s
|

(AS 8.4.4.2)
where,
| = The capacity factor (AS Table 3.4).
M
ox
= The nominal out-of-plane member moment capacity.
=
| |
+ s |
|
|
\ .
bx rx
t
N
M M
N
*
1 (AS 8.4.4.2)
M
bx
= The nominal member moment capacity, as defined previously.
N
t
= The nominal section capacity in axial tension, as defined previ-
ously.
M
rx
= The nominal section moment capacity reduced by axial force, as
defined previously.
3.8.2.3 Biaxial Bending Capacity
For compression members, the following unity check is evaluated:
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 4100-1998
3 - 58 Shear Check

.
.
*
*
y
x
cx iy
M
M
M M | |
| |
| |
| + s |
|
|
\ .
\ .
1 4
1 4
1 (AS 8.4.5.1)
where,
| = The capacity factor.
M
cx
= The lesser of the nominal in-plane member moment capacity (M
ix
)
and the nominal out-of-plane member moment capacity (M
ox
) for
bending about the major principal x-axis. M
ix
and M
ox
have been de-
fined previously.
M
iy
= The nominal in-plane member moment capacity for bending about
the minor principal y-axis, as defined previously.
For tension members, the following unity check is evaluated:

.
.
*
*
y
x
tx ry
M
M
M M | |
| |
| |
| + s |
|
|
\ .
\ .
1 4
1 4
1 (AS 8.4.5.2)
where
| = The capacity factor.
M
tx
= The lesser of the nominal section moment capacity (M
rx
) reduced
by axial tension and the nominal out-of-plane member moment ca-
pacity (M
ox
) for bending about the major principal x-axis. M
rx
and
M
ox
have been defined previously.
M
ry
= The nominal section moment capacity reduced by axial tension, as
defined previously
3.9 Shear Check
From the factored shear force values and the factored shear strength values at
each station, for each of the load combinations, D/C ratios for shear in major
and minor directions are produced as follows:
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 4100-1998

Shear Check 3 - 59
2
2
,
f
r
V
V
and
3
3
,
f
r
V
V


4 - 1
Chapter 4
Design Output
The program has the capacity to create design output in four major ways
graphical display, file output, tabular display, and member specific detailed de-
sign information.
The graphical display includes input and output design information for mem-
bers visible in the active window; the display can be sent directly to a printer or
saved to a file. The file output includes both summary and detail design data
that can be saved in RTF, HTML and plain text formats. The tabular display
output includes both summary and detail design data that can be displayed or
saved in many formats, including Excel, Access, RTF, HTML and plain text.
The member specific detailed design information shows the details of the cal-
culation.
The following sections describe some of the typical graphical display, file out-
put, tabular display output, and member specific detailed design information.
Some of the design information is very specific to the chosen steel design code.
This manual addresses "AS 4100-1998" design code related output information
only.
Steel Frame Design AS 4100-1998

4 - 2 Display Design Information on the Model
4.1 Display Design Information on the Model
The graphical display of design output includes input and output design infor-
mation for all steel frame members that are visible in the active window. The
graphical output can be produced in color or in gray-scaled screen display. The
active screen display can be sent directly to the printer or saved to a file in sev-
eral formats.
Input and output design information for the AS 4100-1998 code includes the
following.
Table 4-1 Graphical Display of Design Information
Design Input Information Design Output Information
Design sections
Design framing type
Live load reduction factors
Unbraced length ratios, L-factors,
for major and minor direction of bending,
and for lateral-torsional buckling
Effective length factors for braced condition, k
eb
,
for major and minor directions of bending
Effective length factors for sway condition,
k
es
-factors, for major and minor directions
of bending
Effective length factors, k
t
, k
r
, and k
l
, for
lateral-torsional buckling
c
m
factors for major and minor directions of
bending

m
and
s
factors for major direction of bending

b
factors for major and minor directions of
bending

s
factors for major and minor directions of
bending
Yield stress, f
y

Nominal axial capacities (N
s
, N
t
)
Nominal bending capacities (M
s33
, M
s22
, M
b
)
Nominal shear capacities (V
v2
, V
v3
)
P-M stress ratio values with members
color-coded based on the ratio
P-M colors and shear stress ratio val-
ues
P-M ratio colors and no values
Identify the P-M failure
Identify the shear failure
Identify all failures
Note that only one of the listed items can be displayed on the model at a time.
Chapter 5 Design Output

Display Design Information on the Model 4 - 3
Use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Display Design Info command
to plot design input and output values directly on the model. The Display Steel
Design Results form shown in Figures 4-1 and 4-2 will display.

Figure 4-1. Choice of design input data for display on the model
in the active window

Figure 4-2. Choice of design output data for display on the model
in the active window
Choose the Design Output or Design Input option. One item can be selected
from the drop-down list. For example, the P-M interaction ratios can be dis-
played by choosing the Design Output option and selecting P-M Ratio Colors
Steel Frame Design AS 4100-1998

4 - 4 Display Design Information on the Model
& Values from the drop-down list. Click the OK button to display the
PM-Ratio in the active window. A typical graphical display is shown in Figure
4-3.

Figure 4-3. A typical graphical display
The graphics can be displayed in 3D or 2D mode. The standard view transfor-
mations are available for all steel design information displays. Several buttons
on the toolbar can be used to switch between 3D and 2D views. Alternatively,
click the View menu and the Set 3D View or Set 2D View commands.
The onscreen graphical display can be sent to printer using any of the follow-
ing commands. Use the File menu > Print Graphics command to print the ac-
tive window. To capture the graphical display in a file for printing through
another application, use the File menu > Capture Enhanced Metafile com-
mand to create an .emf file, or use the File menu > Capture Picture command
to create a bitmap (.bmp) file. Create a screen capture of the active window
using the Alt+ Print Screen keyboard keys or create a screen capture of the
entire window using the Ctrl + Print Screen keyboard keys. Then use the
Ctrl+V keyboard keys to paste the saved image into Paint or other graphical
program.
Chapter 5 Design Output

Display Design Information in Tables 4 - 5
By default the graphical displays are in color. It may be advantageous to view
or present the display in gray-scale graphics or using a white background. Use
the Options menu > Color command to set these options.
4.2 Display Design Information in Tables
In addition to model definition and analysis results, the design information for
all steel frame members or for only selected members can be displayed in
tabular spreadsheet format. Currently, the program generates design summary
data, PMM design details and shear design details. The tabular spreadsheet
output can be displayed by selecting the Display menu > Show Tables com-
mand to access the Choose Tables for Display form, an example of which is
shown in Figure 4-4. That form can be used to choose which tables or sets of
tables are to be displayed.
The names of the tables are displayed in a tree structure, which can be col-
lapsed or expanded by clicking on an item in the tree. Click on the small check
boxes preceding the items to select those tables for display. If a branch of the
tree is selected, all of the tables under that branch are selected. The selected set
of tables can be saved as a Named Set using the Save Named Set button. This
named set can be used in the future for quick selection. If one or more frame
members are selected on the structural model before accessing the Choose Ta-
bles for Display form, the Selection Only check box will be checked when the
form displays and, the program will display information for the selected mem-
bers only; uncheck the check box to display information for all applicable
members in the model. If the Show Unformatted check box is checked, the
numbers will be displayed unformatted, instead of being displayed using a lim-
ited number of decimal digits. The unformatted option provides higher preci-
sion output that can then be copied into other programs.

Steel Frame Design AS 4100-1998

4 - 6 Display Design Information in Tables

Figure 4-4. Choice of design data tables for tabular display
Use the other buttons in the form to tailor the data display. For example, click
the Select Load Patterns button to specify which load patterns are to be in-
cluded in the display of model definition data; click the Select Load Case and
Modify/Show Options to specify which load cases are to be included and how
analysis results are displayed.
After selecting all of the tables for steel frame design and the display options,
click the OK button to display a form showing one of the selected design ta-
bles, with a drop-down list in the upper right-hand corner of the form that can
be used to select other tables for display. A typical design table is shown in
Figure 4-5.

Chapter 5 Design Output

Display Design Information in Tables 4 - 7

Figure 5-5. A typical tabular display of design data
Use the scroll bars on the bottom and right side of the tables to scroll right and
left or up and down if portions of the data table can not be displayed in the
form's display area. The columns can be resized by clicking the left mouse
button on the separator of the headers, holding down the left mouse button and
then dragging the mouse to the left or right. Reset the column widths to their
default values by selecting the Format-Filter-Sort menu > Reset Default
Column Widths command on the form. The table can be split into two or
more tables by clicking on the small black rectangular area near the bottom-left
corner of the table, holding down the left mouse button, and then dragging the
mouse button to the left or right. Repeat this process to add more splits. Use the
split and horizontal scroll bar to put two columns side by side for easier com-
parison. The splits can be removed by selecting the Format-Filter-Sort menu
> Remove Splits command on the form. Alternatively, remove the split by
clicking, holding and dragging the left mouse button to merge the split key to
its original location.
Select multiple consecutive columns by putting the cursor on the header, hold-
ing down the mouse button, and then dragging the mouse button left or right.
Alternatively, depress the Shift key and click the left mouse button to select a
range of columns.
Steel Frame Design AS 4100-1998

4 - 8 Display Detailed Member Specific Information
Each of the individual fields (columns) can be formatted. Fields with text in-
formation can be set for specific types of alignment (center, left, right) and to
specific widths. In addition to setting the alignment and column widths, fields
with numeric data can be set for the maximum number of characters, zero tol-
erance, number of decimal digits and so forth. The tables can be formatted, fil-
tered and sorted using multiple criteria accessed using the Format-Filter-Sort
menu on the form. Filtering and sorting features can be useful in identifying
critical cases. After specifying the table formatting information, save it to a
format file that can be used in the future by selecting the appropriate feature
available under the Format-Filter-Sort menu.
The current table (i.e., the table in the active window) can be exported to Ex-
cel, Access, .rtf., .html, and plain text formats. In both Excel spreadsheet and
Access database formats, the tables can have many columns, making the tables
very wide. In .rft and .html formats, the tables are split at convenient points to
make a reasonably printable document. In plain text format, the tables can be
saved with or without the splits. To export a table to Excel, for example, select
the File menu > Export Current Table > To Excel command. The program
will export the entire table to an Excel spreadsheet workbook and will auto-
matically open the file in MS Excel. Similarly, if the table is exported to other
formats, the default editor specific to that format will open the document, pro-
vided that the editor is available in the computer. The table will be saved in
that format only if the relevant editor is not available. Instead of exporting or
displaying the currently displayed table, the entire set of available tables can be
exported and displayed in the afore-mentioned formats by selecting the File
menu and the appropriate submenu command. With these exporting and dis-
play features, the tables can be saved in many required formats and can be
printed. Many other features of the design tables are left for the user to dis-
cover by using the program.
The preceding description is for SAP2000. ETABS differs slightly.
4.3 Display Detailed Member Specific Information
The program has the capability to display the design details for a specific mem-
ber. The information includes member identification, shape name, section
properties, design combination name, design combination forces, and other de-
Chapter 5 Design Output

Display Detailed Member Specific Information 4 - 9
sign input data to check the design results. The information also includes stress
ratios for P-M-M and other interactions, demand/capacity ratios from shear,
nominal strengths, design factors such as k
e
, braced, k
e
, sway, k
t
, k
l
, k
r
,
m
,
s
,
b
,

s
, k
f
, k
t
(axial)
,

b
, z
e
, and so forth. The design details are displayed in a summary
form and also are displayed for a specific load combination and for a specific
station of a frame member.
When the design results are displayed on the model in the active window, the
detailed design information can be accessed by right clicking on the desired
frame member to display the Steel Stress Check Information form. Alterna-
tively, click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Interactive Steel
Frame Design command and then right click on the frame member. An exam-
ple of that form is shown in Figure 4-6.
The Steel Stress Check Information form identifies the frame members and the
analysis and design section, and includes a display area of mostly de-
mand/capacity ratio data and a set of buttons that access forms that provide fur-
ther details about the selected frame member. The display area reports the load
combinations, the stress check stations, the P-M-M interaction ratio along with
its axial and flexural components, and the shear stress ratios. The load combi-
nation is reported by its name, while the station is reported by its location,
which is measured from the I-end of the column. The number of reported line
items in the text box is equal to the number of design combinations multiplied
by the number of stations. Only one line item is highlighted in blue when the
form first displays. That item highlights the largest demand/capacity ratio from
P-M-M, major and minor shear or any other considered interaction ratio, unless
a line item(s) has design overstress or an error. In that case, the item with the
overstress or error will be selected and highlighted. If many line items are
overstressed or have an error, the last among all such line items will be selected
and highlighted.

Steel Frame Design AS 4100-1998

4 - 10 Display Detailed Member Specific Information

Figure 4-6. A typical member specific steel stress check information summary
The stress check information is always reported for the design section. If the
member is assigned an individual section, the analysis and design section are
always the same. If the member is assigned an Auto Select Section (a list of
sections), the analysis and design section can be different, unless the design has
converged.
The Overwrites and Details buttons near the bottom of the Steel Stress Check
Information form can be used to access the Steel Frame Design Overwrites
form, and the Steel Stress Check Data form, which displays detailed informa-
tion about the selected frame element. While the latter form displays informa-
tion in a non-editable format, the Overwrites form display the overwrite data in
editable format. This allows the user to enter an interactive mode of design.
Overwrites button. Click this button to access the Steel Frame Design
Overwrites form. Use that form to make revisions to the steel frame design
overwrites and then immediately review the new design results as a summary
using the Steel Stress Check Information form, or in detail by clicking the
Details button to access the Steel Stress Check Data form. Clicking the OK
button on the Steel Frame Design Overwrites form temporarily saves any
Chapter 5 Design Output

Display Detailed Member Specific Information 4 - 11
changes. To make the changes permanent, click the OK button on the Steel
Stress Check Information form. To disregard the changes, click the Cancel
button on the Steel Stress Check Information form. An example of an Over-
writes form is shown in Figure 4-7.

Figure 4-7. A typical member specific Steel Frame Design Overwrites form
Details button. Click this button to access the Steel Stress Check Data form.
Use the form to review all of the design details for the highlighted item. An
example of a Steel Stress Check Data form is shown in Figure 4-8. The in-
formation includes the member ID, load combo and station identifica-
tions, steel design sections, section properties, design combination forces,
stress ratios for P-M-M and other interactions, stress ratios for shear, nominal
strengths, and design factors such as, k
e
, braced, k
e
, sway, k
t
, k
l
, k
r
,
m
,
s
,
b
,

s
, k
f
, k
t
(axial)
,
b
, z
e
, and so forth. Values that are not applicable are reported as
Steel Frame Design AS 4100-1998

4 - 12 Display Detailed Member Specific Information
N/A. Similarly, N/C and N/N indicate an item is Not Calculated and Not
Needed.

Figure 4-8 A typical Steel Stress Check Data form
Before clicking the button, highlight an item for the desired design sta-
tion and design load combination in the Steel Stress Check Information
display area by clicking on the line. The data subsequently displayed will
relate to the highlighted item. By default, the most critical line item is
selected when the form first displays, as described previously.
To increase or decrease the width of the Steel Stress Check Data form,
put the cursor near the right edge of the form, click the left mouse button,
and drag the mouse cursor towards the left or right. Similarly, the height
of the form can be increased or decreased.
The text in the form can be dragged in any direction by positioning the
cursor in the middle of the form, and then clicking the left mouse button
and dragging the text in the desired direction.
Chapter 5 Design Output

Save or Print Design Information as Tables 4 - 13
Use the Units drop-down list in the upper right-hand corner of the form
to change the units used to display the data. Data displayed on the form
can be sent directly to the printer by selecting the File menu > Print
command on the form. The program allows limited page setup options
using the Print Setup Command on the File menu on the form.
The Steel Stress Check Information form also includes a Tabular Data button
that when clicked displays member specific design details in a spreadsheet type
format. The tabular display of design information has been described in the
previous section. In that case, the information displayed is specific to the se-
lected member only. The tabular output is shown for all stations and all design
load combinations for the selected member. An example of design details table
that displays after clicking the Tabular Data button is shown in Figure 4-9.
This button is available in SAP2000, but not in ETABS.

Figure 4-9 Member specific design details in tabular format
4.4 Save or Print Design Information as Tables
In addition to model definition and analysis results, the design information for
all steel frame members or for selected frames only can be saved in tabular
format. Currently for AS 4100-1998 code, the program saves design summary
data, PMM design details, and shear design details.
Save the file output by selecting the File menu > Print Tables command to
access the Choose Tables for Printing form. An example of that form is shown
Steel Frame Design AS 4100-1998

4 - 14 Save or Print Design Information as Tables
in Figure 4-10. Use the options on the form to choose which table or set of ta-
bles to save in a file or print. This form is very similar to the Choose Tables for
Display form, which has been described earlier in this chapter in the "Display
Design Information in Tables" section.

Figure 4-10 Choice of design tables for saving in a file or printing
The name of the tables are displayed in a tree structure, which can be collapsed
or expanded by clicking on an item in the tree. Click on the small check boxes
preceding the items to select those tables for printing or saving to a file. If a
branch of the tree is selected, all of the tables under that branch are selected.
When all options for printing or saving the data to file have been specified, the
settings can be saved as a Named Set using the Save Named Set button. The
Named Set can be easily recalled in the future, reducing the need to reselect the
options and ensuring that output is consistent from one printing effort to an-
other.
Chapter 5 Design Output

Error and Warning Messages 4 - 15
If one or more structural members are selected before the Choose Tables for
Printing form is accessed, the Selection Only check box will be checked, and
the program will save or print the data for the selected members only; uncheck
the check box to save or print the data for all appropriate members.
The output can be generated in a variety of formats, including rich text format
(.rft), plain text with and without splits or page breaks (.txt), and hyperlink text
markup language (.htm) by choosing the appropriate option on the right side of
the form.
Printed output can be specified to have a landscaped orientation, in which the
width of the resulting printout on a given page is longer than the height of the
printout.
Filtering criteria can be applied if those criteria were specified using the For-
mat-Filter-Sort menu > Format Table command when the selected data ta-
bles were displayed using the Display menu > Show Tables command. The
output also can be specified to include a hyperlinked contents to facilitate ac-
cessing specific areas of the printout.
There are other buttons on the form that do not affect saving or printing design
information. For example, the Select Load Patterns button affects only sav-
ing/printing model definition data. The Select Load Cases and Modify/Show
Options buttons affect only saving/printing analysis results.
After clicking all the necessary tables for steel frame design and all necessary
options, clicking the OK button will save/print the design tables.
Although the File name > Print Tables command path is dedicated for sav-
ing/printing design information, it is not the only path to do so. Design tables
can be saved in different formats using the path Display menu > Show Tables
command.
The preceding description applies to SAP2000. ETABS differs slightly.
4.5 Error and Warning Messages
Error messages and warnings may be displayed in the steel frame design out-
put. Those messages and warnings are assumed to be self explanatory.

Appendix A - 1
Appendix A
Supported Design Codes
The program supports a wide range of steel frame design codes, including the
following:
AISC-ASC 01
AISC-ASD 89
AISC 360-05/IBC 2006
AISC-LRFD 99
AISC-LRFD 93
API-RP2A-LRFD 97
API-RP2A-WSD 2000
AS 4100-1998
ASCE 10-97
BS5950 90
BS5950 2000
Chinese 2002
Steel Frame Design AS 4100-1998

Appendix A - 2
CAN/CSA-S16-01
CISC 95
Eurocode 3-2005
Eurocode 3-1993
Indian IS:800-1998
Italian UNI 10011
Norsok N-004
UBC97-ASD
UBC97-LRFD
Among all of the listed design codes, ASCE 10-97, API-WSD 2000, and
API-LRFD 97 codes are available only in SAP2000. ETABS does not support
those codes. The "Chinese 2002" code is available only in the specialized Chi-
nese version of SAP2000 and ETABS. The specialized Indian version of the
programs support only the Indian IS 800-1998 code.
This is a growing list that gets outdated often.

Bibliography - 1
Bibliography
AISC, 2005a. ANSI/AISC 360-05: An American National Standard Speci-
fication for Structural Steel Building, American Institute of Steel Con-
struction. One East Wacker Drive, Suite 700, Chicago, Illinois, 60601.
March 9.
AISC, 2005b. Commentary on the Specification for Structural Steel Buildings,
American Institute of Steel Construction. One East Wacker Drive, Suite
700, Chicago, Illinois, 60601. March 9.
Boresi, A. P., 1985. Advanced Mechanics of Materials, John Wiley & Sons
Inc. ISBN 0-471-88392-1.
CSI, 2009. Automatic Lateral Load Manual. Computers and Structures, Inc.,
1995 University Avenue, Berkeley, California, 94704.
IBC, 2006. International Building Code, International Code Council, 4051
West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, Illinois, 60478. January.
SA, 1998. AS 4100-1998 Australian Standard Steel Structures, Standards
Australia (Standards Association of Australia), 1 The Crescent, Home-
bush, NSW 2140, Australia. ISBN 07337 1981 3.
Steel Frame Design AS 4100-1998

Bibliography - 2
SA, 2007. AS 1170.4-2007 Australian Standard Structural Design Actions,
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NSW 2001, Australia, and Standards New Zealand, Private Bag 2439,
Wellington, 6020, New Zealand. ISBN 07337 4469 9
SA/SNZ 2002b. AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Australia/New Zealand Standard
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