0 Version 15
Berkeley, California, USA February 2011
Steel Frame
Design Manual
Australian 41001998
For SAP2000
Copyright
Copyright Computers and Structures, Inc., 19782011
All rights reserved.
The CSI Logo, SAP2000, and ETABS are registered trademarks of Computers and
Structures, Inc. SAFE
TM
and Watch & Learn
TM
are trademarks of Computers and
Structures, Inc.
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1995 University Avenue
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Phone: (510) 6492200
FAX: (510) 6492299
email: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions)
email: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions)
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DISCLAIMER
CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE
DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER,
THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS
EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON
THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT.
THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL
DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC
ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN
ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT
ADDRESSED.
THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY
A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST
INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL
RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.
i
Contents
1 Introduction
1.1 Organization 13
1.2 Recommended Reading 13
2 Modeling, Analysis and Design Prerequisites
2.1 Check and Design Capability 21
2.2 Analysis Sections vs. Design Sections 22
2.3 Design and Check Stations 23
2.4 Demand/Capacity Ratios 24
2.5 Design Load Combinations 25
2.6 Notional Load Patterns 26
2.7 Second Order PDelta Effects 27
2.8 Member Unsupported Lengths 29
2.9 Effective Length Factor (k
e
) 211
2.10 Effects of Breaking a Member into Multiple Elements 214
2.11 Supported Framing Types 216
2.12 Frame Design Procedure Overwrites 217
2.13 Steel Frame Design Process 217
2.14 Interactive Steel Frame Design 220
Steel Frame Design AS 41001998
ii
2.15 Automated Iterative Design 220
2.16 Choice of Units 221
3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
3.1 Notations 31
3.2 Design Preferences 36
3.3 Overwrites 38
3.4 Design Loading Combinations 314
3.5 Classification of Sections for Local Buckling 316
3.6 Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments 329
3.7 Calculation of Nominal Strengths 333
3.7.1 Nominal Flexural Capacities 333
3.7.2 Nominal Shear Capacities 340
3.7.3 Nominal Compressive Capacities 344
3.7.4 Nominal Tensile Capacity 350
3.8 Members Subjected to Combined Forces 351
3.8.1 Section Capacity 351
3.8.2 Member Capacity 354
3.9 Shear Check 358
4 Design Output
4.1 Display Design Information on the Model 42
4.2 Display Design Information in Tables 45
4.3 Display Detailed Member Specific Information 48
4.4 Save or Print Design Information as Tables 413
4.5 Error and Warning Messages 415
Appendix A Supported Design Codes
Bibliography
1  1
Chapter 1
Introduction
The design/check of steel frames is seamlessly integrated within the program.
Initiation of the design process, along with control of various design parame
ters, is accomplished using the Design menu.
Automated design at the object level is available for any one of a number of
userselected design codes, as long as the structures have first been modeled
and analyzed by the program. Model and analysis data, such as material prop
erties and member forces, are recovered directly from the model database, and
are used in the design process in accordance with the user defined or default
design settings. As with all design applications, the user should carefully re
view all of the user options and default settings to ensure that the design proc
ess is consistent with the users expectations.
The design is based on a set of userspecified loading combinations. However,
the program provides default load combinations for each supported design
code. If the default load combinations are acceptable, no definition of addi
tional load combinations is required. The Direct Analysis Method requires that
a notional load, N = 0.002Y
i
, where Y
i
is the gravity load acting at level i, be
applied to account for the destabilizing effects associated with the initial imper
fections and other conditions that may induce sway not explicitly modeled in
the structure. The user must be aware that notional loads must be defined and
assigned by the user. Currently, the software creates design combinations that
include notional loads and gravity loads only. If the user needs notional loads
Steel Frame Design AS 41001998
1  2 Organization
that include combinations containing lateral loads, the user must define such
combinations manually. The automation of default load combinations, includ
ing notional loads, is currently limited to gravity loads only. Design load com
binations of notional loads acting together with lateral loads currently are NOT
automated by the software.
Steel frame design/check consists of calculating the flexural, axial, and shear
forces or stresses at several locations along the length of a member, and then
comparing those calculated values with acceptable limits. That comparison
produces a demand/capacity ratio, which typically should not exceed a value of
one if code requirements are to be satisfied. The program follows the same re
view procedures when it is checking a userspecified shape or when checking a
shape selected by the program from a predefined list. The program does not do
the connection design. However, it calculates the design basis forces for con
nection design.
Program output can be presented graphically on the model, in tables for both
input and output data, or in calculation sheets prepared for each member. For
each presentation method, the output is in a format that allows the engineer to
quickly study the stress conditions that exist in the structure, and in the event
the member is not adequate, aid the engineer in taking appropriate remedial
measures, including altering the design member without rerunning the entire
analysis.
The program supports a wide range of steel frame design codes, including
many national building codes. Appendix A provides a list of supported steel
frame design codes. However, this manual is dedicated to the use of the menu
option "AS 41001998." This option covers the AS 41001998 Australian
Standard Steel Structures (SA 1998). The implementation covers loading
and load combinations from "AS/NZS 1170.0:2002 Australian/New Zealand
Standard, Part 0 : General Principals (SA/SNZ 2002).
Currently, the software does not automate the following:
Notional loads combinations that include lateral wind and quake loads
The validity of the analysis method. The user must verify the suitability of
the specified analysis method used under the User Options described in the
preceding sections. The code requires, for instance, that the Second Order
Elastic Analysis Method be used when a ratio of the second order moments
Chapter 1 Introduction
Organization 1  3
to the first order moments exceeds 1.4. This check currently must be per
formed by the user.
P analysis. Since many different codes are supported by the software and
not all require a P analysis, the user must specify that a P analysis be
performed during the analysis phase so that the proper member forces are
available for use in the design phase.
The design codes supported under AS 41001998 are written in Newton
millimeter units. All the associated equations and requirements have been im
plemented in the program in Newtonmillimeter units. The program has been
enabled with unit conversion capability. This allows the users to enjoy the
flexibility of choosing any set of consistent units during creating and editing
models, exporting and importing the model components, and reviewing the de
sign results.
1.1 Organization
This manual is designed to help you quickly become productive using the AS
41001998 steel frame design option. Chapter 2 addresses prerequisites related
to modeling and analysis for a successful design in accordance with 4100
1998. Chapter 3 provides detailed descriptions of the specific requirements as
implemented in 41001998. Chapter 4 concludes by illustrating some of the
display and output options. The appendix identifies the code supposed in
SAP2000.
1.2 Recommended Reading/Practice
It is strongly recommended that you read this manual and review any applica
ble "Watch & Learn" Series
TM
tutorials, which are found on our web site,
http://www.csiberkeley.com, before attempting to design a steel frame. Addi
tional information can be found in the online Help facility available from
within the program.
2  1
Chapter 2
Modeling, Analysis and Design Prerequisites
This chapter provides an overview of the basic assumptions, design precondi
tions, and some of the design parameters that affect the design of steel frames.
For referring to pertinent sections of the corresponding code, a unique prefix is
assigned for each code.
Reference to the AS 41001998 code is identified with the prefix "AS."
Reference to the AS/NZS 1170.0:2002 code is identified with the prefix
"AS/NZS."
2.1 Check and Design Capability
The program has the ability to check adequacy of a section (shape) in accor
dance with the requirements of the selected design code. Also the program can
automatically choose (i.e., design) the optimal (i.e., least weight) sections from
a predefined list that satisfies the design requirements.
To check adequacy of a section, the program checks the demand/capacity
("D/C") ratios at a predefined number of stations for each design load combina
tion. It calculates the envelope of the D/C ratios. It also checks the other re
quirements on a pass or fail basis. If the capacity ratio remains less than or
equal to the D/C ratio limit, which is a number close to 1.0, and if the section
Steel Frame Design AS 41001998
2  2 Analysis Sections vs. Design Sections
passes all the special requirements, the section is considered to be adequate,
else the section is considered to be failed. The D/C ratio limit is taken as 0.95
by default. However, this value can be overwritten in the Preferences (Chapter
3).
To choose (design) the optional section from a predefined list, the program first
orders the list of sections in increasing order of weight per unit length. Then it
starts checking each section from the ordered list, starting with the one with the
least weight. The procedure for checking each section in this list for adequacy
is exactly the same as described in the preceding paragraph. The program will
evaluate each section in the list until it finds the least weight section that passes
the code checks. If no section in the list is acceptable, the program will use the
heaviest section but flag it as being overstressed.
To check adequacy of an individual section, the user must assign the section
using the Assign menu. In that case, both the analysis and design sections will
be changed.
To choose the optimal section, the user must first define a list of steel sections,
the Auto Select sections list. The user must next assign this list, in the same
manner as any other section assignment, to the frame members to be opti
mized. The program will use the median section by weight when doing the ini
tial analysis. Click the Define menu > Frame Sections command to access the
Frame Properties form where the Auto Select sections list may be defined.
2.2 Analysis Sections vs. Design Sections
Analysis sections are those section properties used to analyze the model when
the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command is clicked. The design section is
whatever section is used in the steel frame design. It is possible for the last
used analysis section and the current design section to be different. For exam
ple, an analysis may be run using a W18X35 beam, and then in the design, it
may be found that a W16X31 beam worked. In that case, the last used analysis
section is the W18X35 and the current design section is the W16X31. Before
the design process is complete, verify that the last used analysis section and the
current design section are the same. The Design menu > Steel Frame Design
> Verify Analysis vs. Design Section command is useful for this task.
Chapter 2 Design Algorithms
Design and Check Stations 2  3
The program keeps track of the analysis section and the design section sepa
rately. Note the following about analysis and design sections:
Assigning a frame section property using the Assign menu assigns the sec
tion as both the analysis section and the design section.
Running an analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command
always sets the analysis section to be the same as the current design sec
tion.
Assigning an Auto Select section list to a frame object initially sets the
analysis and design section to be the section in the list with the median
weight.
Unlocking a model deletes the design results, but it does not delete or
change the design section.
Altering the Design Combinations in any way deletes the design results,
but does not delete or change the design section.
Altering any of the steel frame design preferences deletes the design re
sults, but does not delete or change the design section.
2.3 Design and Check Stations
For each design combination, steel frame members (beams, columns, and
braces) are designed (optimized) or checked at a number of locations (stations)
along the length of the object. The stations are located at equally spaced seg
ments along the clear length of the object. By default, at least three stations
will be located in a column or brace member, and the stations in a beam will be
spaced at most 0.5 meter apart (2 feet if the model has been created in US
units). The user can overwrite the number of stations in an object before the
analysis is made using the Assign menu. The user can refine the design along
the length of a member by requesting more stations.
Steel Frame Design AS 41001998
2  4 Demand/Capacity Ratios
2.4 Demand/Capacity Ratios
Determination of the controlling D/C ratios for each steel frame member indi
cates the acceptability of the member for the given loading conditions. The
steps for calculating the D/C ratios are as follows:
The factored forces are calculated for axial, flexural, and shear at each de
fined station for each design combination. The bending moments are calcu
lated about the principal axes. For IShape, Box, Channel, TShape, Dou
bleAngle, Pipe, Circular, and Rectangular sections, the principal axes co
incide with the geometric axes. For SingleAngle sections, the design con
siders the principal properties. For General sections, it is assumed that all
section properties are given in terms of the principal directions.
For SingleAngle sections, the shear forces are calculated for directions
along the geometric axes. For all other sections, the program calculates the
shear forces along the geometric and principal axes.
The nominal capacities are calculated for compression, tension, bending
and shear based on the equations provided later in this manual. For flexure,
the nominal capacities are calculated based on the principal axes of bend
ing. For the IShape, Box, Channel, Circular, Pipe, TShape, DoubleAngle
and Rectangular sections, the principal axes coincide with their geometric
axes. For the Angle sections, the principal axes are determined and all
computations related to flexural stresses are based on that.
The nominal capacities for shear is calculated along the geometric axes for
all sections. For IShape, Box, Channel, TShape, DoubleAngle, Pipe,
Circular, and Rectangular sections, the principal axes coincide with their
geometric axes. For SingleAngle sections, principal axes do not coincide
with the geometric axes.
Factored forces are compared to nominal capacities to determine D/C ra
tios. In either case, design codes typically require that the ratios not exceed
a value of one. A D/C ratio greater than one indicates a member that has
exceeded a limit state.
Chapter 2 Design Algorithms
Design Load Combinations 2  5
2.5 Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed
analysis cases for which the structure needs to be checked. The program creates
a number of default design load combinations for steel frame design. Users can
add their own design combinations as well as modify or delete the program de
fault design load combinations. An unlimited number of design load combina
tions can be specified.
To define a design load combination, simply specify one or more analysis
cases, each with its own scale factor. The scale factors are applied to the forces
and moments from the analysis cases to form the factored design forces and
moments for each design load combination.
For normal loading conditions involving static dead load (DL), live load (LL),
wind load (WL), earthquake load (EL), notional load (NL), and dynamic re
sponse spectrum load (EL), the program has builtin default design combina
tions for the design code. These are based on the code recommendations.
The default design combinations assume all static load response cases declared
as dead or live to be additive. However, each static load case declared as wind,
earthquake, or response spectrum cases, is assumed to be nonadditive with
other loads and produces multiple lateral combinations. Also static wind,
earthquake and notional load responses produce separate design combinations
with the sense (positive or negative) reversed. The notional load cases are
added to load combinations involving gravity loads only.
For other loading conditions involving moving load, time history, pattern live
load, separate consideration of roof live load, snow load, and the like, the user
must define the design load combinations in lieu of or in addition to the default
design load combinations. If notional loads are to be combined with other load
combinations involving wind or earthquake loads, the design load combina
tions should be defined in lieu of or in addition to the default design load com
binations.
For multivalued design combinations, such as those involving response spec
trum, time history, moving loads and envelopes, where any correspondence
between forces is lost, the program automatically produces subcombinations
using the maxima/minima values of the interacting forces. Separate combina
Steel Frame Design AS 41001998
2  6 Notional Load Patterns
tions with negative factors for response spectrum analysis cases are not
required because the program automatically takes the minima to be the nega
tive of the maxima response when preparing the subcombinations described
previously.
The program allows live load reduction factors to be applied to the member
forces of the reducible live load case on a memberbymember basis to reduce
the contribution of the live load to the factored responses.
2.6 Notional Load Patterns
Notional loads are lateral loads that are applied at each framing level and are
specified as a percentage of the gravity loads applied at that level. They are in
tended to account for the destabilizing effects of outofplumbness, geometric
imperfections, inelasticity in structural members, and any other effects that
could induce sway and that are not explicitly considered in the analysis.
The program allows the user to create a Notional Load pattern as a percentage
of the previously defined gravity load pattern to be applied in one of the global
lateral directions: X or Y. The user can define more than one notional load pat
tern associated with one gravity load by considering different factors and dif
ferent directions. In the AS 41001998 code, the notional loads are typically
suggested to be 0.2% (or 0.002) (AS 3.2.4), a factor referred to as the notional
load coefficient in this document.
The notional load patterns should be considered in combination with appropri
ate factors, appropriate directions, and appropriate senses. The code needs the
notional loads to be considered only in gravity load combinations (ASC 3.2.4).
The program does not create the notional load pattern automatically. However,
if a notional load pattern is defined by the user, it is automatically included in
the default design load combinations involving gravity loads only.
Currently, the notional loads are not automatically included in the default de
sign load combinations that include lateral loads. However, the user is free to
modify the default design load combinations to include the notional loads with
appropriate factors and in appropriate load combinations.
Chapter 2 Design Algorithms
Second Order PDelta Effects 2  7
2.7 Second Order PDelta Effects
Modern design provisions are based on the principle that the member forces are
calculated by a secondorder elastic analysis, where the equilibrium is satisfied
on the deformed geometry of the structure. The effects of the loads acting on
the deformed geometry of the structure are known as the secondorder or the
PDelta effects.
The PDelta effects come from two sources: global lateral translation of the
frame and the local deformation of members within the frame.
Consider the frame object shown in Figure 21, which is extracted from a story
level of a larger structure. The overall global translation of this frame object is
indicated by A. The local deformation of the member is shown as o. The total
second order PDelta effects on this frame object are those caused by both A
and o.
A
Original position of frame
element shown by vertical
line
Position of frame element
as a result of global lateral
translation, A, shown by
dashed line
Final deflected position of the
frame element that includes the
global lateral translation, A, and
the local deformation of the
element, o
o
o
P
A
Original position of frame
element shown by vertical
line
Position of frame element
as a result of global lateral
translation, A, shown by
dashed line
Final deflected position of the
frame element that includes the
global lateral translation, A, and
the local deformation of the
element, o
o
o
P
Figure 21 PA and Po effects
The program has an option to consider PDelta effects in the analysis. When
you consider PDelta effects in the analysis, the program does a good job of
Steel Frame Design AS 41001998
2  8 Second Order PDelta Effects
capturing the effect due to the A deformation (PA effect) shown in Figure
21, but it does not typically capture the effect of the o deformation (Po
effect), unless, in the model, the frame object is broken into multiple elements
over its length.
In design codes, required strengths are usually required to be determined using
a secondorder analysis that considers both PA and Po effects. Approximate
secondorder analysis procedures based on amplification of responses from
firstorder analysis for calculating the required flexural strengths are common
in current design codes and have the following general form:
( ) o o = +
CAP b nt s lt
M M M (AS 4.4.2.2, App. E, App. F)
where,
CAP
M = Required flexural design capacities
nt
M = Required flexural capacities from firstorder analysis of the
member assuming there is no translation of the frame (i.e., asso
ciated with the o deformation in Figure 21)
lt
M = Required flexural capacities from firstorder analysis of the
member as a result of lateral translation of the frame only (i.e.,
associated with the A deformation in Figure 21)
o
s
= Unitless amplification factor multiplying
lt
M
o
b
= Unitless amplification factor multiplying ( ) o +
nt s lt
M M
In the AS 41001998 code, a rigorous second order analysis (AS 4.4.1.2(b)) or
the amplification of first order analysis results to estimate the effect of second
order effects (AS 4.4.1.2(a)) is required. The program has the capability of
performing both. In the first case, the required strengths are determined directly
from the analysis results without any amplification factor o
s
(i.e., o
s
is equal to
1). However, these amplification factors can always be overwritten by the user
on a memberbymember basis, if desired, using the overwrite option.
To properly capture the Po effect in a finite element analysis, each element,
especially column elements, must be broken into multiple finite elements,
which is not really desired for other reasons. Although a single element per
Chapter 2 Design Algorithms
Member Unsupported Lengths 2  9
member can capture the Po effect to some extent, the program considers that
inadequate. The program thus uses the o
b
factor even if the analysis considers
the PA effects. This is a conservative approach.
Thus, in general, the steel frame design feature requires consideration of
PDelta effects in the analysis before the check/design is performed. Although
one element per line object is generally adequate to capture the PA effect, it is
recommended to use more than one element per line object for the cases where
both PA and Po effects are to be considered. However, explicit manual break
ing of the member into elements has other consequences related to member end
moments and unbraced segment end moment. It is recommended that the
members be broken internally by the program. In this way, the member is
recognized as one unit, end of the members are identified properly, and PA
and Po effects are captured better.
2.8 Member Unsupported Lengths
The column unsupported lengths are required to account for column slender
ness effects for flexural buckling and for lateraltorsional buckling. The pro
gram automatically determines the unsupported length ratios, which are speci
fied as a fraction of the frame object length. Those ratios times the frame ob
ject lengths give the unbraced lengths for the member. Those ratios also can be
overwritten by the user on a memberbymember basis, if desired, using the de
sign overwrite option.
The unsupported length for minor direction bending or for lateraltorsional
buckling also can be defined more precisely by using precise bracing points in
the Lateral Bracing option on the Steel Frame Design menu. This allows the
user to define the lateral bracing of the top, bottom, or both flanges. The brac
ing can be a point brace, or continuous bracing is considered enough for flex
ural buckling in the minor direction. The unbraced length of the compression
flange is determined based on the current moment diagram to determine the
lateraltorsional buckling length, l
LTB
. This exact method of bracing definition
does not allow the user to define unbraced lengths for major direction bending.
Two unsupported lengths, l
33
and l
22
, as shown in Figure 22 are to be consid
ered for flexural buckling. These are the lengths between support points of the
Steel Frame Design AS 41001998
2  10 Member Unsupported Lengths
member in the corresponding directions. The length l
33
corresponds to instabil
ity about the 33 axis (major axis), and l
22
corresponds to instability about the
22 axis (minor axis). The length l
LTB
not shown in the figure, is also used for
lateraltorsional buckling caused by major direction bending (i.e., about the 33
axis).
In determining the values for l
22
and l
33
of the members, the program recognizes
various aspects of the structure that have an effect on these lengths, such as
member connectivity, diaphragm constraints, and support points. The program
automatically locates the member support points and evaluates the correspond
ing unsupported length.
Figure 22 Unsupported lengths
33
l and
22
l
It is possible for the unsupported length of a frame object to be evaluated by
the program as greater than the corresponding member length. For example,
assume a column has a beam framing into it in one direction, but not the other,
at a floor level. In that case, the column is assumed to be supported in one di
rection only at that story level, and its unsupported length in the other direction
will exceed the story height.
By default, the unsupported length for lateraltorsional buckling, l
LTB
, is taken to
be equal to the l
22
factor. Similar to l
22
and l
33
, l
LTB
can be overwritten.
Chapter 2 Design Algorithms
Effective Length Factor (ke) 2  11
If the unsupported length is defined using the precise bracing point definition
and if it is also overwritten in the overwrites, the value used in the design
overwrites prevails. If the unsupported length is defined using the precise brac
ing point definition and if it is not overwritten in the overwrites, the value used
in the bracing point definition governs. If the unsupported length is defined us
ing neither the bracing point definition nor an overwrite, the program calcu
lated value will be used.
2.9 Effective Length Factor (k
e
)
The effective length method for calculating member axial compressive strength
has been used in various forms in several stability based design codes. The
method originates from calculating effective buckling lengths, l
e
, and is based
on elastic/inelastic stability theory. The effective buckling length is used to cal
culate an axial compressive strength, N
c
, through an empirical column curve
that accounts for geometric imperfections, distributed yielding, and residual
stresses present in the crosssection.
There are two types of factors
e
k in the AS 41001998 code. The first type of
factor
e
k is used for calculating the Euler axial capacity assuming that all of
the beamcolumn joints are held in place, i.e., no lateral translation is allowed.
The resulting axial capacity is used in calculation of the o
b
factor. This
factor
e
k is named as
eb
k in the code. This
eb
k factor is always less than 1 and
is not calculated. By default the program uses the value of 1 for
eb
k . The pro
gram allows the user to overwrite
eb
k on a memberbymember basis.
The other factor
e
k is used for calculating the Euler axial capacity assuming
that all the beamcolumn joints are free to sway, i.e., lateral translation is al
lowed. This factor
e
k is named as
es
k in the code. This
es
k is always greater
than 1 if the frame is a sway frame. The program calculates the
es
k factor
automatically based on sway condition. The program also allows the user to
overwrite
es
k factors on a memberbymember basis. The same
es
k factor is
supposed to be used in calculation of the o
s
factor. However the program does
not calculate o
s
factors and relies on the overwritten values.
Steel Frame Design AS 41001998
2  12 Effective Length Factor (ke)
Both
eb
k and
es
k have two values: one for major direction and the other for
minor direction,
minor eb
k ,
major eb
k ,
minor es
k ,
major es
k .
factors
es
k are supposed to be obtained from figures given in the code (AS
Figure 4.6.3.3(b)). However in absence of the exact mathematical form, either
explicit or implicit, the program calculates the factor
es
k from its basic princi
ple, which is described here. The resulting
es
k matches very closely with the
figure given in the code (AS Figure 4.6.3.3(b)). The same method is used for
AISC codes.
The factor
es
k algorithm has been developed for buildingtype structures,
where the columns are vertical and the beams are horizontal, and the behavior
is basically that of a momentresisting frame for which the factor
es
k calcula
tion is relatively complex. For the purpose of calculating factor,
es
k the ob
jects are identified as columns, beam and braces. All frame objects parallel to
the Z axis are classified as columns. All objects parallel to the X  Y plane are
classified as beams. The remainders are considered to be braces.
The beams and braces are assigned factor
es
k of unity. In the calculation of the
factor
es
k for a column object, the program first makes the following four
stiffness summations for each joint in the structural model:
 
=

\ .
c c
cx
c x
E I
S
L
b b
bx
b x
E I
S
L
 
=

\ .
c c
cy
c y
E I
S
L
 
=

\ .
b b
by
b y
E I
S
L
 
=

\ .
where the x and y subscripts correspond to the global X and Y directions and
the c and b subscripts refer to column and beam. The local 22 and 33 terms
22 22
EI L and
33 33
EI L are rotated to give components along the global X and
Y directions to form the ( )
x
EI L and ( )
y
EI L values. Then for each column,
the joint summations at ENDI and the ENDJ of the member are transformed
back to the column local 123 coordinate system, and the G values for ENDI
and the ENDJ of the member are calculated about the 22 and 33 directions as
follows:
Chapter 2 Design Algorithms
Effective Length Factor (ke) 2  13
22
22
22
b
I
c
I
I
S
S
G =
22
22
22
b
J
c
J
J
S
S
G =
33
33
33
b
I
c
I
I
S
S
G =
33
33
33
b
J
c
J
J
S
S
G =
If a rotational release exists at a particular end (and direction) of an object, the
corresponding value of G is set to 10.0. If all degrees of freedom for a particu
lar joint are deleted, the G values for all members connecting to that joint will
be set to 1.0 for the end of the member connecting to that joint. Finally, if
I
G
and
J
G are known for a particular direction, the column
es
k factors for the
corresponding direction is calculated by solving the following relationship for
o:
o
o o
tan ) ( 6
36
2
=
+
J I
J I
G G
G G
from which
es
k = t/o. This relationship is the mathematical formulation for
the evaluation of
es
k factors for momentresisting frames assuming sidesway
to be uninhibited. For other structures, such as braced frame structures, the
es
k factors for all members are usually unity and should be set so by the user.
The following are some important aspects associated with the column
es
k factor algorithm:
An object that has a pin at the joint under consideration will not enter the
stiffness summations calculated above. An object that has a pin at the far
end from the joint under consideration will contribute only 50% of the cal
culated EI value. Also, beam members that have no column member at the
far end from the joint under consideration, such as cantilevers, will not en
ter the stiffness summation.
If there are no beams framing into a particular direction of a column mem
ber, the associated Gvalue will be infinity. If the Gvalue at any one end
of a column for a particular direction is infinity, the
es
k factor correspond
ing to that direction is set equal to unity.
If rotational releases exist at both ends of an object for a particular direc
tion, the corresponding
es
k factor is set to unity.
Steel Frame Design AS 41001998
2  14 Effect of Breaking a Member into Multiple Elements
The automated
es
k factor calculation procedure can occasionally generate
artificially high
es
k factors, specifically under circumstances involving
skewed beams, fixed support conditions, and under other conditions where
the program may have difficulty recognizing that the members are laterally
supported and
es
k factors of unity are to be used.
All
es
k factors produced by the program can be overwritten by the user.
These values should be reviewed and any unacceptable values should be
replaced.
The beams and braces are assigned
es
k factors of unity.
eb
k factors are supposed to be obtained from figures given in the code (AS
Figure 4.6.3.3(a)). However in absence of the exact mathematical form, the
program calculates the
eb
k factor from its basic principle. This is similar to the
determination of the
es
k factor, except that the
eb
k factor for the correspond
ing direction is calculated by solving the following relationship for o:
( )
( )
1
2
tan 2
1 1 0
4 2 tan 2
o o
o
o o
+  
+ + =

\ .
J J J
G G G G
where,
.
eb
k
t
o
=
If the member is assigned with a framing type of sway frame, k
eb
is used for o
b
calculation, and k
es
is used for N
c
calculation. If the member is assigned with a
framing type of Braced frame, k
eb
is used for both o
b
and N
c
calculation.
2.10 Effect of Breaking a Member into Multiple Elements
The preferred method is to model a beam, column or brace member as one sin
gle element. However, the user can request that the program break a member
internally at framing intersections and at specified intervals. In this way, accu
racy in modeling can be maintained at the same time that design/check specifi
cations can be applied accurately. There is special emphasis on the end forces
(moments in particular) for many different aspects of beam, column, and brace
Chapter 2 Design Algorithms
Effect of Breaking a Member into Multiple Elements 2  15
design. If the member is manually meshed (broken) into segments, maintaining
the integrity of the design algorithm becomes difficult.
Manually breaking a column member into several elements can affect many
things during design in the program.
1. The unbraced length: The unbraced length is really the unsupported length
between braces. If no intermediate brace is present in the member, the un
braced length is typically calculated automatically by the program from the
top of the flange of the beam framing the column at the bottom to the bot
tom of the flange of the beam framing the column at the top. The automati
cally calculated length factor typically becomes less than 1. If there are in
termediate bracing points, the user should overwrite the unbraced length
factor in the program. The user should choose the critical (larger) one.
Even if the user breaks the element, the program typically picks up the un
braced length correctly, provided that there is no intermediate bracing
point.
2. k
e
factor: Even if the user breaks the member into pieces, the program typi
cally can pick up the k
e
factors correctly. However, sometimes it can not.
The user should note the k
e
factors. All segments of the member should
have the same k
e
factor and that factor should be calculated based on the
entire member. If the calculated k
e
factor is not reasonable, the user can
overwrite the k
e
factors for all the segments.
3. C
m
factor: The C
m
factor should be based on the end moments of unbraced
lengths of each member and should not be based on the end moments of
the segment (AS 4.4.2.2). The program already calculates the C
m
factors
based on the end moments of unbraced lengths of each member. If the
member is broken, the program calculated C
m
factor is conservative. If this
conservative value is acceptable, no action is required by the user. If it is
not acceptable, the user can calculate the C
m
factor manually for the critical
combination and overwrite its value for that segment.
4. o
m
factor: The o
m
factor should be based on the end moments of unbraced
lengths of each segment and should not be based on the end moments of
the member (AS 5.6.1.1). The program already calculates the o
m
factors
based on the end moments of unbraced lengths of each segment. If the bro
ken segments do not represent the bracetobrace unsupported length, the
program calculated o
m
factor is conservative. If this conservative value is
Steel Frame Design AS 41001998
2  16 Supported Framing Types
acceptable, no action is required by the user. If it is not acceptable, the user
can calculate the o
m
factor manually for the critical combination and over
write its value for that segment.
5. o
b
factor: This factor amplifies the factored moments for the Po effect (AS
4.2.1.2, App. F). In its expression, there are the C
m
factor and the Euler
Buckling capacity N
omb
. If the user keeps the unbraced length ratios (l
33
and
l
22
) and the k
e
factors (k
e,33
and k
e,22
) correct, the o
b
factor would be correct. If
the axial force is small, the o
b
factor can be 1 and have no effect with re
spect to modeling the single segment or multisegment element.
6. o
s
factor: The program does not calculate the o
s
factor. The program
assumes that the user turns on the PA feature. In such cases, o
s
can be
taken as equal to 1. That means that modeling with one or with multiple
segments has no effect on this factor.
If the user models a column with a single element and makes sure that the
lfactors and k
e
factors are correct, the effect of o
b
and o
s
will be picked up cor
rectly. The factors C
m
and o
m
will be picked up correctly if there is no interme
diate bracing point. The calculated C
m
and o
m
factors will be slightly conserva
tive if there are intermediate bracing points.
If the user models a column with multiple elements and makes sure that
lfactors and k
e
factor are correct, the effect of o
b
and o
s
will be picked up
correctly. The factors C
m
and o
m
will be picked up correctly if the member is
broken at the bracing points. The calculated C
m
and o
m
factors will be conserva
tive if the member is not broken at the bracing points.
2.11 Supported Framing Types
The code (AS 41001998) recognizes the following types of framing
systems.
Framing Type References
Sway Frame AS 4.4.2.2
Braced Frame AS 4.4.2.2
Chapter 2 Design Algorithms
Frame Design Procedure Overwrites 2  17
2.12 Frame Design Procedure Overwrites
The structural model may contain frame elements made of several structural
materials: steel, concrete, aluminum, coldformed steel and other materials.
The program supports separate design procedures for each material type. By
default the program determines the design procedure from the material of the
frame member.
The program allows the user to turn the design of specific members off and on
by selecting No Design or Default from material. Overwriting the design pro
cedure can be accessed from the Design menu > Overwrite Frame Design
Procedure command.
ETABS supports both regular steel frame design and composite beam design.
The determination of design procedure is different. If the material is concrete,
the design procedure is concrete. If the material is steel, the default design pro
cedure can be steel frame design or composite beam design. If the section is of
steel material, and the member satisfies a host of other criteria, such as the
member is horizontal (beam), it supports a filled deck or slab, it is an Ishaped
member, it is hinged at both ends and so on, then the default design procedure
is taken as composite beam design; otherwise, the default design procedure is
taken as steel frame design. ETABS allows the user to overwrite a steel mem
ber frame design procedure to steel frame design, composite beam design, de
fault, or no design. Change the design procedure by selecting the member(s)
and clicking the Design menu > Overwrite Frame Design Procedure com
mand. A change in design will be successful only if the design procedure is
valid for that member, i.e., the program will not allow the user to change the
design procedure for a steel frame object to concrete frame design.
2.13 Steel Frame Design Process
The following sequence describes a typical steel frame design process for a
new structure. Note that although the sequence of steps you follow may vary,
the basic process probably will be essentially the same.
1. Use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites
command to choose the steel frame design code and to review other steel
Steel Frame Design AS 41001998
2  18 Steel Frame Design Process
frame design preferences and revise them if necessary. Note that default
values are provided for all design preferences, so it is unnecessary to define
any preferences unless you want to change some of the default values.
2. Create the model.
3. Run the analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command.
4. Assign steel frame overwrites, if needed, using the Design menu > Steel
Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. Note that frame
members must be selected before using this command, and that overwrites
may be assigned before or after the analysis is run.
5. Designate design groups, if desired, using the Design menu > Steel Frame
Design > Select Design Group command. Note that some groups must al
ready have been created by selecting objects and going to the Assign
menu.
6. To use design combinations other than the defaults created by the program,
click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Select Design Combo
command. Note that design combos must already have been created using
the Define menu.
7. Designate displacement targets for various analysis cases using the Design
menu > Steel Frame Design > Set Displacement Targets command.
8. Set time period targets for various modes using the Design menu > Steel
Frame Design > Set Time Period Targets command.
9. Click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Start Design/Check of
Structure command to run the steel frame design.
10. Review the steel frame design results by doing one of the following:
a. Click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Display Design Info
command to display design input and output information on the model.
b. Right click on a frame object while the design results are displayed on
it to enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the
frame member. Note that while in this mode, overwrites can be
revised and the results of the new design displayed immediately. If
Chapter 2 Design Algorithms
Steel Frame Design Process 2  19
design results are not currently displayed (and the design has been
run), click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Interactive
Steel Frame Design command and then right click a frame object to
enter the interactive design mode for the member.
11. Use the File menu > Print Tables command to print steel frame design
data. If frame objects are selected before using this command, data is
printed for the selected objects only.
12. Use the Display menu > Show Tables command to display steel frame de
sign data in a spreadsheettype tabular format. If frame objects are selected
before using the command, data is displayed for the selected objects only.
13. Use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Change Design Section
command to change the design section properties for selected frame ob
jects.
14. Click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Start Design/Check of
Structure command to rerun the design with the new section properties.
Review the results using the procedures described in Item 10.
15. Rerun the analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command.
Note that the section properties used for the analysis are the last specified
design section properties.
16. Compare displacements with displacement targets, or the resulting periods
with period targets, if appropriate.
17. Click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Start Design/Check of
Structure command to rerun the design with the new analysis results. Re
view the results using the previous steps.
18. Repeat the processes in steps 13 through 17 as many times as necessary.
Note that steel frame design is an iterative process, and that the analysis
and design will typically be rerun multiple times to complete a design.
19. Click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Verify Analysis vs De
sign Section command to verify that all of the final design sections are the
same as the last used analysis sections.
Steel Frame Design AS 41001998
2  20 Interactive Steel Frame Design
Again, it is important to note that design is an iterative process. The sections
used in the original analysis are not likely to be the same as those obtained at
the end of the design process. Always run the analysis using the frame sections
from the final design, and then run a design check using the forces obtained
from that analysis.
2.14 Interactive Steel Frame Design
The Interactive Steel Frame Design command is a powerful mode that allows
the user to review the design results for any steel frame design and interac
tively revise the design assumptions and immediately review the revised re
sults.
Note that a design must have been run for the interactive design mode to be
available. With the design results displayed, right click on a frame object to
display the Steel Stress Check Information form for the member. Click on the
Overwrites button to display the Design Overwrites form, where the member
section or other design parameters may be changed. Clicking OK on this form
results in an immediate updating of the results displayed on the Steel Stress
Check Information form.
2.15 Automated Iterative Design
If Auto Select sections have been assigned to frame objects, ETABS can auto
matically perform the iterative steel frame design process. To initiate the proc
ess, first use the Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design com
mand and set the maximum number of auto iterations to the maximum number
of design iterations the program is to run automatically. Next, run the analysis.
Then, making sure that no objects are selected, use the Design menu > Steel
Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to begin the de
sign of the structure.
The program will then start the cycle of (1) performing the design, (2) compar
ing the lastused Analysis Sections with the Design Sections, (3) setting the
Analysis Sections equal to the Design Sections, and (4) rerunning the analysis.
This cycle will continue until one of the following conditions has been met:
Chapter 2 Design Algorithms
Choice of Units 2  21
The Design Sections and the lastused Analysis Sections are the same.
The number of iterations performed is equal to the number of iterations
specified for the maximum number on the Preferences form.
Currently, this feature is absent in SAP2000.
2.16 Choice of Units
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The codes
are based on a specific system of units. All equations and descriptions pre
sented in the subsequent chapters correspond to that specific system of units
unless otherwise noted. For example, the ACI code is published in inchpound
second units. By default, all equations and descriptions presented in the "De
sign Process" appendix correspond to inchpoundsecond units. However, any
system of units can be used to define and design a structure in the program.
3  1
Chapter 3
Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
This chapter provides a detailed description of the algorithms used by the pro
gram in the design/check of structures in accordance with "AS 41001998 Aus
tralian Standard Steel Structures" (SA, 1998). The implementation covers
load combinations from "AS/NZS 1170.0:2002 Australian/New Zealand Stan
dard Structural Design Actions, Part 0: General Principle (SA/SNZ, 2002a),
which are described in section 3.4 Design Loading Combinations in this chap
ter. The wind loading based on "AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Australian/New Zealand
Standard Structural Design Actions Part 2: Wind Actions (SA/SNZ, 2002b).
The earthquake loading based on AS 1170.042007 Australian Standard
Structural Design Actions Part A; Earthquake Actions in Australia (SA, 2007)
has been described in a separate document entitled CSI Lateral Load Manual
(CSI 2007).
Reference to the AS 41001998 code is identified with the prefix AS.
Reference to the AS/NZS 1170.0:2002 code is identified with the prefix
AS/NZS.
3.1 Notations
The various notations used in this chapter are described herein.
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  2 Notations
A Area of crosssection, mm
2
A
g
Gross area of a crosssection, mm
2
A
n
Net area of a crosssection, mm
2
A
w
Gross sectional area of a web, mm
2
b
f
Width of flange, mm
b
w
Web depth, mm
d Depth of a section, mm
d
e
Effective outside diameter of a circular hollow section, mm
d
f
Distance between flange centroids, mm
d
p
Clear transverse dimension of a web panel, or
Depth of deepest web panel in a length, mm
d
1
Clear depth between flanges ignoring fillets or welds, mm
d
2
Twice the clear distance from the neutral axes to the com
pression flange, mm
E Youngs modulus of elasticity, MPa
e Eccentricity, mm
F Action in general, force or load, N
f
u
Tensile strength used in design, MPa
f
y
Yield stress used in design, MPa
G Shear modulus of elasticity, MPa, or
Nominal dead load
I Second moment of area of a crosssection, mm
4
I
cy
Second moment of area of compression flange about the sec
tion minor principal yaxis, mm
4
I
w
Warping constant for a crosssection, mm
6
I
x
I about the crosssection major principal xaxis, mm
4
I
y
I about the crosssection minor principal yaxis, mm
4
J Torsion constant for a crosssection, mm
4
k
e
Member effective length factor
k
f
Form factor for members subject to axial compression
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Notations 3  3
k
l
Load height effective length factor
k
r
Effective length factor for restraint against lateral rotation
l Span, or member length, or segment or subsegment length,
mm
l
22
, l
33
Laterally unbraced length of member for major and minor
axes bending, mm
l
e
/r Geometrical slenderness ratio
M
b
Nominal member moment capacity, Nmm
M
bx
M
b
about major principal xaxis, Nmm
M
cx
Lesser of M
ix
and M
ox
, Nmm
M
i
Nominal inplane member moment capacity, Nmm
M
ix
M
i
about major principal axis, Nmm
M
iy
M
i
about minor principal axis, Nmm
M
o
Reference elastic buckling moment for a flexural member,
Nmm
M
oa
Amended elastic buckling moment for a member subjected to
bending, Nmm
M
ob
Elastic buckling moment determined using an elastic buck
ling analysis, Nmm
M
oo
Reference elastic buckling moment obtained using l
e
= l,
Nmm
M
os
M
ob
for a segment, fully restrained at both ends, unrestrained
against lateral rotation and loaded at shear centre, Nmm
M
ox
Nominal outofplane member moment capacity about major
principal xaxis, Nmm
M
rx
M
s
about major principal xaxis reduced by axial force,
Nmm
M
ry
M
s
about minor principal yaxis reduced by axial force,
Nmm
M
s
Nominal section moment capacity, Nmm
M
sx
M
s
about major principal xaxis, Nmm
M
sy
M
s
about the minor principal yaxis, Nmm
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  4 Notations
M
tx
Lesser of M
rx
and M
ox
, Nmm
M
*
Design bending moment, Nmm
N
c
Nominal member capacity in compression, N
N
cy
N
c
for member buckling about minor principal yaxis, N
N
om
Elastic flexural buckling load of a member, N
N
omb
N
om
for a braced member, N
N
oms
N
om
for a sway member, N
N
s
Nominal section capacity of a compression member, or
Nominal section capacity for axial load, N
N
t
Nominal section capacity in tension, N
N
*
Design axial force, tensile or compressive, N
Q Nominal live load
r Radius of gyration, mm
r
y
Radius of gyration about minor principle axis, mm
S Plastic section modulus, mm
3
t Flat thickness, or wall thickness of a circular hollow section,
mm
t
f
Thickness of a flange, mm
t
p
Thickness of a plate, mm
t
w
Thickness of a web, mm
V
b
Nominal shear buckling capacity of a web, N
V
u
Nominal shear capacity of a web with a uniform shear stress
distribution, N
V
v
Nominal shear capacity of a web, N
V
vm
Nominal web shear capacity in the presence of bending mo
ment, N
V
w
Nominal shear yield capacity of a web, N
V
*
Design shear force, N
y
o
Coordinate of shear centre, mm
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Notations 3  5
Z Elastic section modulus, mm
3
Z
c
Z
e
for a compact section, mm
3
Z
e
Effective section modulus, mm
3
o
b
Compression member section constant
o
c
Compression member slenderness reduction factor
o
m
Moment modification factor for bending
o
l
, o
lc
, o
mc
Factors for bending defined in Appendix H of AS 4100
o
s
Slenderness reduction factor
o
st
Reduction factor for members of varying crosssection
o
v
Shear buckling coefficient for a web

e
Modifying factor to account for conditions at the far ends of
beam members

m
Ratio of smaller to larger bending moment at the ends of a
member
Compression member factor defined in AS Clause 6.3.3
q
Compression member imperfection factor (AS 6.3.3)
Slenderness ratio
e
Plate element slenderness
ep
Plate element plasticity slenderness limit
ey
Plate element yield slenderness limit
n
Modified compression member slenderness
s
Section slenderness
sp
Section plasticity slenderness limit
sy
Section yield slenderness limit
u
Poissons ratio, 0.25

Capacity factor
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  6 Design Preferences
3.2 Design Preferences
The steel frame design preferences are basic assignments that apply to all of
the steel frame members. Tables 31 list steel frame design preferences for "AS
41001998." Default values are provided for all preference items. Thus, it is not
necessary to specify or change any of the preferences. However, at least review
the default values to ensure they are acceptable. Some of the preference items
also are available as memberspecific Overwrite items. The overwrites are de
scribed in the next section. Overwritten values take precedence over the prefer
ences.
To view design preferences, select the Design menu > Steel Frame Design >
View/Revise Preferences command. The Preferences form will display. The
preference options are displayed in a twocolumn spreadsheet on that form.
The left column of the spreadsheet displays the Preference item name. The
right column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item value.
To change a preference item, left click the desired Preference item in the left or
right column of the spreadsheet. This activates a dropdown list or highlights
the current preference value. If the dropdown list displays, select a new value.
If the cell is highlighted, type in the desired value. The preference value will
update accordingly. Values in the dropdown lists provide the available op
tions. The Preference items are presented in Table 31.
Table 31: Steel Frame Design Preferences
Item Possible Values Default Value Description
Design Code Design codes
available in the
current version
AS41001998 The selected design code. Subsequent design is based on
this selected code. The default values shown below appear
when the AS41001989 is selected as the Design Code.
MultiResponse
Case Design
Envelopes,
StepbyStep,
Last Step,
Envelopes All,
StepbyStep All
Envelopes Indicates how results for multivalued cases (Time history,
Nonlinear static or Multistep static) are considered in the
design.  Envelope  considers enveloping values for Time
History and Multistep static and last step values for Non
linear static.  StepbyStep  considers step by step values
for Time History and Multistep static and last step values
for Nonlinear static.  Last Step  considers last values for
Time History, Multistep static and Nonlinear static. 
Envelope  All  considers enveloping values for Time
History, Multistep static and Nonlinear static.  Stepby
Step  All  considers step by step values for Time History,
Multistep static and Nonlinear static. StepbyStep and
StepbyStep  All default to the corresponding Envelope if
more then one multivalued case is present in the combo.
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Design Preferences 3  7
Table 31: Steel Frame Design Preferences
Item Possible Values Default Value Description
Framing Type Sway, Braced Sway Frame This item is used for ductility considerations in the design.
Structural Analysis
Method
General 2
nd
Order,
Amplified 1
st
Order
General 2
nd
Order
Indicates the analysis method used to check/design the
steel members. The design module does not verify the
acceptability of the selected analysis method. See sections
4.1, 4.3, 4.4.1.2, and Appendix E of "AS 4100:1998" code
for details. The user is expected to verify the acceptability
of the selected method. The user is expected to set the
appropriate notional loads..
Steel Type Hot Rolled,
Hot Finished,
Cold Formed,
Stress Relieved,
Lightly Welded,
Heavily Welded
Hot Rolled Indicates the residual stress level in the structural section.
This affects plasticity limit and yield limit of plate element
slenderness values. Eventually this can affect moment
capacity and axial compression capacity through modifica
tion on Z
e
and A
eff
. "Hot Rolled" and "Hot Finished" are
used synonymously in this program. "Cold Formed" is
meant as coldformed and not stressrelieved. "Stress
Relieved" is meant as coldformed and stressrelieved.
Welded H and I sections are assumed to be fabricated from
flamecut plates. See sections 5.2.2, 6.2.4, 6.3.3, and
Tables 5.2, 6.2.4, 6.3.3(1), and 6.3.3(2) of "AS 4100:1998"
code for details.
Capacity Factor
Phi (Bending)
s1.0 0.9
Capacity factor for strength limit state. See section 3.4 and
Table 3.4 of AS 4100 1998 for details.
Capacity Factor
Phi (Compression)
s1.0 0.9
Capacity factor for strength limit state. See section 3.4 and
Table 3.4 of AS 4100 1998 for details.
Capacity Factor,
Phi (Tension Yield
ing)
s1.0 0.9
Capacity factor for strength limit state. See section 3.4 and
Table 3.4 of AS 4100 1998 for details.
Capacity Factor
Phi (Tension
Fracture)
s1.0 0.9
Capacity factor for strength limit state. See section 3.4 and
Table 3.4 of AS 4100 1998 for details.
Capacity Factor
Phi (Shear)
s1.0 0.9
Capacity factor for strength limit state. See section 3.4 and
Table 3.4 of AS 4100 1998 for details.
Consider
Deflection?
Yes, No No Toggle to consider the deflection limit (Yes) or to not
consider the deflection limit (No) in design.
DL Limit, L/ > 0 120 Deflection limit for dead load. Inputting 120 means that
the limit is L/120. Inputting zero means no check will be
made of this item.
Super DL+LL
Limit, L/
> 0 120 Deflection limit for superimposed dead plus live load.
Inputting 120 means that the limit is L/120. Inputting zero
means no check will be made of this item.
Live Load Limit, L/ > 0 360 Deflection limit for superimposed live load. Inputting 360
means that the limit is L/360. Inputting zero means no
check will be made of this item.
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  8 Overwrites
Table 31: Steel Frame Design Preferences
Item Possible Values Default Value Description
Total Limit, L/ > 0 240 Deflection limit for total load. Inputting 240 means that the
limit is L/240. Inputting zero means no check will be made
of this item.
TotalCamber Lim
it, L/
> 0 240 Limit for net deflection. Camber is subtracted from the
total load deflection to get net deflection. Inputting 240
means that the limit is L/240. Inputting zero means no
check will be made of this item.
Pattern Live Load
Factor
s1.0 0.75 The live load factor for automatic generation of load com
binations involving pattern live loads and dead loads.
Demand/Capacity
Ratio Limit
s1.0 0.95 The demand/capacity ratio limit to be used for acceptabil
ity. D/C ratios that are less than or equal to this value are
considered acceptable.
3.3 Overwrites
The steel frame design Overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to
those elements to which they are assigned. Table 32 lists steel frame design
overwrites for "AS 41001998." Default values are provided for all Overwrite
items. Thus, it is not necessary to specify or change any of the Overwrites.
However, at least review the default values to ensure they are acceptable.
When changes are made to Overwrite items, the program applies the changes
only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned. Overwritten val
ues take precedence over the Preferences.
To access the steel frame Overwrites, select a frame object and click the
Design menu > Steel Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command.
The overwrites are displayed in a twocolumn spreadsheet. The left column of
the spreadsheet contains the name of the Overwrite item. The right column of
the spreadsheet contains the Overwrites values. Click in either column of the
spreadsheet to activate a dropdown list or highlight the contents in the cell in
the right column of the spreadsheet. If the dropdown list appears, select a val
ue from the box. If the cell contents are highlighted, type in the desired value.
The Overwrite will reflect the change.
Many of the items on the Overwrites form are similar to those found on the
Preferences form. Note that the values displayed on the table will often be
Program Determined, indicating that the value used will be calculated by the
program. The overwrite items are presented in Table 32.
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Overwrites 3  9
Table 32 Steel Frame Design Overwrites for AS41001998
Item Possible Values Default Value Description
Current Design
Section
Any defined steel
section
Analysis section
The design section for the selected frame object. When
this Overwrite is applied, any previous auto select section
assigned to the frame object is removed.
Fame Type Sway, Braced From Preferences This item is used for ductility considerations in the de
sign.
Steel Type Hot Rolled,
Hot Finished,
Cold Formed,
Stress Relieved,
Lightly Welded,
Heavily Welded
Hot Rolled
The steel type selection will effect the plate element
slenderness limits as described in AS41001998, Table
5.2.
Consider
Deflection?
Yes, No From Preferences Toggle to consider the deflection limit (Yes) or to not
consider the deflection limit (No) in design.
Deflection Check
Type
Ratio,
Absolute,
Both
Both Choose to consider deflection limit as an absolute, as a
divisor of the beam length, as both, or with no deflection
limit.
DL Limit, L/ > 0 From Preferences Deflection limit for dead load. Inputting 120 means that
the limit is L/120. Inputting zero means no check will be
made of this item.
Super DL+LL
Limit, L/
> 0 From Preferences Deflection limit for superimposed dead plus live load.
Inputting 120 means that the limit is L/120. Inputting
zero means no check will be made of this item.
Live Load Limit,
L/
> 0 360 Deflection limit for superimposed live load. Inputting
360 means that the limit is L/360. Inputting zero means
no check will be made of this item.
Total Limit, L/ > 0 240 Deflection limit for total load. Inputting 240 means that
the limit is L/240. Inputting zero means no check will be
made of this item.
TotalCamber
Limit, L/
> 0 240 Limit for net deflection. Camber is subtracted from the
total load deflection to get net deflection. Inputting 240
means that the limit is L/240. Inputting zero means no
check will be made of this item.
DL Limit, abs > 0 120 Deflection limit for dead load. Inputting 120 means that
the limit is L/120. Inputting zero means no check will be
made of this item.
Super DL+LL
Limit, abs
> 0 1. Deflection limit for superimposed dead plus live load.
Inputting zero means no check will be made of this item.
Live Load Limit,
abs
> 0 1. Deflection limit for superimposed live load. Inputting
zero means no check will be made of this item.
Total Limit, abs > 0 1. Deflection limit for total load. Inputting zero means no
check will be made of this item.
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  10 Overwrites
Table 32 Steel Frame Design Overwrites for AS41001998
Item Possible Values Default Value Description
TotalCamber
Limit, abs
> 0 1. Deflection limit for net deflection. Camber is subtracted
from the total load deflection to get net deflection. Input
ting zero means no check will be made of this item.
Specified Camber
> 0 0
The specified amount of camber to be reported in the
design output and to be used in the net deflection check.
Net Area to Total
Area Ratio
> 0 1.0
The ratio of the net area at the end joint to gross cross
sectional area of the section. This ratio affects the design
of axial tension members. Specifying zero means the
value is the program default, which is 1.
Live Load Reduc
tion Factor
> 0 Calculated
The reducible live load is multiplied by this factor to
obtain the reduced live load for the frame object. Specify
ing zero means the value is program determined.
Unbraced Length
Ratio (Major)
> 0 Calculated
Unbraced length factor for buckling about the frame
object major axis; specified as a fraction of the frame
object length. This factor times the frame object length
gives the unbraced length for the object. Specifying zero
means the value is program determined. For symmetrical
sections, major bending is bending about the local 3axis.
For unsymmetrical sections (e.g., angles) major bending
is the bending about the section principal axis with the
larger moment of inertia.
Unbraced Length
Ratio (Minor)
> 0 Calculated
Unbraced length factor for buckling about the frame
object minor axis; specified as a fraction of the frame
object length. This factor times the frame object length
gives the unbraced length for the object. Specifying zero
means the value is program determined. For symmetrical
sections, major bending is bending about the local 2axis.
For unsymmetrical sections (e.g., angles) major bending
is the bending about the section principal axis with the
larger moment of inertia.
Unbraced Length
Ratio (LTB)
> 0 L22
Unbraced length factor for lateraltorsional buckling for
the frame object; specified as a fraction of the frame
object length. This factor times the frame object length
gives the unbraced length for the object. Specifying zero
means the value is program determined.
Effective Length
Factor (Ke Major
Braced)
> 0 1.0
Effective length factor for buckling about the frame
object major axis with an assumption that the frame is
braced at the joints against sidesway. This item is speci
fied as a fraction of the frame object length. Multiplying
the frame object length with this factor gives the effective
length for the object. Specifying 0 means the value is
program determined. For beam design, this factor is
always taken as 1 regardless of what may be specified in
the overwrites. This factor is used for B
1
factor. For
symmetrical sections major bending is bending about the
local 3axis. For unsymmetrical sections (e.g., an
gles)major bending is the bending about the section prin
cipal axis with the larger moment of inertia..
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Overwrites 3  11
Table 32 Steel Frame Design Overwrites for AS41001998
Item Possible Values Default Value Description
Effective Length
Factor (Ke Minor
Braced)
> 0 1.0
Effective length factor for buckling about the frame
object minor axis with an assumption that the frame is
braced at the joints against sidesway. This item is speci
fied as a fraction of the frame object length. Multiplying
the frame object length with this factor gives the effective
length for the object. Specifying 0 means the value is
program determined. For beam design, this factor is
always taken as 1 regardless of what may be specified in
the overwrites. This factor is also used for determining
the effective length for lateraltorsional buckling. This
factor is used for B
1
factor. For symmetrical sections
minor bending is bending about the local 2axis. For
unsymmetrical sections (e.g., angles)minor bending is the
bending about the section principal axis with the smaller
moment of inertia.
Effective Length
Factor (Ke Major
Sway)
> 0 1.0
Effective length factor for buckling about the frame
object major axis. This item is specified as a fraction of
the frame object length. Multiplying the frame object
length with this factor gives the effective length for the
object. Specifying 0 means the value is program deter
mined. For beam design, this factor is always taken as 1
regardless of what may be specified in the overwrites.
For symmetrical sections major bending is bending about
the local 3axis. For unsymmetrical sections (e.g., an
gles)major bending is the bending about the section prin
cipal axis with the larger moment of inertia.
Effective Length
Factor (Ke Minor
Sway)
> 0 1.0
Effective length factor for buckling about the frame
object minor axis. This item is specified as a fraction of
the frame object length. Multiplying the frame object
length with this factor gives the effective length for the
object. Specifying 0 means the value is program deter
mined. For beam design, this factor is always taken as 1
regardless of what may be specified in the overwrites.
This factor is also used for determining the effective
length for lateraltorsional buckling. For symmetrical
sections minor bending is bending about the local 2axis.
For unsymmetrical sections (e.g., angles)minor bending
is the bending about the section principal axis with the
smaller moment of inertia.
Twist Restraint
Factor for LTB
(Kt)
> 0 Program
Determined
Twist restraint effective length factor for members sub
jected to flexure. It is unitless. It affects lateraltorsional
buckling capacity, M
b
by affecting M
o
and alpha_s. Its
value depends on lateral or rotational restraints and sec
tion slenderness b/t or d/t. Specifying 0 means the value
is program default which is 1. See section 5.6.3 and Ta
ble 5.6.3(1) of "AS 4100:1998" code for details.
Lateral Rotation
Restraint Factor
(Kr)
> 0 Program
Determined
Lateral rotation restraint effective length factor for mem
bers subjected to flexure. It is Unitless. It affects lateral
torsional buckling capacity, M
b
by affecting M
o
and al
pha_s. Its value depends on lateral or rotational restraints.
Specifying 0 means the value is the program default. See
Section 5.6.3 and Table 5.6.3(3) of AS 41001998 code
for details.
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  12 Overwrites
Table 32 Steel Frame Design Overwrites for AS41001998
Item Possible Values Default Value Description
Load Height
Factor for LTB
(Kl)
> 0 Program
Determined
Load height effective length factor for members sub
jected to flexure. It is Unitless. It affects lateraltorsional
buckling capacity, M
b
by affecting M
o
and alpha_s. Its
value depends on lateral or rotational restraints. Specify
ing 0 means the value is the program default. See Section
5.6.3 and Table 5.6.3(2) of AS 41001998 code for
details..
Moment Coeffi
cient (Cm Major)
> 0 Program
Determined
Unitless factor for nonuniform moments, Cm for major
axis bending, used in determining the Delta_b factor. It
captures the effect of nonuniform moment distribution
along the length. Specifying 0 means the value is pro
gram determined. See section 4.4.2.2 and Appendix E of
"AS 4100:1998" code for details. For symmetrical sec
tions major bending is bending about the local 3axis. For
unsymmetrical sections (e.g., angles)major bending is the
bending about the section principal axis with the larger
moment of inertia.
Moment Coeffi
cient (Cm Minor)
> 0 Program
Determined
Unitless factor for nonuniform moments, Cm for minor
axis bending, used in determining the Delta_b factor. It
captures the effect of nonuniform moment distribution
along the length. Specifying 0 means the value is pro
gram determined. See section 4.4.2.2 and Appendix E of
"AS 4100:1998" code for details. For symmetrical sec
tions minor bending is bending about the local 2axis. For
unsymmetrical sections (e.g., angles)minor bending is the
bending about the section principal axis with the smaller
moment of inertia.
Moment Modifi
cation Factor
(Alpha_m)
> 0 Calculated
Moment modification factor for distribution of bending
moments in a member subjected to flexure. It is unitless.
It captures the effect of nonuniform moment distribution
along the length. Program determined value means it is
calculated for each element for each load combination
uniquely. Specifying 0 means the value is program de
termined. See sections 5.6.1.1 and 5.6.2 and Tables 5.6.1
and 5.6.2 of "AS 4100:1998" code for details.
Slenderness Re
duction Factor
(Alpha_s)
> 0 Calculated
Slenderness reduction factor for a member subjected to
flexure. It is unitless. Program determined value means
it is calculated for each element for each load combina
tion uniquely. Specifying 0 means the value is program
determined. See section 5.6.1.1 "AS 4100:1998" code for
details.
NonSway Mo
ment Factor (Db
Major)
> 0 Calculated
Unitless moment magnification factor for major axis
bending moment of a braced member. Specifying 0
means the value is program determined. Program deter
mined value means it is calculated for each element for
each load combination uniquely. See section 4.4.2.2 and
Appendix E and F of "AS 4100:1998" code for details.
For symmetrical sections major bending is bending about
the local 3axis. For unsymmetrical sections (e.g., an
gles)major bending is the bending about the section prin
cipal axis with the larger moment of inertia.
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Overwrites 3  13
Table 32 Steel Frame Design Overwrites for AS41001998
Item Possible Values Default Value Description
NonSway Mo
ment Factor (Db
Minor)
> 0 Program
Determined
Unitless moment magnification factor for minor axis
bending moment of a braced member. Specifying 0
means the value is program determined. Program deter
mined value means it is calculated for each element for
each load combination uniquely. See section 4.4.2.2 and
Appendix E and F of "AS 4100:1998" code for details.
For symmetrical sections minor bending is bending about
the local 2axis. For unsymmetrical sections (e.g., an
gles)minor bending is the bending about the section
principal axis with the smaller moment of inertia..
Sway Moment
Factor (Ds Major)
> 0 1.0
Unitless moment magnification factor for major axis
bending moment of a sway member. Specifying 0 means
the value is program default which is 1. The program
determined value is taken as 1 because it is assumed that
PDelta effects were specified to be included in the anal
ysis, and thus no further magnification is required. See
section 4.4.2.3 and Appendix E and F of "AS 4100:1998"
code for details. For symmetrical sections major bending
is bending about the local 3axis.For unsymmetrical
sections (e.g., angles)major bending is the bending about
the section principal axis with the larger moment of iner
tia.
Sway Moment
Factor (Ds Minor)
> 0 1.0
Unitless moment magnification factor for minor axis
bending moment of a sway member. Specifying 0 means
the value is program default which is 1. The program
determined value is taken as 1 because it is assumed that
PDelta effects were specified to be included in the anal
ysis, and thus no further magnification is required. See
section 4.4.2.3 and Appendix E and F of "AS 4100:1998"
code for details. For symmetrical sections minor bending
is bending about the local 2axis. For unsymmetrical
sections (e.g., angles)minor bending is the bending about
the section principal axis with the smaller moment of
inertia.
Form Factor (Kf)
1
<1
1
Form factor for members subjected to axial compression.
It is unitless. Its value is 1 for compact sections and less
than one for noncompact and slender sections. Specify
ing 0 means the value is program determined. See sec
tions 6.2.1, 6.3.3, 8.3.2, 8.4.2.2, and 8.4.4.1 of "AS
4100:1998" code for details.
Axial Capacity
Connection Factor
(kt)
s 1 1
Correction factor for distribution of forces for members
subjected to axial tension. It is unitless. Its value depends
on the connections and can be less than or equal to one
for any sections. Specifying 0 means the value is program
default which is 1. See sections 7.2, 7.3.1, and 7.3.2 and
Table 7.3.2 of "AS 4100:1998" code for details.
Yield Stress, Fy
> 0 Program
Determined
Material yield strength used in the design/check. Speci
fying zero means the value is program determined. The
program determined value is taken from the material
property assigned to the frame object.
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  14 Design Load Combination
Table 32 Steel Frame Design Overwrites for AS41001998
Item Possible Values Default Value Description
Compressive
Capacity, Nc
> 0 Program
Determined
Allowable axial compressive capacity. Specifying zero
means the value is program determined.
Tensile Capacity,
Pnt
> 0 Program
Determined
Allowable axial tensile capacity. Specifying zero means
the value is program determined.
Major Bending
Capacity, Ms33
> 0 Program
Determined
Allowable bending moment capacity in major axis bend
ing. Specifying 0 means the value is program deter
mined. For symmetrical sections major bending is bend
ing about the local 3axis. For unsymmetrical sections
(e.g., angles) major bending is the bending about the
section principal axis with the larger moment of inertia.
Minor Bending
Capacity, Ms22
> 0 Program
Determined
Allowable bending moment capacity in minor axis bend
ing. Specifying 0 means the value is program deter
mined. For symmetrical sections minor bending is bend
ing about the local 2axis. For unsymmetrical sections
(e.g., angles) minor bending is the bending about the
section principal axis with the smaller moment of inertia.
Major Bending
Capacity, Mb33
> 0 Program
Determined
Allowable critical moment capacity for major axis bend
ing. Specifying 0 means the value is program deter
mined. For symmetrical sections major bending is bend
ing about the local 3axis. For unsymmetrical sections
(e.g., angles) major bending is the bending about the
section principal axis with the larger moment of inertia.
Major Shear
Capacity, Vu2
> 0 Program
Determined
Allowable shear capacity force for major direction shear.
Specifying 0 means the value is program determined. For
symmetrical sections major shear is shear in the local 2
axis direction. For unsymmetrical sections (e.g., angles)
major shear is the shear associated with major bending.
Note that major bending is the bending about the section
principal axis with the larger moment of inertia.
Minor Shear
Capacity, Vu3
> 0 Program
Determined
Allowable shear capacity force for minor direction shear.
Specifying 0 means the value is program determined. For
symmetrical sections minor shear is shear in the local 3
axis direction. For unsymmetrical sections (e.g., angles)
minor shear is the shear associated with minor bending.
Note that minor bending is the bending about the section
principal axis with the smaller moment of inertia.
Demand/Capacity
Ratio Limit
> 0 Program
Determined
The stress ratio limit to be used for acceptability. Stress
ratios that are less than or equal to this value are consid
ered acceptable. Specifying zero means the value is pro
gram determined.
3.4 Design Load Combination
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed
load cases for which the structure is to be checked. The program creates a
number of default design load combinations for steel frame design. Users can
add their own design load combinations as well as modify or delete the pro
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Design Load Combination 3  15
gram default design load combinations. An unlimited number of design load
combinations can be specified.
To define a design load combination, simply specify one or more load cases,
each with its own scale factor. The scale factors are applied to the forces and
moments from the load cases to form the factored design forces and moments
for each design load combination. There is one exception to the preceding. For
spectral analysis modal combinations, any correspondence between the signs
of the moments and axial loads is lost. The program uses eight design load
combinations for each such loading combination specified, reversing the sign
of axial loads and moments in major and minor directions.
As an example, if a structure is subjected to dead load, D, and live load, L, on
ly, the AS 41001998 design check may need one design load combination on
ly, namely, 1.2D + 1.5L. However, if the structure is subjected to wind, earth
quake, or other loads, numerous additional design load combinations may be
required.
For AS 41001998, if a structure is subjected to dead (D), live (L), pattern live
(PL), wind (W), and earthquake (E) loads, and considering that wind and
earthquake forces are reversible, the following load combinations may need to
be defined (AS 3.2.3, AS/NZS 4.2.2):
1.35D (AS/NZS, 4.2.2(a))
1.2D + 1.5L (AS/NZS, 4.2.2(b))
1.2D + 1.5(0.75 PL) (AS/NZS, 4.2.2(b))
0.9D 1.0W
1.2D 1.0W
1.2D + 0.4L 1.0W
(AS/NZS, 4.2.2(e))
(AS/NZS, 4.2.2(d))
(AS/NZS, 4.2.2(d))
1.0D 1.0E
1.0D + 0.4L 1.0E
(AS/NZS, 4.2.2(f))
(AS/NZS, 4.2.2(f))
Note that the 0.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid
for live load representing storage areas.
These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever
the AS 41001998 code is used.
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  16 Classification of Sections for Local Buckling
Two types of live load are used in the program, i.e., Live (L) and Reduced Live
(LR). Live loads are nonreducible and this load should be used for defining
sustained loadings, such as storage, car parking, mechanical plant, and the like,
and Reduced Live should be used for transient live loads.
The program allows live load reduction factors to be applied to the member
forces of the reducible live load case on a memberbymember basis to reduce
the contribution of the live load to the factored responses.
The user should use other appropriate design load combinations if roof live
load is separately treated, or if other types of loads are present. PLL is the live
load multiplied by the Pattern Live Load Factor. The Pattern Live Load Factor
can be specified in the Preferences.
The code is required to consider Notional Load in the design loading combina
tions for steel frame design. The program allows the user to define and create
notional loads as individual load cases from a specified percentage of a given
gravity load acting in a particular lateral direction. These notional load cases
should be considered in the combinations with appropriate factors, appropriate
directions, and appropriate senses. Currently, the program automatically in
cludes the notional loads in the default design gravity load combinations only.
The user is free to modify the default design load combinations to include the
notional loads for the other combinations, if desired. For further information,
refer to the "Notional Load Patterns" section in Chapter 2.
The combinations described herein are the default loading combinations only.
They can be deleted or edited as required by the design code or engineerof
record.
3.5 Classification of Sections for Local Buckling
The nominal strengths for flexure are dependent on the classification of the
section as Compact, NonCompact, Slender, or Too Slender. Compact sections
are capable of developing the full plastic strength before local buckling occurs.
NonCompact sections can develop partial yielding in compression and buckle
inelastically before reaching fully plastic stress distribution. Slender sections
buckle elastically before any of the elements yield under compression.
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Classification of Sections for Local Buckling 3  17
Sections are classified as Compact, NonCompact, or Slender sections in ac
cordance with Section 5.2.2 of the code (AS 5.2.2). For a section to qualify as
Compact, its flanges must be continuously connected to the web or webs and
the widththickness ratios of its compression elements must not exceed the
plasticity limit,
ep
from Table 5.2 of the code.
e
s
ep
(for all elements) (AS 5.2.2, 5.2.3, Table 5.2).
If the widththickness ratio of one or more compression elements exceeds
ep
,
but does not exceed
ey
from Table 52, the section is NonCompact.
e
s
ey
(all) (AS 5.2.2, 5.2.4, Table 5.2)
ep
<
e
s
ey
(any) (AS 5.2.2, 5.2.4, Table 5.2)
If the widththickness ratio of any element exceeds
ey
but does not exceed
ew
,
the section is Slender.
e
s
ew
(all) (AS 5.2.2, 5.2.5, Table 5.2)
ey
<
e
s
ew
(any) (AS 5.2.2, 5.2.5, 5.10.1)
If the widththickness ratio of any element exceeds
ew
, the section is consid
ered Too Slender.
e
>
ew
(any) (AS 5.2.2, 5.10.1)
The values of
ep
,
ey
, and
ew
, as implemented in the program are taken from
Table 34 (AS 5.2.2, 5.10.1, Table 5.2). In that table, all expressions of
ep
and
ey
are taken from AS Section 5.2.2 and AS Table 5.2. The limit demarcating
Slender and Too Slender has been identified as
ew
in this document. The ex
pression of
ew
for IShape, Double Channel, Channel, and TShape sections is
taken from AS section 5.10.1.
Section classification is done differently for bending about major and minor
axes. For example, when a double symmetric IShaped member goes through
major axis bending, its compression flange sustains a uniform compression.
Whereas the same member when subjected to a minor axis bending moment,
the flanges sustain a nonuniform compression as the stress will be maximum
at the tip and zero at the edge that connects the web. In these two cases the val
ue of
ep
,
ey
, and
ew
will be different because of uniform and nonuniform
stress conditions. Accordingly the program classifies the individual sections in
accordance with Table 34 for major axis bending, and Table 35 for minor
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  18 Classification of Sections for Local Buckling
axis bending. Tables 34 and 35 focus mostly on the widththickness ratios,
number of longitudinal edge supported and stress condition. Actual
ep
,
ey
, and
ew
are taken from Table 33.
Table 33 Values of Plate Element Slenderness Limits (Table AS 5.2)
Plate
element
type
Longitudinal
edges
supported
Stress Condition
Residual
stresses
(see Notes)
Plasticity
limit
(
ep
)
Yield
limit
(
ey
)
Too slender
limit
(
ew
)
SR 10 16 90
HR 9 16 90
LW, CF 8 15 90
Uniform compression
HW 8 14 90
SR 10 25 90
HR 9 25 90
LW, CF 8 22 90
One
Nonuniform Compression 
Maximum compression at
unsupported edge, zero stress
or tension at supported edge
HW 8 22 90
SR 30 45 180
HR 30 45 180
LW, CF 30 40 180
Uniform compression
HW 30 35 180
Flat
Both
Nonuniform Compression 
Compression at one edge,
tension at the other edge
Any 82 115 180
SR 50 120 No Limit
HR, CF 50 120 No Limit
LW 42 120 No Limit
Circular hollow sections Any
HW 42 120 No Limit
Notes:
SR Stress relieved LW Lightly welded longitudinally (residual stress < 40 MPa)
HR Hotrolled or hotfinished HW Heavily welded longitudinally (residual stress > 40 MPa)
CF Cold formed
The tables use the variables b
f
, t
f
, t
w
, b, t, d
o
, d, h, and so on. The variables b, d,
d
o
, and t are explained in the respective figures inside the table. The variables
b
f
, t
f
, h, and t
w
are explained in Figure 31.
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Classification of Sections for Local Buckling 3  19
Table 34 WidthThickness Ratios, Edge Supports, and Stress Uniformity of
Compression Elements for Classification of Sections When Subjected
to Flexure about Major Axis
Section
Type
Description
of Element Example
Element
Slenderness
(
e
)
Number of
Supported
Edges
Stress
Condition
Flexural compression
of flanges of rolled
IShapes
2 250
 

\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
Flexural compression
in flanges of builtup
IShapes
2 250
 

\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
D
o
u
b
l
y
S
y
m
m
e
t
r
i
c
I

S
h
a
p
e
Flexure in web
250
y
w
f h
t
 

\ .
Two NonUniform
Flexural Compression
of flanges of rolled
IShapes
2 250
 

\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
Flexural Compression
in flanges of
builtup IShapes
2 250
f w y
f
b t f
t
 

\ .
One Uniform
S
i
n
g
l
y
S
y
m
m
e
t
r
i
c
I

S
h
a
p
e
s
Flexure in Web
p
h
2
c
h
2
t
w
pna
cg
h
p
h
2
c
h
2
t
w
pna
cg
p
h
2
c
h
2
t
w
pna
cg
h
250
y
w
f h
t
 

\ .
Two NonUniform
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
Flexural
compression in
flanges
250
f w y
f
b t f
t
 

\ .
One Uniform
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  20 Classification of Sections for Local Buckling
Table 34 WidthThickness Ratios, Edge Supports, and Stress Uniformity of
Compression Elements for Classification of Sections When Subjected
to Flexure about Major Axis
Section
Type
Description
of Element Example
Element
Slenderness
(
e
)
Number of
Supported
Edges
Stress
Condition
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
Flexure in web
250
y
w
f h
t
 

\ .
Two NonUniform
Flexural
compression in
flanges
250
 

\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
D
o
u
b
l
e
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
Flexure in web
250
y
w
f h
t
 

\ .
Two NonUniform
Flexural compression
of flanges
250
y
f b
t
 

\ .
Two Uniform
B
o
x
Flexure in web
250
y
f h
t
 

\ .
Two NonUniform
Flexural compression
in flanges
2 250
 

\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
T

S
h
a
p
e
Flexural compression
in stems
250
 

\ .
f y
w
d t f
t
One NonUniform
Flexural compression
in leg
250
y
f b
t
 

\ .
One Uniform
D
o
u
b
l
e
A
n
g
l
e
Flexural
compression in leg
250
y
f b
t
 

\ .
One NonUniform
A
n
g
l
e
Flexural compression
in any leg
250
y
f b
t
 

\ .
One Uniform
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Classification of Sections for Local Buckling 3  21
Table 34 WidthThickness Ratios, Edge Supports, and Stress Uniformity of
Compression Elements for Classification of Sections When Subjected
to Flexure about Major Axis
Section
Type
Description
of Element Example
Element
Slenderness
(
e
)
Number of
Supported
Edges
Stress
Condition
P
i
p
e
Flexural compression
o
d
o
d
o
d
o
d
250
y o
f d
t
 

\ .
Round
Bar
   Assumed Compact
Rectan
gular
   Assumed Compact
General    Assumed Compact
SD
Section
   Assumed Compact
Table 35 WidthThickness Ratios, Edge Supports, and Shear Uniformity of
Compression Elements for Classification Sections When Subjected to
Flexure about Minor Axis
Section
Type
Description of Ele
ment Example
Element Slenderness
(
e
)
Number of
Supported
Edges
Stress Condi
tion
Flexural compression
of flanges of rolled I
Shapes
2 250
 

\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One NonUniform
Flexural compression
in flanges of builtup
IShapes
2 250
 

\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One NonUniform
D
o
u
b
l
y
S
y
m
m
e
t
r
i
c
I

S
h
a
p
e
Flexure in web
250
y
w
f h
t
 

\ .
Two NonUniform
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  22 Classification of Sections for Local Buckling
Table 35 WidthThickness Ratios, Edge Supports, and Shear Uniformity of
Compression Elements for Classification Sections When Subjected to
Flexure about Minor Axis
Section
Type
Description of Ele
ment Example
Element Slenderness
(
e
)
Number of
Supported
Edges
Stress Condi
tion
Flexural Compression
of flanges of rolled
IShapes
2 250
 

\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One NonUniform
Flexural Compression
in flanges of builtup I
Shapes
2 250
 

\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One NonUniform
S
i
n
g
l
y
S
y
m
m
e
t
r
i
c
I

S
h
a
p
e
s
Flexure in Web
2 250
 

\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
Two NonUniform
Flexural
compression in
flanges
250
 

\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One NonUniform
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
Flexure in web
250
y
w
f h
t
 

\ .
Two Uniform
Flexural
compression
in flanges
250
 

\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One NonUniform
D
o
u
b
l
e
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
Flexure in web
250
y
w
f h
t
 

\ .
Two Uniform
B
o
x
Flexural compression
of flanges under major
axis bending
250
y
f b
t
 

\ .
Two NonUniform
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Classification of Sections for Local Buckling 3  23
Table 35 WidthThickness Ratios, Edge Supports, and Shear Uniformity of
Compression Elements for Classification Sections When Subjected to
Flexure about Minor Axis
Section
Type
Description of Ele
ment Example
Element Slenderness
(
e
)
Number of
Supported
Edges
Stress Condi
tion
B
o
x
Flexure in web
250
y
f h
t
 

\ .
Two Uniform
Flexural compression
in flanges
250
 

\ .
f w y
w
b t f
t
One NonUniform
T

S
h
a
p
e
Compression in stems
250
 

\ .
f y
w
d t f
t
One NonUniform
Any type of
compression in leg
250
y
f b
t
 

\ .
One NonUniform
D
o
u
b
l
e
A
n
g
l
e
Any type of
compression in leg
250
y
f b
t
 

\ .
One Uniform
A
n
g
l
e
Flexural compression
in any leg
250
y
f b
t
 

\ .
One Nonuniform
P
i
p
e
Flexural
compression
o
d
o
d
250
y o
f d
t
 

\ .
Round
Bar
   Assumed Compact
Rectan
gular
   Assumed Compact
General    Assumed Compact
SD
Section
   Assumed Compact
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  24 Classification of Sections for Local Buckling
2, y
2, y
3, x 3, x
Axes Conventions
22 is the cross section axis
parallel to the webs, the
longer dimension of tubes,
the longer leg of single
angles, or the side by side
legs of double anges. This is
the same as the yy axis.
33 is orthogonal to 22. This is
the same as the xx axis.
f
b
b
w
t
f
t
d
f
b
( )
=
w f
b d 2 t
f
t
w
t
b
w
t
b
f
t
d
t
d
o
d
f
b
d
w
t
f
t
w
b
b
w
t
d
s
f
b
f
b
f
t
b
t
w
t
f
b
b
d
d
f
b
b
f
t
w
t
h
b
f
t
f
b
w
t
( )
=
w f
b d 2 t
s
ft
b
w
t
h
c
h 2
p
h 2
PNA
NA
fc
b
w
b f
d
( )
=
w f
b d 2 t
b
w
b
u
b
2, y
2, y
3, x 3, x
Axes Conventions
22 is the cross section axis
parallel to the webs, the
longer dimension of tubes,
the longer leg of single
angles, or the side by side
legs of double anges. This is
the same as the yy axis.
22 is the cross section axis
parallel to the webs, the
longer dimension of tubes,
the longer leg of single
angles, or the side by side
legs of double anges. This is
the same as the yy axis.
33 is orthogonal to 22. This is
the same as the xx axis.
33 is orthogonal to 22. This is
the same as the xx axis.
f
b
b
w
t
f
t
d
f
b
( )
=
w f
b d 2 t
f
t
w
t
b
w
t
b
f
t
d
t
d
o
d
f
b
d
w
t
f
t
f
t
w
b
b
w
t
d
s
f
b
f
b
f
t
b
t
w
t
f
b
b
d
d
f
b
b
f
t
w
t
h
b
f
t
f
b
w
t
( )
=
w f
b d 2 t
s
ft
b
w
t
h
c
h 2
p
h 2
PNA
NA
fc
b
w
b f
d
( )
=
w f
b d 2 t
b
w
b
u
b
Figure 31 AS 41001998 Definition of Geometric Properties
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Classification of Sections for Local Buckling 3  25
In classifying web slenderness of IShape, Box, Channel, Double Channel, and
all other sections, it is assumed that there are not intermediate stiffeners. The
code provides a limit on web slenderness for unstiffened web in Clause 5.10.1.
This document refers to that limit as
ew
and uses it as a limit of Too Slender
ness. When
e
exceeds
ew
, the web slenderness limit at unstiffened condition,
the program reports that the section is Too Slender.
For sections with flat compression elements, the plate element slenderness is
taken as follows:
250
y
e
f b
t
 
=

\ .
(AS 5.2.2)
For flat compression elements supported on only one edge parallel to the direc
tion of compression force, b is taken as the clear width of the element outstand
from the face of the supporting plate elements. For flat compression elements
supported along two edges parallel to the direction of the compression force, b
is taken as the clear width of the element between the faces of supporting plate
elements (AS 5.2.2). For all flat compression elements t is taken as the element
thickness (AS 5.2.2).
For circular hollow sections, the element slenderness,
e
, and equivalent sec
tion slenderness,
s
, is taken as follows:
250
   
= =
 
\ .\ .
y o
s e
f d
t
(AS 5.2.2)
where d
o
is the outside diameter of the section.
The nominal strength for axial compression also depends on the classification
of section. In this mode, however, the sections are classified as either Compact
or Slender in accordance with the code (AS 6.2.3). For a section to qualify as
Compact, the following condition should be satisfied:
e
s
ey
(all elements) (AS 6.2.3)
If the preceding condition is not satisfied, the section is considered to be Slen
der.
The value of
ey
for the axial mode is taken from Table 36 in accordance with
the code (AS 6.2.4, Table 6.2.4). For sections with flat plate elements, this lim
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  26 Classification of Sections for Local Buckling
it
ey
is the same as that in AS Table 5.2. However for pipe sections, the values
differ.
The slenderness of a flat plate element,
e
, is calculated as follows:
y
e
f
b
t
 
=

\ .
250
(AS 6.2.3)
For circular hollow sections, the element slenderness,
e
, is calculated as fol
lows:
 
 
=


\ .
\ .
y
o
e
f
d
t 250
(AS 6.2.3)
The preceding two expressions of
e
are exactly the same as those given for the
flexural mode (AS 6.2.3, 5.2.2). Also the values of b, t, and d
o
are the same as
those described earlier in this section.
The program clarifies the individual sections in accordance with Table 37 for
axial compression. This table focuses on the widththickness ratios, number of
longitudinal edges supported, and stress condition. Actual
ey
is taken from Ta
ble 36.
Table 36 Values of Plate Element Yield Slenderness Limit (AS Table 6.2.4)
Plate
element type
Longitudinal
edges
supported
Residual
stresses
(see Notes)
Yield
slenderness
limit,
ey
One (Outstand)
SR
HR
LW, CF
HW
16
16
15
14
Flat
Both
SR
HR
LW, CF
HW
45
45
40
35
Circular hollow sections
SR
HR
LW, CF
HW
82
82
82
82
Notes:
SR Stress relieved LW Lightly welded longitudinally (residual stress < 40 MPa)
HR Hotrolled or hotfinished HW Heavily welded longitudinally (residual stress > 40 MPa)
CF Cold formed
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Classification of Sections for Local Buckling 3  27
Table 37 WidthThickness Ratios, Edge Supports, and Stress Uniformity of
Compression Elements for Classification Sections When Subjected to
Axial Compression
Section
Type
Description of Ele
ment Example
Element Slenderness
(
e
)
Number of
Supported
Edges
Stress Condi
tion
Flexural compression
of flanges of rolled I
Shapes
2 250
 

\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
Flexural compression
in flanges of builtup
IShapes
2 250
 

\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
D
o
u
b
l
y
S
y
m
m
e
t
r
i
c
I

S
h
a
p
e
Flexure in web
250
y
w
f h
t
 

\ .
Two Uniform
Flexural Compression
of flanges of rolled
IShapes
2 250
 

\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
Flexural Compression
in flanges of builtup I
Shapes
2 250
 

\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
S
i
n
g
l
y
S
y
m
m
e
t
r
i
c
I

S
h
a
p
e
s
Flexure in Web
250
y
w
f h
t
 

\ .
Two Uniform
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
Flexural
compression in
flanges
2 250
 

\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  28 Classification of Sections for Local Buckling
Table 37 WidthThickness Ratios, Edge Supports, and Stress Uniformity of
Compression Elements for Classification Sections When Subjected to
Axial Compression
Section
Type
Description of Ele
ment Example
Element Slenderness
(
e
)
Number of
Supported
Edges
Stress Condi
tion
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
Flexure in web
250
y
w
f h
t
 

\ .
Two Uniform
Flexural
compression
in flanges
250
 

\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
D
o
u
b
l
e
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
Flexure in web
250
y
w
f h
t
 

\ .
Two Uniform
Flexural compression
of flanges under major
axis bending
250
y
f b
t
 

\ .
Two Uniform
B
o
x
Flexure in web
250
y
f h
t
 

\ .
Two Uniform
Flexural compression
in flanges
2 250
 

\ .
f w y
f
b t f
t
One Uniform
T

S
h
a
p
e
Compression in stems
250
 

\ .
f y
w
d t f
t
One Uniform
Any type of
compression in leg
250
y
f b
t
 

\ .
One Uniform
D
o
u
b
l
e
A
n
g
l
e
Any type of
compression in leg
250
y
f b
t
 

\ .
One Uniform
A
n
g
l
e
Flexural compression
in any leg
250
y
f b
t
 

\ .
One Uniform
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments 3  29
Table 37 WidthThickness Ratios, Edge Supports, and Stress Uniformity of
Compression Elements for Classification Sections When Subjected to
Axial Compression
Section
Type
Description of Ele
ment Example
Element Slenderness
(
e
)
Number of
Supported
Edges
Stress Condi
tion
A
n
g
l
e
Axial only
compression
in any leg
250
y
f b
t
 

\ .
One Uniform
P
i
p
e
Flexural
compression o
d
o
d
250
y o
f d
t
 

\ .
Round
Bar
   Assumed Compact
Rectan
gular
   Assumed Compact
General    Assumed Compact
SD
Section
   Assumed Compact
3.6 Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments
The factored member loads that are calculated for each load combination are
N
*
, M
*
33
, M
*
22
, V
*
2
, V
*
3
and T
*
corresponding to factored values of the axial load,
the major and minor moments and shears, and torsion, respectively. These fac
tored loads are calculated at each of the previously defined stations.
The factored forces can be amplified to consider second order effects, depend
ing on the choice of analysis method chosen in the Preferences. If the analysis
method is chosen to be General Second Order Elastic Analysis, it is assumed
that the analysis considers the influence of secondorder effects (PA and Po
effects); hence the analysis results are used without amplification (AS
4.4.1.2(a), 4.4.1.2(b), App E, App F). Secondorder effects due to overall sway
of the structure can usually be accounted for, conservatively, by considering
the secondorder effects on the structure under one set of loads (usually the
most severe gravity load case), and performing all other analyses as linear us
ing the stiffness matrix developed for this one set of Pdelta loads (see also
White and Hajjar 1991). For a more accurate analysis, it is always possible to
define each loading combination as a nonlinear load case that considers only
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  30 Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments
geometric nonlinearities. For both approaches, when Po effects are expected to
be important, use more than one element per line object (accomplished using
the automatic frame subdivide option of the Assign menu > Frame > Auto
matic Frame Mesh command).
If the analysis method considers only Second Order Analysis by Amplified
First Order Analysis (AS 4.4.2), it is assumed that the analysis does not con
sider the influence of second order effects (PA and Po). Hence the analysis
results are amplified using o
b
and o
s
factors using the following approximate
secondorder analysis for calculating the required flexural strengths in mem
bers of lateral load resisting systems. The required secondorder flexural
strength, M
*
, is determined as follows:
M
*
= o
b
(M
*
fb
+ o
s
M
*
fs
) Sway Frames (AS 4.4.1.2(b), 4.4.2.3, App F)
M
*
= o
b
(M
*
fb
+ M
*
fs
) Braced Frames (AS 4.4.1.2(a), 4.4.2.2, App F)
where,
*
1,
1
m
b
omb
C
N
N
o = >
 

\ .
and (AS 4.4.2.2)
o = >
A E
E
*
*
1
1,
1
s
s
s
N
h V
(AS 4.4.2.3)
where,
M
*
= required secondorder flexural strength using load combina
tions, Nmm
M
*
fb
= firstorder factored moment using the design load combina
tions, assuming there is no lateral translation of the frame, N
mm
M
*
fs
= firstorder factored moment using the design load combina
tions caused by lateral translation of the frame only, Nmm
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments 3  31
N
*
= required secondorder axial strength using load combinations,
N
E
N
*
= total vertical load supported by the story, including gravity
column loads, N
E
V
*
= total story shear, N
A
s
= lateral strong drift, mm
h
s
= strong height, mm
C
m
= a coefficient assuming no lateral translation of the frame,
whose value is taken as follows:
(i) For beamcolumns not subject to transverse loading be
tween supports in the plane of bending,
=  s 0.6 0.4 1.0
m m
C (AS 4.4.2.1)
a
m
b
M
M
 =
where, M
a
and M
b
, calculated from a firstorder analysis,
are the smaller and larger moments, respectively, at the
ends of that portion of the member unbraced in the plane
of bending under consideration.
a b
M M is positive when
the member is bent in reverse curvature, negative when
bent in single curvature.
(ii) For beamcolumns subjected to transverse loading between
supports, the value of C
m
is conservatively taken as 1.0 for
all cases (AS 4.4.2.2.(a)).
When M
b
is zero, C
m
is taken as 1.0, the program defaults C
m
to 1.0, if the unbraced length is more than actual member
length. The user can overwrite the value of C
m
for any member.
C
m
can be expressed as follows:
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  32 Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments
\ .
(AS 5.2.5)
For a section whose slenderness is determined by the value calculated for a flat
plate element with maximum compression at an unsupported edge and zero
stress or tension at the other edge and that satisfies
s
>
sy
, the effective section
modulus, Z
e
, is calculated as follows:
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  36 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
2
sy
e
s
Z Z
 
=

\ .
( AS 5.2.5)
For circular hollow sections (pipe) that satisfy
s
>
sy
, the effective section
modulus is taken as the lesser of the following two values:
 
=

\ .
sy
e
s
Z Z and ( AS 5.2.5)
 
=

\ .
sy
e
s
Z Z
2
2
( AS 5.2.5)
For solid circular sections, Z
e
is always calculated assuming compact section.
Z
e
= min{S, 1.5Z} (AS 5.2.3)
For solid rectangular sections, general sections, and the Section Designer sec
tions, Z
e
is calculated conservatively as follows:
Z
e
= Z
Z
e
is calculated for major and minor axis bending separately using the appro
priate values of (Z
22
, S
22
) or (Z
33
, S
33
) pairs.
3.7.1.2 Member Moment Capacity of Segments with Arbitrary Lateral Re
straint
The nominal member moment capacity of a flexural member is calculated as
follows:
b m s s s
M M M o o = s (AS 5.6.1.1(a))
where,
m
o = A moment modification factor.
s
o = A slenderness reduction factor.
M
s
= The nominal section moment capacity.
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Calculation of Nominal Strengths 3  37
The moment modification factor, o
m
, is taken as follows:
( ) ( ) ( )
*
m
m
* * *
. M
.
M M M
o = s
(
+ +
(
2 2 2
2 3 4
1 7
2 5 (AS 5.6.1.1(a)(iii))
where,
*
m
M = Maximum design bending moment in the segment.
*
M
2
,
*
M
4
= Design bending moment at the quarter points of the segment.
*
M
3
= Design bending moment at the midpoint of the segment.
If the segment is unrestrained at one end (cantilever), the program determined
value for the factor o
m
, in accordance with AS 5.6.1.1(a)(iii), does not remain
correct. In this case o
m
should be taken from AS Table 5.6.2. The user should
overwrite o
m
for cantilever. The program also defaults o
m
to 1.0 if the minor
unbraced length, l
22
, is redefined to be more than the length of the member by
the user or the program, i.e., if the unbraced length is longer than the member
length. The Overwrites can be used to change the value of o
m
for any member
The slenderness reduction factors o
s
, is calculated as follows:
s s
s
oa oa
M M
.
M M
o
(
(
   
(
(
= +
 
(
(
\ . \ .
(
2
0 6 3 (AS 5.6.1.1(a)(iv))
in which M
oa
is taken as
M
oa
= M
o
, where M
o
is the reference buckling moment
For doubly symmetric IShape, Channel, Double Channel, TShape, Angle,
Double Angle, Box, and Pipe sections, the reference buckling moment, M
o
, is
determined as follows:
2
2
2 2
y
w
oa o
e e
EI
EI
M M GJ
l l
(
  (
 
(  = = + ( 


(
(
\ . \ .
t
t
(AS 5.6.1.1(a)(iv))
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  38 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
where,
E, G are the elastic Young's and shear moduli,
I
y
, J and I
w
are section constants,
I
w
= 0 for angle sections (AS 5.6.1.3)
I
w
= 0 for rectangular box sections (AS 5.6.1.4)
l
e
is the effective length for lateral torsional buckling determined in ac
cordance with AS 5.6.3, which is described later.
For singlysymmetric IShapes, M
o
is determined as follows:
( )
(
     
 
(    = + + + 

  
(
\ .
\ . \ . \ .
y x y y
w x
o
e e e e
EI EI EI
EI
M GJ
l l l l
t  t t
t 
2 2 2 2
2
2 2 2 2
2
4
(AS 5.6.1.2(a))
where, the monosymmetric section constant, 
x
, is defined as:
cy
x f
y
I
. d
I

(  
= ( 

(
\ .
2
0 8 1 (AS 5.6.1.2(i))
where,
d
f
= The distance between flange centroids.
I
cy
= The moment of inertia of the compression flange about the
section minor principal yaxis.
The effective length for lateral torsional buckling, l
e
, of a segment or sub
segment is determined as follows:
l
e
= k
t
k
l
k
r
l
LTB
(AS 5.6.3)
where,
k
t
= A twistresistant factor given in AS Table 5.6.3(1).
k
l
= A load height factor given in AS Table 5.6.3(2).
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Calculation of Nominal Strengths 3  39
k
r
= A lateral rotation restraint factor given in AS Table 5.6.3(3).
l
LTB
= The segment length between two lateral restraints.
The procedure to determine l
LTB
is described in the section entitled Member Un
supported Length in Chapter 2. This length factor can be overwritten.
k
t
, k
l
, and k
r
values should be based on AS Tables 5.6.3(1), 5.6.3(2), 5.6.3(3).
The program does not calculate them. The user is expected to overwrite them.
The procedure for calculating M
b
can be simplified for full lateral restraint
segments. In such cases,
e
l r satisfies certain upper limits (AS 5.3.2.4). Since
the unbraced length is small, the moment capacity in such case reaches M
sx
.
However, the program uses the general expression for arbitrary braced seg
ments.
The program allows program determination of unbraced length l
LTB
, overwrit
ing the length factor, or overwriting the precise bracing points. This has been
discussed in the section entitled Member Unsupported Length in Chapter 2.
The user should use judgment to match the program definition of bracing
points with the code specified bracing points (AS 5.4).
For nonprismatic members, the determination of M
b
involves
(i) the properties of minimum cross section, or
(ii) the reduction of M
o
with a factor o
st
.
However, the program is yet to implement this clause. The program just takes
the section properties at any crosssection by interpolation and then uses this
section property assuming prismatic section. The user should check the validity
of this assumption.
If the member is subjected to bending moment about the nonprincipal axis, the
bending moment is resolved about the principal axis. Then the program goes
through the interaction of combined forces and moments check (AS 5.7.1,
5.7.2).
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  40 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
3.7.2 Nominal Shear Capacities
The nominal shear strengths are calculated for shears along the geometric axes
for all sections. For IShape, Box, Channel, Double Channel, TShape, Double
Angle, Pipe, Circular and Rectangular sections, the principal axes coincide
with their geometric axes. For Angle sections, principal axes do not coincide
with their geometric axes.
In calculating nominal capacities for shear, V
v
, it is assumed that there is no in
termediate stiffeners used to enhance shear strength of a section (AS 5.10.1).
Since the program does not design web stiffeners, it assumes the web is always
unstiffened. The unstiffened web should always satisfy the following slender
ness lemits:
s
y
f
d
t
1
180
250
if web bounded on two sides (AS 5.10.1)
s
y
f
d
t
1
90
250
if web bounded on one side (AS 5.10.1)
where,
d
1
is the clear depth of the web between flanges, ignoring fillets and
welds,
t is the thickness of the web.
All sections consisting of flat plate elements, such as IShape, Box, Channel,
Double Channel, TShape, Angle, Double Angle sections are checked for this
limit as appropriate. This is described earlier in the section entitled Classifica
tion of Section for Local Buckling. If any section violates the appropriate limit,
it is declared as Too Slender, and a further check is not done.
The program assumes that the shear stress distribution is uniform through the
web of the member. For members with unequal flanges, varying web thickness,
or holes, the user will need to check shear capacity independently.
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Calculation of Nominal Strengths 3  41
3.7.2.1 Shear Capacity in the Major Direction
A member subject to design shear force, V*, along the major direction (22 axis
or yaxis) should satisfy the following condition:
V
*
sV
v
where,
 = The capacity factor, which is 0.9 by default. It can be modified in
the preferences.
V
v
= The nominal shear capacity of the web in the major geometric axis.
V
*
= The design shear force in the major geometric axis.
3.7.2.2 Uniform Shear Stress Distribution
The nominal shear capacity, V
v
, of a web is taken as follows:
V
v
= V
u
(AS 5.11.2)
where, V
u
is the nominal shear capacity of the web assuming approximately
uniform shear stress distribution. For shapes with well defined web, such as I
Shape, Box, Channel, Double Channel, and TShape sections, V
u
is calculated
as follows:
When
p
w
y
d
t
f
s
 

\ .
82
250
V
u
= V
w
, (AS 5.11.2)
where,
V
w
= 0.6 f
y
A
w
(AS 5.11.4)
A
w
is the gross sectional area of the web. It is taken as follows:
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  42 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
=
w
w
w
w
w
w
dt
dt
A dt
dt
ht
for IShape sections,
for Channel sections,
for TShape sections,
2 for Double Channel sections, and
2 for Box sections.
(AS 5.11.4)
When >
 

\ .
w
y
d
t
f
82
250
V
u
= V
b
(AS 5.11.2)
V
b
= o
v
V
w
(AS 5.11.5.1)
o
v
=
(
(
(
(
    (
 
(
\ . \ .
p y
w
d f
t
2
82
250
s 1 (AS 5.11.5.1)
For Pipe sections, V
u
is calculated as follows:
V
u
= 0.36 f
y
A
e
(AS 5.11.2, 5.11.4)
A
e
= max(A
n
, 0.9A
g
) (AS 5.11.4)
For angle and doubleangle sections, V
v
for one of the geometric axis is taken
as follows:
V
u
= V
w
= 0.6 f
y
A
w
(AS 5.11.2, 5.11.4)
w
bt
A
bt
angle section (AS 5.11.4)
2 , double angle section (AS 5.11.4)
For solid circular sections, rectangular, and general sections and Section De
signer sections, V
v
for the major axis is taken as follows:
V
u
= V
w
= 0.6 f
y
A
w
, (AS 5.11.2, 5.11.4)
where A
w
is the shear area obtained from elastic shear distribution.
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Calculation of Nominal Strengths 3  43
When the bending moment is significant (M
*
> 0.75M
s
), the shear capacity is
reduced as follows:
V
vm
= V
v
for M
*
s 0.75M
s
(AS 5.12.3)
=
(  
( 

( \ .
v
s
M
V
M
*
1.6
2.2 0.75M
s
s M
*
s M
s
(AS 5.12.3)
where,
V
vm
= The reduced nominal shear capacity of the web.
V
v
= The nominal shear capacity of a web in shear alone.
M
s
= The nominal section moment capacity.
However the program reports V
vm
as equivalent to V
m
.
3.7.2.3 Shear Capacity in the Minor Direction
The nominal shear strength, V
v
, for minor direction shear in IShapes, Boxes,
Channels, Double Channels, and TShapes is calculated in the same way as for
major direction, except A
w
and
w
h t is taken as follows.
where, A
w
is taken as follows:
2 for IShape sections,
2 for Channel sections,
for TShape sections,
4 for Double Channel sections, and
2 for Box sections.
f f
f f
w f f
f f
f f
b t
b t
A b t
b t
b t
V
u
is calculated in the same way as that for major direction shear, except that
w
h t is taken as follows:
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  44 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
( )
f f
f f
f f
w
f f
f f
b t
b t
h
b t
t
b t
b t
2 for IShape sections,
for Channel sections,
for TShape sections,
2 for Double Channel sections, and
for Box sections.
The nominal shear capacity, V
v
, for minor direction shears in Double Angle,
Angle, Rectangular, Circular, Pipe, and General sections and Section Designer
sections is calculated in the same way as that for major direction shear, except
that A
w
and V
w
are taken approximately.
3.7.3 Nominal Compressive Capacities
Normally a concentrically loaded member subjected to a design axial force, N
*
,
should satisfy the following two conditions:
N
*
s N
s
(AS 6.1)
N
*
s N
c
(AS 6.1)
where,
 = The capacity factor for axial compression. It is equal to 0.9 by
default (AS Table 3.4). However, it can be modified by the user
through the preferences.
N
s
= The nominal section capacity in compression.
N
c
= The nominal member capacity in compression.
Members subjected to combined actions of axial compression, bending mo
ment, and shear forces are checked using interaction equations described later
in this chapter. These equations use both N
s
and N
c
extensively.
3.7.3.1 Nominal Section Capacity
The nominal section capacity, N
s
, of a concentrically loaded compression
member is given as follows:
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Calculation of Nominal Strengths 3  45
N
s
= k
f
A
n
f
y
(AS 6.2.1)
where,
A
n
= The net area of the crosssection.
k
f
= The form factor. It is calculated as follows:
=
eff
g
A
A
(AS 6.2.2)
where,
A
eff
= The effective area of the whole section, and
A
g
= The gross area of the section.
A
n
= The net area of the crosssection. It is obtained by deducting from
the gross area the sectional area of all penetrations and holes, in
cluding fastener holes (AS 9.1.10). It is set equal to A
g
by default.
The program allows the user to overwrite
n g
A A , namely the net
area of the total area ratio. By default its value is 1. A value
smaller than or equal to 1 is expected.
For sections comprised of flat plate elements, such as IShape, Box, Channel,
Double Channel, TShape, Angle, and Double Angle sections, the effective
area of the whole section, A
eff
, is calculated as the summation of effective areas
of all the individual flat plate elements.
A
eff
= A
g
E
(b b
e
)t (AS 6.2.2)
where, the effective width of the individual flat plate elements, b
e
, is calculated
as:
 
= s

\ .
ey
e
e
b b b ( AS 6.2.4)
The yield slenderness limit,
ey
, has been described earlier. It is taken from AS
Table 6.2.4, which has been reproduced earlier in this document in the section
entitled Classification of Section for Local Buckling. Similarly, the clear width
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  46 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
of the individual flat plate elements, b, and the element slenderness,
e
, have
been described earlier.
For pipe sections, the effective area of the section, A
eff
, is calculated as follows:
=
e
eff g
d
A A
d
0
(AS 6.2.2)
where,
 
=
` 
\ .
)
ey ey
e o o
e e
d d d
2
3
min , (AS 6.2.4)
The yield slenderness limit,
ey
, the element slenderness
e
, and outside diame
ter d
o
have been described in the section entitled Classification of Sections for
Local Buckling.
Since, for axially compact sections
e
s
ey
, for all flat plate or circular ele
ments,
A
eff
= A
g
(axially compact sections) ( AS 6.2.4)
A
eff
< A
g
(axially slender sections) ( AS 6.2.4)
This means that for axially compact sections, k
f
= 1 and for all slender sections
k
f
s 1.
k
f
= 1 (axially compact sections)
k
f
s 1 (axially slender sections)
For rectangular, circular, general, and Section Designer sections, k
f
factors are
not calculated and assumed to be 1.
The k
f
factor can be overwritten for any section.
3.7.3.2 Nominal Member Capacity
The nominal member capacities are determined using the geometric slender
ness ratios and effective lengths described in the following subsections and in
Section 2.7.
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Calculation of Nominal Strengths 3  47
The nominal member capacity, N
c
, for a member having a constant cross sec
tion is calculated as follows:
N
c
= o
c
N
s
s N
s
(AS 6.3.3)
where,
N
s
= the nominal section capacity, determined as described
above in accordance with AS 6.2.1 (AS 6.2.1)
o
c
= the member slenderness reduction factor,
=
(
(
 
(
(

(
( \ .
2
90
1 1 (AS 6.3.3)
=
 
+ +

\ .
 

\ .
2
2
1
90
2
90
(AS 6.3.3)
q = 0.0326 ( 13.5) > 0 (AS 6.3.3)
=
n
+ o
a
o
b
(AS 6.3.3)
n
=
y
e
f
f
l
k
r 250
(AS 6.3.3)
o
a
=
( )
n
n n
.
.
+
2
2100 13 5
15 3 2050
(AS 6.3.3)
o
b
= The appropriate member section constant, given in AS Tables
6.3.3.(1) and 6.3.3.(2). However, the program depends on user
overwrites.
k
f
= The form factor described previously.
If the k
f
factor is equal to 1.0, the o
b
factor is taken from Table 38 (AS Table
6.3.3(1)). If the k
f
factor is less than 1.0, the o
b
factor is taken from Table 39
(AS Table 6.3.3(2)). There is a minor exception in Table 38 from the original
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  48 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
AS Table 6.3.3(1). For welded H and I sections, flanges and webs are assumed
to be fabricated from flamecut plates.
Table 38 Values of Member Section Constant (o
b
) for k
f
= 1.0
(AS Table 6.3.3(1))
Compression member
section constant, o
b
Section description
1.0
Hotformed RHS and CHS
Coldformed (stress relieved) RHS and CHS
0.5 Coldformed (nonstress relieved) RHS and CHS
0
Hotrolled UB and UC sections
(flange thickness up to 40 mm)
Welded H and I sections fabricated from flamecut plates*
Welded box sections
0.5
Tees flamecut from universal sections, and angles
Hotrolled channels
Weld H and I sections fabricated from asrolled plates*
(flange thickness up to 40 mm)
Other sections not listed in this Table
1.0
Hotrolled UB and UC sections
(flange thickness over 40 mm)
Welded H and I sections fabricated from asrolled plates*
(flange thickness over 40 mm)
*Note: For welded H and I sections, flanges and webs are assumed to be fabricated
from flamecut plates.
Table 39 Values of Member Section Constant (o
b
) for k
f
< 1.0
(AS Table 6.3.3(2))
Compression member
section constant, o
b
Section description
0.5
Hotformed RHS and CHS
Coldformed RHS and CHS (stress relieved)
Coldformed RHS and CHS (nonstress relieved)
0
Hotrolled UB and UC sections
(flange thickness up to 40 mm)
Welded box sections
0.5
Weld H and I sections
(flange thickness up to 40 mm)
1.0 Other sections not listed in this Table
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Calculation of Nominal Strengths 3  49
For compression members, the effective lengths, l
e
, are determined as,
l
e
= k
e
l
where the effective length factor k
e
takes the form k
eb
(effective length factor for
braced condition, k
eb
s 1) or k
es
(effective length factor for sway condition, k
es
>
1) depending on whether the PA analysis is performed and whether the mem
ber is declared to be a Braced Frame or Sway Frame.
A
eb
e eb
es
k
k k
k
,
,
if P analysis is done for Braced or Sway frames,
if Braced frames,
if Sway frames and P analysis is not done.
(AS 6.3.2, 4.6.3.3, App G)
If the user overwrites the k
eb
and k
es
, the appropriate overwritten values are
used.
The nominal member capacity for axial compression, N
c
, depends on the slen
derness ratio,
e
k l r , where
=
`
)
e e e
k l k l k l
r r r
33 33 22 22
33 22
max , .
For all sections except Single Angles, the principal radii of gyration r
22
and r
33
are used. For Single Angles, the minimum (principal) radius of gyration, r
z
, is
used instead of r
22
and r
33
, conservatively, in computing
e
k l r. k
e33
and k
e22
are
two values of k
e
for the major and minor axes of bending.
For members having variable crosssections, the nominal member capacity, N
c
,
should be determined using procedures described in the section for prismatic
sections, with the following exception:
(a) The nominal section capacity, N
s
, is the minimum value for all cross
sections along the length of the member, and
(b) The modified member slenderness,
n
, given in earlier in this section
(AS 6.3.3) is replaced by the following:
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  50 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
n
=
s
om
N
N
 

\ .
90 (AS 6.3.4)
where N
om
is the elastic flexural buckling load of the member in axial
compression determined using a rational elastic buckling analysis.
However, the program has yet to implement this clause. The program takes the
section properties of any crosssection by interpolation and then uses this sec
tion property assuming prismatic section. The user should check the validity of
this assumption.
3.7.4 Nominal Tensile Capacity
This section applies to the members subject to axial tension.
Normally a concentrically loaded member subjected to a design axial tensile
force, N
*
, should satisfy the following conditions:
N
*
s N
t
(AS 7.1)
where,
 = The capacity factor for axial compression. It is equal to 0.9 by
default (AS Table 3.4). However, it can be overwritten by the
user through the preferences.
N
t
= The nominal section capacity in tension.
The nominal section capacity of a tension member is calculated as follows:
N
t
= min(A
g
f
y
, 0.85k
t
A
n
f
u
) (AS 7.2)
where,
A
g
= The gross area of the crosssection,
f
y
= The yield stress used in design,
k
t
= The correction factor for distribution of forces. It depends on
connection configuration and shape (AS 7.3). It is set to 1.0 and
can be overwritten by the user.
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Members Subjected to Combined Forces 3  51
A
n
= The net area of the crosssection. It is obtained by deducting
from the gross area the sectional area of all penetrations and
holes, including fastener holes (AS 9.1.10). It is set equal to A
g
.
The program allows the user to overwrite A
n /
A
g
, namely the net
area of the total area ratio. By default, its value is 1. A value
smaller than or equal to 1 is expected.
f
u
= The tensile strength used in design.
3.8 Members Subjected to Combined Forces
Previous sections of this design manual address members subject to only one
type of force, namely axial tension, axial compression, flexure, or shear. This
section addresses the design of members subject to a combination of two or
more of the individual forces. Both the section capacities and member capaci
ties are considered.
In the calculation of the demand/capacity (D/C) ratios, first, for each station
along the length of the member, the actual member force/moment components
are calculated for each design combination. Then, the corresponding capacities
are calculated. Then, the D/C ratios are calculated at each station for each
member under the influence of each of the design combinations. The control
ling D/C ratio is then obtained, along with the associated station and design
combination. A D/C ratio greater than the D/C ratio limit (whose default value
is 1.0) indicates exceeding a limit state.
During the design, the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not consid
ered.
3.8.1 Section Capacity
From the factored axial loads and bending moments at each station and the fac
tored strengths for axial tension and compression and major and minor axis
bending, a D/C ratio is produced for each of the load combinations as follows.
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  52 Members Subjected to Combined Forces
3.8.1.1 Uniaxial Bending About the Major Axis
For uniaxial bending about the xaxis (section major axis), the following condi
tion is checked:
*
1
x
rx
M
M 
s (AS 8.3.1)
where,
 = The capacity factor (AS Table 3.4).
M
rx
= The nominal section moment capacity, reduced by axial
force.
M
sx
, M
sy
= The nominal section moment capacities about the x and y
axes respectively.
N
s
= The nominal section axial load capacity.
For doubly symmetric I sections and rectangular and square hollow compact
sections, M
rx
is calculated by one of the following equations, as appropriate:
(a) For compression members where k
f
is equal to 1.0 and for tension mem
bers:
*
rx sx sx
s
N
M . M M
N 
 
= s 

\ .
1 18 1 (AS 8.3.2(a))
(b) For compression members where k
f
is less than 1.0:
82
1 1 0 18
82
*
w
rx sx sx
s wy
N
M M . M
N

 
(  
= + s 
( 

\ . ( \ .
(AS 8.3.2(b))
w
and
wy
are the values of
e
and
ey
for the web, as described in Section
3.2.
For all other sections, M
rx
is calculated as follows:
1
*
rx sx
s
N
M M
N 
 
= 

\ .
(AS 8.3.1)
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Members Subjected to Combined Forces 3  53
3.8.1.2 Uniaxial Bending About the Minor Axis
For uniaxial bending about the yaxis (section minor axis), the following con
dition is checked:
s

y
ry
M
M
*
1.0 (AS 8.3.3)
where,
 = The capacity factor.
M
ry
= The nominal section moment capacity reduced by the axial ten
sile or compressive force.
M
ry
is calculated by one of the following as appropriate:
(a) For doubly symmetric I sections that are compact:
*
ry sy sy
s
N
M . M M
N 
(
 
(
= s 

(
\ .
2
1 19 1 (AS 8.3.3(a))
(b) For rectangular or rectangular box compact sections:
(
 
= s ( 

( \ .
*
ry sy sy
s
N
M . M M
N 
1 18 1 (AS 8.3.3(b))
(c) For all other cases,
(
 
= ( 

( \ .
*
ry sy
s
N
M M
N 
1 (AS 8.3.3)
3.8.1.3 Biaxial Bending
For biaxial bending of a compression member the following condition is
checked:
*
* *
y
x
s sx sy
M
N M
N M M   
+ + s1 (AS 8.3.4(a))
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  54 Members Subjected to Combined Forces
In addition, to use the preceding equation for doubly symmetric I sections and
rectangular and square hollow sections, the following ratio is also calculated.
However, the equation that gives the smaller ratio is used (AS 8.3.4(b)):
*
*
y
x
rx ry
M
M
M M
 
 
 
 + s 


\ .
\ .
1 (AS 8.3.4(b))
where M
rx
and M
ry
are calculated in accordance with clause 8.3.2 and 8.3.3, and
they are described earlier, and
*
s
N
. .
N

 
= + s 

\ .
1 4 2 0 (AS 8.3.4)
3.8.2 Member Capacity
For bending about a single axis or bending about both axes, the program
checks each member for the conditions described below for inplane and out
ofplane capacities.
3.8.2.1 InPlane Bending Capacity
For a compression members bent about a principal axis, the following condi
tion is evaluated:
s
i
M
M 
*
1.0
(AS 8.4.2.2)
where,
M
*
= The design bending moment about the principal axis.
 = The capacity factor (AS Table 3.4).
M
i
= The nominal inplane member moment capacity.
=
*
s
c
N
M
N 
 


\ .
1
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Members Subjected to Combined Forces 3  55
M
s
= The nominal section moment capacity for bending about the same
principal axis as the design bending moment.
N
*
= The design axial compressive force.
N
c
= The nominal member capacity in axial compression determined in
accordance with Section 3.7.3 for buckling about the same princi
pal axis, with the effective length factor (k
e
) taken as 1.0 for both
braced and sway members.
For doubly symmetric I sections, rectangular, and hollow box compact sec
tions, M
i
can be calculated as,
* *
m m
i s
c c
N N
M M .
N N
 
 
(
   
+ +    
( = +   `  
 
\ . \ .
\ . \ .
)
3 3
1 1
1 1 1 18 1
2 2
(AS 8.4.2.2)
s M
rx
or M
ry
as appropriate
where,

m
= The ratio of the smaller to the larger end bending moment,
taken as positive when the member is bent in reverse curva
ture for members without transverse load, or
M
rx
or M
ry
= The nominal section moment capacity about the appropriate
principal axis determined in accordance with the formula
given earlier in Section 3.8.1.1 and 3.8.1.2.
For tension members subjected to bending moments this stress ratio is not cal
culated for inplane capacity (AS 8.4.2.3).
3.8.2.2 OutofPlane Bending Capacity
For a member with axial compression and bending about the xaxis, the follow
ing condition is checked:
s

x
ox
M
M
*
1.0
(AS 8.4.4.1)
where,
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  56 Members Subjected to Combined Forces
 = The capacity factor (see Table 3.4).
M
ox
= The nominal outofplane member moment capacity.
=
*
bx
cy
N
M
N 
 


\ .
1
M
bx
= The nominal member moment capacity of the member without
full lateral restraint and bent about the major principal x axis, de
termined in accordance with Clause 5.6 using a moment modifi
cation factor (o
m
) appropriate to the distribution of design bend
ing moments along the member.
N
cy
= The nominal member capacity is axial compression, determined
in accordance with Clause 6.3 for buckling about the minor prin
cipal yaxis.
However, for members without transverse loads that are of compact doubly
symmetric I section and are fully or partially restrained at both ends, and have
a form factor (k
f
) of unity, M
ox
is calculated as follows:
o
 
(   
= s (  


( \ .
\ .
* *
ox bc bxo rx
cy oz
N N
M M M ,
N N
1 1 (AS 8.4.4.1)
where,
bc
o
1
=
*
m m
cy
N
. .
N
 

 
+  
+  

\ .
\ .
3
1 1
0 4 0 23
2 2
(AS 8.4.4.1)
M
bxo
= The nominal member moment capacity without full lateral
restraint and with a uniform distribution of design bending
moment so that o
m
is unity, determined in accordance with
AS Clause 5.6.
N
cy
= The nominal member capacity in axial compression, determined
in accordance with Clause 6.3 for buckling about the minor
principal yaxis.
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Members Subjected to Combined Forces 3  57

m
= The ratio of the smaller to the larger end bending moment, tak
en as positive when the member is bent in reverse curvature.
N
oz
= The nominal elastic torsional buckling capacity of the member,
calculated as follows:
( )
( )
+
=
+
w z
oz
x y
GJ EI l
N
I I A
t
2 2
(AS 8.4.4.1)
E, G = the elastic moduli
A, I
w
, I
x
, I
y
, and J = the section constants
l
z
= the distance between partial or full torsional restraints
For a member with axial tension and bending about the xaxis, the following
condition is checked:
*
1.0
x
ox
M
M
s

(AS 8.4.4.2)
where,
 = The capacity factor (AS Table 3.4).
M
ox
= The nominal outofplane member moment capacity.
=
 
+ s 


\ .
bx rx
t
N
M M
N
*
1 (AS 8.4.4.2)
M
bx
= The nominal member moment capacity, as defined previously.
N
t
= The nominal section capacity in axial tension, as defined previ
ously.
M
rx
= The nominal section moment capacity reduced by axial force, as
defined previously.
3.8.2.3 Biaxial Bending Capacity
For compression members, the following unity check is evaluated:
Steel Frame Design Manual AS 41001998
3  58 Shear Check
.
.
*
*
y
x
cx iy
M
M
M M  
 
 
 + s 


\ .
\ .
1 4
1 4
1 (AS 8.4.5.1)
where,
 = The capacity factor.
M
cx
= The lesser of the nominal inplane member moment capacity (M
ix
)
and the nominal outofplane member moment capacity (M
ox
) for
bending about the major principal xaxis. M
ix
and M
ox
have been de
fined previously.
M
iy
= The nominal inplane member moment capacity for bending about
the minor principal yaxis, as defined previously.
For tension members, the following unity check is evaluated:
.
.
*
*
y
x
tx ry
M
M
M M  
 
 
 + s 


\ .
\ .
1 4
1 4
1 (AS 8.4.5.2)
where
 = The capacity factor.
M
tx
= The lesser of the nominal section moment capacity (M
rx
) reduced
by axial tension and the nominal outofplane member moment ca
pacity (M
ox
) for bending about the major principal xaxis. M
rx
and
M
ox
have been defined previously.
M
ry
= The nominal section moment capacity reduced by axial tension, as
defined previously
3.9 Shear Check
From the factored shear force values and the factored shear strength values at
each station, for each of the load combinations, D/C ratios for shear in major
and minor directions are produced as follows:
Chapter 3 Steel Frame Design Using AS 41001998
Shear Check 3  59
2
2
,
f
r
V
V
and
3
3
,
f
r
V
V
4  1
Chapter 4
Design Output
The program has the capacity to create design output in four major ways
graphical display, file output, tabular display, and member specific detailed de
sign information.
The graphical display includes input and output design information for mem
bers visible in the active window; the display can be sent directly to a printer or
saved to a file. The file output includes both summary and detail design data
that can be saved in RTF, HTML and plain text formats. The tabular display
output includes both summary and detail design data that can be displayed or
saved in many formats, including Excel, Access, RTF, HTML and plain text.
The member specific detailed design information shows the details of the cal
culation.
The following sections describe some of the typical graphical display, file out
put, tabular display output, and member specific detailed design information.
Some of the design information is very specific to the chosen steel design code.
This manual addresses "AS 41001998" design code related output information
only.
Steel Frame Design AS 41001998
4  2 Display Design Information on the Model
4.1 Display Design Information on the Model
The graphical display of design output includes input and output design infor
mation for all steel frame members that are visible in the active window. The
graphical output can be produced in color or in grayscaled screen display. The
active screen display can be sent directly to the printer or saved to a file in sev
eral formats.
Input and output design information for the AS 41001998 code includes the
following.
Table 41 Graphical Display of Design Information
Design Input Information Design Output Information
Design sections
Design framing type
Live load reduction factors
Unbraced length ratios, Lfactors,
for major and minor direction of bending,
and for lateraltorsional buckling
Effective length factors for braced condition, k
eb
,
for major and minor directions of bending
Effective length factors for sway condition,
k
es
factors, for major and minor directions
of bending
Effective length factors, k
t
, k
r
, and k
l
, for
lateraltorsional buckling
c
m
factors for major and minor directions of
bending
m
and
s
factors for major direction of bending
b
factors for major and minor directions of
bending
s
factors for major and minor directions of
bending
Yield stress, f
y
Nominal axial capacities (N
s
, N
t
)
Nominal bending capacities (M
s33
, M
s22
, M
b
)
Nominal shear capacities (V
v2
, V
v3
)
PM stress ratio values with members
colorcoded based on the ratio
PM colors and shear stress ratio val
ues
PM ratio colors and no values
Identify the PM failure
Identify the shear failure
Identify all failures
Note that only one of the listed items can be displayed on the model at a time.
Chapter 5 Design Output
Display Design Information on the Model 4  3
Use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Display Design Info command
to plot design input and output values directly on the model. The Display Steel
Design Results form shown in Figures 41 and 42 will display.
Figure 41. Choice of design input data for display on the model
in the active window
Figure 42. Choice of design output data for display on the model
in the active window
Choose the Design Output or Design Input option. One item can be selected
from the dropdown list. For example, the PM interaction ratios can be dis
played by choosing the Design Output option and selecting PM Ratio Colors
Steel Frame Design AS 41001998
4  4 Display Design Information on the Model
& Values from the dropdown list. Click the OK button to display the
PMRatio in the active window. A typical graphical display is shown in Figure
43.
Figure 43. A typical graphical display
The graphics can be displayed in 3D or 2D mode. The standard view transfor
mations are available for all steel design information displays. Several buttons
on the toolbar can be used to switch between 3D and 2D views. Alternatively,
click the View menu and the Set 3D View or Set 2D View commands.
The onscreen graphical display can be sent to printer using any of the follow
ing commands. Use the File menu > Print Graphics command to print the ac
tive window. To capture the graphical display in a file for printing through
another application, use the File menu > Capture Enhanced Metafile com
mand to create an .emf file, or use the File menu > Capture Picture command
to create a bitmap (.bmp) file. Create a screen capture of the active window
using the Alt+ Print Screen keyboard keys or create a screen capture of the
entire window using the Ctrl + Print Screen keyboard keys. Then use the
Ctrl+V keyboard keys to paste the saved image into Paint or other graphical
program.
Chapter 5 Design Output
Display Design Information in Tables 4  5
By default the graphical displays are in color. It may be advantageous to view
or present the display in grayscale graphics or using a white background. Use
the Options menu > Color command to set these options.
4.2 Display Design Information in Tables
In addition to model definition and analysis results, the design information for
all steel frame members or for only selected members can be displayed in
tabular spreadsheet format. Currently, the program generates design summary
data, PMM design details and shear design details. The tabular spreadsheet
output can be displayed by selecting the Display menu > Show Tables com
mand to access the Choose Tables for Display form, an example of which is
shown in Figure 44. That form can be used to choose which tables or sets of
tables are to be displayed.
The names of the tables are displayed in a tree structure, which can be col
lapsed or expanded by clicking on an item in the tree. Click on the small check
boxes preceding the items to select those tables for display. If a branch of the
tree is selected, all of the tables under that branch are selected. The selected set
of tables can be saved as a Named Set using the Save Named Set button. This
named set can be used in the future for quick selection. If one or more frame
members are selected on the structural model before accessing the Choose Ta
bles for Display form, the Selection Only check box will be checked when the
form displays and, the program will display information for the selected mem
bers only; uncheck the check box to display information for all applicable
members in the model. If the Show Unformatted check box is checked, the
numbers will be displayed unformatted, instead of being displayed using a lim
ited number of decimal digits. The unformatted option provides higher preci
sion output that can then be copied into other programs.
Steel Frame Design AS 41001998
4  6 Display Design Information in Tables
Figure 44. Choice of design data tables for tabular display
Use the other buttons in the form to tailor the data display. For example, click
the Select Load Patterns button to specify which load patterns are to be in
cluded in the display of model definition data; click the Select Load Case and
Modify/Show Options to specify which load cases are to be included and how
analysis results are displayed.
After selecting all of the tables for steel frame design and the display options,
click the OK button to display a form showing one of the selected design ta
bles, with a dropdown list in the upper righthand corner of the form that can
be used to select other tables for display. A typical design table is shown in
Figure 45.
Chapter 5 Design Output
Display Design Information in Tables 4  7
Figure 55. A typical tabular display of design data
Use the scroll bars on the bottom and right side of the tables to scroll right and
left or up and down if portions of the data table can not be displayed in the
form's display area. The columns can be resized by clicking the left mouse
button on the separator of the headers, holding down the left mouse button and
then dragging the mouse to the left or right. Reset the column widths to their
default values by selecting the FormatFilterSort menu > Reset Default
Column Widths command on the form. The table can be split into two or
more tables by clicking on the small black rectangular area near the bottomleft
corner of the table, holding down the left mouse button, and then dragging the
mouse button to the left or right. Repeat this process to add more splits. Use the
split and horizontal scroll bar to put two columns side by side for easier com
parison. The splits can be removed by selecting the FormatFilterSort menu
> Remove Splits command on the form. Alternatively, remove the split by
clicking, holding and dragging the left mouse button to merge the split key to
its original location.
Select multiple consecutive columns by putting the cursor on the header, hold
ing down the mouse button, and then dragging the mouse button left or right.
Alternatively, depress the Shift key and click the left mouse button to select a
range of columns.
Steel Frame Design AS 41001998
4  8 Display Detailed Member Specific Information
Each of the individual fields (columns) can be formatted. Fields with text in
formation can be set for specific types of alignment (center, left, right) and to
specific widths. In addition to setting the alignment and column widths, fields
with numeric data can be set for the maximum number of characters, zero tol
erance, number of decimal digits and so forth. The tables can be formatted, fil
tered and sorted using multiple criteria accessed using the FormatFilterSort
menu on the form. Filtering and sorting features can be useful in identifying
critical cases. After specifying the table formatting information, save it to a
format file that can be used in the future by selecting the appropriate feature
available under the FormatFilterSort menu.
The current table (i.e., the table in the active window) can be exported to Ex
cel, Access, .rtf., .html, and plain text formats. In both Excel spreadsheet and
Access database formats, the tables can have many columns, making the tables
very wide. In .rft and .html formats, the tables are split at convenient points to
make a reasonably printable document. In plain text format, the tables can be
saved with or without the splits. To export a table to Excel, for example, select
the File menu > Export Current Table > To Excel command. The program
will export the entire table to an Excel spreadsheet workbook and will auto
matically open the file in MS Excel. Similarly, if the table is exported to other
formats, the default editor specific to that format will open the document, pro
vided that the editor is available in the computer. The table will be saved in
that format only if the relevant editor is not available. Instead of exporting or
displaying the currently displayed table, the entire set of available tables can be
exported and displayed in the aforementioned formats by selecting the File
menu and the appropriate submenu command. With these exporting and dis
play features, the tables can be saved in many required formats and can be
printed. Many other features of the design tables are left for the user to dis
cover by using the program.
The preceding description is for SAP2000. ETABS differs slightly.
4.3 Display Detailed Member Specific Information
The program has the capability to display the design details for a specific mem
ber. The information includes member identification, shape name, section
properties, design combination name, design combination forces, and other de
Chapter 5 Design Output
Display Detailed Member Specific Information 4  9
sign input data to check the design results. The information also includes stress
ratios for PMM and other interactions, demand/capacity ratios from shear,
nominal strengths, design factors such as k
e
, braced, k
e
, sway, k
t
, k
l
, k
r
,
m
,
s
,
b
,
s
, k
f
, k
t
(axial)
,
b
, z
e
, and so forth. The design details are displayed in a summary
form and also are displayed for a specific load combination and for a specific
station of a frame member.
When the design results are displayed on the model in the active window, the
detailed design information can be accessed by right clicking on the desired
frame member to display the Steel Stress Check Information form. Alterna
tively, click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Interactive Steel
Frame Design command and then right click on the frame member. An exam
ple of that form is shown in Figure 46.
The Steel Stress Check Information form identifies the frame members and the
analysis and design section, and includes a display area of mostly de
mand/capacity ratio data and a set of buttons that access forms that provide fur
ther details about the selected frame member. The display area reports the load
combinations, the stress check stations, the PMM interaction ratio along with
its axial and flexural components, and the shear stress ratios. The load combi
nation is reported by its name, while the station is reported by its location,
which is measured from the Iend of the column. The number of reported line
items in the text box is equal to the number of design combinations multiplied
by the number of stations. Only one line item is highlighted in blue when the
form first displays. That item highlights the largest demand/capacity ratio from
PMM, major and minor shear or any other considered interaction ratio, unless
a line item(s) has design overstress or an error. In that case, the item with the
overstress or error will be selected and highlighted. If many line items are
overstressed or have an error, the last among all such line items will be selected
and highlighted.
Steel Frame Design AS 41001998
4  10 Display Detailed Member Specific Information
Figure 46. A typical member specific steel stress check information summary
The stress check information is always reported for the design section. If the
member is assigned an individual section, the analysis and design section are
always the same. If the member is assigned an Auto Select Section (a list of
sections), the analysis and design section can be different, unless the design has
converged.
The Overwrites and Details buttons near the bottom of the Steel Stress Check
Information form can be used to access the Steel Frame Design Overwrites
form, and the Steel Stress Check Data form, which displays detailed informa
tion about the selected frame element. While the latter form displays informa
tion in a noneditable format, the Overwrites form display the overwrite data in
editable format. This allows the user to enter an interactive mode of design.
Overwrites button. Click this button to access the Steel Frame Design
Overwrites form. Use that form to make revisions to the steel frame design
overwrites and then immediately review the new design results as a summary
using the Steel Stress Check Information form, or in detail by clicking the
Details button to access the Steel Stress Check Data form. Clicking the OK
button on the Steel Frame Design Overwrites form temporarily saves any
Chapter 5 Design Output
Display Detailed Member Specific Information 4  11
changes. To make the changes permanent, click the OK button on the Steel
Stress Check Information form. To disregard the changes, click the Cancel
button on the Steel Stress Check Information form. An example of an Over
writes form is shown in Figure 47.
Figure 47. A typical member specific Steel Frame Design Overwrites form
Details button. Click this button to access the Steel Stress Check Data form.
Use the form to review all of the design details for the highlighted item. An
example of a Steel Stress Check Data form is shown in Figure 48. The in
formation includes the member ID, load combo and station identifica
tions, steel design sections, section properties, design combination forces,
stress ratios for PMM and other interactions, stress ratios for shear, nominal
strengths, and design factors such as, k
e
, braced, k
e
, sway, k
t
, k
l
, k
r
,
m
,
s
,
b
,
s
, k
f
, k
t
(axial)
,
b
, z
e
, and so forth. Values that are not applicable are reported as
Steel Frame Design AS 41001998
4  12 Display Detailed Member Specific Information
N/A. Similarly, N/C and N/N indicate an item is Not Calculated and Not
Needed.
Figure 48 A typical Steel Stress Check Data form
Before clicking the button, highlight an item for the desired design sta
tion and design load combination in the Steel Stress Check Information
display area by clicking on the line. The data subsequently displayed will
relate to the highlighted item. By default, the most critical line item is
selected when the form first displays, as described previously.
To increase or decrease the width of the Steel Stress Check Data form,
put the cursor near the right edge of the form, click the left mouse button,
and drag the mouse cursor towards the left or right. Similarly, the height
of the form can be increased or decreased.
The text in the form can be dragged in any direction by positioning the
cursor in the middle of the form, and then clicking the left mouse button
and dragging the text in the desired direction.
Chapter 5 Design Output
Save or Print Design Information as Tables 4  13
Use the Units dropdown list in the upper righthand corner of the form
to change the units used to display the data. Data displayed on the form
can be sent directly to the printer by selecting the File menu > Print
command on the form. The program allows limited page setup options
using the Print Setup Command on the File menu on the form.
The Steel Stress Check Information form also includes a Tabular Data button
that when clicked displays member specific design details in a spreadsheet type
format. The tabular display of design information has been described in the
previous section. In that case, the information displayed is specific to the se
lected member only. The tabular output is shown for all stations and all design
load combinations for the selected member. An example of design details table
that displays after clicking the Tabular Data button is shown in Figure 49.
This button is available in SAP2000, but not in ETABS.
Figure 49 Member specific design details in tabular format
4.4 Save or Print Design Information as Tables
In addition to model definition and analysis results, the design information for
all steel frame members or for selected frames only can be saved in tabular
format. Currently for AS 41001998 code, the program saves design summary
data, PMM design details, and shear design details.
Save the file output by selecting the File menu > Print Tables command to
access the Choose Tables for Printing form. An example of that form is shown
Steel Frame Design AS 41001998
4  14 Save or Print Design Information as Tables
in Figure 410. Use the options on the form to choose which table or set of ta
bles to save in a file or print. This form is very similar to the Choose Tables for
Display form, which has been described earlier in this chapter in the "Display
Design Information in Tables" section.
Figure 410 Choice of design tables for saving in a file or printing
The name of the tables are displayed in a tree structure, which can be collapsed
or expanded by clicking on an item in the tree. Click on the small check boxes
preceding the items to select those tables for printing or saving to a file. If a
branch of the tree is selected, all of the tables under that branch are selected.
When all options for printing or saving the data to file have been specified, the
settings can be saved as a Named Set using the Save Named Set button. The
Named Set can be easily recalled in the future, reducing the need to reselect the
options and ensuring that output is consistent from one printing effort to an
other.
Chapter 5 Design Output
Error and Warning Messages 4  15
If one or more structural members are selected before the Choose Tables for
Printing form is accessed, the Selection Only check box will be checked, and
the program will save or print the data for the selected members only; uncheck
the check box to save or print the data for all appropriate members.
The output can be generated in a variety of formats, including rich text format
(.rft), plain text with and without splits or page breaks (.txt), and hyperlink text
markup language (.htm) by choosing the appropriate option on the right side of
the form.
Printed output can be specified to have a landscaped orientation, in which the
width of the resulting printout on a given page is longer than the height of the
printout.
Filtering criteria can be applied if those criteria were specified using the For
matFilterSort menu > Format Table command when the selected data ta
bles were displayed using the Display menu > Show Tables command. The
output also can be specified to include a hyperlinked contents to facilitate ac
cessing specific areas of the printout.
There are other buttons on the form that do not affect saving or printing design
information. For example, the Select Load Patterns button affects only sav
ing/printing model definition data. The Select Load Cases and Modify/Show
Options buttons affect only saving/printing analysis results.
After clicking all the necessary tables for steel frame design and all necessary
options, clicking the OK button will save/print the design tables.
Although the File name > Print Tables command path is dedicated for sav
ing/printing design information, it is not the only path to do so. Design tables
can be saved in different formats using the path Display menu > Show Tables
command.
The preceding description applies to SAP2000. ETABS differs slightly.
4.5 Error and Warning Messages
Error messages and warnings may be displayed in the steel frame design out
put. Those messages and warnings are assumed to be self explanatory.
Appendix A  1
Appendix A
Supported Design Codes
The program supports a wide range of steel frame design codes, including the
following:
AISCASC 01
AISCASD 89
AISC 36005/IBC 2006
AISCLRFD 99
AISCLRFD 93
APIRP2ALRFD 97
APIRP2AWSD 2000
AS 41001998
ASCE 1097
BS5950 90
BS5950 2000
Chinese 2002
Steel Frame Design AS 41001998
Appendix A  2
CAN/CSAS1601
CISC 95
Eurocode 32005
Eurocode 31993
Indian IS:8001998
Italian UNI 10011
Norsok N004
UBC97ASD
UBC97LRFD
Among all of the listed design codes, ASCE 1097, APIWSD 2000, and
APILRFD 97 codes are available only in SAP2000. ETABS does not support
those codes. The "Chinese 2002" code is available only in the specialized Chi
nese version of SAP2000 and ETABS. The specialized Indian version of the
programs support only the Indian IS 8001998 code.
This is a growing list that gets outdated often.
Bibliography  1
Bibliography
AISC, 2005a. ANSI/AISC 36005: An American National Standard Speci
fication for Structural Steel Building, American Institute of Steel Con
struction. One East Wacker Drive, Suite 700, Chicago, Illinois, 60601.
March 9.
AISC, 2005b. Commentary on the Specification for Structural Steel Buildings,
American Institute of Steel Construction. One East Wacker Drive, Suite
700, Chicago, Illinois, 60601. March 9.
Boresi, A. P., 1985. Advanced Mechanics of Materials, John Wiley & Sons
Inc. ISBN 0471883921.
CSI, 2009. Automatic Lateral Load Manual. Computers and Structures, Inc.,
1995 University Avenue, Berkeley, California, 94704.
IBC, 2006. International Building Code, International Code Council, 4051
West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, Illinois, 60478. January.
SA, 1998. AS 41001998 Australian Standard Steel Structures, Standards
Australia (Standards Association of Australia), 1 The Crescent, Home
bush, NSW 2140, Australia. ISBN 07337 1981 3.
Steel Frame Design AS 41001998
Bibliography  2
SA, 2007. AS 1170.42007 Australian Standard Structural Design Actions,
Part 4 : Earthquake Actions in Australia, Standard Australia, GP Box
476, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia. ISBN 07337 8349X.
SA/SNZ, 2002a. AS/NZS 1170.0:2002 Australian/New Zealand Standard
Structural Design Actions, Part 0 : General Principles, Jointly published
by Standards Australia International, Ltd., GPO Box 5420, Sydney,
NSW 2001, Australia, and Standards New Zealand, Private Bag 2439,
Wellington, 6020, New Zealand. ISBN 07337 4469 9
SA/SNZ 2002b. AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Australia/New Zealand Standard
Structural Design Action, Part 2 : Wind Actions, Jointly published by
Standards Australia International, Ltd., GPO Box 5420, Sydney, NSW
2001, Australia, and Standards New Zealand, Private Bag 2439, Wel
lington, 6020, New Zealand. ISBN 07337 4473 3
White, D.L. and J. F. Hajjar, 1991. Application of SecondOrder Elastic Ana
lysis in LRFD: Research to Practice, Engineering Journal, ACI, Vol. 28,
No. 4, pp. 133148.