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REPORT ON

BY

ASHISH JAIN (NM COLLEGE) –
9820842680

SUBJECT: ECONOMICS

E-mail id: ashish1310@gmail.com
One Delhi based headhunter described it, “the current
job scene is filled with rampant optimism.” And then he adds
that almost every company seems to be “buying people”
these days. Our optimism headhunter hasn’t really revealed
sensitive information on shady defense deals, so what
explains his hesitation to come on record? While he is still
sure about the future, there is the apprehension that he
might be forced to eat crow due to short term titanic events.
“It was just take an Iraq war for the party to end,” says
Rajeev Thakur, CEO, Grassik consultants, who quickly add
that the Indian job market has expanded by 30-40 percent
since last year. So what’s really happening out there and
what kind of jobs are up for grabs?
Well the sunrise industries do speak it all for them. Yes
the sunrise industry is the future industry and they will offer
immense job opportunities for skilled as well as unskilled
persons. The biggest sectors where there in expected
sunrise are in biotechnology and the I.T enabled services.
Apart from these the others are telecom, retail business,
insurance, housing finance, tissue culture, flori culture, aqua
culture and the like. Now let’s see some of these in brief.
BIOTECHNOLOGY
If Information technology marked India’s debut into the
global big league, biotechnology is being tipped to be the
next big thing, which could help the country firmly establish
itself on the global science and technology map. Going by
the report of industry and research bodies, the sector holds
immense potential for India’s economy.

GLOBAL BIOTECH DEVELOPMENT – INDIA’S ROLE:

Given India’s share at only 2% in the global biotech
market, her role in the field of biotechnology has till now
been a supplementary one. The country has trained and
supplied high quality human resources and scientists for U.S
universities and biotech industry. “The Indian industry has
played the role of being a provider of skilled professionals in
the biotech industry, especially in collaborations with
institutes abroad.
Recent times have also seen many mergers and tie-ups
between Indian industry and global corporations. This is just
the beginning. The future will witness more such
collaborations and alliances particularly between biotech
companies to accelerate the process of commercialization
and to cut down the costs.
With the world recognizing the plethora of Indian
intellect in the country and the international intellectual
property rights coming into play after 2005, the stage is all
set for the Indian biotech companies to take the genomic
battle to the global war field and play a significant role in the
development of the industry worldwide.
COMPARISION INDIA AND CHINA IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

Low cost R&D capabilities, speed of innovation and the
value of IPRs are going to be the key factors in determining
success in biotechnology. It is inevitable that in this context,
china and India will compete for leadership position in the
region. India has the “English speaking” advantage while
china has the “mindset advantage.” China already has an
early mover advantage in that it has taken proactive as well
as pragmatic steps in biotechnology by being a key
participant of the Human Genome Project, embracing GM
crop technology and encouraging recombinant therapeutics
in its healthcare programs. In contrast India is still grappling
with ethical and moral issues relating to clinical research,
safety issues surrounding GM crops and debating the merits.
India has better capabilities in Pharma/biotech, while
china has strong manufacturing capabilities and in
sequencing as well as in doing genomics and proteonomics
based research.
India is perhaps better placed from the point of view of
the setup of research institutes and the strength of computer
proficiency than china. There are more than 400 universities,
research institutes, and companies and a total of over
20,000 scientists and researchers involved in biotechnology
in china. But this number is far higher in India. However in
agricultural biotechnology, China is more advanced as
compared to India in Agri-biotechnology. China is developing
more plant bio technology products than any country outside
of North America.
Both India and china are offering vast growth potential
for biotechnology investments and currently have a huge
untapped market. The biotechnology industry of china has
generated a net revenue over 2 billion dollars in 2000 in
contrast to the 25 billion dollars generated by the U.S.
Nevertheless, at present, China and India are far behind the
US and other Western countries in biotechnology. Both the
countries can, however, potentially outpace Western
countries in the development of biotechnology.

BIOTECH BUSINESS SEGMENTATION AND GROWTH
FORECAST
2002-2010
FOR INDIA

4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
2002 2007 2010

1. AGRI BIOTECH

India being a large agrarian economy, agriculture is an
important source of foreign exchange for the country. Also,
rapid growth of agricultural, by increasing productivity on
the existing land becomes essential in order to ensure future
security for the growing populace. In March 2002,
Monsanto’s seed partner in India received commercial
approval for its insect protected hybrid cotton seed from the
Indian Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC). This
was a major step in Indian agricultural biotechnology
sectors.

In order to commercialize biotech products, both
entrepreneurs and major business firms would have to get
involved. On the investment front, as the Indian biotech
industry is largely involved within the pharmaceuticals or
agricultural industry, and because of the experience of major
firms, biotech investment has been conservative and less
risk prone unlike in the Western countries.

Biotechnology and genetic engineering (with focus on
technology department, research on gene and protein based
drugs, molecular immunology, crop plant transgenic, food
biotech products, veterinary biologics) could play a major
role in growth of the Indian economy with opportunities for
global export from India. Experts say in India, agricultural
biotechnology advances are being desperately promoted in
the name of eradicating hunger and poverty. Agricultural
biotechnology has enormous potential. The use of this
technology could increase in future. However, speeds with
which it will be adopted depend on the consumer’s
expectance of technology.

In comparison china is a leading player in the area of
agricultural biotechnology with a multitude of genetically
improved crops, fast making it one of the leading players in
the world market.

India comparatively has been a slow starter in this field,
even though our foray into biotech research started much
early. In the years to come India, with interesting products in
the pipeline and attractive projects will be a player to reckon
with. “India has the potential to be the regional leader in
agricultural biotechnology. South Asia represents close to
20% of the world’s population. In order to dominate the
South Asian market, Indian industry will need to focus on the
R&D relative to the market. With the world focus on the
agricultural biotechnology, Indian companies will need to
trend carefully on how they approach these markets and
ensure that there is no opportunity for negative public
perception to arise.
BIOTECHNOLOGY IN HEALTH CARE

DIAGNOSTICS:

The market for diagnostics in India stood at about 100
million$ during 1997 and is estimated to reach 200 million $
by the end of the year 2003. There is an increased
consumption of diagnostic devices and tests in public
hospitals. There are more that 11000 hospitals and 14000
diagnostic laboratories in India that consumes large volume
of diagnostics.

VACCINES:

The domestic vaccine market in currently in the region
of $100 million and this is growing at the rate of more than
20% per year. The potential for these products is immense
with the possible market for all types of diarrhea vaccine
alone being about $200 million.

Vaccine against titanus, diphtheria pertusis and their
combinations and measles are produced in the country. A
manufacturing unit with an annual production capacity of
$100 million doses of oral polio vaccine has been set up by
the central government at Bulandsahar (UP).

RECOMBINANT THERAPEUTIC PROTEINS:
The Indian government has granted marketing licenses
for about 25 recombinant therapeutic proteins. These
include insulin, alpha inter feron hepatitis B surface antigen
based vaccine, GM-CSF, G-CSF, blood clotting factor,
erythropoietin, streptokinase, human growth hormone and
follicle stimulating factor. Several causes including
WORKHARDHT, PIRAMAL and DABUR are exploring the
manufacture OF biogenerics. In addition DABUR INDIA is
developing plant machines and is working in a natural
substance based immunodulateor.

BIOTECHNOLOGY IN INDUSTRIAL MANUFACTURING

Biotechnology in industry employs the techniques of
modern molecular biology to reduce the environmental
impact of manufacturing. Industrial biotechnology also works
to make manufacturing processes more efficient for
industries such as textiles, paper and pulp, and specialty
chemicals. Some observers predict biotechnology will
transform the industrial manufacturing sector in much the
same way that it has changed the pharmaceutical,
agricultural and food sectors. Industrial biotechnology will be
a key to achieving industrial and environmental
sustainability.

What Is Industrial Sustainability?

According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation
and Development (OECD), industrial sustainability is the
continuous innovation, improvement and use of clean
technology to reduce pollution levels and consumption of
resources. Modern biotechnology provides a number of
avenues for achieving these goals.

In practical terms, industrial sustainability means
employing technologies and know-how to lessen material
and energy inputs, maximize renewable resources and
biodegradable substances as inputs, minimize the
generation of pollutants or harmful waste during product
manufacture and use, and produce recyclable or
biodegradable products.

SWOT ANALYSIS OF INDIAN BIOTECH SECTOR

STRENGTHS WEAKNESS
STRENGTHS
 Trained manpower and knowledge base.
 Trained manpower and Missing link between research
 Good network of research laboratories.
Knowledge base. and commercialization.
 Rich biodiversity.
 Well developed base industries.
Access
 Good to intellectual
network of research Lack of venture capital.
Resources of NRI’s in this area.
laboratories.
 Extensive clinical trials and research- access to vast
andbiodiversity.
 Rich diverse disease populations. Relatively low R & D
 Bio-diversity – Opportunity for genomic research.
expenditure by industry.

WEAKNESS
 Well developed base Image of Indian industry-
doubts
Missing link between research andabout
industries. commercialization
ability of Indian
 Lack of venture capital companies to develop

originalRelatively low R&D expenditure by industry
Imagetoofintellectual
 Access Indian industry-doubts about ability
products of Indian
for international
companies
resources to develop
of NRI’s in thisoriginal products
markets.for international
market.
area.
OPPORTUNITIES
 Extensive clinical trials and
research- access to vast
Large
and market
diverse disease
populations.

 Bio-diversity – Opportunity
for geonomic research.
 Export potential
 Base for contract research for International companies
due to Rising costs of R & D abroad
 Large number of patients covering wider range of
diseases-clinical research/trials.

THREATS

 Danger of anti-biotech Propaganda gaining ground
IPR policies.

EMERGING OPPURTUNITIES

India’s pre-eminent role as a global software provider
creates the impetus realm of biotechnology (BT). A large
reservoir of scientific human resource, centers of academic
excellence in the biosciences, a vibrant pharmaceutical
industry and fast developing clinical capabilities collectively
point to a booming biotechnology sector in the future.

The biotechnology sector, although nascent at the
present time and accounting for a mere 2% of the global
biotechnology market, is poised for exponential growth over
the next five years with expected global market share of
10%. Indigenous biotech products and services presently
account for approximately $150 million. The current
segmentation is shared equally between the human
therapeutics such as vaccines and biogenerics, contract
research services including r-DNA technologies, genomics
and bioinformatics and industrial products such as industrial
enzymes, diagnostics and bioprocessing equipment and
instrumentation. An emerging segment is agri-biotech, which
is expected to realize rapid growth over the next five years
and will account for at least 15 % of the total indigenous
biotech market. The consumption of biotech products in
India is estimated to increase tenfold to $1.5 billion by 2007
and to $4.5 billion by 2010.
HUMAN RESOURCE:
India’s rich human capital is believed to be the
strongest asset for this knowledge-led industry. An English
speaking skill base comprising three million graduates,
700,000 postgraduates and 1500 Ph.D.s qualify in
biosciences and engineering each year. A large percentage
opts for overseas opportunities. It is estimated that 10% of
researchers and 15% of scientists engaged in
pharma/biotech R&D in the US are of Indian origin.

The software sector and the emerging biotech sector
now provides large employment opportunities. A services
model ensures large levels of gainful employment. Currently
the IT sector employs in excess of 250,000 engineers and
scientists. The nascent biotech sector in contract employs a
fraction of this. The current employment statistics indicate
approximately 10,000 scientists in the Indian biotech sector.
However, the CRO opportunity alone has the potential of
harnessing 50,000 professionals the next five years.

EVOLUTION OF BIOTECH SECTOR IN INDIA:

Indian BT has had an interesting evolution that has
started with strand of activity on various academic and
industry fronts which are now intertwined to provide a strong
interface between industry and academia. The future of
Indian BT will henceforth follow the format of academica
generating intellectual capital for commercialization by
industry. It is invisaged that these will scientists to pursue
entrepreneurial aspirations.

BIOENABLERS THE POLICY FRONT:

The Indian government had the foresight to identify BT
as a thrust sector for development of biotechnology as a
nodal agency for policy making and development. Initially,
the DBT focused on generating trained manpower and
development and over the years it has extended its reach to
other areas of focus such as genomics, proteomics,
trangenics, stem cell research and product development.

The budgetary allocation to biotechnology has
increased from an amount of $150 million during the first
phase: 1986-1988 to $300 million in the fiscal year 1997-
1998 and $500million in the fiscal year 2002-2003. the
ministry of science and technology also plans to introduce
additional venture capital funds in line with its technology
development fund with its technology development fund to
promote small and medium biotech enterprises.

REGULATORY FRAMEWORK:

A well conceived regulatory framework is in place to
approve GM crops and r-DNA products for human health
based on independent appraisal and approval bodies to
ensure high levels of human and environment safety. A
proactive government policy allows stem cell research in the
country based on sound ethical guidelines.

PATENT REGIME:

The Indian government is committed to a product
patent regime by 2005 in total compliance with the
provisions of of WTO and TRIPS. While key aspects and
relevant provisions of TRIPS, Paris convention and Doha
declarations have been taken on board, available flexibilities
have been incorporated to safeguard national security and
protect varied interests of the nation including public health.

BIO-CLUSTERS:

Several states have been taken strong initiatives in
developing bio-clusters based on intrinsic academic and
entrepreneurial strengths. Key features of these clusters are
biotech-parks, fiscal incentives, centers of biotech
excellence, incubators etc.
PRESENT STATUS:
A comprehensive survey conducted by the
confederation of Indian industry, indicates that there are
currently 160 registered BT companies in the country. Of
these 60 are distinctly engaged in molecular and
recombinant biotechnology. Around 50% of these companies
are located in Banglore, and Hydrebad and 75% of these
companies have been established in the last five years. The
total revenues of this sector stand at $150 million in 2002 of
which $60 million are revenues.

IT-ENABLED SERVICES
IT and IT-Enabled services contribute significantly to the
growth of Indian economy through primarily the sale of skills
in software area, by providing software services to other
nations.

Since the early 90s, software has been the driving
engine of the Indian IT industry. The potential of its high
capacity to generate wealth, foreign exchange and
employment has caught the imagination of India's
businessmen, citizens, economists, bureaucracy and
politicians alike. Software driven IT industry is today at the
top of India's national agenda as an instrument and a model
for the modernization of the Indian Economy.

ITES, which includes call centers, has already provided
jobs to over a lakh people.

By 2008, it could add another million jobs. The figure
would be even higher, if one takes into account a recent
study, which states that 70% of all global ITES work will be
outsourced in India.

Along ITES, the consultancy services, call centers and
BPO are definitely sunrise industries for the upcoming future.
Consider consultancy services:-
TATA consultancy services in India itself
provide jobs for more than 5000 employees.
They project to employees about 40000
employees at least by 2010.
Also BPO (Business Process Outsourcing) is a booming
sector.

Example:
Reshma Taranum, 25-year old team leader at I-Seva
Systems, a Bangalore based call center, with a Rs.2.4 lakh
annual packet (excluding perks), she chooses to work for
graveyard shifts.
Her logic: It allows her to crash out at 4.30 am, get up
by 12.00 and still have the part of the day with her before
reporting at 6.30 p.m.
“I can still contribute more to household chores and do
some personal work. Although my family feels I spend less
time with them, it’s O.K. since I’m unmarried,” she explains.

The call centers mostly recruit “agents”, the people
who answer customers call (or call up potential customers),
whose starting salary even in a top notch company like GE,
would range between Rs. 6000-10000 a month.

IT enabled services are expected to grow 15 fold by
2008, providing vast opportunities for Indian players.

Apart from IT enabled services, other promising
businesses of the future seem to be web-based
applications development like the data warehousing,
data mining, embedded systems applications and Java
applications.

FUNCTIONS:

 Customer Interaction Services
 Business Process Outsourcing/ Management; Back
Office Operations
 Insurance Claims Processing
 Medical Transcription
 Legal Databases
 Digital Content
 Online Education

o Data Digitization / GIS
 Payroll / HR Services

o Web site Services

CONCLUSION:

•IT is a fast-growing, export-oriented sector

•Also definite potential for contributing to broad-based
growth – much more than software exports

•its success exposes key bottlenecks and areas where
reform is needed

•Policy initiatives have to be general, not sector-specific, or
narrowly targeted – IT as “the thin end of the wedge”

•IT can also contribute to broader economic development –
governance, education, operational efficiency, market
efficiency.
TELECOM

Apart from regular working hours for ‘telecos’, there’s
the option of becoming a dealer. Reliance infocomm is
believed to be recruiting agents and in-house executives
“like mad”. In fact, its manpower requirement could be
36,000 people over the next years.

Apart from agents the demand for salesperson will rise
since there’be new products and services to sell.

Example:

Pramit Jaiswal, a 27-year old from Meerut who was
selling home loans till recently is already thinking big after
getting a Reliance Infocomm dealership. “I want to earn in
lakhs”, he says, “And if this is successful, I’ll try to become a
franchisee for other reliance products. Maybe even own a
Reliance petrol pump at some stage.”
At the moment however he expects to earn Rs.
20,000-30,000 from the infocomm dealership.

There is absolutely no doubt that mobile is going to be
the key to the growth of the telecom industry in India, as it
has been the trend globally. And hence the onus will be on
the government to facilitate the expansion of the market. It
is desired that the government took some lessons from the
other nations of the world which have made rapid strides in
this direction.

Four words sum up today’s telecommunication market:
 Private
 Competitive
 Mobile
 Global

So, the writing on the wall is clear: if India’s telecom
sector has to have a presence on the global map, it needs to
promote mobile communication, even if it means at the cost
of age-old fixed line communications.

Thus, as long as the competition benefits customers,
irrespective of whether happier customers would mean
healthier carriers or not, and price cuts are driven by true
competition and are not predatory in nature, let the
subscriber be the king. Anyways, availability and
affordability are going to be the challenges for the industry
and the policy makers alike. Thus if India’s telecom sector
has to have a presence on the global map, it needs to
promote mobile communication.
Housing Finance

Housing finance is relatively safe and secured by
mortgage of property, with very low delinquency rate, which
is what a banker ideally looks for. Unlike the other modes of
credit, which are of short term in nature, housing finance is
long term oriented and gives a better average yield. The
housing finance sector has been witnessing an exponential
growth in the last few years. The trend is likely to continue in
the future also. Considering the developing real estate
market and growing importance given to housing loans by
banks and financial institutions as a part of their portfolio,
scenario is likely to remain very competitive.

Things are moving certainly in favour of customers. Not
only have home loans become cheaper, but they also come
with a host of value-added services including property
identification. The Indian property market has been resilent
and has picked up slowly. The year 2002 witnessed a growth
after the slump in 2001. Today there are better competitive
options available for the customer than before.

Retail

Today 18000 crore retail segment employs 35-40
million people directly or indirectly. The organized retailers,
who account for only 2% of the market, could hire another 2
lakh people over the next 3 years. All large corporates like
TATA are already in business. (Over 250 new malls are
expected to come up in the next 2 years.) And if the
government allows FDI in retail, global brands like Walmart
will also be eyeing the lucrative Indian market. Retailers
require shop floor supervisors whose income would be Rs.20,
000 or less for just part time. However a manager in a mall
could earn up to Rs.50,000.
Insurance

Insurance is tipped to become a $25 billion industry by
2010. It continues to throw opportunities, especially for
agents. Several private insurers have been known to hire up
to 2000 agents a month. Currently there is a poor of 8.5 lakh
agents in the country which is expected to rise by 2 lakh per
annum over the next few years.
Ritu Nanda, LIC’s most successful agent says that, “The job
allows a person to be his or her own boss since one can work
according to ones own wishes. Insurance agents may be
better place since private firms are sounding them out with
figures like Rs. 25000-50000 a month in the metros. There
are 20 companies offering both life and general insurance
products to Indian customers. One of the biggest challenges
for HR in this sector in talent-recruitment is to identify
sectors, which come close to the required competencies in
insurance and recruit people with experience in this sector.
The Indian Insurance opportunity has attracted the best of
Indian companies and MNCs.

In this competitive scenario, organizations that are fast,
productive and willing to adapt will succeed. People, who can
work as teams, learn and deliver fast, think on their feet and
accept ambiguity and diversity are likely to succeed.

BIBLOGRAPHY

MAGAZINES:

CHARTERED FINANCIAL
ANALYST
TEXT:

ECONOMICS – SAMUELSON

NEWSPAPERS:

ECONOMIC TIMES
FINANCIAL STANDARD

WWW.GOOGLE.COM
WWW.1BANANA.COM
WWW.ECONOMICTIMES.COM

…………AND MANY SMALL SITES.