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Chapter 4 Results

CHAPTER 4
RESULTS
Avian influenza (AI) is a serious disease of poultry, resulting in severe mortality in
chickens and major disruption to production and trade (FAO, 2004). LPAI viruses cause
respiratory and gastrointestinal infections without infecting the meat. By contrast, HPAI
viruses produce infection of respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts and virus is present in
the meat and internal contents of eggs during the acute stages of the infection (Swayne,
2004). Vaccines have been used as a tool in LPAI and HPAI eradication strategy. Avian
influenza (AI) vaccines can prevent clinical signs and death in poultry, increase
resistance to birds to infection, and decrease the amount of virus shed in the environment
(Swayne, 2004)

In the present study thirty commercial layers were divided into three groups, T1, T2 and
T3 with 10 birds in each group. Group T1 served as control, Group T2 was immunized
with conventional Avian influenza (AI) oil-based vaccines 0.5 ml/ bird and Group T3 was
immunized with Avian influenza (AI) Liposomal vaccines 0.5 ml/ bird through sub/cut
injection. Blood samples were taken and serum was separated at day 0, 7,14,21,28 and
day 35. Each time at least 6 samples were taken for antibody titration through HI and
AGPT. All the data for the experiment was analyzed by using the one way analysis of
variance (ANOVA) (Table; 20 & 21).

HI AND AGPT TITRES OF SERUM SAMPLES AT 0 DAY

HI and AGPT titre were employed to evaluate the comparative immunological response
of commercial Oil based and Liposomal vaccines of Avian influenza (AI) in commercial
Layers. In treatment group T1, birds were served as control group; T2, birds were
vaccinated with Avian influenza (AI) Oil based vaccine (0.5 ml) subcutaneously and T3,
birds were vaccinated with Liposomal vaccine (0.5 ml) subcutaneously.

Geometric mean titres (GMT) of birds in T1, T2 and T3 by HI and AGPT were 4+1.02 at
day 0. The GMT of the entire groups were low and were considered as the background
reading. No significant difference was observed in the titres at day 0 in all the groups
(Table 2; Fig. 2).

Comparative Immunological Studies on Commercial Oil Based and Liposomal Vaccines of Avian Influenza H7 48
Chapter 4 Results

Table 2. HI and AGPT titres of Avian Influenza antibodies in birds, with different
regimens of immunization at day 0 post treatment (n = 6)

TREATMENT HI TITRES AGPT TITRES

1:8 1:8 1:8 1:8
T1 1:4 1:4 1:4 1:4
(CONTROL) 1:2 1:2 1:2 1:2

GMT + SDM EM 2.00 + 0.89 EM 2.00 + 0.89
GMT 4 +1.021 A GMT 4 +1.021 A
1:8 1:8 1:8 1:8
T2 1:4 1:4 1:4 1:4
(AI OIL BASED) 1:2 1:2 1:2 1:2

GMT + SDM EM 2.00 + 0.89 EM 2.00 + 0.89
GMT 4 +1.021 A GMT 4 +1.021 A
1:8 1:8 1:8 1:8
T3 1:4 1:4 1:4 1:4
(AI LIPOSOMAL) 1:2 1:2 1:2 1:2

GMT + SDM EM 2.00 + 0.89 EM 2.00 + 0.89
GMT 4 +1.021 A GMT 4 +1.021 A

T1: Birds served as control
T2: Birds vaccinated with Avian Influenza Oil Based Vaccine 0.5 ml subcutaneously
T3: Birds vaccinated with Avian Influenza Liposomal Vaccine 0.5 ml subcutaneously
A-C: Values with similar superscript do not differ statistically (P<0.05) While values with
different superscript differ significantly

Comparative Immunological Studies on Commercial Oil Based and Liposomal Vaccines of Avian Influenza H7 49
Chapter 4 Results

HI and AGPT titres at day 0
HI titres
4.5
4 4 AGPT titres 4 4 4 4
4

3.5
3

2.5
T i tr e s

2

1.5
1

0.5
0
control oil based liposomal
HI titres 4 4 4
AGPT titres 4 4 4
Groups

Figure 2. Graph showing the HI and AGPT titre of control, Oil based and Liposomal
vaccinated Groups on Day 0

Comparative Immunological Studies on Commercial Oil Based and Liposomal Vaccines of Avian Influenza H7 50
Chapter 4 Results

HI TITRES OF SERUM SAMPLES AT 7 DAY

Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) titres were evaluated to compare immunological
response of commercial Oil based and Liposomal vaccines of Avian Influenza (AI) in
commercial Layers. In treatment group T1, birds were served as control group; T2, birds
were vaccinated with Avian Influenza (AI) Oil based vaccine (0.5 ml) subcutaneously
and T3, birds were vaccinated with Avian Influenza (AI) Liposomal vaccine (0.5 ml)
subcutaneously.

Looking in to the data the GMT titres were marginal in group T1 (7 + 0.86) whereas, it
was higher in T2 (32 + 0.722).The effect of Avian Influenza (AI) oil based vaccine in T2
was significantly higher in comparison with control group (T1). However Avian
Influenza (AI) Liposomal vaccinated group (T3) was quite significant (64 + 0.722) as
compared with T1 (7 + 0.86) and T2 (32 + 0.722).The data comparatively indicated that
immune response in term of GMT was well established with Avian Influenza (AI)
Liposomal vaccine as compared to Avian Influenza (AI) Oil based vaccine (Table 3; Fig.
3).

AGPT TITRES OF SERUM SAMPLES AT 7 DAY

Agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) titre was employed to evaluate the comparative
immunological response of commercial Oil based and Liposomal vaccines of Avian
Influenza (AI) in commercial Layers. In treatment group T1, birds were served as control
group; T2, birds were vaccinated with Avian Influenza (AI) Oil based vaccine (0.5 ml)
subcutaneously and T3, birds were vaccinated with Avian Influenza (AI) Liposomal
vaccine (0.5 ml) subcutaneously.

The GMT titre at day 14 in T1, T2 and T3 were observed by AGPT. GMT titre were low
in group T1 (4 + 1.021), whereas it was high in T2 (32 + 0.722). The effect of Avian
Influenza (AI) Oil based vaccine in T2 was significantly higher in comparison with
control group (T1). However Avian Influenza (AI) Liposomal vaccinated group (T3) was
highly significant (64 + 0.722) as compared with T1 (4 + 1.021) and T2 (32 + 0.722). The
data comparatively indicated that immune response in term of GMT was well established
with Avian Influenza (AI) Liposomal vaccine as compared to Avian Influenza (AI) Oil
based vaccine (Table 3; Fig. 3).
Comparative Immunological Studies on Commercial Oil Based and Liposomal Vaccines of Avian Influenza H7 51
Chapter 4 Results

Table 3. HI and AGPT titres of Avian Influenza antibodies in birds, with different
regimens of immunization at day 7 post treatment (n = 6)

TREATMENT HI TITRES AGPT TITRES

1:8 1:8 1:4 1:2
T1 1:4 1:4 1:8 1:4
(CONTROL) 1:16 1:8 1:2 1:8

GMT + SDM EM 2.83 + 0752 EM 2.00 + 0.894
GMT 7 + 0.859 A GMT 4 + 1.021 A
1:16 1:32 1:16 1:32
T2 1:32 1:32 1:32 1:32
(AI OIL BASED) 1:32 1:64 1:32 1:64

GMT + SDM EM 5.00 + 0.632 EM 5.00 + 0.632
GMT 32 + 0.722 B GMT 32 + 0.722 B
1:128 1:64 1:128 1:64
T3 1:32 1:64 1:32 1:64
(AI LIPOSOMAL) 1:64 1:64 1:64 1:64

GMT + SDM EM 6.00 + 0.632 EM 6.00 + 0.632
GMT 64 + 0.722 C GMT 64 + 0.722 C

T1: Birds served as control
T2: Birds vaccinated with Avian Influenza Oil Based Vaccine 0.5 ml subcutaneously
T3: Birds vaccinated with Avian Influenza Liposomal Vaccine 0.5 ml subcutaneously
A-C: Values with similar superscript do not differ statistically (P<0.05)
while values with different superscript differ significantly

Comparative Immunological Studies on Commercial Oil Based and Liposomal Vaccines of Avian Influenza H7 52
Chapter 4 Results

HI and AGPT titres at Day 7

70 64 64
HI titres
60 AGPT titres

50

40
T i tr e s

32 32
30

20

10 7
4

0
control oil based liposomal
HI titres 7 32 64
AGPT titres 4 32 64
Groups

Figure 3. Graph showing the HI and AGPT titre of control, Oil based and Liposomal
vaccinated Groups on day 7.

Comparative Immunological Studies on Commercial Oil Based and Liposomal Vaccines of Avian Influenza H7 53
Chapter 4 Results

HI TITRES OF SERUM SAMPLES AT 14 DAY

Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) titre was employed to evaluate the comparative
immunological response of commercial Oil based and Liposomal vaccines of Avian
Influenza (AI) in commercial Layers. In treatment group T1, birds were served as control
group; T2, birds were vaccinated with Avian Influenza (AI) Oil based vaccine (0.5 ml)
subcutaneously and T3, birds were vaccinated with Liposomal vaccine (0.5 ml)
subcutaneously.

In comparison the GMT titres were marginal in group T1 (7 + 0.86) whereas, it was quite
higher in T2 (128 + 0.722). The effect of Avian Influenza (AI) oil based vaccine in T2
was significantly high in comparison with control group (T1). However Avian Influenza
(AI) Liposomal vaccinated group (T3) was highly significant (256 + 0.722) as compared
with T1 (7 + 0.859) and T2 (128 + 0.722). The data fairly indicated that immune response
in term of GMT was well established with Avian Influenza (AI) Liposomal vaccine as
compared to Avian Influenza (AI) Oil based vaccine (Table 4; Fig. 4).

AGPT TITRES OF SERUM SAMPLES AT 14 DAY

Agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) titre was employed to evaluate the comparative
immunological response of commercial Oil based and Liposomal vaccines of Avian
Influenza (AI) in commercial Layers. In treatment group T1, birds were served as control
group; T2, birds were vaccinated with Avian Influenza (AI) Oil based vaccine (0.5 ml)
subcutaneously and T3, birds were vaccinated with Liposomal vaccine (0.5 ml)
subcutaneously.

Immune response of different treatments through GMT titre at day 14 in T1, T2 and T3
were observed by AGPT. GMT titres were marginal in group T1 (6.79 + 1.021) whereas,
it was quite higher in T2 (128 + 0.722). The effect of Avian Influenza (AI) oil based
vaccine in T2 was significantly high in comparison with control group (T1). However
Avian Influenza (AI) Liposomal vaccinated group (T3) was highly significant (256 +
0.722) as compared with T1 (6.79 + 1.021) and T2 (128 + 0.722). The data fairly
indicated that immune response in term of GMT was well established with AI Liposomal
vaccine as compared to AI Oil based vaccine (Table 4; Fig. 4).
Comparative Immunological Studies on Commercial Oil Based and Liposomal Vaccines of Avian Influenza H7 54
Chapter 4 Results

Table 4. HI and AGPT titres of Avian Influenza antibodies in birds, with different
regimens of immunization at day 14 post treatment (n = 6)

TREATMENT HI TITRES AGPT TITRES

1:8 1:8 1:4 1:16
T1 1:4 1:4 1:8 1:4
(CONTROL) 1:16 1:8 1:16 1:8

GMT + SDM EM 2.83 + 0.752 EM 3.00 + 0.894
GMT 7 + 0.859 A GMT 6.79 + 0.859 A
1:128 1:128 1:128 1:128
T2 1:64 1:128 1:64 1:128
(AI OIL BASED) 1:256 1:128 1:256 1:128

GMT + SDM EM 7.00 + 0.632 EM 7.00 + 0.632
GMT 128 + 0.722 B GMT 128 + 0.722 B
1:512 1:256 1:512 1:256
T3 1:128 1:256 1:128 1:256
(AI LIPOSOMAL) 1:256 1:256 1:256 1:256

GMT + SDM EM 8.00 + 0.632 EM 8.00 + 0.632
GMT 256 + 0.722 C GMT 256 + 0.722 C

T1: Birds served as control
T2: Birds vaccinated with Avian Influenza Oil Based Vaccine 0.5 ml subcutaneously
T3: Birds vaccinated with Avian Influenza Liposomal Vaccine 0.5 ml subcutaneously
A-C: Values with similar superscript do not differ statistically (P<0.05)
while values with different superscript differ significantly

Comparative Immunological Studies on Commercial Oil Based and Liposomal Vaccines of Avian Influenza H7 55
Chapter 4 Results

HI and AGPT titres at Day 14

300
HI titre (GMT)

AGPT titre (GMT) 256 256
250

200
Titre

150
128 128

100

50

7 8
0
control oil based liposomal
HI titre (GMT) 7 128 256
AGPT titre (GMT) 8 128 256

Groups

Figure 4. Graph showing the HI and AGPT titre of control, Oil based and Liposomal
vaccinated Groups on day 14.

Comparative Immunological Studies on Commercial Oil Based and Liposomal Vaccines of Avian Influenza H7 56
Chapter 4 Results

HI TITRES OF SERUM SAMPLES AT 21 DAY

Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) titre was employed to evaluate the comparative
immunological response of commercial Oil based and Liposomal vaccines of Avian
Influenza (AI) in commercial Layers. In treatment group T1, birds were served as control
group; T2, birds were vaccinated with AI Oil based vaccine (0.5 ml) subcutaneously and
T3, birds were vaccinated with Liposomal vaccine (0.5 ml) subcutaneously.

The GMT titres by HI on day 21 were marginal in group T1 (7 + 0.86) whereas, it was
quite higher in T2 (128 + 0.722). The effect of Avian Influenza (AI) oil based vaccine in
T2 was significantly high as compared to control group (T1). However Avian Influenza
(AI) Liposomal vaccinated group (T3) was highly significant with GMT (512 + 0.722) as
compared with T1 (7 + .86) and T2 (256 + 0.722). The data fairly indicated that immune
response in term of GMT was well established with Avian Influenza (AI) Liposomal
vaccine as compared to Avian Influenza (AI) Oil based vaccine (Table5; Fig. 5).

AGPT TITRES OF SERUM SAMPLES AT 21 DAY

Agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) titre was employed to evaluate the comparative
immunological response of commercial Oil based and Liposomal vaccines of Avian
Influenza (AI) in commercial Layers. In treatment group T1, birds were served as control
group; T2, birds were vaccinated with Avian Influenza (AI) Oil based vaccine (0.5 ml)
subcutaneously and T3, birds were vaccinated with Liposomal vaccine (0.5 ml)
subcutaneously.

GMT titre in T1, T2 and T3 were observed at day 21 by AGPT. The GMT titres were
marginal in group T1 (8 + 1.021) whereas, it was quite higher in T2 (256 + 0.722). The
effect of Avian Influenza (AI) oil based vaccine in T2 was significantly high in
comparison with control group (T1). However Avian Influenza (AI) Liposomal
vaccinated group (T3) was highly significant (512 + 0.722) as compared to T1 (7 +
0.859) and T2 (128 + 0.722). The data fairly indicated that immune response in term of
GMT was well established with Avian Influenza (AI) Liposomal vaccine as compared to
Oil based vaccine (Table 5; Fig. 5).
Comparative Immunological Studies on Commercial Oil Based and Liposomal Vaccines of Avian Influenza H7 57
Chapter 4 Results

Table 5. HI and AGPT titres of Avian Influenza antibodies in birds, with different
regimens of immunization at day 21 post treatment (n = 6)

TREATMENT HI TITRES AGPT TITRES

1:8 1:8 1:4 1:16
T1 1:4 1:4 1:8 1:4
(CONTROL) 1:16 1:8 1:16 1:8

GMT + SDM EM 2.83 + 0.752 EM 3.00 + 0.894
GMT 7 + 0.859 A GMT 8.00 + 1.021 A
1:128 1:128 1:512 1:256
T2 1:64 1:128 1:128 1:256
(AI OIL BASED) 1:256 1:128 1:256 1:256

GMT + SDM EM 7.00 + 0.632 EM 8.00 + 0.632
GMT 128 + 0.722 B GMT 256 + 0.722 B
1:512 1:512 1:512 1:512
T3 1:256 1:512 1:256 1:512
(AI LIPOSOMAL) 1:1024 1:512 1:1024 1:512

GMT + SDM EM 9.00 + 0.632 EM 9.00 + 0.632
GMT 512 + 0.722 C GMT 512 + 0.722 C

T1: Birds served as control
T2: Birds vaccinated with Avian Influenza Oil Based Vaccine 0.5 ml subcutaneously
T3: Birds vaccinated with Avian Influenza Liposomal Vaccine 0.5 ml subcutaneously
A-C: Values with similar superscript do not differ statistically (P<0.05)
while values with different superscript differ significantly

Comparative Immunological Studies on Commercial Oil Based and Liposomal Vaccines of Avian Influenza H7 58
Chapter 4 Results

HI and AGPT titres at Day 21

600
HI titres
512 512
500 AGPT titres

400
T itr e s

300 256

200
128
100
7 8
0
control oil based liposomal
HI titres 7 128 512
AGPT titres 8 256 512
Groups

Figure 5. Graph showing the HI and AGPT titre of control, Oil based and Liposomal
vaccinated Groups on day 21.

Comparative Immunological Studies on Commercial Oil Based and Liposomal Vaccines of Avian Influenza H7 59
Chapter 4 Results

HI TITRES OF SERUM SAMPLES AT 28 DAY

Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) titre was employed to evaluate the comparative
immunological response of commercial Oil based and Liposomal vaccines of Avian
Influenza (AI) in commercial Layers. In treatment group T1, birds were served as control
group; T2, birds were vaccinated with Avian Influenza (AI) Oil based vaccine (0.5 ml)
subcutaneously and T3, birds were vaccinated with Liposomal vaccine (0.5 ml)
subcutaneously.

The GMT titres by HI at day 28 were marginal in group T1 (7 + 0.86) whereas, it was
quite higher in T2 (445.7 + 0.46). The effect of Avian Influenza (AI) oil based vaccine in
T2 was significantly high in comparison with control group (T1). However Avian
Influenza (AI) Liposomal vaccinated group (T3) was highly significant (891.4 + 0.46) as
compared with T1 (7 + 0.86) and T2 (445.7 + 0.46). The data fairly indicated that
immune response in term of GMT was well established with Avian Influenza (AI)
Liposomal vaccine as compared to Avian Influenza (AI) Oil based vaccine (Table 6; Fig.
6).

AGPT TITRES OF SERUM SAMPLES AT 28 DAY

Agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) titre was employed to evaluate the comparative
immunological response of commercial Oil based and Liposomal vaccines of Avian
Influenza (AI) in commercial Layers. In treatment group T1, birds were served as control
group; T2, birds were vaccinated with Avian Influenza (AI) Oil based vaccine (0.5 ml)
subcutaneously and T3, birds were vaccinated with Liposomal vaccine (0.5 ml)
subcutaneously.

The GMT titres in T1, T2 and T3 at day 28 were observed by AGPT. GMT titres were
marginal in group T1 (8 + 1.022), whereas it was quite higher in T2 (445.7 + 0.46). The
effect of AI oil based vaccine in T2 was significantly high in comparison with control
group (T1). However Avian Influenza (AI) Liposomal vaccinated group (T3) was highly
significant (776 + 0.056) as compared with T1 (8 + 1.022) and T2 (445.7 + 0.46). The
data fairly indicated that immune response in term of GMT was well established with
Avian Influenza (AI) Liposomal vaccine as compared to Oil based vaccine (Table 6; Fig.
6).
Comparative Immunological Studies on Commercial Oil Based and Liposomal Vaccines of Avian Influenza H7 60
Chapter 4 Results

Table 6. HI and AGPT titres of Avian Influenza antibodies in birds, with different
regimens of immunization at day 28 post treatment (n = 6)

TREATMENT HI TITRES AGPT TITRES

1:8 1:8 1:4 1:16
T1 1:16 1:8 1:8 1:4
(CONTROL) 1:4 1:4 1:16 1:8

GMT + SDM EM 2.83 + 0.752 EM 3.00 + 0.894
GMT 7 + 0.859 A GMT 8 + 1.022 A
1:512 1:512 1:512 1:512
T2 1:256 1:512 1:256 1:512
(AI OIL BASED) 1:512 1:512 1:512 1:512

GMT + SDM EM 8.83 + 0.408 EM 8.83 + 0.408
GMT 445.7 + 0.466 B GMT 445.7 + 0.466 B
1:1024 1:1024 1:1024 1:1024
T3 1:1024 1:1024 1:512 1:1024
(AI LIPOSOMAL) 1:1024 1:512 1:1024 1:512

GMT + SDM EM 9.83 + 0.408 EM 9.60 + 0.516
GMT 891.4 + 0.466 C GMT 776 + 0.589 C

T1: Birds served as control
T2: Birds vaccinated with Avian Influenza Oil Based Vaccine 0.5 ml subcutaneously
T3: Birds vaccinated with Avian Influenza Liposomal Vaccine 0.5 ml subcutaneously
A-C: Values with similar superscript do not differ statistically (P<0.05) While values
with different superscript differ significantly

Comparative Immunological Studies on Commercial Oil Based and Liposomal Vaccines of Avian Influenza H7 61
Chapter 4 Results

HI and AGPT titres at Day 28

1000
HI titres 891.4
900
AGPT titres 776
800
700
600
T itr e s

500 445.7 445.7
400
300
200
100
7 8
0
control oil based liposomal
HI titres 7 445.7 891.4
AGPT titres 8 445.7 776
Groups

Figure 6. Graph showing the HI and AGPT titre of control, Oil based and Liposomal
vaccinated Groups on day 28.

Comparative Immunological Studies on Commercial Oil Based and Liposomal Vaccines of Avian Influenza H7 62
Chapter 4 Results

HI TITRES OF SERUM SAMPLES AT 35 DAY

Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) titre was employed to evaluate the comparative
immunological response of commercial Oil based and Liposomal vaccines of Avian
Influenza (AI) in commercial Layers. In treatment group T1, birds were served as control
group; T2, birds were vaccinated with Avian Influenza (AI) Oil based vaccine (0.5 ml)
subcutaneously and T3, birds were vaccinated with Liposomal vaccine (0.5 ml)
subcutaneously.

Temporal response relationship were noted, GMT of 7 + 0.86 (T1), 548.7 + 0.46 (T2) and
1097.5 + 0.46 (T3) by HI were recorded at day 35. GMT titre was marginal in group T1
(7 + 0.86) whereas, it was quite higher in T2 (548.7 + 0.46). The effect of Avian
Influenza (AI) oil based vaccine in T2 was significantly high in comparison with control
group (T1). However Avian Influenza (AI) Liposomal vaccinated group (T3) was highly
significant (1097.5 + 0.46) as compared with T1 (7 + 0.86) and T2 (548.7 + 0.46). The
data fairly indicated that immune response in term of GMT was well established with
Avian Influenza (AI) Liposomal vaccine as compared to Avian Influenza (AI) Oil based
vaccine (Table 7; Fig. 7).

AGPT TITRES OF SERUM SAMPLES AT 35 DAY

Agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) titre was employed to evaluate the comparative
immunological response of commercial Oil based and Liposomal vaccines of Avian
Influenza (AI) in commercial Layers. In treatment group T1, birds were served as control
group; T2, birds were vaccinated with Avian Influenza (AI) Oil based vaccine (0.5 ml)
subcutaneously and T3, birds were vaccinated with Liposomal vaccine (0.5 ml)
subcutaneously.

The GMT titre in T1, T2 and T3 were observed by AGPT at day 35. GMT titres were
marginal in group T1 (8 + 1.022), whereas it was quite higher in T2 (630.3 + 0.56). The
effect of Avian Influenza (AI) oil based vaccine in T2 was significantly high in
comparison with control group (T1). However Avian Influenza (AI) Liposomal
vaccinated group (T3) was highly significant (891.4 + 0.46) as compared with T1 (8 +
1.022) and T2 (630.3 + 0.56). The data fairly indicated that immune response in term of
GMT was well established with AI Liposomal vaccine as compared to Avian Influenza
(AI) Oil based vaccine (Table 7; Fig. 7).
Comparative Immunological Studies on Commercial Oil Based and Liposomal Vaccines of Avian Influenza H7 63
Chapter 4 Results

Table 7. HI and AGPT titres of Avian Influenza antibodies in birds, with different
regimens of immunization at day 35 post treatment (n = 6)

TREATMENT HI TITRES AGPT TITRES

1:8 1:8 1:4 1:16
T1 1:16 1:8 1:8 1:4
(CONTROL) 1:4 1:4 1:16 1:8

GMT + SDM EM 2.83 + 0.752 EM 3.00 + 0.894
GMT 7 + 0.859 A GMT 8+ 1.021 A
1:512 1:512 1:512 1:512
T2 1:1024 1:512 1:1024 1:512
(AI OIL BASED) 1:512 1:512 1:512 1:1024

GMT + SDM EM 9.16 + 0.408 EM 9.33 + 0.516
GMT 548.7 + 0.466 B GMT 630.3 + 0.589 B
1:1024 1:1024 1:1024 1:1024
T3 1:1024 1:1024 1:1024 1:1024
(AI LIPOSOMAL) 1:1024 1:2048 1:1024 1:512

GMT + SDM EM 10.16 + 0.408 EM 9.83 + 0.408
GMT 1097.5 +0.466 C GMT 891.4 + 0.466 C

T1: Birds served as control
T2: Birds vaccinated with Avian Influenza Oil Based Vaccine 0.5 ml subcutaneously
T3: Birds vaccinated with Avian Influenza Liposomal Vaccine 0.5 ml subcutaneously
A-C: Values with similar superscript do not differ statistically (P<0.05)
while values with different superscript differ significantly

Comparative Immunological Studies on Commercial Oil Based and Liposomal Vaccines of Avian Influenza H7 64
Chapter 4 Results

HI and AGPT titres at Day 35

1200 1097.5
HI titres

1000 AGPT titres
891.4

800
630.3
T i tr e s

600 548.7

400

200
7 8
0
control oil based liposomal
HI titres 7 548.7 1097.5
AGPT titres 8 630.3 891.4
Groups

Figure 7. Graph showing the HI and AGPT titre of control, Oil based and Liposomal
vaccinated Groups on day 35.

Comparative Immunological Studies on Commercial Oil Based and Liposomal Vaccines of Avian Influenza H7 65