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FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

In the name of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful

Lab CO1: Fundamentals of pressure, viscosity and surface tension of fluids BMM 3521 Engineering Fluid Mechanics
Lab Instructor

Lab Location Fluid Mechanics Laboratory Lab Objectives


By the end of the laboratory session, students should be able to: Discuss errors in actual and gauge pressure. Determine effect of viscosity for different type of fluids Analyze the surface tension behavior in capillary of various gaps 20

Group Members Jagatis a/l Balaiyah Thiwaan Rao a/l Narasimma Naidu Nur Fazira binti Talib Mohammad Khairulnizam bin Ibrahim

Student ID MA 09108 MA 09136 MA10103 MA 09112

Section 04 04 04
04

Due Date: 6th March 2012

Delivered Date: 6th March 2012

1.0

INTRODUCTION

Liquid that we used for the experiment are the water, detergent, and oil. The important terms to be discussed in this report are the gauge pressure, the viscosity of the 3 different fluids and the surface tension behavior of the fluids.

Pressure is equals to force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Pressure of fluids will be measured through a Bourdon Gauge in this experiment. The Bourdon Gauge is also tested for calibration to get the accurate reading.

Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid, which is being deformed by either shear or tensile stress. In fluids terms, viscosity is an internal friction. Thus, water is having a lower viscosity, while honey is having a higher viscosity. In a simple words, the less viscous the fluid is, the greater its ease of movement in fluidity.

Surface tension is a property of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force. Surface tension has the dimension of force per unit length or of energy per unit area. The cohesive forces among the liquid molecules are responsible for this phenomenon of surface tension.

1.1

Objective

1. To discuss about the errors in actual and gauge pressure. 2. To determine the effect of viscosity for different type of fluids. 3. To analyze the surface tension behavior in capillary of gaps.

1.2

Scope

In order to finish this experiment completely and able to achieve the objective of study, it requires precise scope of work and proper plan. Manipulate and interpret the data. Tabulate data collected and graph for better analysis and understanding Create a work procedure for this lab experiment.

1.3

Hypothesis

a. For the Bourdon gauge, the gauge pressure is directly proportional to the actual pressure. As the reading of the gauge pressure increases, the actual pressure will also increase. b. The largest the diameter, the fastest it fall through the liquid. As the liquids that have higher viscosity, the velocity of the falling ball bearing will decrease. c. Water has a greatest surface tension compare to the others liquids oil and detergent

2.0 METHODOLOGY 2.1 Pressure Measurement

Equipment

i. ii. iii.

Bourdon gauge Load Hydrostatic bench

Procedure

a. The initial pressure is recorded. b. Then the next load of 15 N is placed on the piston and the reading of increment in pressure is gained and is recorded. c. The steps in (c) are repeated with addition of weight 15 N until 90 N. d. The steps in (c) and (d) are repeated in a reverse way by removing the load and the decrement of pressure for each weight reduced is the recorded. e. Each steps from (b) to (d) are repeated three times to obtain different readings f. All the data obtained is then recorded in the table and the average is calculated.

Principle of Bourdon tube pressure gauge 2.2 Viscosity

Equipment i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Procedure Measuring cylinders Oil Detergent Water Ball bearings (with diameters of 1.6mm, 2.4mm, 3.2.. and 4mm) Stopwatch Magnet

a. Fill the three-graduated measuring cylinders with water, oil, and detergent respectively. b. The 4mm diameter ball bearing is released from the top of the jar containing the water.

c. The time is recorded with a stopwatch when the bearing ball released until it reach the selected distance in the measuring cylinder, which is 20cm. d. A magnet is used to get the ball bearing out of the water. e. Step (c) and (d) is repeated using other three different size of ball bearing of 3.2mm, 2.4mm and 1.6mm respectively. f. The experiment is repeated using different mediums, which are oil and detergent. g. Each reading is recorded three times. h. All the data is recorded in a table and the average is calculated. 2.3 Capillary Action

Equipment i. ii. iii. iv. Tank Capillary tubes (with diameters of 0.8mm, 1.0mm, 1.5mm, and 2.0mm) Plastic shim Ruler

Procedure a. The tank container is filled with water. b. The capillary tube with bore diameter of 0.8mm, 1.0mm, 1.5mm, and 2.0mm are inserted onto its holder and were placed into the tank container filled with water. c. The difference of height between the cylinder container water level and the water level inside the capillary tube for each diameter is measured with a ruler and recorded. Then the capillary tube with its holder are taken out and cleaned. d. Steps (b) and (c) are repeated using oil and detergent e. The data are recorded in a table.

3.0 RESULTS

3.1 Mass

Pressure Measurement (Bourdon Gauge) Increasing pressure(Pa) 1 2 3 Average 1 Decreasing pressure(Pa) 2 3 Average

added to piston(N) 15 30 45 60 75 90

29.00 62.00 91.00 117.00 132.00 151.00

31.00 63.00 89.00 120.00 133.00 151.00

29.00 61.00 90.00 116.00 138.00 150.00

30.00 62.00 90.00 118.00 134.00 151.00

33.00 63.00 92.00 121.00 136.00 153.00

35.00 64.00 91.00 120.00 137.00 155.00

33.00 64.00 93.00 122.00 135.00 155.00

34.00 64.00 92.00 121.00 136.00 154.00

Diameter of the piston, dp= 0.035 m Area of the piston, Ap= 9.6211 x 10-4 m2

Load added to the Piston, L(N)

Actual pressure, P (N/m2) L P total 10 3 A

Gauge Pressure Reading (N/m2) Increasing Pressure Gauge Reading 30.00 62.00 90.00 118.00 134.00 151.00 Error 14.41 30.82 42.23 55.64 56.05 57.46 Decreasing Pressure Gauge reading 34.00 64.00 92.00 121.00 136.00 154.00 Error 18.41 32.82 44.23 58.64 58.05 60.46

15 30 45 60 75 90

15.59 31.18 46.77 62.36 77.95 93.54

6.2

Viscosity

Diameter Of The Ball, mm 1.6 2.4 3.2 4.0 0.53 0.41 0.34 0.28 0.55 0.44 0.37 0.26 0.56 0.41 0.35 0.28 1st 2nd Water 3rd

Time Fall, s Detergent Ave 1st 2nd 3rd Ave

0.55 0.42 0.35 0.27

1.22 0.95 0.75 0.61

1.25 0.92 0.76 0.61

1.23 0.93 0.77 0.63

1.23 0.93 0.75 0.62

Diameter Of The Ball, mm 1.6 2.4 3.2 4.0 0.65 0.42 0.39 0.33 1st

Time Fall, s Oil 2nd 3rd Ave

0.63 0.44 0.41 0.35

0.65 0.43 0.39 0.32

0.64 0.43 0.40 0.33

*Specific Gravity at 20C: Water: 1.0 Oil: 0.89 Detergent: 1.04

Distance, L = 20 cm = 0.20m Diameter of the Ball Bearing, mm Oil 1.6 2.4 3.2 4.0 0.64 0.43 0.40 0.33 Water 0.55 0.42 0.35 0.27 Detergent 1.23 0.93 0.75 0.62 Oil 0.3125 0.4651 0.5000 0.6061 Time Fall, s Velocity, m/s V=L/t Water 0.3636 0.4762 0.5714 0.7408 Detergent 0.1626 0.2151 0.2667 0.3226

From Stokes Law,

Terminal velocity, ( Where; d is the diameter of sphere is the density of the sphere is the density of the fluid is the kinematics viscosity of the fluid )

Therefore,

Density of steel ball = Density of steel 7.85 g/cm3 7850 kg/m3

Diameter sphere = 1.6 mm Fluid Density of Fluid, kg/m3 Oil Water Detergent 890 1000 1040 Velocity, V m/s 0.3125 0.3636 0.1626 Kinematics viscosity, m2/s 0.0218 0.0164 0.0351 Ns/m2 19.402 16.400 36.504 0.0229 0.0355 0.0074 Viscosity, Reynolds Number, Re

Diameter sphere = 2.4 mm Fluid Density of Fluid, kg/m3 Oil Water Detergent 890 1000 1040 Velocity, V m/s 0.4651 0.4762 0.2151 Kinematics viscosity, m2/s 0.0220 0.0188 0.0398 Ns/m2 19.58 18.80 41.39 0.0507 0.0608 0.0130 Viscosity, Reynolds Number, Re

Diameter sphere = 3.2 mm Fluid Density of Fluid, kg/m3 Oil Water Detergent 890 1000 1040 Velocity, V m/s 0.5000 0.5714 0.2667 Kinematics viscosity, m2/s 0.0273 0.0209 0.0428 Ns/m2 24.30 20.90 44.51 0.0586 0.0875 0.0192 Viscosity, Reynolds Number, Re

Diameter sphere = 4.0 mm Fluid Density of Fluid, kg/m3 Oil Water Detergent 890 1000 1040 Velocity, V m/s 0.6061 0.7408 0.3226 Kinematics viscosity, m2/s 0.0281 0.0202 0.0442 Ns/m2 25.01 20.20 45.97 0.0863 0.1467 0.0199 Viscosity, Reynolds Number, Re

6.3 Surface tension (Capillarity)

Bore Size Diameter, mm

Capillary Water ht, cm htd/4, mm 3.98 3.18 2.12 1.59 ht, cm 11.4 10.7 10.2 9.8 Oil htd/4, mm 4.47 3.57 2.38 1.79 Detergent ht, cm 9.1 8.6 8.4 8.2 htd/4, mm 3.82 3.06 2.04 1.53

0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0

12 14 4 2

Sample calculation (water, ht):

4.0 DISCUSSION

1) Students must present result of experiment in table and the data is enough to plot required graph for discussion. 1. Pressure Measurement (Bourdon Gauge)
180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 actual reading increasing gauge decreasing gauge 15 30 45 60 75 90

Relationship between Force with Actual, Increasing Gauge and Decreasing Gauge Pressures 2. Viscosity

Force,F vs Weight,W
4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 1.4 2.4 Weight,W 4.4 5.4

Force,F

Test 4 Test 3 Test 2 Test 1

Relationship between force, F and weight,W

According to graph above, it is clearly shown that velocity increases when diameter of ball bearing is increased. This is because as the diameter of the ball bearing increases, the weight of ball also increases and hence the velocity of ball bearing falling through the fluids is increased due to the gravitational force. Only the viscosity of detergent can be determined in the experiment due to the limitation of Stokes Law and hence in this experiment. According to the Stokes Law, the balls Reynolds Number must not exceed 0.02 otherwise the flow will be turbulent and the value will not be valid. In the experiment, oil and water both give the value of Reynolds Number that exceeds 0.02, which are the turbulent flow. The only fluid, which Reynolds Number is less than 0.02 is the detergent and the coefficient of viscosity of detergent, is ranged between 4.8159 5.2312 kg/m.s.

Viscosity of liquids affect the velocity of the ball bearing as it falls. This is because the shearing stress exerted to the ball bearing is higher as the viscosity of the liquids is high. Therefore, velocity of the ball will be slower in the fluid of high viscosity. According to the graph above, oil is more viscous than water and detergent is more viscous than the oil. Therefore, it can be concluded that the viscosity of the liquid: Detergent> Oil> Water

3. Surface tension (Capillarity)

Capillary rise level versus type of fluid


5 Capillary rise level, h (m) 4 3 2 1 0 Water Oil Detergent Type of fluid 0.8 1 1.5 2

Based on the graph above, the level rise in the capillary is inversely proportional to the bore diameter of the capillary tube. As the bore diameter of the capillary tube increase, the capillary rise level decreases. According to the formula , the

capillary rise level varies with the type of the fluid. The detergent that has the highest density has causes the capillary rise the lowest compared to other fluids. According to the Fluid Mechanics Fundamental and Application 2nd edition in SI units, Table 2-4 (surface tension of fluids in air at 1atm and 20C)

20C water = 0.073 N/m SAE 30 oil = 0.035 N/m Soap solution 0.025N/m

Based on the graph above, the detergent has the highest surface tension compared to other fluids that are water and oil. However, the fact stated that the water should be the highest surface tension. This is due to the instrument that used was not accurate. Besides, the capillary rise level obtained in the experiment will depend very much on the cleanliness of the capillary tubes and on whether any impurities are present in the water. As a result, the measured capillary rise level was not accurate.

2) Bourdon Gauge must show how increasing pressure and decreasing pressure is related for actual and gauge pressure. Discuss the results gained in term of pressure errors of gauge and actual.

Based on the experiment results, the error occurs between the actual pressure and the gauge pressure is small. However, from the data obtained, the increasing and decreasing pressures in the gauge are slightly inconsistent. This is because to some factors such as parallax error during the data is taken and friction force in the piston during the experiment.

3) Compare viscosity of different liquids by means of falling ball bearing with different diameters. Discuss the results gained.

Based on the experiment results the ball bearing falls slowly through a measuring cylinder that contain of detergent compare to the oil and water. Suppose it would fall at the same distance in water much faster than detergent and oil. From the result it can concluded that the viscosity of liquids will effect as the velocity of the ball bearing as it fall. As the viscosity of the liquids increase, the velocity of the ball decrease. Hence, detergent is more viscous than water and the frictional forces of the ball bearing "rubbing" against the detergent are greater, that why causing it to fall slowly. Therefore, it can be concluded that the viscosity of the liquid:

Detergent> Oil> Water

Besides that, sizes or diameters of the ball bearing also will affect the time falling through the liquid. The largest the diameter of the ball bearing, the faster it fall through the liquid. The ball bearing is released from rest and falling under the influence of gravitational force. With the two forces acting on it, that is the gravitational force and the viscosity drag force.

4) Analyze the water movement in small capillaries due to surface tension for all the distances available. Discuss the results gained.

From the experiment results, capillarity indicates the height, ht, and the water movement, while the various bore sizes represent the diameter of the capillary tube. From the data recorded, water possessed the highest value for ht, follow by oil and detergent. This shows that the water has a greatest surface tension force compared to oil and detergent. Moreover, the smallest the diameter of bore, the larger the height ht. The height, ht, is depends on the density of the liquid. This is due to the surface tension force is proportional to radius of the capillary tube. Hence, decreasing the bore sizes will increase the ht.

5.0 QUESTION AND ANSWER

a) From the obtained data and the plotted graphs, what is the relationship of the gauge pressure versus the actual pressure?

From the graph above and data recorded, the gauge pressure is directly proportional to the actual pressure. As the reading of the gauge pressure increase, the actual pressure will also increase. However, there are also some error occur between the gauge pressure and the actual pressure where it is too small.

b) What are the differences in term of result for different sized balls and different liquid?

Viscosity of the liquids will effect of the velocity of falling of the ball bearing; also the sizes of the ball bearing. As the ball bearing fall from rest under influence of gravitational force, mainly two forces will act on it that is gravitational force and the viscous drag force. The largest the diameter, the fastest it fall through the liquid. Besides that, as the liquids that has higher viscosity, the velocity of the falling ball bearing will decrease. This is due to the frictional force in the liquid.

c) Explain about surface tension and why it is so important?

Surface tension is a property of the surface of a liquid caused by cohesion of like molecules, which is responsible for many of the behaviours of liquids. The molecules at the surface do not have other like molecules on all sides of them and consequently they cohere more strongly to those directly associated with them on the surface. This forms a surface "film" which makes it more difficult to move an object through the surface than to move it when it is completely submersed. Surface tension is important because it forms a film like effect on the surface of water, making it more difficult for an object or organism to move through the water when it is completely underneath it. For example, small insects such as the strider can walk on

water because their weight is not enough to penetrate the surface, if carefully placed on the surface, a small needle can be made to float on the surface of water even though it is several times as dense as water. If the surface is agitated to break up the surface tension, and then needle will quickly sink.

6.0 CONCLUSION In conclusions, we achieved our objectives at the end of the lab sections. We succeed to determine the difference between the actual pressure and gauge pressure by using simple equipment like Bourdon gauge. The gauge pressure is directly proportional to the actual pressure. As the reading of the gauge pressure increases, the actual pressure will also increase. However, there are also some error occur between the gauge pressure and the actual pressure where it is too small.

In additions, we found out that viscosity of the liquids will effect of the velocity of falling of the ball bearing; also the sizes of the ball bearing. The largest the diameter, the fastest it fall through the liquid. As the liquids that have higher viscosity, the velocity of the falling ball bearing will decrease. This is due to the frictional force in the liquid.

For surface tension, the capillarity is depends on few factors, like the various diameter of the bores and the viscosity, density of the liquids too. Water has a greatest surface tension compare to the others liquids oil and detergent.

7.0

REFFERENCES

[1] [2] [3] [4]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viscosity http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surface_tension http://physics.about.com/od/physicsexperiments/a/surfacetension.html Yunus A. Cengel and John M. Cimbala (2006). Fluid Mechanis Fundamentals and Applications. McGraw-Hill.

[5]

http://www.differencebetween.net/science/difference-between-gauge-pressureand- absolute-pressure/

[6] [7] [8] [9]

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/HBASE/surten.html http://www.science.uwaterloo.ca/~cchieh/cact/c123/liquid.html http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/surten2.html http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/pressure-d_587.html