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Kinds of Sentences Declarative - A declarative sentence makes a statement. A declarative sentence ends with a period.

Example: The house will be built on a hill. Interrogative - An interrogative sentence asks a question. An interrogative sentence ends with a question mark. Example: How did you find the card? Exclamatory - An exclamatory sentence shows strong feeling. An exclamatory sentence ends with an exclamation mark. Example: The monster is attacking! Imperative - An imperative sentence gives a command. Example: Cheryl, try the other door. Sometimes the subject of an imperative sentence (you) is understood. Example: Look in the closet. (You, look in the closet.)

Dangling modifier
A dangling modifier (a specific case of which is the dangling participle) is an ambiguous grammatical construct, whereby a grammatical modifier could be misinterpreted as being associated with a word other than the one intended, or with no particular word at all. For example, a writer may have meant to modify the subject, but word order makes the modifier seem to modify an object instead. Such ambiguities can lead to unintentional humor or difficulty in understanding a sentence in formal contexts. A typical example of a dangling modifier is illustrated in Turning the corner, a handsome school building [2] appeared. The modifying clause Turning the corner is clearly supposed to describe the behaviour of the narrator (or other observer), but grammatically it appears to apply to nothing in particular, or to the school [3] building. Similarly, in At the age of eight, my family finally bought a dog , the modifier At the age of eight "dangles," not attaching to the subject of the main clause (and conceivably implying that the family was eight years old when it bought the dog, rather than the intended meaning of giving the narrator's age at the time).

Parallelism (grammar)
In grammar, parallelism, also known as parallel structure or parallel construction, is a balance within [1] one or more sentences of similar phrases or clauses that have the same grammatical structure. The application of parallelism improves writing style and readability, and is thought to make sentences easier [2] to process.

Lacking parallelism: She likes cooking, jogging, and to read. Parallel: She likes cooking, jogging, and reading. Parallel: She likes to cook, jog, and read.

In the above example, the first sentence has two gerunds and one infinitive. To make it parallel, the sentence can be rewritten with three gerunds or three infinitives. Lacking parallelism: The dog ran across the yard, jumped over the fence, and down the alley he sprinted. Parallel: The dog ran across the yard, jumped over the fence, and sprinted down the alley. Note that the first nonparallel example, while inelegantly worded, is grammatically correct: "cooking," "jogging," and "to read" are all grammatically valid conclusions to "She likes." The

second nonparallel example is not grammatically correct: "down the alley he sprinted" is not a grammatically valid conclusion to "The dog." Lacking parallelism: Mr. Killinger admires people with integrity and who have character. Parallel: Mr. Killinger admires people 'with integrity and character." Parallel: Mr. Killinger admires people 'who have integrity and character."

A verb is a kind of word (see part of speech) that usually tells about an action or a state and is the main part of a sentence. Every sentence has a verb. In English, verbs are the only kind of word that changes to [1] show past or present tense. Every language in the world has verbs, but they are not always used in the same ways. They also can have different properties in different languages. For example, in some other languages (e.g., Chinese & Indonesian) verbs do not change for past and present tense. This means the definition above only works well for English verbs. There are sixteen verbs used in Basic English. They are: be, do, have, come, go, see, seem, give, take, keep,make, put, send, say, let, get. Examples
The cat slept. That is John. She loves you. They are running. Go there on Monday. He said, "hello!" Can you play the piano? The sleeping baby looks beautiful. She saw the girl who had been bitten by the dog.

In Latin and English grammar, the gerund is a non-finite verb form that can function as a noun. The English gerund ends in -ing (as in I enjoy playing basketball); the same verb form also serves as the English present participle (which has an adjectival or adverbial function), and as a pure verbal noun. The gerund is the form that names the action of the verb (for instance, playing is the action of "to play"). In some cases a noun ending in -ing sometimes serves as a gerund (as in I like building / I like building things, I like painting / I like painting pictures, and I like writing / I like writing novels), while at other times serving as a non-gerund indicating the product resulting from an action (as in I work in that building,That is a good painting, and Her writing is good). The latter case can often be distinguished by the presence of a determiner before the noun, such as that, a, or her in these examples. The Latin gerund (gerundium) is a verb form which behaves similarly to a noun, although it can only appear in certain oblique cases. (It should not be confused with the Latin gerundive, which is similar in form, but has a passive, adjectival use.) In relation to other languages, the term gerund may be applied to a form which has noun-like uses like the Latin and English gerunds, or in some cases to various other non-finite verb forms, such as adverbial participles. Gerund comes from the Latin gerundium, which itself derives from the gerundive of the Latin verb gero, namely gerundus, meaning "(which is) to be carried out".

A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun or noun phrase, and thus [1] plays a role similar to that of an adjective or adverb (some languages have distinct forms for adverbial participles and adjectival participles). It is one of the types of non-finite verb forms. Its name comes from the Latin participium,

a calque of Greek

"partaking" or "sharing";


it is so named because

the Ancient Greek and Latin participles "share" some of the categories of the adjective or noun (gender, number, case) and some of those of the verb (tense and voice). Participles may correspond to the active voice (active participles), where the modified noun is taken to represent the agent of the action denoted by the verb; or to the passive voice (passive participles), where the modified noun represents the patient (undergoer) of that action. Participles in particular languages are also often associated with certain verbal aspects or tenses. The two types of participle in English are traditionally called the present participle (forms such as writing, singing and raising; these same forms also serve as gerunds and verbal nouns), and the past participle (forms such as written, sung and raised; regular participles such as the last, as well as some irregular ones, have the same form as the finite past tense).

In some languages, participles can be used in the periphrastic formation of compound verb tenses, aspects or voices. For example, one of the uses of the English present participle is to express continuous aspect (as in John is working), while the past participle can be used in expressions of perfect aspect and passive voice (as in Anne has written and Bill was killed). A verb phrase based on a participle and having the function of a participle is called a participle phrase or participial phrase (participial is the adjective derived from participle). For example, looking hard at the sign and beaten by his father are participial phrases based respectively on an English present participle and past participle. Participial phrases generally do not require an expressed grammatical subject; therefore such a verb phrase also constitutes a complete clause (one of the types of non-finite clause). As such, it may be called a participle clause or participial clause. (Occasionally a participial clause does include a subject, as in the English nominative absolute construction The king having died, ... .)

Infinitive is a grammatical term used to refer to certain verb forms that exist in many languages. As with many linguistic concepts, there is not a single definition applicable to all languages. The word is derived from Late Latin infinitivus, a derivative of infinitus meaning "infinite". Infinitives are used mostly as nonfinite verbs. In traditional descriptions of English, the infinitive is the basic dictionary form of a verb when used nonfinitely, with or without the particle to. Thus to go is an infinitive, as is go in a sentence like "I must go there" (but not in "I go there", where it is a finite verb). The form without to is called the bare infinitive, and the form with to is called the full infinitive orto-infinitive. In many other languages the infinitive is a single word, often with a characteristic inflective ending, such as manger ("(to) eat") in French, portare ("(to) carry") in Latin, lieben ("(to) love") in German, etc. However some languages do not have any forms identifiable as infinitives. Many Native American languages and some languages in Africa and Australia do not have direct equivalents to infinitives or verbal nouns; in their place they use finite verb forms in ordinary clauses or various special constructions. As a verb, an infinitive may take objects and other complements and modifiers to form a verb phrase (called an infinitive phrase). Like other non-finite verb forms (such asparticiples, converbs, gerunds and gerundives) infinitives do not generally have an expressed subject; thus an infinitive verb phrase also constitutes a complete non-finite clause, called an infinitive (infinitival) clause. Such phrases or clauses may play a variety of roles within sentences, often as nouns (for example as the subject of a sentence or as a complement of another verb), and sometimes as adverbs or other types of modifier. Infinitives are not usually inflected for tense, person, etc. as finite verbs are, although some degree of inflection sometimes occurs; for example Latin has distinct active and passive infinitives.

Kinds of Noun
1. Kinds of Nouns
There are four kinds of nouns: a. b. c. d. Common Nouns Proper Nouns Concrete Nouns Abstract Nouns

a) Common Noun A common noun names a class of similar things (chair, box), and not an individual member of a specified group of people or things. We do not capitalize the first letter of a common noun unless it is the first word in a sentence. Common nouns are names of people, things, animals and places, etc.

People aunt, boy, butcher, carpenter, cousin, father, girl, lady, man, mother, tailor, woman Things bicycle, book, car, computer, dress, hammer, key, pencil, ship, table, vase, wallet Animals armadillo, baboon, bee, caterpillar, cow, dog, eagle, fish, monkey, pig, snake, turkey, Places airport, beach, bullring, cemetery, church, country, hospital, library, mall, park, restaurant, zoo

b) Proper Noun A proper noun is a special name of a person, place, organization, etc. We spell a proper noun with a capital letter. Proper nouns also refer to times or to dates in the calendar. We can use plurals for proper nouns in exceptional cases. There are three Johns in my class. We can also use the, an, or a for a proper noun in special circumstances. This is no longer the London I used to live in.

Proper nouns are names of people, places, organization, etc.

People Ali Baba, George Bush, Places Downing Street, Museum of Modern Art, Sahara Desert Things Financial Times, Eiffel Tower Organization International Labour Organization, Red Brigades, United Nations, Animals King Kong, Lassie Times and dates Saturday, April

c) Concrete Noun A concrete noun is something we see or touch. It is the opposite of an abstract noun. There are countable concrete nouns and uncountable concrete nouns.

Countable: teacher (people); valley (place); deer (animal); comb (thing) Uncountable: water (liquid); steam (gas); copper (substance)

d) Abstract Nouns An abstract noun is a quality or something that we can only think of rather than as something that we can see or touch, e.g. beauty, courage, friendship, intelligence, truth. We can form abstract nouns from common nouns (child childhood); from verbs (know knowledge); and from adjectives (happy happiness).

1.) Personal PronounI, we, you, he, she, it, they, my, mine, our, ours, your, yours, his, her, hers, its, their, theirs, me, us, him, her, them e.g. I love you. 2.) Demonstrative Pronounthis, that, these, those e.g. Give these to the man. Give these clothes to the man. 3.) Indefinite Pronounall, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, both, each, each one, either, everybody, everyone, everything, few, least, many, more, most, much, neither, none, no one, nobody, nothing, one, other, several, some, somebody, something e.g. Somebody must know something.

4.) Relative Pronounwho, which, that, what, whose, of which, of that, of what, whom e.g. The boy saw the girl who stole the candies. (This pronoun acts as the subject or object in a subordinate clause.) 5.) Interrogative Pronounwho, which, what, whose, of which, of what, whom e.g. Who stole the candies? (This pronoun begins an interrogative sentence.) 6.) Numerical Pronounone, two, three, etc., first, second, third, etc. e.g. Two of the boys tackled the fifth. 7.) Reflexive Pronounmyself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, oneself, ourselves, yourselves themselves e.g. He loves himself. (This pronoun is used as an object.) 8.) Intensive Pronounmyself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves e.g. They, themselves, lack knowledge. They lacked knowlege themselves. (This pronoun is used to emphasize and is an appositive.) 9.) Reciprocal Pronouneach other, one another e.g. They love each other.